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Sample records for female sheep androgenized

  1. Response to the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist leuprolide in immature female sheep androgenized in utero

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    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS, female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T-females are hypergonadotropic, exhibit neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, hyperinsulinemia and cycle defects. Hypergonadotropism and multifollicular morphology may in part be due to developmentally regulated increase in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and may culminate in increased ovarian estradiol production. In this study, we utilized a GnRH agonist, leuprolide, to determine the developmental impact of prenatal testosterone exposure on pituitary-gonadal function and to establish if prenatal exposure produces changes in the reproductive axis similar to those described for women with PCOS. Eight control and eight T-females were injected intravenously with 0.1 mg of leuprolide acetate per kilogram of body weight at 5, 10 and 20 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected by means of an indwelling jugular vein catheter at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 hours after leuprolide. Area under the curve (AUC of LH response to leuprolide increased progressively between the three ages studied (P<0.05. AUC of LH in T-females was higher than in control females of the same age at 5 and 10 weeks of age (P<0.05, but similar at 20 weeks of age. AUC of estradiol response was lower at 10 but higher at 20 weeks of age in T-females compared to controls of the same age (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment alters the pituitary and ovarian responsiveness in a manner comparable to that observed in women with PCOS.

  2. Female adipocyte androgen synthesis and the effects of insulin

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    David Cadagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders characterized by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, and its presence can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased circulating androgen levels in women, which may originate from the ovaries and adrenal glands. Adipocytes are also able to synthesise steroid hormones, and this output has been hypothesised to increase with elevated insulin plasma concentrations. However, the contribution of the adipocytes to the circulating androgen levels in women with metabolic syndrome is limited and the effects of insulin are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of steroid precursors and synthetic enzymes in human adipocyte biopsies as markers of possible adipocyte androgen synthesis. We examined pre and mature adipocytes taken from tissue biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of participating women from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, of the Royal Derby Hospital. The results showed the potential for localised adipocyte androgen synthesis through the presence of the androgen precursor progesterone, as well as the steroid-converting enzyme 17α-hydroxylase. Furthermore, we found the controlled secretion of androstenedione in vitro and that insulin treatment caused levels to increase. Continued examination of a localised source of androgen production is therefore of clinical relevance due to its influence on adipocyte metabolism, its negative impact on female steroidogenic homeostasis, and the possible aggravation this may have when associated to obesity and obesity related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperinsulinaemia.

  3. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

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    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  4. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

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    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  5. Excess androgen during puberty disrupts circadian organization in female rats.

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    Sellix, Michael T; Murphy, Zachary C; Menaker, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Circadian clocks have been described in each tissue of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Although a role for the clock in the timing of ovulation is indicated, the impact of diseases that disrupt fertility on clock function or the clocks' role in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be fully appreciated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating endocrinopathy, affecting approximately 10% of women at childbearing age. Common features of PCOS are a polycystic ovary, amenorrhea, and excess serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia. It has been suggested that excess androgen is a critical factor in the etiology of PCOS. We have examined the effects of androgen excess during puberty on the phase of circadian clocks in tissues of the metabolic and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axes. Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 weeks (long term). As expected, DHT-treated animals gained more weight than controls and had disrupted estrous cycles. At the end of treatment, tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, white adipose, cornea, pituitary, oviduct, and ovarian follicles, were cultured, and per1-luc expression in each was recorded. Analysis of per1-luc expression revealed that DHT exposure increased phase distribution of multiple oscillators, including ovarian follicles, liver, and adipose, and altered phase synchrony between animals. These data suggest that excess androgen during puberty, a common feature of PCOS, negatively affects internal circadian organization in both the reproductive and metabolic axes.

  6. Effects of androgens on insulin action in women: is androgen excess a component of female metabolic syndrome?

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    Corbould, A

    2008-10-01

    Hyperinsulinemia as a consequence of insulin resistance causes hyperandrogenemia in women. The objective was to review evidence for the converse situation, i.e. whether androgens adversely influence insulin action. Androgen excess could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes, and in obese peripubertal girls. An Entrez-PubMed search was conducted to identify studies addressing the relationship of androgens with metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes in women. Studies reporting outcomes of androgen administration, interventions to reduce androgen effects in hyperandrogenemic women, and basic studies investigating androgen effects on insulin target tissues were reviewed. Multiple studies showed associations between serum testosterone and insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes risk in women, but their cross-sectional nature did not allow conclusions about causality. Androgen administration to healthy women was associated with development of insulin resistance. Intervention studies in women with hyperandrogenism were limited by small subject numbers and use of indirect methods for assessing insulin sensitivity. However, in three of the seven studies using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps, reduction of androgen levels or blockade of androgen action improved insulin sensitivity. Testosterone administration to female rats caused skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Testosterone induced insulin resistance in adipocytes of women in vitro. In conclusion, the metabolic consequences of androgen excess in women have been under-researched. Studies of long-term interventions that lower androgen levels or block androgen effects in young women with hyperandrogenism are needed to determine whether these might protect against metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes in later life. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

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    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  8. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

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    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  9. Developmental Programming: Prenatal Testosterone Excess and Insulin Signaling Disruptions in Female Sheep.

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    Lu, Chunxia; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome often manifest insulin resistance. Using a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotype, we explored the contribution of androgen and insulin in programming and maintaining disruptions in insulin signaling in metabolic tissues. Phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, GSK3beta, mTOR, and p70S6K was examined in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of control and prenatal testosterone (T)-, prenatal T plus androgen antagonist (flutamide)-, and prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer (rosiglitazone)-treated fetuses as well as 2-yr-old females. Insulin-stimulated phospho (p)-AKT was evaluated in control and prenatal T-, prenatal T plus postnatal flutamide-, and prenatal T plus postnatal rosiglitazone-treated females at 3 yr of age. GLUT4 expression was evaluated in the muscle at all time points. Prenatal T treatment increased mTOR, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3beta levels in the fetal liver with both androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer preventing the mTOR increase. Both interventions had partial effect in preventing the increase in p-GSK3beta. In the fetal muscle, prenatal T excess decreased p-GSK3beta and GLUT4. The decrease in muscle p-GSK3beta was partially prevented by insulin sensitizer cotreatment. Both interventions partially prevented the decrease in GLUT4. Prenatal T treatment had no effect on basal expression of any of the markers in 2-yr-old females. At 3 yr of age, prenatal T treatment prevented the insulin-stimulated increase in p-AKT in liver and muscle, but not in adipose tissue, and neither postnatal intervention restored p-AKT response to insulin stimulation. Our findings provide evidence that prenatal T excess changes insulin sensitivity in a tissue- and development-specific manner and that both androgens and insulin may be involved in the programming of these metabolic disruptions. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

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    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  11. The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women : Androgen Excess and Female Metabolic Dysfunction.

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    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.

  12. Variation in the resumption of cycling and conception by fecal androgen and estradiol levels in female Northern Muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

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    Strier, Karen B; Ziegler, Toni E

    2005-09-01

    We measured fecal androgen (T+DHT) and estradiol (E2) levels in female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate the hormonal bases underlying individual variation in the resumption of cycling and conception. We found that androgen levels were significantly lower in females than in males, and that there were no consistent patterns in female androgen levels across precycling or cycling conditions. Females that resumed cycling earlier in the study (weeks 4-8) had higher precycling E2 levels and correspondingly lower precycling androgen/E2 ratios than females that resumed cycling later (weeks 12-16). There were no differences in female precycling androgen levels, but cycling females that conceived during or immediately after the study period had lower androgen levels and threefold higher E2 peaks than the one cycling female that failed to conceive. These results suggest that minimum E2 thresholds are necessary for both the resumption of ovarian cycling and conception. Individual variation in these components of fertility may be regulated by differences in E2 levels, which affect androgen/E2 ratios, rather than by androgen levels per se. Further research into the relative concentrations of T vs. DHT will be necessary to fully evaluate whether androgens affect cycling and conception in this species.

  13. Impact of androgen and dietary advanced glycation end products on female rat liver.

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    Palioura, Eleni; Palimeri, Sotiria; Piperi, Christina; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Kandaraki, Eleni; Sergentanis, Theodoros; Levidou, Georgia; Agrogiannis, George; Papalois, Apostolos; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been related to a wide range of liver disorders including hyperandrogenic states such as the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential impact of dietary glycotoxins exposure and androgen excess on hepatic histology and biochemistry in an androgenized female rat model. The study population consisted of 80 female Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups, a group of prepubertal (Group A, n=30) and adult rats (Group B, n=20) that were androgenized via subcutaneous implantation of dihydrotestosterone-containing pellets as well as a group of adult non-androgenized rodents (Group C, n=30). All groups were randomly assigned either to a high-AGE or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Rats fed with a high-AGE diet exhibited significantly elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (x03B3;GT) (p≤0.0002) and indices of AGE immunostaining in liver tissue (pandrogenized animals (p=0.0002). Androgenization per se constitutes an aggravating factor as demonstrated by the elevated x03B3;GT levels in adult androgenized animals compared to non-androgenized, independent of diet content (p=0.0002) and by the elevated AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in low-AGE subgroups (adult androgenized vs. non-androgenized, p=0.0002) followed by increased immunohistochemical AGE deposition in hepatocytes of the latter categories (p=0.0007). The present study suggests that androgens and glycotoxins may contribute synergistically to distort hepatic physiology and function as observed in hyperandrogenic conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Female androgen insufficiency: the Princeton consensus statement on definition, classification, and assessment.

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    Bachmann, Gloria; Bancroft, John; Braunstein, Glenn; Burger, Henry; Davis, Susan; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Goldstein, Irwin; Guay, Andre; Leiblum, Sandra; Lobo, Rogerio; Notelovitz, Morris; Rosen, Raymond; Sarrel, Philip; Sherwin, Barbara; Simon, James; Simpson, Evan; Shifren, Jan; Spark, Richard; Traish, Abdul

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the evidence for and against androgen insufficiency as a cause of sexual and other health-related problems in women and to make recommendations regarding definition, diagnosis, and assessment of androgen deficiency states in women. Evaluation of peer-review literature and consensus conference of international experts. Multinational conference in the United States. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women with androgen deficiency. Evaluation of peer-review literature and development of consensus panel guidelines. The term "female androgen insufficiency" was defined as consisting of a pattern of clinical symptoms in the presence of decreased bioavailable T and normal estrogen status. Currently available assays were found to be lacking in sensitivity and reliability at the lower ranges, and the need for an equilibrium dialysis measure was strongly emphasized. Causes of androgen insufficiency in women were classified as ovarian, adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary, drug-related, and idiopathic. A simplified management algorithm and clinical guidelines were proposed to assist clinicians in diagnosis and assessment. Androgen replacement is currently available in several forms, although none has been approved for treatment of sexual dysfunction or other common symptoms of female androgen insufficiency. Potential risks associated with treatment were identified, and the need for informed consent and careful monitoring was noted. Finally, the panel identified key goals and priorities for future research. A new definition of androgen insufficiency in women has been proposed along with consensus-based guidelines for clinical assessment and diagnosis. A simplified management algorithm for women with low androgen in the presence of clinical symptoms and normal estrogen status has also been proposed.

  15. Impact of Androgen and Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products on Female Rat Liver

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    Eleni Palioura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs have been related to a wide range of liver disorders including hyperandrogenic states such as the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential impact of dietary glycotoxins exposure and androgen excess on hepatic histology and biochemistry in an androgenized female rat model. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 female Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups, a group of prepubertal (Group A, n=30 and adult rats (Group B, n=20 that were androgenized via subcutaneous implantation of dihydrotestosterone-containing pellets as well as a group of adult non-androgenized rodents (Group C, n=30. All groups were randomly assigned either to a high-AGE or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Results: Rats fed with a high-AGE diet exhibited significantly elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT (p≤0.0002 and indices of AGE immunostaining in liver tissue (pper se constitutes an aggravating factor as demonstrated by the elevated γGT levels in adult androgenized animals compared to non-androgenized, independent of diet content (p=0.0002 and by the elevated AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels in low-AGE subgroups (adult androgenized vs. non-androgenized, p=0.0002 followed by increased immunohistochemical AGE deposition in hepatocytes of the latter categories (p=0.0007. Conclusion: The present study suggests that androgens and glycotoxins may contribute synergistically to distort hepatic physiology and function as observed in hyperandrogenic conditions.

  16. Leuprolide acetate-stimulated androgen response during female puberty.

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    Hernandez, María Isabel; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Cavada, Gabriel; Avila, Alejandra; Iñiguez, German; Mericq, Veronica

    2015-08-01

    A physiological increase in androgen levels occurs during adolescence. Measuring androgen concentrations is the best method to distinguish normal evolution processes from hyperandrogenic disorders. The increase in circulating androgens during puberty is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in normal weight girls. To assess circulating levels of ovarian androgens and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) at baseline and after GnRH analogue (GnRH-a) stimulation in normal pubertal girls across different Tanner stages. We also studied the association between this response and insulin sensitivity. Prospective study of healthy girls (6-12 years) from the local community (n = 63). Tanner I (n = 23) subjects were assessed cross-sectionally, and Tanner II girls (n = 40) were evaluated every 6 months until they reached Tanner V. Early morning dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), AMH, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, glucose and insulin levels were measured. A GnRH-a test (500 μg/m(2) ; sc) and oral glucose intolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Differences throughout puberty were evaluated. Basal and/or stimulated Testosterone DHEA-S and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (WIBSI) from the beginning of puberty, whereas androstenedione was directly associated with gonadotrophins. AMH was inversely associated with basal and stimulated gonadotrophins and directly with insulin area under the curve (AUC) only in the early stages of puberty. 17OHP and testosterone responsiveness increased significantly during puberty in all subjects, whereas testosterone levels changed less consistently. This pattern of ovarian-steroidogenic response was most evident during mid- and late puberty. Moreover, during late puberty only, basal 17OHP, testosterone and DHEA-S were positively associated with gonadotrophins. In normal nonobese girls born appropriate for gestational age, androgen synthesis was associated with

  17. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

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    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Developmental programming by androgen affects the circadian timing system in female mice.

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    Mereness, Amanda L; Murphy, Zachary C; Sellix, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Circadian clocks play essential roles in the timing of events in the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. The molecular oscillator driving these rhythms has been localized to tissues of the HPO axis. It has been suggested that synchrony among these oscillators is a feature of normal reproductive function. The impact of fertility disorders on clock function and the role of the clock in the etiology of endocrine pathology remain unknown. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating fertility disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women at childbearing age with features including a polycystic ovary, anovulation, and elevated serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, marked by hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that developmental exposure to excess androgen contributes to the etiology of fertility disorders, including PCOS. To better define the role of the timing system in these disorders, we determined the effects of androgen-dependent developmental programming on clock gene expression in tissues of the metabolic and HPO axes. Female PERIOD2::luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice were exposed to androgen (dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) in utero (Days 16-18 of gestation) or for 9-10 wk (DHT pellet) beginning at weaning (pubertal androgen excess [PAE]). As expected, both groups of androgen-treated mice had disrupted estrous cycles. Analysis of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants revealed that excess androgen produced circadian misalignment via tissue-dependent effects on phase distribution. In vitro treatment with DHT differentially affected the period of PER2::LUC expression in tissue explants and granulosa cells, indicating that androgen has direct and tissue-specific effects on clock gene expression that may account for the effects of developmental programming on the timing system. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  19. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

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    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  20. Androgens and cognitive abilities: Mental rotations skills and handedness in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

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    Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Johannsen, T.H.; Mortensen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research on animal and human populations has suggested elevated spatial abilities as well as higher incidence of left-handedness in genetic females exposed to abnormally high androgen levels perinatally. However, findings in humans are inconsistent. We administered the Mental Rotations Test...

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

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    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  2. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Steroidal Machinery and Cell Differentiation Markers in Visceral Adipocytes of Female Sheep.

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    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Lu, Chunxia; Martin, Jacob D; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Dumesic, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated female sheep manifest reduced adipocyte size and peripheral insulin resistance. The small adipocyte phenotype may reflect defects in adipogenesis and its steroidal machinery. To test whether prenatal T treatment from gestational days 30 to 90 alters the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) steroidal machinery and reduces adipocyte differentiation, we examined expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and adipocyte differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal ages 10 and 21 months. Because gestational T treatment increases fetal T and maternal insulin, the contributions of these were assessed by androgen receptor antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment, either separately (at fetal day 90 and 21 months of age time points) or together (10 months of age). The effects on adipogenesis were assessed in the VAT-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) from pre- and postpubertal time points to evaluate the effects of pubertal steroidal changes on adipogenesis. Our results show that VAT manifests potentially a predominant estrogenic intracrine milieu (increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α) and reduced differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal 21 months of age. These changes appear to involve both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Preliminary findings suggest that prenatal T treatment reduces adipogenesis, decreases expression of differentiation, and increases expression of commitment markers at both pre- and postpubertal time points. Together, these findings suggest that (1) increased commitment of AT-MSCs to adipocyte lineage and decreased differentiation to adipocytes may underlie the small adipocyte phenotype of prenatal T-treated females and (2) excess T-induced changes in steroidal machinery in the VAT likely participate in the programming/maintenance of this defect.

  3. Expression of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha in the developing pituitary gland of male sheep lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Bo; Yuan, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-01

    To explore the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the developing pituitary of male lamb, we detected AR and ERα expression in the anterior pituitary of lambs aged 2-7 months old by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that both AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) and ERα immunoreactivity (ERα-ir) were localized in the nuclei of anterior pituitary cell. The percentage of the anterior pituitary cells expressing ERα fluctuated from 8.79±0.02% to 11.80±0.04% during the examined stages, but fell significantly to the lowest level at 6 months. While the proportion of AR-ir showed significant changes, it was in 11.52±1.26% at 2 months, it firstly increased to 19.86±1.03% at 3 months, and then significantly decreased to 8.18±1.17% at 6 months (Panterior pituitary cells. These results indicate that both AR and ERα are important in regulation of secretary function of anterior pituitary in sheep lamb, although the related mechanism needs to be elucidated further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  5. Androgens and Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction--Findings From the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R; Worsley, Roisin; Miller, Karen K; Parish, Sharon J; Santoro, Nanette

    2016-02-01

    Androgens have been implicated as important for female sexual function and dysfunction. To review the role of androgens in the physiology and pathophysiology of female sexual functioning and the evidence for efficacy of androgen therapy for female sexual dysfunction (FSD). We searched the literature using online databases for studies pertaining to androgens and female sexual function. Major reviews were included and their findings were summarized to avoid replicating their content. Quality of data published in the literature and recommendations were based on the GRADES system. The literature supports an important role for androgens in female sexual function. There is no blood androgen level below which women can be classified as having androgen deficiency. Clinical trials have consistently demonstrated that transdermal testosterone (T) therapy improves sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women who have been assessed as having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The use of T therapy is limited by the lack of approved formulations for women and long-term safety data. Most studies do not support the use of systemic dehydroepiandrosterone therapy for the treatment of FSD in women with normally functioning adrenals or adrenal insufficiency. Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaginal testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy are ongoing. Available data support an important role of androgens in female sexual function and dysfunction and efficacy of transdermal T therapy for the treatment of some women with FSD. Approved T formulations for women are generally unavailable. In consequence, the prescribing of T mostly involves off-label use of T products formulated for men and individually compounded T formulations. Long-term studies to determine the safety of T therapy for women and possible benefits beyond that of sexual function are greatly needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Experimentally induced gestational androgen excess disrupts glucoregulation in rhesus monkey dams and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Bruns, Cristin R; Barnett, Deborah K; Dunaif, Andrea; Goodfriend, Theodore L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Tarantal, Alice F

    2010-11-01

    Discrete fetal androgen excess during early gestation in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) promotes endocrine antecedents of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like traits in female offspring. Because developmental changes promoting such PCOS-like metabolic dysfunction remain unclear, the present study examined time-mated, gravid rhesus monkeys with female fetuses, of which nine gravid females received 15 mg of testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously daily from 40 to 80 days (first to second trimesters) of gestation [term, mean (range): 165 (155-175) days], whereas an additional six such females received oil vehicle injections over the same time interval. During gestation, ultrasonography quantified fetal growth measures and was used as an adjunct for fetal blood collections. At term, all fetuses were delivered by cesarean section for postnatal studies. Blood samples were collected from dams and infants for glucose, insulin, and total free fatty acid (FFA) determinations. TP injections transiently accelerated maternal weight gain in dams, very modestly increased head diameter of prenatally androgenized (PA) fetuses, and modestly increased weight gain in infancy compared with concurrent controls. Mild to moderate glucose intolerance, with increased area-under-the-curve circulating insulin values, occurred in TP-injected dams during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in the early second trimester. Moreover, reduced circulating FFA levels occurred in PA fetuses during a third trimester intravenous glucagon-tolbutamide challenge (140 days gestation), whereas excessive insulin sensitivity and increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity occurred in PA infants during an intravenous glucose-tolbutamide test at ∼1.5 mo postnatal age. Data from these studies suggest that experimentally induced fetal androgen excess may result in transient hyperglycemic episodes in the intrauterine environment that are sufficient to induce relative increases in

  7. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  8. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Yan-li; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs. Adult cyclic female guinea pigs were injected daily for 28 days with medium doses of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 mg/100g), high doses of TP (2 mg/100g), or saline (control). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. Histologic sections of ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ovary were characterized by immunohistochemistry. After 28 days of TP injection, serum testosterone concentrations were increased dose-dependently. An appropriate dosage of TP could induce permanent anovulation in guinea pigs, making them a potential model for human polycystic ovary syndrome. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are jointly involved in the growth and atresia of ovarian follicles in cyclic guinea pigs. Increased numbers of atretic antral follicles in the ovary might be associated with the observed high expression of MMP-2 in androgenized cyclic guinea pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance. This chapter summarizes the ontogeny of insulin resistance, the tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, and the various factors that are involved in the programming and maintenance of the insulin resistance in adult female sheep that were developmentally exposed to fetal male levels of testosterone during the sexual-differentiation window.

  10. An androgenic agricultural contaminant impairs female reproductive behaviour in a freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Saaristo

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki. The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes.

  11. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Developmental Programming: Impact of Gestational Steroid and Metabolic Milieus on Mediators of Insulin Sensitivity in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Andriessen, Victoria; Mesquitta, Makeda; Zeng, Lixia; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep. Because T excess leads to maternal hyperinsulinemia, fetal hyperandrogenism, and functional hyperandrogenism and IR in their female offspring, prenatal and postnatal interventions with antiandrogen, flutamide, and the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone were used to parse out the contribution of androgenic and metabolic pathways in programming and maintaining these defects. Results showed that (1) peripheral IR in prenatal T-treated female sheep is related to increases in triglycerides and 3-nitrotyrosine, which appear to override the increase in high-molecular-weight adiponectin; (2) liver IR is a function of the increase in oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and lipotoxicity; (3) muscle IR is related to lipotoxicity; and (4) the insulin-sensitive status of visceral adipose tissue appears to be a function of the increase in antioxidants that likely overrides the increase in proinflammatory cytokines, macrophages, and oxidative stress. Prenatal and postnatal intervention with either antiandrogen or insulin sensitizer had partial effects in preventing or ameliorating the prenatal T-induced changes in mediators of insulin sensitivity, suggesting that both pathways are critical for the programming and maintenance of the prenatal T-induced changes and point to potential involvement of estrogenic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  13. Elevated androgen levels induce hyperinsulinemia through increase in Ins1 transcription in pancreatic beta cells in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jay S; More, Amar S; Kumar, Sathish

    2018-01-22

    Hyperandrogenism is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in adult females. We tested whether androgens dysregulate pancreatic beta cell function to induce hyperinsulinemia through transcriptional regulation of insulin gene (Ins) in the islets. Adult female Wistar rats implanted with dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 7.5-mg, 90-d release) or placebo pellets were examined after 10 weeks. DHT exposure increased plasma DHT levels by 2-fold similar to that in polycystic ovary syndrome in women. DHT exposure induced hyperinsulinemia with increased HOMA-IR index in fasting state and glucose intolerance and exaggerated insulin responses following glucose tolerance test. DHT females had no change in islet number, size and beta cell proliferation/apoptosis but exhibited significant mitochondrial dysfunction (higher ADP/ATP ratio, decreased mtDNA copy number, increased reactive oxygen production and downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis) and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Ins expression was increased in DHT islets. In vitro incubation of control islets with DHT dose-dependently stimulated Ins transcription. Analysis of Ins1 gene revealed a putative androgen responsive element in the promoter. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays showed that androgen receptors bind to this element in response to DHT stimulation. Furthermore, reporter assays showed that the promoter element is highly responsive to androgens. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was decreased with associated decrease in IRβ expression in DHT females. Our studies identified a novel androgen-mediated mechanism for the control of Ins expression via transcriptional regulation providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated androgens and hyperinsulemia. Decreased IRβ expression in the skeletal muscles may contribute, in part, to glucose intolerance in this model. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of

  14. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-06-15

    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  16. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Kirsten; Wood, Charlotte; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62-102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4) or TP (20 mg; n = 7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (Pfetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (Pfetal TP (Pfetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS.

  17. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hogg

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5 or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9 twice weekly (100 mg; i.m from d62-102 (gestation 147 days. In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4 or TP (20 mg; n = 7 fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (P<0.05 and the histological presence of fatty liver (P<0.05 independent of central obesity. Additionally, hepatic androgen receptor (AR; P<0.05, glucocorticoid receptor (GR; P<0.05, UDP- glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG; P<0.05 and IGF1 (P<0.01 expression were upregulated. The direct fetal intervention (C and TP led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK was up-regulated in the fetal controls (P<0.05 and this was opposed by fetal TP (P<0.05. Hepatic estrogen receptor (ERα; P<0.05 and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4; P<0.05 were increased following fetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS.

  18. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  19. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women∗: ∗2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  20. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6±4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7±7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ±0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32±3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age of about

  1. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2002-08-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6 ± 4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7 ± 7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ± 0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32 ± 3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age

  2. Androgen receptor-beta mRNA levels in different tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Erik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens induce male characters by activating androgen receptors (AR. Previous quantitative studies on AR in fishes have been limited to few tissues and/or a single season/reproductive state. The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of AR-beta expression levels in the control of male traits in the three-spined stickleback. To that end, AR-beta expression levels in major tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks were examined. Methods AR-beta mRNA levels were quantified in ten tissues; eye, liver, axial muscle, heart, brain, intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and pectoral muscle in six breeding and post-breeding males and females using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Results Breeding in contrast to post-breeding males built nests and showed secondary sexual characters (e.g. kidney hypertrophy and elevated androgen levels. Post-breeding females had lower ovarian weights and testosterone levels than breeding females. AR-beta was expressed in all studied tissues in both sexes and reproductive states with the highest expression in the gonads and in the kidneys. The kidney is an androgen target organ in sticklebacks, from which breeding males produce the protein spiggin, which is used in nest-building. There was also high AR-beta expression in the intestine, an organ that appears to take over hyperosmo-regulation in fresh water when the kidney hypertrophies in mature males and largely loses this function. The only tissue that showed effects of sex or reproductive state on AR-beta mRNA levels was the kidneys, where post-breeding males displayed higher AR-beta mRNA levels than breeding males. Conclusion The results indicate that changes in AR-beta mRNA levels play no or little role in changes in androgen dependent traits in the male stickleback.

  3. Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

  4. Dermoscopic findings in female androgenetic alopecia Achados dermatoscópicos na alopecia androgenética feminina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Duarte Ramos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. It is a clinical entity of relevant interest and presents a significant psychosocial impact as it undermines self-esteem and quality of life in female patients due to the importance of the hair for people's facial balance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate dermoscopic signs in women clinically diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia. METHOD: Observational study with 34 women between 17 and 68 years old who were diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia. All of them underwent photographic sessions with a 10x magnification dermoscope and a digital camera zoom set to 20x magnification and 40x magnification on the scalp frontal midline. RESULTS: All patients showed miniaturization. A peripilar brown halo was found in 22 patients, honeycomb-like scalp pigmentation was found in 14 and yellow dots in only 1 patient. Recent studies show dermoscopy as the new tool for diagnosis assistance and treatment follow up in scalp disorders. Our study used an ordinary dermoscope and we evaluated several findings reported in the literature with significant clarity and easiness. CONCLUSION: The dermoscope, which is used by dermatologists on a daily basis, is an excellent tool to assist in early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response in androgenetic alopecia.FUNDAMENTOS: Alopecia androgenética é forma mais comum de queda de cabelo. Constitui entidade clínica de interesse relevante e acarreta grande impacto psicossocial por comprometer a auto-estima e a qualidade de vida das pacientes. OBJETIVO: Procurar os sinais dermatoscópicos comuns em mulheres com diagnóstico clínico de alopecia androgenética, visando diagnóstico precoce e melhor resposta terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional em 34 mulheres com idades entre 17 e 68 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de alopecia androgenética. Todas pacientes foram avaliadas e submetidas a registros fotográficos com o

  5. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  6. Nutritional status affects the microRNA profile of the hypothalamus of female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Lin, Shan; Lei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Cong; Yu, Yaosheng; Zhao, Zongsheng; Chen, Jingbo

    2018-01-25

    Recent studies on the seasonal regulation of the oestrous cycle in sheep have focussed mainly on the responses to photoperiod. However, the brain systems that control reproductive activity also respond to nutritional inputs, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely understood. One possibility is that small, non-coding RNAs, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), have significant influence. In the present study, the amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in hypothalamus from oestrous and anestrous ewes, fed low- or high-nutrient diets, were compared using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology. In total, 398 miRNAs, including 261 novel miRNAs, were identified in ewes with an enhanced nutritional status (HEN), whereas 384 miRNAs, including 247 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ewes with a lesser nutritional status (HAN). There were eight conserved and 140 novel miRNAs expressed differentially between the two libraries. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, six miRNAs were assessed to verify the accuracy of the library database. Moreover, the correlation between the miRNA target and several upstream and downstream genes in the oestrus-related pathways were also verified in hypothalamus nerve cells. According to the results, nutritional status plays an important role in oestrous regulation in sheep, and the hypothalamic processes and pathways induced by nutritional signals (folic acid and tyrosine) are different from those induced by photoperiodic regulation of oestrus. We have expanded the repertoire of sheep miRNAs that could contribute to the molecular mechanisms that regulate the initiation of oestrous cycles in anestrous ewes in response to the influence of nutritional status.

  7. Morphostructural characterization of female and young male of naturalized Sul-mato-grossenses “Pantaneiros” sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Portela de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric measurements are important to evaluate the variability, determine the racial standard and the existence of sexual dimorphism in genetic group. With this objective, were measured 20 morphometric measurements and one measurements of weight for 338 animals of the genetic group of Sul-mato-grossenses naturalized sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University and Federal University of the Grande Dourados. The statistical analyses were realized through software SAS. The females and young males showed short variation for morphometric measured of head and limbs region. However, higher variation was observed in the morphometric measurements taken from torso region, indicate that this region could be inserted in breeding programs like a selection criterion. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the morphostructural characteristics of females and young males, appears to have certain harmony degree in the morphostructural model. The females are characterized by animals with relatively large head, torso with proportional features and good angulations. The gender did not influence characteristics of the head region and body weight in the young animals. However, the characteristics of other regions, such as thoracic perimeter and posterior width of rump measured in the head region, and the perimeter of carpal and metacarpal in the limbs were influenced by gender in young animals.

  8. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  9. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott G

    2007-08-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-28330835 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-28330835 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by a mean of 30% at 10 mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor body composition, it prevented half of the loss of lean body mass associated with orchidectomy, and restored about 30% of lost lean mass to aged orchidectomized rats. It had agonist effects on markers of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity, suggesting that it reduces bone turnover. In a model of sexual behavior, JNJ-28330835 enhanced the preference of ovariectomized female rats for sexually intact male rats over nonsexual orchidectomized males. JNJ-28330835 is a prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinically beneficial effects in muscle-wasting diseases and sexual function disorders.

  10. Use of 131I labelling to study distribution and migration of spermatozoa in the genital tract of female sheep, following artifical insemination. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.; Rummer, H.J.; Menger, H.; Schneider, G.; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig

    1982-01-01

    Ram sperma, which had been sucessfully labelled with Na 131 I was followed up by means of a gamma camera up to 150 minutes from insemination while migrating through the genital tract of female sheep. The study had been undertaken primarily for the purpose of testing the method and the suitability of this radionuclide for sperm labelling without major impairment of spermatic motility. Also included in the study were comparisons between oestrus induction by means of fluorogestonacetate vaginal sponges plus pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin treatment and spontaneous oestrus or between fresh and liquid-preserved ram sperma for migration capacity as well as observation of passive migration of sperma in the genital tract of sheep. Rompun anesthesia was applied to sheep for sedation for gamma camera observation. (author)

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Juel; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Sørensen, Keld E

    2007-01-01

    because of skin side effects and anxiety, respectively. All patients had low circulating androgens baseline and normal range androgens during DHEA treatment. We examined patients with noninvasive endothelial cell function, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cardiac output, echocardiography, ambulatory...... 24-h blood pressure and maximal oxygen consumption. RESULTS: DHEA treatment normalized androgen status to levels seen in healthy women. DHEA and placebo treatment had no effect on echocardiographic parameters of myocardial dimensions or systolic and diastolic function, noninvasive endothelial cell...... in vascular endothelium has been described and in vitro studies have shown involvement of DHEA in NO dependent pathways. AIM: To evaluate effects of DHEA substitution on cardiovascular parameters. DESIGN: Six months randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Treatment consisted of DHEA 50...

  12. Changes in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Woolley, Sarah; Porter, Raymond; Crews, David

    2003-06-01

    Successful reproduction requires the coordination of reproductive physiology with behavior. The neural correlates of reproductive behavior have been elucidated in a variety of amphibians, mammals, and birds but relatively few studies have examined reptiles. Here we investigate differences in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct between previtellogenic and late vitellogenic female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. Plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) are low when females are previtellogenic and sexually unreceptive but increase dramatically during late vitellogenesis when females are receptive. In addition, receptivity can be induced by treatment with exogenous T. The relative abundance of AR-mRNA across various nuclei was greater in late vitellogenic than in previtellogenic females. This general pattern was observed in the medial preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, external nucleus of the amygdala, dorsolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral septum, and periventricular hypothalamus. There were also clear differences in AR-mRNA expression among these nuclei. The pattern of gene expression observed in the brain was reversed within stromal cells of the oviduct where expression of AR-mRNA decreased from the previtellogenic stage to the late vitellogenic stage. Overall, these data demonstrate that T concentration in the plasma, abundance of AR-mRNA in the brain and oviduct, and sexual behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos. Although the function of AR in the female leopard gecko is not yet clear, our results are in accord with growing evidence that androgens regulate numerous aspects of female physiology and behavior in vertebrates.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. People with this ... characteristics or signs of both male and female sexual development. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs when the body ...

  14. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  15. Androgens and alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Keith D

    2002-12-30

    Androgens have profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans. Scalp hair grows constitutively in the absence of androgens, while body hair growth is dependent on the action of androgens. Androgenetic alopecia, referred to as male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in men and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in women, is due to the progressive miniaturization of scalp hair. Observations in both eunuchs, who have low levels of testicular androgens, and males with genetic 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) deficiency, who have low levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), implicate DHT as a key androgen in the pathogenesis of MPHL in men. The development of finasteride, a type 2-selective 5alphaR inhibitor, further advanced our understanding of the role of DHT in the pathophysiology of scalp alopecia. Controlled clinical trials with finasteride demonstrated improvements in scalp hair growth in treated men associated with reductions in scalp DHT content, and a trend towards reversal of scalp hair miniaturization was evident by histopathologic evaluation of scalp biopsies. In contrast to its beneficial effects in men, finasteride did not improve hair growth in postmenopausal women with FPHL. Histopathological evaluation of scalp biopsies confirmed that finasteride treatment produced no benefit on scalp hair in these women. These findings suggest that MPHL and FPHL are distinct clinical entities, with disparate pathophysiologies. Studies that elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate hair growth would provide greater understanding of these differences. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  16. Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long term androgen-treated transsexual women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Chadha; T.D. Pache; F.J. Huikeshoven (Frans); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAndrogen receptor (AR) modulation in human uteri and ovaries of long term androgen-treated transsexual female patients was investigated. Androgen receptor expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in the ovaries of 11 and the endometria and myometria of six androgen-treated

  17. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  18. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long term androgen-treated transsexual women

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, D.; Pache, T.D.; Huikeshoven, Frans; Brinkmann, Albert; Kwast, Theo

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAndrogen receptor (AR) modulation in human uteri and ovaries of long term androgen-treated transsexual female patients was investigated. Androgen receptor expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in the ovaries of 11 and the endometria and myometria of six androgen-treated transsexual female patients. This was compared with AR expression in the ovaries and uteri of premenopausal and postmenopausal women not receiving treatment and in 10 ovaries of female patients with polycy...

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (Pminoxidil treatment adherence.

  1. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  2. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S; Grace, C; Mattei, A A; Siemienowicz, K; Brownlee, W; MacCallum, J; McNeilly, A S; Duncan, W C; Rae, M T

    2016-06-06

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells.

  3. Fetal programming of adrenal androgen excess: lessons from a nonhuman primate model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, David H; Zhou, Rao; Bird, Ian M; Dumesic, Daniel A; Conley, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal androgen excess is found in adult female rhesus monkeys previously exposed to androgen treatment during early gestation. In adulthood, such prenatally androgenized female monkeys exhibit elevated basal circulating levels of DHEAS, typical of PCOS women with adrenal androgen excess. Further androgen and glucocorticoid abnormalities in PA female monkeys are revealed by acute ACTH stimulation: DHEA, androstenedione and corticosterone responses are all elevated compared to responses in co...

  4. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  5. Prenatal androgenization of female mice programs an increase in firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that is reversed by metformin treatment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Prenatal androgenization (PNA) of female mice with dihydrotestosterone programs reproductive dysfunction in adulthood, characterized by elevated luteinizing hormone levels, irregular estrous cycles, and central abnormalities. Here, we evaluated activity of GnRH neurons from PNA mice and the effects of in vivo treatment with metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is commonly used to treat the fertility disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Estrous cycles were monitored in PNA and control mice before and after metformin administration. Before metformin, cycles were longer in PNA mice and percent time in estrus lower; metformin normalized cycles in PNA mice. Extracellular recordings were used to monitor GnRH neuron firing activity in brain slices from diestrous mice. Firing rate was higher and quiescence lower in GnRH neurons from PNA mice, demonstrating increased GnRH neuron activity. Metformin treatment of PNA mice restored firing activity and LH to control levels. To assess whether AMPK activation contributed to the metformin-induced reduction in GnRH neuron activity, the AMPK antagonist compound C was acutely applied to cells. Compound C stimulated cells from metformin-treated, but not untreated, mice, suggesting that AMPK was activated in GnRH neurons, or afferent neurons, in the former group. GnRH neurons from metformin-treated mice also showed a reduced inhibitory response to low glucose. These studies indicate that PNA causes enhanced firing activity of GnRH neurons and elevated LH that are reversible by metformin, raising the possibility that central AMPK activation by metformin may play a role in its restoration of reproductive cycles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  6. Modulation of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.Y. Wong (Hao Yun)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAndrogens, testosterone (T) and 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are important for male and female physiology, in particular for male sexual differentiation, development of secondary male characteristics and spermatogenesis. These hormones exert their actions by binding to the androgen

  7. Three novel and two known androgen receptor gene mutations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gene mutations associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome in sex-reversed XY female patients. J. Genet. ... signal and a C-terminal. Keywords. androgen insensitivity syndrome; androgen receptor; truncation mutation; N-terminal domain; XY sex reversal. .... and an increased risk of gonadal tumour. Mutations in SRY.

  8. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and cons...

  9. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  10. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  11. Fetal programming: testosterone exposure of the female sheep during midgestation disrupts the dynamics of its adult gonadotropin secretion during the periovulatory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Lee, James S; Herkimer, Carol; Sharma, Tejinder P; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the female sheep to excess testosterone (T) leads to hypergonadotropism, multifollicular ovaries, and progressive loss of reproductive cycles. We have determined that prenatal T treatment delays the latency of the estradiol (E2)-induced LH surge. To extend this finding into a natural physiological context, the present study was conducted to determine if the malprogrammed surge mechanism alters the reproductive cycle. Specifically, we wished to determine if prenatal T treatment 1) delays the onset of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge during the natural follicular phase rise in E2, 2) alters pulsatile LH secretion and the dynamics of the secondary FSH surge, and 3) compromises the ensuing luteal function. Females prenatally T-treated from Day 60 to Day 90 of gestation (147 days is term) and control females were studied when they were approximately 2.5 yr of age. Reproductive cycles of control and prenatally T-treated females were synchronized with PGF2alpha, and peripheral blood samples were collected every 2 h for 120 h to characterize cyclic changes in E2, LH, and FSH and then daily for 14 days to monitor changes in luteal progesterone. To assess LH pulse patterns, blood samples were also collected frequently (each 5 min for 6 h) during the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The results revealed that, in prenatally T-treated females, 1) the preovulatory increase in E2 was normal; 2) the latencies between the preovulatory increase in E2 and the peaks of the primary LH and FSH surges were longer, but the magnitudes similar; 3) follicular-phase LH pulse frequency was increased; 4) the interval between the primary and secondary FSH surges was reduced but there was a tendency for an increase in duration of the secondary FSH surge; but 5) luteal progesterone patterns were in general unaltered. Thus, exposure of the female to excess T before birth produces perturbances and maltiming in periovulatory gonadotropin secretory dynamics, but these

  12. Relationships among body composition, circulating concentrations of leptin and follistatin, and the onset of puberty and fertility in young female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Thompson, A N; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Hedger, M P; Ferguson, M B; Martin, G B

    2014-12-30

    The onset of puberty depends on the attainment of critical body mass, so should also be affected by increases in the rate of accumulation of muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and reproduction are linked by leptin. For muscle, a link has not yet been identified, although one possibility is follistatin. We assessed the relationships among circulating concentrations of follistatin and leptin and the rates of growth and accumulation of muscle and fat during pubertal development in female sheep. We used 326 animals with known phenotypic values for live weight (LW), depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known breeding values at post-weaning age for body mass (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). Leptin concentration was positively correlated with values for EMD, PEMD, FAT, PFAT, LW and PWT (Preproductive rate (Preproductive rate (Preproductive performance. We conclude that leptin and follistatin are probably both involved in effects of accelerated accumulation of muscle and adipose tissues on the onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliable molecular differentiation of Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor from sheep (Ovis orientalis aries) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and morphological characterisation of their females: morphology does not work sufficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejl, Pavel; Nechybová, Stanislava; Peřinková, Pavla; Melounová, Martina; Sedláková, Vladimíra; Vašek, Jakub; Čílová, Daniela; Rylková, Kateřina; Jankovská, Ivana; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Langrová, Iva

    2017-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate associations between morphological variability of Trichuris females from sheep and roe deer and their rDNA polymorphism in whipworm populations from the Czech Republic. The results introduced the use of new molecular markers based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region polymorphisms, as useful tools for the unambiguous differentiation of congeners Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor. These markers revealed both parasites in roe deer and in sheep; however, T. ovis females predominated in sheep while T. discolor females occurred mostly in roe deer. Additional analysis of ITS1-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 discovered the genetic uniformity of the analysed T. discolor but high haplotype variation of T. ovis. Simultaneously, molecularly designated female individuals of both species were categorised into four morphotypes (MT) on the basis of morphology of genital pore area. MT1 and MT4 (vulvar opening on everted vaginal appendage/on visible cuticular bulge) occurred only in T. ovis, MT2 (uneverted vagina-vulvar opening without any elevation) was identified only in T. discolor and MT3 (transient type of vulvar opening on a small swelling) was observed in both species. Statistical analysis of biometric data confirmed that morphology of vulva is not a reliable marker for the species determination. On the basis of the ITS1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region variability, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood method, Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano model) which showed that T. ovis haplotypes from the Czech Republic and Ireland and T. discolor haplotypes from the Czech Republic, Spain, Iran and Japan are sister OTUs.

  14. Three novel and two known androgen receptor gene mutations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with androgen insensitivity syndrome in sex-reversed XY female patients. BALACHANDRAN .... Three novel AR gene mutations associated with AIS in XY sex-reversed females. Ta b le. 1 . ( contd. ) ..... disease, 1st edition. Springer Science + ...

  15. Fetal programming of adrenal androgen excess: lessons from a nonhuman primate model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Zhou, Rao; Bird, Ian M; Dumesic, Daniel A; Conley, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal androgen excess is found in adult female rhesus monkeys previously exposed to androgen treatment during early gestation. In adulthood, such prenatally androgenized female monkeys exhibit elevated basal circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), typical of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women with adrenal androgen excess. Further androgen and glucocorticoid abnormalities in PA female monkeys are revealed by acute ACTH stimulation: DHEA, androstenedione and corticosterone responses are all elevated compared to responses in controls. Pioglitazone treatment, however, diminishes circulating DHEAS responses to ACTH in both prenatally androgenized and control female monkeys, while increasing the 17-hydroxyprogesterone response and reducing the DHEA to 17-hydroxyprogesterone ratio. Since 60-min post-ACTH serum values for 17-hydroxyprogesterone correlate negatively with basal serum insulin levels (all female monkeys on pioglitazone and placebo treatment combined), while similar DHEAS values correlate positively with basal serum insulin levels, circulating insulin levels may preferentially support adrenal androgen biosynthesis in both prenatally androgenized and control female rhesus monkeys. Overall, our findings suggest that differentiation of the monkey adrenal cortex in a hyperandrogenic fetal environment may permanently upregulate adult adrenal androgen biosynthesis through specific elevation of 17,20-lyase activity in the zona fasciculata-reticularis. As adult prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys closely emulate PCOS-like symptoms, excess fetal androgen programming may contribute to adult adrenal androgen excess in women with PCOS.

  16. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulam, C.B.; Graham, M.L.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  17. Effects of Endogenous Androgens and Abdominal Fat Distribution on the Interrelationship Between Insulin and Non-Insulin-Mediated Glucose Uptake in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Uche; Pall, Marita; Mathur, Ruchi; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel; Chen, Ida Y.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Glucose disposal occurs via noninsulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU) and insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). It is unknown whether in PCOS NIMGU increases to compensate for declining IMGU and whether androgens and fat distribution influence this relationship. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare in women with PCOS and controls the interrelationship between NIMGU [ie, glucose effectiveness (Sg)] and IMGU [ie, the insulin sensitivity index (Si)] and the role of androgens and fat distribution. Participants: Twenty-eight PCOS (by National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria) and 28 control (age, race, and body mass index matched) women were prospectively studied. A subset of 16 PCOS subjects and 16 matched controls also underwent abdominal computed tomography. Main Outcome Measures: Glucose disposal (by a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test), circulating androgens, and abdominal fat distribution [by waist to hip ratio and visceral (VAT) and sc (SAT) adipose tissue content] were measured. Results: PCOS women had lower mean Si and similar Sg and abdominal fat distribution compared with controls. PCOS women with Si below the PCOS median (more insulin resistant) had a lower mean Sg than controls with Si above the control median (more insulin sensitive). In PCOS only, body mass index, free T, modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, and waist to hip ratio independently predicted Sg, whereas Si did not. In PCOS, VAT and SAT independently and negatively predicted Si and Sg, respectively. Conclusion: The decreased IMGU in PCOS is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in NIMGU or associated with excessive VAT accumulation. Increased general obesity, SAT, and hyperandrogenism are primary predictors of the deterioration of NIMGU in PCOS. PMID:23450052

  18. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Tom

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5- reductase-2 deficiency, or 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  19. Use of 131I sperm labelling to study distribution and migration of spermatozoa in the genital tract of female sheep, following artifical insemination. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.; Menger, H.; Schneider, G.; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig

    1982-01-01

    Fresh ram sperma or sperm-free seminal plasma, labelled with 131 I was intracervically applied to 7 ewes with an estrus synchronised by means of PGF/sub 2α/. The animals were slaughtered at different dates after insemination. The genital tract of the sheep was cut into 14 sections which were all measured for radioactivity. Seminal plasma was found to have undergone transcervical and transuterine passage, which produced evidence to the effect that the uterine cervix of sheep was permeable to seminal plasma. 'Barrier effects' of the cervix were of different strength, depending on individuals. Labelled sperma was quantitatively detected also from the upper genital regions, which seemed to support the assumption that sperm storage function had to be attributed not only to the uterine cervix of sheep, but also to the uterotubal canal. Asymmetry was observed in distribution between left and right uterus cornua and oviducts. (author)

  20. Developmental programming: exposure to testosterone excess disrupts steroidal and metabolic environment in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Salloum, B; Veiga-Lopez, A; Abbott, D H; Burant, C F; Padmanabhan, V

    2015-06-01

    Gestational exposure to excess T leads to intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and adult metabolic/reproductive disorders in female sheep. We hypothesized that as early mediators of such disruptions, gestational T disrupts steroidal and metabolic homeostasis in both the mother and fetus by both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Maternal blood samples were measured weekly for levels of insulin, glucose, and progesterone from four groups of animals: control; gestational T (twice weekly im injections of 100 mg of T propionate from d 30 to d 90 of gestation); T plus an androgen antagonist, flutamide (15 mg/kg·d oral; T-Flutamide); and T plus the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (0.11 mg/kg·d oral; T-Rosi) (n = 10-12/group). On day 90 of gestation, maternal and umbilical cord samples were collected after a 48-hour fast from a subset (n = 6/group) for the measurement of steroids, free fatty acids, amino acids, and acylcarnitines. Gestational T decreased maternal progesterone levels by 36.5% (P fetal estradiol were not prevented by either cotreatment. Gestational T disrupted associations of steroids with metabolites and progesterone with acylcarnitines, which was prevented either by androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment. These findings suggest a future combination of these treatments might be required to prevent alteration in maternal/fetal steroidal and metabolic milieu(s).

  1. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    normal male rats for reproductive parameters evaluation, composing the groups treated during the pre-gestational period. Another group of 20 female rats were treated during the gestational period (7th-14th days. For data analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric variance analysis was used, followed by the test of Dunn or of Student-Newman-Keus (5% significance level. RESULTS: there was a significant body weight increase in the androgenized females (ND: 305±50; T: 280±35; ND+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g; p<0.05. Uterine weight was not affected by the steroidal treatment (ND: 0.6±0.2; T: 0.4±0.04; ND+T: 0.7±0.1 versus C: 0.4±0.09 g. All the androgenized females presented estral acyclicity and endometrium characterized by papilliferous luminal lining, oedematous stroma with hemorrhagic areas and secretory activity. There were changes in the morphometrical thickness parameters of the luminal epithelium, myometrium and perimetrium in the androgenized groups. None of the female rats got pregnant when treated with steroids in the pre-gestational period and the treatment during organogenesis affected negatively the reproductive parameters. CONCLUSIONS: steroidal agents alter the uterine structure and impair fertility and gestational outcome in female rats.

  2. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  3. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptotic factors in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Ortega, Hugo H; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developmental expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), BCL2, BAX, activated CASP3, and FAS/FASLG were determined at Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo, and 21 mo of age by immunocytochemisty. Prenatal T treatment induced changes in expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers in a follicle-, age-, and steroid-specific manner. Changes in BAX were evident only during fetal life and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 only postnatally. Prenatal T and not DHT increased PCNA and decreased BCL2 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 10 and 21 mo but decreased CASP3 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 22 wk (prepubertal) and 10 and 21 mo. Both treatments decreased BAX immunostaining in granulosa cells of Fetal Day 90 primordial/primary follicles. Neither treatment affected FAS expression at any developmental time point in any follicular compartment. Effects on BAX appear to be programmed by androgenic actions and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 by estrogenic actions of T. Overall, the findings demonstrate that fetal exposure to excess T disrupts the ovarian proliferation/apoptosis balance, thus providing a basis for the follicular disruptions evidenced in these females.

  4. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  6. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Lori D; Burger, Laura L; Cuttitta, Ashley J; Michele, Daniel E; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8-9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1-6 of running (10-15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Ovarian Cell Proliferation and Apoptotic Factors in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Salvetti, Natalia R.; Ortega, Hugo H.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developme...

  8. Three novel and two known androgen receptor gene mutations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BALACHANDRAN SARANYA

    with androgen insensitivity syndrome in sex-reversed XY female patients. BALACHANDRAN ..... from the subjects, their family members and controls who participated in the ..... disease, 1st edition. Springer Science + Business Media, New.

  9. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN AND TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PREGNANCY AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE SD RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Sufficient levels of androgens during fetal sexual differentiation in the mammal produces the male phenotype, and the absence of androgens or the dysfunction of the androgen receptor can produce the female phenotype. In previous studies in our laboratory, adminis...

  10. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares [Department of Physiology and Biophysic, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de [Department of Pharmacy, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Bissoli, Nazaré Souza, E-mail: nazarebissoli@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  11. Effects of androgen on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor and Connexin 43 in mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jianhua; An, Yulin; Zhang, Shuiwen

    2015-10-01

    Androgens have essential roles in the regulation of follicular development and female fertility. Androgen excess is the leading defect in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and involved in the ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regarding regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of female mouse. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were performed to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ovaries from both control and testosterone-treated group mice. In this study, localizations of AR and Cx43 were dramatically altered in testosterone-treated mouse ovaries. In addition, AR expression was significantly increased, whereas Cx43 expression was markedly decreased after testosterone treatment. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone with concomitant reduction of MII oocytes. Overall, these results suggest the involvement of androgen in the regulation of AR and Cx43 localizations in mouse ovary. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone may affect normal folliculogenesis. Together these findings will enable us to begin understanding the important roles of AR and Cx43 actions in the regulation of follicular development, as well as providing insights into the role of AR and Cx43 actions in the androgen-associated reproductive diseases such as PCOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Charly; Degerny, Cindy; Hussain, Rashad; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Tourpin, Sophie; Habert, René; Schumacher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis. PMID:29107990

  13. Pubertal androgenization and gonadal histology in two 46, XY adolescents with NR5A1 mutations and predominantly female phenotype at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Cools (Martine); P. Hoebeke (Piet); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); J.A. Stoop (Hans); R. Hersmus (Remko); M. Barbaro (M.); A. Wedell; H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Most patients with NR5A1 (SF-1) mutations and poor virilization at birth are sex-assigned female and receive early gonadectomy. Although studies in pituitary-specific Sf-1 knockout mice suggest hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, little is known about endocrine function at puberty

  14. Detection of immunotoxic effects of estrogenic and androgenic endocrine disrupting compounds using splenic immune cells of the female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado-Nilles, A; Techer, R; Porcher, J M; Geffard, A; Gagnaire, B; Betoulle, S; Sanchez, W

    2014-09-01

    Today, the list of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in freshwater and marine environments that mimic or block endogenous hormones is expanding at an alarming rate. As immune and reproductive systems may interact in a bidirectional way, some authors proposed the immune capacities as attractive markers to evaluate the hormonal potential of environmental samples. Thus, the present work proposed to gain more knowledge on direct biological effects of natural and EDCs on female fish splenic leucocyte non-specific immune activities by using ex vivo assays. After determining the optimal required conditions to analyze splenic immune responses, seven different EDCs were tested ex vivo at 0.01, 1 and 100nM over 12h on the leucocyte functions of female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. In summary, we found that natural hormones acted as immunostimulants, whilst EDCs were immunosuppressive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...

  16. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  17. Molecular basis of androgen insensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A.; Jenster, G.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; van der Korput, H.; Brüggenwirth, H.; Boehmer, A.; Trapman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation and development proceed under direct control of androgens. Androgen action is mediated by the intracellular androgen receptor, which belongs to the superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. In the X-linked androgen insensitivity syndrome, defects in the

  18. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation.

  20. Androgen circle of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still not known and the search for causative genes is proving elusive, it is generally agreed that hyperandrogenism is at the heart of the syndrome. Here, it is proposed that excess androgens are the root cause of PCOS starting from their influence on the female fetus in programming gene expression, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by a propagation of excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicles, anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of androgen excess. This opinion paper, rather than being a full-scale review, is intentionally biased in support of this hypothesis that androgen excess is the 'root of all evil' in PCOS; in the hope that its acceptance could lead to more direct treatment of the syndrome in all its facets rather than the symptomatic treatment of side effects of androgen excess that we are addressing today.

  1. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  2. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  3. Ovarian overproduction of androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body's testosterone. Tumors of the ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can both cause too much androgen production. ... come back after they have been removed. In polycystic ovary syndrome, the following measures can reduce symptoms caused by ...

  4. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  5. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Kempegowda, Punith; Arlt, Wiebke; O'Reilly, Michael W

    2017-09-01

    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Androgens induce adipose tissue dysfunction, with effects on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and fat mass expansion, while anabolic effects on skeletal muscle may confer metabolic benefits. We hypothesise that serum androgen concentrations observed in female androgen excess and male hypogonadism are metabolically disadvantageous, promoting adipose and liver lipid accumulation, central fat mass expansion and insulin resistance. © 2017 The authors.

  6. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...

  7. Androgen regulation of the androgen receptor coregulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanucci, Alfonso; Waltering, Kati K; Suikki, Hanna E; Helenius, Merja A; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the development of prostate cancer is well recognized. The transcriptional activity of AR is partly regulated by coregulatory proteins. It has been suggested that these coregulators could also be important in the progression of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify coregulators whose expression is regulated by either the androgens and/or by the expression level of AR. We used empty vector and AR cDNA-transfected LNCaP cells (LNCaP-pcDNA3.1, and LNCaP-ARhi, respectively), and grew them for 4 and 24 hours in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at various concentrations. The expression of 25 AR coregulators (SRC1, TIF2, PIAS1, PIASx, ARIP4, BRCA1, β-catenin, AIB3, AIB1, CBP, STAT1, NCoR1, AES, cyclin D1, p300, ARA24, LSD1, BAG1L, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD2C, JMJD1A, MAK, PAK6 and MAGE11) was then measured by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Five of the coregulators (AIB1, CBP, MAK, BRCA1 and β-catenin) showed more than 2-fold induction and 5 others (cyclin D1, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD1A, and JMJD2C) less than 2-fold induction. Overexpression of AR did not affect the expression of the coregulators alone. However, overexpression of AR enhanced the DHT-stimulated expression of MAK, BRCA1, AIB1 and CBP and reduced the level of expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and gelsolin. In conclusion, we identified 5 coactivators whose expression was induced by androgens suggesting that they could potentiate AR signaling. Overexpression of AR seems to sensitize cells for low levels of androgens

  8. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  9. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  10. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  11. Developmental programming: prenatal steroid excess disrupts key members of intraovarian steroidogenic pathway in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Salvetti, Natalia R; Matiller, Valentina; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases circulating estradiol levels as well as follicular recruitment and persistence culminating in multifollicular ovary similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested whether prenatal T excess, by androgenic or estrogenic action, disrupts the steroid biosynthetic machinery in sheep in a cell-, follicle stage-, age-, and treatment-specific manner consistent with the ovarian disruptions and increased estradiol release. Impact of T/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments from days 30-90 of gestation on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 17α-hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase (CYP17A1), and cytochrome P-450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined on fetal day 90, 140 and 10 months (postpubertal), and 21 months (adult, no DHT group) of age by immunohistochemistry. All 4 markers changed in a cell-, follicle stage-, and age-specific manner. Both treatments increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in preantral follicles of postpubertal and adult females. Effects of prenatal T and DHT on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase differed in a follicle- and age-specific manner. CYP17A1 was reduced in the theca interna of antral follicles by T, but not DHT, in 10- and 21-month-old females. CYP19A1 was reduced by both T and DHT at all ages barring an increase on fetal day 140. Reduced granulosa CYP19A1 and thecal CYP17A1 in adults likely disrupt the intrafollicular androgen/estrogen balance contributing to follicular persistence. The reduced thecal CYP17A1 expression suggests that the hyperandrogenic ovarian phenotype may originate from increased enzyme activity or alternatively via a different isoform of CYP17. The reduced CYP19A1 in antral follicles of adults indicates that the increased circulating estradiol release likely arises from the increased number of persisting follicles.

  12. Androgen receptor disruption increases the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in male mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callewaert, F.; Bakker, A.; Schrooten, J.; Van Meerbeek, B.; Verhoeven, G.; Boonen, S.; Vanderschueren, D.

    2010-01-01

    In female mice, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) mediates the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading. Whether ERα plays a similar role in the male skeleton and to what extent androgens and androgen receptor (AR) affect this response in males remain unaddressed. Therefore, we studied the

  13. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Rare Case of Disorder of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsa Pizzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS could be considered as a disease that causes resistance to androgens actions, influencing both the morphogenesis and differentiation of the body structures, and systems in which this hormone exerts its effects. It depends on an X-linked mutations in the Androgen Receptor (AR gene that express a variety of phenotypes ranging from male infertility to completely normal female external genitalia. The clinical phenotypes of AIS could vary and be classified into three categories, as complete (CAIS, partial (PAIS, and mild (MAIS forms, according to the severity of androgen resistance. We will describe a case of CAIS in a 16-year-old patient.

  14. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  15. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  16. Estrogens and Androgens in Skeletal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria; Laurent, Michaël R; Dubois, Vanessa; Claessens, Frank; O'Brien, Charles A; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism. Together with the appreciation of the side effects of estrogen-related therapies on breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, these advances have also drastically altered the treatment of osteoporosis. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of estrogens and androgens on bone, their influences on skeletal homeostasis during growth and adulthood, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the adverse effects of their deficiency on the female and male skeleton, as well as the role of natural and synthetic estrogenic or androgenic compounds in the pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis. We highlight latest advances on the crosstalk between hormonal and mechanical signals, the relevance of the antioxidant properties of estrogens and androgens, the difference of their cellular targets in different bone envelopes, the role of estrogen deficiency in male osteoporosis, and the contribution of estrogen or androgen deficiency to the monomorphic effects of aging on skeletal involution. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  18. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals

  19. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol amplifies ovarian follicular defects induced by fetal exposure to excess testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Wurst, A K; Steckler, T L; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-04-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ≥8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event.

  20. The clinical and molecular spectrum of androgen insensitivity syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiort, O.; Sinnecker, G.H.G.; Holterhus, P.M.; Nitsche, E.M.; Kruse, K. [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    1996-05-03

    Androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) are due to end-organ resistance to androgenic steroids in males leading to defective virilization of the external genitalia. The phenotype encompasses a wide array of genital ambiguity and may range from completely female to undervirilized but unequivocally male with infertility. This disorder is caused by mutations of the androgen receptor and is an X-linked recessive trait. We have studied 47 patients with AIS and have characterized the underlying molecular abnormality in the androgen receptor gene. Twenty patients had complete AIS and twenty-seven had partial AIS. Of the latter, 11 were of predominantly female phenotypic appearance and gender was assigned accordingly, while 16 were raised as males. Within the group of complete AIS, two patients had gross deletions within the gene, one had a small deletion, and one had an insertion. In the other patients with complete AIS, as well as all individuals with partial AIS, single nucleotide substitutions within the coding region were detected, each leading to an amino acid alteration. Seven codons were involved in more than one mutation in different cases. In addition, in one patient with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an elongation of a glutamine-repeat was characterized. We conclude that mutations in the androgen receptor gene may be present throughout the whole coding region. However, our study provides evidence that several mutational hot spots exist. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Christine E.; Enriquez, Ana B.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development. PMID:27821748

  2. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Three Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD are congenital anomalies due to atypical development of chromosomes, gonads and anatomy. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS, also known as testicular feminization (TF is a rare DSD disease. The majority of CAIS patients apply to hospital with the complaint of primary amenorrhea or infertility. Given that CAIS patients are all phenotypically female while having 46, XY karyotypes, CAIS diagnosis should be disclosed in an age-appropriate manner preferably by a mental health professional. Cases are reported here for three 46XY siblings consistent with CAIS.

  3. Androgen receptor function links human sexual dimorphism to DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Ammerpohl

    Full Text Available Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.

  4. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  5. Clinical and histological challenge in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alopecia: female androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium and alopecia areata - part I Desafio clínico e histológico no diagnóstico diferencial de alopecia difusa: alopecia androgenética, eflúvio telógeno e alopecia areata - parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Werner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse androgenetic alopecia (female pattern hair loss, telogen effluvium, and diffuse alopecia areata may have similar clinical manifestations. Subtle details on physical examination and dermoscopy of the scalp may help to identify those disorders. The authors present a practical discussion on how to approach the patient with diffuse alopecia, considering clinical history, physical examination, and dermoscopic findings. If the diagnosis remains unclear after a careful analysis of the clinical signs, a scalp biopsy may help to distinguish between the three diseases. In this first part of our study, an objective review of female androgenetic alopecia is presented and the most important histological changes are discussed.Alopecia androgenética difusa (alopecia de padrão feminino, eflúvio telógeno e alopecia areata difusa podem ter apresentações clínicas similares. Detalhes sutis no exame físico e na dermatoscopia do couro cabeludo podem ser úteis no diagnóstico diferencial e interferir na conduta e resultados terapêuticos. Os autores apresentam uma discussão prática de como abordar a paciente com alopecia difusa considerando dados da história clínica, exame físico e dermatoscópico. Quando a dúvida persistir após uma análise cuidadosa dos aspectos clínicos, uma biópsia de couro cabeludo pode permitir a distinção entre as três doenças. Nesta primeira parte, a alopecia androgenética de padrão feminino é abordada em maior detalhe e se faz uma revisão objetiva das principais alterações microscópicas observadas.

  6. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...

  7. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  8. Androgens and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Norman, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common complex endocrine genetic disorder, which involves overproduction of androgens, leading to heterogeneous range of symptoms and associated with increased metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity. This review focuses on androgen biosynthesis, use, metabolism in PCOS and clinical consequences of hyperandrogenism. Controversial definition of the disorder and different phenotypic subgroups present a challenge for clinical and basic research. Further investigation of different phenotypes highlights the fact that PCOS probably represents a group of disorders with different etiologies. Prenatal androgen exposure and adolescent studies suggest early in life androgen excess as initiating factor of PCOS, but insufficient evidence available to confirm this hypothesis. Various intracellular signaling pathways implicated in PCOS steroidogenesis and in androgen action have been studied, however, PCOS pathogenesis remains obscure. Growing evidence links androgens with pathophysiology of PCOS and metabolic derangements. Despite intensive investigation, etiology and underlying mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear, warranting further investigation. Better understanding of molecular and genetic basis might lead to invention of novel therapeutic approaches. Long-term interventional studies that lower androgen levels in women with hyperandrogenism might protect against metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are needed.

  9. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  10. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  11. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  12. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (<0.04 [upper 90% CI]). Similar survival rates of female bighorn sheep from female bighorn sheep from British Columbia and Montana, coupled with greater recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  13. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  14. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC......, osteocalcin was significantly reduced after 7 months but a rebound phenomenon was observed 3 months after cessation of GC. In conclusion, this study has validated an osteopenia sheep model. Bone quality was significantly reduced following a 7 months GC-treatment and recovered after further 3 month observation...

  15. Review: fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome by androgen excess: evidence from experimental, clinical, and genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xita, Nectaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2006-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and chronic anovulation along with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity as frequent metabolic traits. Although PCOS manifests clinically during adolescence, emerging data suggest that the natural history of PCOS may originate in intrauterine life. Evidence from experimental, clinical, and genetic research supporting the hypothesis for the fetal origins of PCOS has been analyzed. Female primates, exposed in utero to androgen excess, exhibit the phenotypic features of PCOS during adult life. Clinical observations also support a potential fetal origin of PCOS. Women with fetal androgen excess disorders, including congenital 21-hydroxylase deficiency and congenital adrenal virilizing tumors, develop features characteristic of PCOS during adulthood despite the normalization of androgen excess after birth. The potential mechanisms of fetal androgen excess leading to a PCOS phenotype in humans are not clearly understood. However, maternal and/or fetal hyperandrogenism can provide a plausible mechanism for fetal programing of PCOS, and this, in part, may be genetically determined. Thus, genetic association studies have indicated that common polymorphic variants of genes determining androgen activity or genes that influence the availability of androgens to target tissues are associated with PCOS and increased androgen levels. These genomic variants may provide the genetic link to prenatal androgenization in human PCOS. Prenatal androgenization of the female fetus induced by genetic and environmental factors, or the interaction of both, may program differentiating target tissues toward the development of PCOS phenotype in adult life.

  16. ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2008-12-01

    Scientific studies and clinical experiences have not provided until now the answers to thequestion: »Whom to treat, when, why and for how long should androgens be used for HRTin postmenopausal women?«

  17. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome due to somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rafael Loch; Rodrigues, Andresa De Santi; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Cunha, Flávia Siqueira; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Costa, Elaine M F; Mendonca, Berenice B; Domenice, Sorahia

    2018-01-26

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most frequent etiology of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs), and it is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. AIS patients present a broad phenotypic spectrum and individuals with a partial phenotype present with different degrees of undervirilized external genitalia. There are more than 500 different AR gene allelic variants reported to be linked to AIS, but the presence of somatic mosaicisms has been rarely identified. In the presence of a wild-type AR gene, a significant degree of spontaneous virilization at puberty can be observed, and it could influence the gender assignment, genetic counseling and the clinical and psychological management of these patients and the psychosexual outcomes of these patients are not known. In this study, we report two patients with AR allelic variants in heterozygous (c.382G>T and c.1769-1G>C) causing a partial AIS (PAIS) phenotype. The first patient was raised as female and she had undergone a gonadectomy at puberty. In both patients there was congruency between gender of rearing and gender identity and gender role. Somatic mosaicism is rare in AIS and nonsense AR variant allelic can cause partial AIS phenotype in this situation. Despite the risk of virilization and prenatal androgen exposure, the gender identity and gender role was concordant with sex of rearing in both cases. A better testosterone response can be expected in male individuals and this should be considered in the clinical management.

  18. Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis and Management of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nezzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive androgen receptor disorder characterized by a female phenotype with an XY karyotype. Individuals affected by this syndrome have normal female external genitalia but agenesis of the Müllerian duct derivatives, that is, absence of the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the proximal part of the vagina, with presence of endoabdominal, labial, or inguinal testes. The estimated prevalence is between 1 and 5 in 100,000 genetic males. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome can be diagnosed as a result of mismatch between the prenatal sex prediction and the phenotype at birth, can be detected by chance, or remain undetected until investigations for primary amenorrhea. Imaging can be important both to diagnose the pathology and to localize gonads prior to surgical treatment. In this paper, we present three cases of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in adult women of 34, 22, and 38 years old.

  19. Heart rate variability analysis in sheep affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konold Timm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the autonomic nervous system can be assessed by determining heart rate variability (HRV, which is impaired in some brainstem diseases in humans. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep are diseases characterised by accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in the brainstem, including nuclei of the parasympathetic nervous system. This study was undertaken to assess whether analysis of HRV can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of TSEs in clinically affected, naturally or experimentally infected sheep. Findings When HRV indices were compared between 41 clinical TSE cases (18 sheep infected with scrapie and 23 sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 11 control sheep and six sheep reported as scrapie suspects or dosed with BSE brain homogenate, which were not confirmed as TSE cases by postmortem tests, no significant differences were found between the groups. Median heart rate was significantly different but only when sheep were grouped by gender: it was higher in female TSE cases than in control sheep and higher in female than castrated male ovine classical BSE cases. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful as a diagnostic aid for TSEs of sheep.

  20. Prenatal Androgen Exposure Causes Hypertension and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Shermel; Sarsour, Nadeen; Salehi, Marziyeh; Schroering, Allen; Mell, Blair; Joe, Bina; Hill, Jennifer W

    2018-02-22

    Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hypertension seen in PCOS has early origins in gut dysbiosis caused by in utero exposure to excess androgen. We investigated this hypothesis with a model of prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure and maternal hyperandrogenemia by single-injection of testosterone cypionate or sesame oil vehicle (VEH) to pregnant dams in late gestation. We then completed a gut microbiota and cardiometabolic profile of the adult female offspring. The metabolic assessment revealed that adult PNA rats had increased body weight and increased mRNA expression of adipokines: adipocyte binding protein 2, adiponectin, and leptin in inguinal white adipose tissue. Radiotelemetry analysis revealed hypertension with decreased heart rate in PNA animals. The fecal microbiota profile of PNA animals contained higher relative abundance of bacteria associated with steroid hormone synthesis, Nocardiaceae and Clostridiaceae, and lower abundance of Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium. The PNA animals also had an increased relative abundance of bacteria associated with biosynthesis and elongation of unsaturated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We found that prenatal exposure to excess androgen negatively impacted cardiovascular function by increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing heart rate. Prenatal androgen was also associated with gut microbial dysbiosis and altered abundance of bacteria involved in

  1. Women are fattening their sheep — and their income — with tree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-12

    Feb 12, 2018 ... The results of the work were mainly targeted at female farmers, because sheep ... Based on a survey of farmers from Zan Coulibaly, a rural community in Mali, followed .... Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops.

  2. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  3. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  4. Male patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Philip; Christiansen, Peter; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2012-01-01

    To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.......To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome....

  5. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  6. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  7. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  9. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  10. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  11. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  12. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  13. Urinary androgen concentrations and social status in two species of free ranging zebra (Equus burchelli and E. grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, M; Ginsberg, J R

    1990-01-01

    In both species of zebra, breeding males had higher urinary androgen concentrations (ng androgens/mg Cr) than did non-breeding bachelor males (30.0 +/- 5.0 (N = 9) versus 11.4 +/- 2.8, (N = 7) in the plains zebra; 19.0 +/- 2.2 (N = 17) versus 10.7 +/- 1.2 (N = 14) in the Grevy's zebra). In the more stable family structure of the plains zebra (single male non-territorial groups) variations in androgen concentrations could not be ascribed to any measured variable. In the Grevy's zebra, androgen values were significantly lower in samples taken from territorial (breeding) males which had temporarily abandoned their territories (N = 4) and the urinary androgen concentration for a male on his territory was negatively correlated with the time since females last visited the territory.

  14. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  15. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  16. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    types of forage for two periods in a crossover design. The species included six adult, non-pregnant female Danish Landrace goats, Shropshire sheep, and Lama glama llamas with body weights of 45 ± 5, 75 ± 6, and 135 ± 20 kg (mean ± SD), respectively. Forage included chopped artificially dried grass hay.......05). Sheep and goats had a higher NDF intake per kg BW than did llamas when fed GSS (P ... chewing was higher in sheep than in goats (P goats than in sheep (P goats or sheep (P

  17. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  18. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anway, Matthew D.; Rekow, Stephen S.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8–14 (E8–E14) to 100 mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20 mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin i...

  19. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  20. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  1. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with paratesticular leiomyoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Hyung Woo; Lee, Mi Ja; Lim, Dong Hoon [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder. Patients with AIS may develop primary amenorrhea due to androgen receptor resistance, resulting in a normal female phenotype and male (XY) karyotype. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who was diagnosed with complete AIS. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and no ovaries and uterus. After gonadectomy, the inguinal mass was confirmed as testicular atrophy with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells and paratesticular leiomyoma. Although these tumors have been reported in association with AIS, this is the first case of paratesticular leiomyoma with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells in atrophic testes being reported in Korea.

  2. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with paratesticular leiomyoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Hyung Woo; Lee, Mi Ja; Lim, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder. Patients with AIS may develop primary amenorrhea due to androgen receptor resistance, resulting in a normal female phenotype and male (XY) karyotype. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who was diagnosed with complete AIS. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and no ovaries and uterus. After gonadectomy, the inguinal mass was confirmed as testicular atrophy with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells and paratesticular leiomyoma. Although these tumors have been reported in association with AIS, this is the first case of paratesticular leiomyoma with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells in atrophic testes being reported in Korea

  3. Androgen and androgen metabolite levels in serum and urine of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): comparison of EIA and LC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Mugisha, Lawrence; Hauser, Barbara; Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    The primary male androgen testosterone (T) is often used as an endocrinological marker to investigate androgen-behaviour interactions in males. In chimpanzees and bonobos, studies investigating the relationship between T levels and dominance rank or aggressive behaviour have revealed contradictory results. The immunoassays used in these studies were originally developed for the measurement of steroids in serum. Their application to non-invasively collected samples, however, can lead to methodological problems due to cross-reacting metabolites, which might occur in urine or faeces but not in blood. The overall aim of this study, therefore, is to clarify whether a T enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is an applicable method to monitor testicular function in adult male chimpanzees. To estimate the impact of cross-reacting androgens on the used T EIA, we compared the results of an EIA measurement with a set of androgen metabolite levels measured by LC-MS. In urine from male chimpanzees, cross-reactivities appear to exist mainly with T and its exclusive metabolites, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and 5α-androstanediol (androstanediol). Both urinary and serum T levels of male chimpanzees were significantly higher than female T levels when measured with the T EIA, indicating a reliable measurement of testicular androgens and their exclusive metabolites with the used EIA. In urine from female chimpanzees, the comparison between LC-MS and T EIA results indicated a higher impact of cross-reactions with adrenal androgen metabolites. Therefore, the investigation of urinary T levels in female chimpanzees with a T EIA seems to be problematic. Overall our results show that a T EIA can be a reliable method to monitor testicular function in male chimpanzee urine and that LC-MS is a valuable tool for the validation of immunoassays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  5. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  7. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  8. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  9. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  10. Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohanich, G P; Cada, D A

    1989-12-01

    Androgens have been found to inhibit lordosis activated by estrogen treatment of ovariectomized female rats. In the present experiments, dihydrotestosterone propionate (200 micrograms for 3 days) inhibited the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (1 microgram for 3 days). This inhibition of lordosis was reversed 15 min after bilateral intraventricular infusion of physostigmine (10 micrograms/cannula), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or carbachol (0.5 microgram/cannula), a cholinergic receptor agonist. This reversal of inhibition appears to be mediated by cholinergic muscarinic receptors since pretreatment with scopolamine (4 mg/kg, ip), a muscarinic receptor blocker, prevented the reversal of androgen inhibition by physostigmine. These results indicate that androgens may inhibit estrogen-activated lordosis through interference with central cholinergic muscarinic mechanisms.

  11. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  12. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  13. Adrenal hyperandrogenism is induced by fetal androgen excess in a rhesus monkey model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rao; Bird, Ian M; Dumesic, Daniel A; Abbott, David H

    2005-12-01

    Adrenal androgen excess is found in approximately 25-60% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the mechanisms underlying PCOS-related adrenal androgen excess are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenal androgen excess is manifest in a nonhuman primate model for PCOS. Six prenatally androgenized (PA) and six control female rhesus monkeys of similar age, body weight, and body mass index were studied during d 2-6 of two menstrual cycles or anovulatory 30-d periods. Predexamethasone adrenal steroid levels were assessed in the first cycle (cycle 1). In a subsequent cycle (cycle 2), occurring one to three cycles after cycle 1, adrenal steroids were determined 14.5-16.0 h after an i.m. injection of 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone (postdexamethasone levels) and after an i.v. injection of 50 microg ACTH-(1-39). Both before and after dexamethasone, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in PA females exceeded those in controls. After ACTH injection, PA females exhibited higher circulating levels of DHEA, androstenedione, and corticosterone but comparable levels of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, the sulfoconjugate of DHEA, and testosterone compared with controls. Enhanced basal and ACTH-stimulated adrenal androgen levels in PA female monkeys may reflect up-regulation of 17,20 lyase activity in the adrenal zona reticularis, causing adrenal androgen excess comparable with that found in PCOS women with adrenal androgen excess. These findings open the possibility that PCOS adrenal hyperandrogenism may have its origins in fetal androgen excess reprogramming of adrenocortical function.

  14. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad O. Aldosari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement “feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming.” Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  15. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Fahad O

    2018-01-01

    Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement "feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming." Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  16. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  17. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroepidemiological detection of antibodies against Leptospira spp using microscopic agglutination test in Urmia cows and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the level of incidence, titer and various serovars of leptospira in 203 cows and 166 sheep at Urmia abattoir in 2011. Blood samples were collected during the slaughter of animals and sera were separated to evaluate the serological reaction to Leptospira spp by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT using live antigens representing Leptospira interrogans serogroups: pomona, grippotyphosa, canicola, hardjo, icterrohaemoragiae, and ballum. Overall, 36% of cows and 19.3% of sheep including 33.8% of bulls, 40.5% of female cows, 18.3% of rams and 25% of ewes had a positive reaction to at least one of the leptospira serovars. The most prevalent serovars in cows were pomona (22.7%, grippotyphosa (13.8%, and hardjo (8.4%, and in sheep were grippotyphosa (66.7%, pomona (26.2% and canicola (7.1%. Other serovars were not detected in cows and sheep. The most prevalent serological titers of 1:100 and 1:200 in cows was 18.2% and 26.6%, and for sheep were 13.5% and 8%, respectively, and of 1:400 in sheep was 2.3%. Cows with a positive reaction to one, two and three serovars were 28.6%, 5.9%, and 1.5% and sheep positive to one and two serovars were 13.3% and 6%, respectively. Age comparison in seropositive cows and sheep showed a significantly increased infection (p<0.05 from young to adult ruminants, while no differences were seen regarding gender. The main mixed serovars were between grippotyphosa/pomona, grippotyphosa/canicola and canicola/pomona. The gender comparison of the serovars' distribution revealed that the pomona and grippotyphosa were predominant among other leptospiral serovars in cows and sheep, respectively. In conclusion, the rate of leptospirosis in Urmia cows was about 2 fold in sheep. The most current serovars in cows and sheep were pomona and grippotyphosa, respectively. The majority of animals was infected with one serovar, but polyserovars, are also possible. The highest titer (1:200 was observed in cows

  19. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of androgen receptor functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Steketee (Karine)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are steroid hormones, which are necessary for development and maintenance of the functions of the male sex organs, including the prostate. Androgens also play an important role in benign abnormalities of the prostate and in the

  1. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  2. In vitro variation of glycogen content in three sheep nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premvati, G; Chopra, A K

    1979-06-01

    In vitro variation of glycogen content under aerobic conditions was measured on fresh weight basis in 3 sheep nematodes inhabiting different niches; Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis. The parasites were saparated into species and then sexes and starved for varying periods of time up to 24 h in glucose-free physiological saline. The differences between females and males and among the species with respect to glycogen content and its rate of change with time are discussed.

  3. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  5. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  6. Prenatal androgen excess negatively impacts body fat distribution in a nonhuman primate model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, C M; Baum, S T; Colman, R J; Dumesic, D A; Eisner, J R; Jensen, M D; Whigham, L D; Abbott, D H

    2007-10-01

    Prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkeys share metabolic abnormalities in common with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. Early gestation exposure (E) results in insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic beta-cell function and type 2 diabetes, while late gestation exposure (L) results in supranormal insulin sensitivity that declines with increasing body mass index (BMI). To determine whether PA females have altered body fat distribution. Five early-treated PA (EPA), five late-treated PA (LPA) and five control adult female monkeys underwent somatometrics, dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Five control and five EPA females underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test to assess the relationship between body composition and glucoregulation. There were no differences in age, weight, BMI or somatometrics. LPA females had approximately 20% greater DXA-determined total fat and percent body fat, as well as total and percent abdominal fat than EPA or control females (Pandrogenization in female rhesus monkeys induces adiposity-dependent visceral fat accumulation, and late gestation androgenization causes increased total body and non-visceral fat mass. Early gestation androgenization induces visceral fat-dependent hyperinsulinemia. The relationship between the timing of prenatal androgen exposure and body composition phenotypes in this nonhuman primate model for PCOS may provide insight into the heterogeneity of metabolic defects found in PCOS women.

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of sheep in Sherpur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Rani Poddar

    2017-09-01

    Results: Out of 106 samples, 67.9% (n=72/106 revealed the presence of ova of different helminths. The prevalence of helminth infection was associated with Fasciola gigantica (11.3%; n=12/106, Paramphistomes (13.2%; n=14/106, Schistosoma indicum (3.8%; n=4/106, Moniezia sp. (3.8%; n=4/106, Strongyle-type (24.5%; n=26/106, hook worm (6.6%; n=7/106, Strongyloides sp. (12.3%; n=13/106 and Trichuris sp. (1.9%; n=2/106. Egg count per gram (EPG was calculated which was ranged between 100 and 600. Parasitic counts in lambs, young and adult showed no significant variations (P=0.511 from one other. Infection was significantly (P=0.04 higher in poor body conditioned sheep (76.3 % as contrasted to normal body conditioned sheep (57.4%. No significant variation (P=0.601 was noticed in infection rates between sexes. Females displayed a higher infection (70.0% as compared to males (65.2%. In rearing system, the result was found statistically insignificant (P=0.247. Conclusion: Utterly, GI helminths are endemic at great levels among sheep in the study area. Also, their infestation differs within various age groups, sexes, nutritional condition and rearing system of sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 274-280

  8. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. Heather

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.

  9. 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression Is Induced by Androgen Signaling in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Hashimoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most common female pelvic cancers and has been considered an androgen-related malignancy. Several studies have demonstrated the anti-cell proliferative effect of androgen on endometrial cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer effect of androgen remain largely unclear. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2, which catalyzes the conversion of E2 to E1, is known to be upregulated by androgen treatment in breast cancer cells. In this study, we therefore focused on the role of androgen on estrogen dependence in endometrial cancer. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT was found to induce 17β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression in HEC-1B endometrial cancer cells. DHT could also inhibit cell proliferation of HEC-1B when induced by estradiol treatment. In 19 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEA tissues, intratumoral DHT concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and was found to be significantly correlated with 17β-HSD2 immunohistochemical status. We further examined the correlations between 17β-HSD2 immunoreactivity and clinicopathological parameters in 53 EEA tissues. 17β-HSD2 status was inversely associated with the histological grade, clinical stage, and cell proliferation marker Ki-67, and positively correlated with progesterone receptor expression. 17β-HSD2 status tended to be positively associated with androgen receptor status. In 53 EEA cases, the 17β-HSD2-positive group tended to have better prognosis than that for the negative group with respect to progression-free survival and endometrial cancer-specific survival. These findings suggest that androgen suppresses the estrogen dependence of endometrial cancer through the induction of 17β-HSD2 in endometrial cancer.

  10. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  11. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Pharmacological characterization of an imidazolopyrazole as novel selective androgen receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Lundeen, Scott G; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-03-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are androgens with tissue-selective activity. SARMs that have anabolic activity on muscle while having minimal stimulatory activity on prostate are classified as SARM agonists. They can be used to prevent the loss of lean body mass that is associated with cancer, immunodeficiency, renal disease and aging. They may also have anabolic activity on bone; thus, unlike estrogens, they may reverse the loss of bone strength associated with aging or hypogonadism. Our in-house effort on SARM program discovers a nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligand with a unique imidazolopyrazole moiety in its structure. In vitro, this compound is a weak androgen receptor binder and a weak androgen agonist. Despite this, in orchidectomized mature rats it is an effective SARM agonist, with an ED(50) on levator ani muscle of 3.3mg/kg and an ED(50) on ventral prostate of >30mg/kg. It has its maximal effect on muscle at the dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, this compound has mixed agonistic and antagonistic activities on prostate, reducing the weight of that tissue in intact rats by 22% at 10mg/kg. The compound does not have significant effect on gonadotropin levels or testosterone levels in both orchidectomized and intact male rats. It does not have notable progestin, estrogen or glucocorticoid agonistic or antagonistic activity in rats. In a female sexual behavior model, it improves the sexual desire of ovariectomized female rats for sexually mature intact males over nonsexually ovariectomized females. Overall, the imidazolopyrazole is a potent prostate-sparing candidate for development as a SARM agonist with an appropriate pharmacological profile for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting conditions and female sexual function disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy (IAAT) may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  14. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2004-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  15. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  16. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  17. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  18. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (8 months 31 and 35. Each 4 weeks, individual faeces were collected and individual animals were weighed. Information on the mortality, morbidity, pregnancy, slaughtered and sold was recorded. The results showed that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. were dominant species of nematodes found in the faecal cultured. In the period of monitoring, egg counts of nematodes in sheep were higher (P<0.05 than in goats, however both animals have similar pattern of egg counts. In the first three months, the egg counts remained steady relatively in 3 groups of age, but soon after that the egg counts increased and reached its peak (in March of 6186 eggs in sheep and 3434 in goats, there after they decreased along with the onset of dry season. A part from this, the egg counts increased (P<0.05 three months before lambing and remained steady until 2 months after partus in sheep, but not in goats. During the monitoring period, weight gain in wet season was lower (P<0.05 as compared to dry season. There was no effect of sex on faecal egg count in either sheep or goats although male sheep had higher egg counts than female sheep had in November and January. Evidence of diarrhoeic faeces was higher in wet season than in dry season.

  19. Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwancha, Josephat; Brown, Terry R

    2006-10-01

    The androgen receptor mediates the androgenic and anabolic activity of the endogenous steroids testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Current knowledge of the androgen receptor protein structure, and the molecular mechanisms surrounding the binding properties and activities of agonists and antagonists has led to the design and development of novel nonsteroidal ligands with selected tissue-specific androgen receptor agonist and antagonist activities. The activity of these compounds, termed selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), is directed toward the maintenance or enhancement of anabolic effects on bone and muscle with minimal androgenic effects on prostate growth. SARMs are of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of male hypogonadism, osteoporosis, frailty and muscle wasting, burn injury and would healing, anemia, mood and depression, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

  20. Expression of a hyperactive androgen receptor leads to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Cai, Changmeng; Giwa, Ahmed; Bivins, Aaronica; Chen, Shao-Yong; Sabry, Dina; Govardhan, Kumara; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2008-07-01

    Cellular changes that affect the androgen receptor (AR) can cause prostate cancer to transition from androgen dependent to androgen independent, which is usually lethal. One common change in prostate tumors is overexpression of the AR, which has been shown to lead to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This led us to hypothesize that expression of a hyperactive AR would be sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, stable lune cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell lines were generated, which express a virion phosphoprotein (VP)16-AR hybrid protein that contains full-length AR fused to the strong viral transcriptional activation domain VP16. This fusion protein elicited as much as a 20-fold stronger transcriptional activity than the natural AR. Stable expression of VP16-AR in LNCaP cells yielded androgen-independent cell proliferation, while under the same growth conditions the parental LNCaP cells exhibited only androgen-dependent growth. These results show that expression of a hyperactive AR is sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To study the molecular basis of this enhanced growth, we measured the expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase-alpha1 (sGCalpha1), a subunit of the sGC, an androgen-regulated gene that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, the expression of sGCalpha1 is androgen independent in VP16-AR-expressing cells, in contrast to its androgen-induced expression in control LNCaP cells. RNA(I)-dependent inhibition of sGCalpha1 expression resulted in significantly reduced proliferation of VP16-AR cells, implicating an important role for sGCalpha1 in the androgen-independent growth of these cells.

  1. Alteration in follistatin gene expression detected in prenatally androgenized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Jahromi, Marziyeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Hill, Jennifer W; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2017-06-01

    Impaired ovarian follicle development, the hallmark of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), is believed to be due to the changes in expression of related genes such as follistatin (FST). Expression of FST gene and methylation level of its promoter in theca cells from adult female rats, prenatally exposed to androgen excess, during different phases of the estrus cycle was determined and compared with controls. Eight pregnant Wistar rats (experimental group) were treated by subcutaneous injection of 5 mg free testosterone on day 20 of pregnancy, while controls (n = 8) received 500 ml solvent. Based on observed vaginal smear, adult female offspring of mothers were divided into three groups. Levels of serum steroidogenic sexual hormones and gonadotropins, expression and promoter methylation of the FST gene were measured using ELISA, cyber-green real-time PCR and bisulfite sequence PCR (BSP), respectively. Compared to controls, the relative expression of FST gene in the treated group decreased overall by 0.85 fold; despite significant changes in different phases, but no significant differences in methylation of FST promoter. Our results reveal that manifestation of PCOS-like phenotype following prenatal exposure to excess androgen is associated with irregularity in expression of the FST gene during the estrus cycle.

  2. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  3. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  4. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  6. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  7. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  8. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  9. Three siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-13

    Jan 13, 2013 ... male reference range. A diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome was made, based on this clinical ... Laboratory test. Value Normal ..... scenario, incomplete resistance may lead to virilisation during puberty.24, ...

  10. A Novel Mechanism of Androgen Receptor Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Jr, Charles T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the authors had determined that the androgen receptor controls the expression of the cell-surface receptor for the hormone IGF-1 at the level of translation of the IGF-1 receptor mRNA...

  11. Androgen imprinting of the brain in animal models and humans with intersex disorders: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovszky, Zoltan; Hutson, John M

    2002-11-01

    Psychosexual development, gender assignment and surgical treatment in patients with intersex are controversial issues in the medical literature. Some groups are of the opinion that gender identity and sexual orientation are determined prenatally secondary to the fetal hormonal environment causing irreversible development of the nervous system. We reviewed the evidence in animal and human studies to determine the possible role of early postnatal androgen production in gender development. An extensive literature review was performed of data from animal experiments and human studies. RESULTS Many animal studies show that adding or removing hormonal stimulus in early postnatal life can profoundly alter gender behavior of the adult animal. Human case studies show that late intervention is unable to reverse gender orientation from male to female. Most studies have not permitted testing of whether early gender assignment and treatment as female with suppression/ablation of postnatal androgen production leads to improved concordance of the gender identity and sex of rearing. Animal studies support a role for postnatal androgens in brain/behavior development with human studies neither completely supportive nor antagonistic. Therefore, gender assignment in infants with intersex should be made with the possibility in mind that postnatal testicular hormones at ages 1 to 6 months may affect gender identity. A case-control study is required to test the hypothesis that postnatal androgen exposure may convert ambisexual brain functions to committed male behavior patterns.

  12. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  13. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  14. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  15. Parasitological and Pathological Investigations on Linguatula serrata nymphs in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Sheep In Konya Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Selçuk Aldemir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study was aimed to investigate spread and pathological findings of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs in sheep. A total of 1000 MLNs from 140 sheep (125 male and 15 female were collected from a commercial (Konet abattoir. Fourteen of 140 sheep (10% were infested with nymph stages of L. serrata.Infested lymph nodes were swollen, firm, edematous, many yellowish-white pinpoint and with congestion. In histopathological examinations, these nodules were consist of one or more nymphal stages of L. serrata and these were surrounded by infiltration mononuclear cells and neutrophyl leucocyte. Lymphoid follicules were hyperplastic and sinus catarrh was also observed in medulla.

  16. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamele, Lisa A; Fuxjager, Matthew J; Schuppe, Eric R; Taylor, Rebecca S; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-05-17

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species' multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called "foot flags." Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance.

  17. High androgen levels protect against hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Dahlgren, Eva; Bryman, Inger; Berntorp, Kerstin; Trimpou, Penelope; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder, appearing mainly in women although less frequently found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to test the hypothesis that hyperandrogenism might protect against hypothyroidism. The data from three prospective follow-up studies (up to 21 years) and one register study were compared: women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria), n = 25, women with Turner syndrome, n = 217, a random population sample of women, n = 315, and men, n = 95 (the WHO MONICA study). Findings were to be verified or rejected in all females, n = 553 716, from the same region. The proportion of hypothyroidism was calculated and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) in serum were measured. Hypothyroidism at >50 years of age was found in 8% of women with PCOS, 4% in men (PCOS vs. men; ns), 43% of women with Turner syndrome, irrespective of karyotype (p Hypothyroidism increased with age in all groups except PCOS women and men. In the register study, hypothyroidism was less common in women with PCOS >25 years (5.5%) than in women without PCOS (6.8%) from the same region (p Hypothyroidism was less frequently seen in women with PCOS and in men compared with women in the general population and among women with Turner syndrome. This was not explained by altered autoimmunity or the Y-chromosome. Androgens seem to protect against hypothyroidism. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Androgenic alopecia and dutasteride in hair mesotherapy: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela B Busanello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (AGA is the most common cause of patterned hair loss in predisposed men and women. AGA is a multifactorial and polygenetic condition, affecting up to 80% of men and 40-50% of women during life. AGA is characterized by a gradual reduction of the anagen and increase in telagen phase, leading to a progressive follicle miniaturization. As a consequence, terminal hairs are converted into vellus hairs decreasing hair density. The pathophysiology of AGA is heterogeneous and highly complex. A diverse combination of genetical factors, endocrine abnormalities, circulating androgens, drugs, diet and microinflammation in hair follicles of each individual are related to this condition. However, it is well known that androgens are the major modulators of male AGA but their specific action on female AGA is still under debate. Circulating testosterone is converted by 5a-reductase in 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT in the periphery, a decrease of anagen phase occur, anticipating catagen phase in a complex process involving apoptosis as probably microinflammation. In AGA treatment, mesotherapy is being used with 5a-reductase inhibitors, especially dutasteride, injected directly on scalp. Thus, this updated review summarized the injectable use of dutasteride based on data available on PubMed until March 2017. Dutasteride, a second-generation inhibitor of 5a-reductase is more potent than finasteride due to the capability of inhibit types 1 and 2 of the enzyme. The efficacy and safety of hair mesotherapy with dutasteride were reported by distinct groups and the best results were achieved when this compound was used in combination with other substances, increasing hair growth. This result could be explained by the multifactorial pathophysiology of AGA, involving hair follicle sensitivity to DHT and microinflammation. Therefore, a multi-therapeutic approach seems to be more effective in AGA management. In conclusion, more studies are needed to

  19. Revisiting hyper- and hypo-androgenism by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Flaminia; Gambineri, Alessandra; Mezzullo, Marco; Vicennati, Valentina; Pelusi, Carla; Pasquali, Renato; Pagotto, Uberto

    2013-06-01

    Modern endocrinology is living a critical age of transition as far as laboratory testing and biochemical diagnosis are concerned. Novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for steroid measurement in biological fluids have abundantly demonstrated their analytical superiority over immunometric platforms that until now have dominated the world of steroid hormones determination in clinical laboratories. One of the most useful applications of LC-MS/MS is in the hypogonadism and hyperandrogenism field: LC-MS/MS has proved particularly suitable for the detection of low levels of testosterone typical of women and children, and in general more reliable in accurately determining hypogonadal male levels. This technique also offers increased informative power by allowing multi-analytical profiles that give a more comprehensive picture of the overall hormonal asset. Several LC-MS/MS methods for testosterone have been published in the last decade, some of them included other androgen or more comprehensive steroid profiles. LC-MS/MS offers the concrete possibility of achieving a definitive standardization of testosterone measurements and the generation of widely accepted reference intervals, that will set the basis for a consensus on the diagnostic value of biochemical testing. The present review is aimed at summarizing technological advancements in androgen measurements in serum and saliva. We also provide a picture of the state of advancement of standardization of testosterone assays, of the redefinition of androgen reference intervals by novel assays and of studies using LC-MS/MS for the characterization and diagnosis of female hyperandrogenism and male hypogonadism.

  20. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Nonlabeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2018-01-01

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy, while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast cell and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that six out of 112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of five out of six positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  1. Development to term of sheep embryos reconstructed after inner cell mass/trophoblast exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fulka, Josef; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2018-04-13

    Here we report in vitro and term development of sheep embryos after the inner cell mass (ICM) from one set of sheep blastocysts were injected into the trophoblast vesicles of another set. We also observed successful in vitro development of chimeric blastocysts made from sheep trophoblast vesicles injected with bovine ICM. First, we dissected ICMs from 35 sheep blastocysts using a stainless steel microblade and injected them into 29 re-expanded sheep trophoblastic vesicles. Of the 25 successfully micromanipulated trophoblastic vesicles, 15 (51.7%) re-expanded normally and showed proper ICM integration. The seven most well reconstructed embryos were transferred for development to term. Three ewes receiving manipulated blastocysts were pregnant at day 45 (42.8%), and all delivered normal offspring (singletons, two females and one male, average weight: 3.54 ± 0.358 kg). Next, we monitored in vitro development of sheep trophoblasts injected with bovine ICMs. Of 17 injected trophoblastic vesicles, 10 (58.8%) re-expanded after 4 h in culture, and four (40%) exhibited integrated bovine ICM. Our results indicate that ICM/trophoblast exchange is feasible, allowing full term development with satisfactory lambing rate. Therefore, ICM exchange is a promising approach for endangered species conservation.

  2. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  4. Androgen receptor signals regulate UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in the urinary bladder: a potential mechanism of androgen-induced bladder carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Koji; Zheng, Yichun; Hsu, Jong-Wei; Chang, Chawnshang; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), major phase II drug metabolism enzymes, play an important role in urinary bladder cancer initiation by detoxifying carcinogens. We aimed to determine if androgens regulate UGT expression via the androgen receptor (AR) pathway in the bladder. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to assess UGT1A levels in the normal urothelium SVHUC cell line stably expressed with AR and in bladder tissues from AR knockout (ARKO) and castrated male mice. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in radical cystectomy specimens. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment in SVHUC-AR reduced mRNA expression of all the UGT1A subtypes (19-75% decrease), and hydroxyflutamide antagonized the DHT effects. In contrast, DHT showed only marginal effects on UGT1A expression in SVHUC-Vector. Of note were higher expression levels of UGT1As in SVHUC-Vector than in SVHUC-AR. In ARKO mice, all the Ugt1a subtypes were up-regulated, compared to wild-type littermates. In wild-type male mice, castration increased the expression of Ugt1a8, Ugt1a9, and Ugt1a10. Additionally, wild-type female mice had higher levels of Ugt1a than wild-type males. Immunohistochemical studies showed strong (3+) UGT1A staining in 11/24 (46%) cancer tissues, which was significantly lower than in corresponding benign tissues [17/18 (94%) cases (P = 0.0009)]. These results suggest that androgen-mediated AR signals promote bladder carcinogenesis by down-regulating the expression of UGTs in the bladder. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  6. Androgen receptor drives cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Mirochnik

    Full Text Available The accepted androgen receptor (AR role is to promote proliferation and survival of prostate epithelium and thus prostate cancer progression. While growth-inhibitory, tumor-suppressive AR effects have also been documented, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we for the first time link AR anti-cancer action with cell senescence in vitro and in vivo. First, AR-driven senescence was p53-independent. Instead, AR induced p21, which subsequently reduced ΔN isoform of p63. Second, AR activation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and thereby suppressed Rb phosphorylation. Both pathways were critical for senescence as was proven by p21 and Rb knock-down and by quenching ROS with N-Acetyl cysteine and p63 silencing also mimicked AR-induced senescence. The two pathways engaged in a cross-talk, likely via PML tumor suppressor, whose localization to senescence-associated chromatin foci was increased by AR activation. All these pathways contributed to growth arrest, which resolved in senescence due to concomitant lack of p53 and high mTOR activity. This is the first demonstration of senescence response caused by a nuclear hormone receptor.

  7. Morphological study of Socorro Island Merino sheep and its crosses with hair breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan Augusto; Lepe, Marissa; Macedo, Rafael; Arredondo, Victalina; Cortez, Carlos Eliseo; García, Luis Jorge; Prado, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation. With exception of rump length, body measurements and live weight were significantly greater in males than in females. Sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 78 % heavier than females. Socorro Island Merino sheep were dolichocephalous, elipometric, with a convex curve rump, and with a high and low morphological harmony for females and males, respectively. They had undefined zootechnical aptitude tended toward dairy phenotype as long as crossbreeding with hair breeds did not affect their functional or productive aptitude. It can be concluded that Socorro Island Merino sheep is a new biotype of the Merino breed, which is necessary to preserve and evaluate as a source of genetic characteristics such as adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  8. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  9. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  10. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  11. Identifying Environmental Chemicals as Agonists of the Androgen Receptor by Applying a Quantitative High-throughput Screening Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4) is a nuclear receptor whose main function is acting as a transcription factor regulating gene expression for male sexual development and maintaining accessory sexual organ function. It is also a necessary component of female fertility...

  12. Characteristic findings of cervical Papanicolaou tests from transgender patients on androgen therapy: Challenges in detecting dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B D; Barlow, A B; Jack, A; Schultenover, S J; Desouki, M M; Coogan, A C; Weiss, V L

    2018-02-28

    The characteristic features of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests collected from female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients on androgen therapy have not been well defined in the literature. FTM transgender patients require cervical cancer screening with the same recommended frequency as cis-gender females. Dysplasia remains challenging to differentiate from atrophy. Without pertinent history, the atrophic findings in younger transgender patients can be misinterpreted as high-grade dysplasia. A review of all cervical Pap tests of transgender patients receiving androgen therapy (2010-2017) was performed. Bethesda diagnosis, cytomorphological features, HPV testing and cervical biopsy results were reviewed. Eleven transgender patients receiving androgen therapy were identified with 23 cervical Pap tests, 11 HPV tests and five cervical biopsies performed. A review of the Pap tests demonstrated: 57% negative for intraepithelial lesion; 13% unsatisfactory; 13% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 13% atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; and 4% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The rates of abnormal tests were higher than our age-matched cis-gender atrophic cohort rates of unsatisfactory (0.5%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (7%), atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (0%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.5%). The cytological findings from liquid-based preparations included dispersed and clustered parabasal-type cells, scattered degenerated cells, smooth evenly dispersed chromatin, and occasional mild nuclear enlargement and irregularity. Dysplastic cells had larger nuclei, hyperchromatic clumped chromatin, and more irregular nuclear contours. The evaluation of dysplasia can be challenging on Pap tests from transgender patients on androgen therapy. The cohort evaluated had higher rates of unsatisfactory and abnormal Pap tests

  13. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  14. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  15. Endocrine changes associated with spawning behavior and social stimuli in a wild population of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). II. Females

    OpenAIRE

    Liley, N.R.; Fostier, Alexis; Breton, B.; Tan, E.S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were collected from a natural spawning population at Pennask Lake, B.C. Blood samples taken from female trout at different stages of spawning were assayed by radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin (GtH), estradiol-17 beta (E2), androgens, including testosterone (T), and 17α-hydroxy-20 β-dihydroprogesterone (17,20-P). Plasma levels of androgen and estradiol were highest in females sampled shortly before ovulation (ogreeno females) and declined in ovulated and sexuall...

  16. Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Daniela M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Androgen is a generic term usually applied to describe a group of sex steroid hormones. Androgens are responsible for male sex differentiation during embryogenesis at the sixth or seventh week of gestation, triggering the development of the testes and penis in male fetuses, and are directed by the testicular determining factor: the gene SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome located on the short arm of chromosome Y. The differentiation of male external genitalia (penis, scrotum and penile urethra occurs between the 9th and 13th weeks of pregnancy and requires adequate concentration of testosterone and the conversion of this to another more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, through the action of 5α-reductase in target tissues. Case presentation This report describes the case of a teenage girl presenting with a male karyotype, and aims to determine the extension of the mutation that affected the AR gene. A Caucasian girl aged 15 was referred to our laboratory for genetic testing due to primary amenorrhea. Physical examination, karyotype testing and molecular analysis of the androgen receptor were critical in making the correct diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Conclusions Sex determination and differentiation depend on a cascade of events that begins with the establishment of chromosomal sex at fertilization and ends with sexual maturation at puberty, subsequently leading to fertility. Mutations affecting the AR gene may cause either complete or partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. The case reported here is consistent with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, misdiagnosed at birth, and consequently our patient was raised both socially and educationally as a female. It is critical that health care providers understand the importance of properly diagnosing a newborn manifesting ambiguous genitalia. Furthermore, a child with a pseudohermaphrodite phenotype should always undergo adequate

  17. Discovery and therapeutic promise of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T

    2005-06-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects.

  18. Androgens as therapy for androgen receptor-positive castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous tumor of men in Western countries. While surgery is often successful for organ-confined prostate cancer, androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, this therapy is associated with several undesired side-effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Shortening the period of androgen ablation therapy may benefit prostate cancer patients. Intermittent Androgen Deprivation therapy improves quality of life, reduces toxicity and medical costs, and delays disease progression in some patients. Cell culture and xenograft studies using androgen receptor (AR-positive castration-resistant human prostate cancers cells (LNCaP, ARCaP, and PC-3 cells over-expressing AR suggest that androgens may suppress the growth of AR-rich prostate cancer cells. Androgens cause growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest in these cells by regulating c-Myc, Skp2, and p27Kip via AR. Higher dosages of testosterone cause greater growth inhibition of relapsed tumors. Manipulating androgen/AR signaling may therefore be a potential therapy for AR-positive advanced prostate cancer.

  19. Enhanced Androgen Signaling With Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiren, Kristine M; Jepsen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    .... We genetically engineered transgenic mice in which androgen receptor (AR) overexpression is skeletally targeted in two separate models to better understand the role of androgen signaling directly in bone...

  20. Functional behavior and reproduction in androgenic sex reversed zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mia G; Baatrup, Erik

    2010-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals released into natural watercourses may cause biased sex ratios by sex reversal in fish populations. The present study investigated the androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the androgenic compound 17beta-trenbolone (TB) and whether sex-changed females would revert to the female phenotype after cessation of TB exposure. 17beta-Trenbolone is a metabolite of trenbolone acetate, an anabolic steroid used as a growth promoter in beef cattle. 17beta-Trenbolone in runoff from cattle feedlots may reach concentrations that affect fish sexual development. Zebrafish were exposed to a concentration of 20 ng/L TB in a flow-through system for five months from egg until sexual maturity. This resulted in an all-male population. It was further found that all these phenotypic males displayed normal male courtship behavior and were able to reproduce successfully, implying that the sex reversal was complete and functional. None of the phenotypic males developed into females after six months in clean water, demonstrating that androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish is irreversible. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  1. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  2. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  3. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  4. Pharmacodynamics of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Donghua; Gao, Wenqing; Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Xu, Huiping; Chung, Kiwon; He, Yali; Marhefka, Craig A; Veverka, Karen A; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2003-03-01

    The present study aimed to identify selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with in vivo pharmacological activity. We examined the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of four chiral, nonsteroidal SARMs synthesized in our laboratories. In the in vitro assays, these compounds demonstrated moderate to high androgen receptor (AR) binding affinity, with K(i) values ranging from 4 to 37 nM, and three of the compounds efficaciously stimulated AR-mediated reporter gene expression. The compounds were then administered subcutaneously to castrated rats to appraise their in vivo pharmacological activity. Androgenic activity was evaluated by the ability of these compounds to maintain the weights of prostate and seminal vesicle, whereas levator ani muscle weight was used as a measure of anabolic activity. The maximal response (E(max)) and dose for half-maximal effect (ED(50)) were determined for each compound and compared with that observed for testosterone propionate (TP). Compounds S-1 and S-4 demonstrated in vivo androgenic and anabolic activity, whereas compounds S-2 and S-3 did not. The activities of S-1 and S-4 were tissue-selective in that both compounds stimulated the anabolic organs more than the androgenic organs. These two compounds were less potent and efficacious than TP in androgenic activity, but their anabolic activity was similar to or greater than that of TP. Neither S-1 nor S-4 caused significant luteinizing hormone or follicle stimulating hormone suppression at doses near the ED(50) value. Thus, compounds S-1 and S-4 were identified as SARMs with potent and tissue-selective in vivo pharmacological activity, and represent the first members of a new class of SARMs with selective anabolic effects.

  5. Pure Androgen-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Associated with Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.

  6. Regulation of expression of Na+,K+-ATPase in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen); G.T.G. Chang; M. Steenbeek-Slotboom (M.); W.M. van Weerden (Wytske); H.G. Swarts; J.J.H.H.M. de Pont (J. J H H M); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe β1-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase was isolated and identified as an androgen down-regulated gene. Expression was observed at high levels in androgen-independent as compared to androgen-dependent (responsive) human prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts when grown in the presence of

  7. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  8. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  9. Presence of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Sheep from the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, and less frequently Toxocara cati, whose final hosts are the dog and cat, respectively. It is acquired by the ingestion of embryonated parasite eggs; the ingestion of meat from animals carrying cystic larvae plays a central role in this disease. The study was conducted in Ayapango, Mexico. Ninety-two sheep where used, of which 72 were females and 20 males. The total prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 15.21% (14/92, ranging from 17.24% in the one to six months age group to 14.28% in the group older sheep six months, with a higher percentage in females (19.44% compared to males (5.0%, with a significant difference between positive males and females older than six months of age (Chi-square test = 4.22, P < 0.05. The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in sheep suggests that a high number of animals are infected with Toxocara spp. The consumption of meat from paratenic hosts, including sheep, is considered a means of transmission of toxocariasis to humans.

  10. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michelle; MacLeod, David J; Walker, Marion; Smith, Lee B; Sharpe, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during the MPW +/- postnatal testosterone propionate (TP) treatment. To assess penile growth responsiveness, rats were treated with TP in various time windows (late foetal, neonatal through early puberty, puberty onset, or combinations thereof). Phallus length, weight, and morphology, hypospadias and anogenital distance (AGD) were measured in mid-puberty (d25) or adulthood (d90) in males and females, plus serum testosterone in adult males. MPW flutamide exposure reduced adult penile length and induced hypospadias dose-dependently; this was not rescued by postnatal TP treatment. In normal rats, foetal (e14.5-e21.5) TP exposure did not affect male penis size but increased female clitoral size. In males, TP exposure from postnatal d1-24 or at puberty (d15-24), increased penile length at d25, but not ultimately in adulthood. Foetal + postnatal TP (e14-postnatal d24) increased penile size at d25 but reduced it at d90 (due to reduced endogenous testosterone). In females, this treatment caused the biggest increase in adult clitoral size but, unlike in males, phallus size was unaffected by TP during puberty (d15-24). Postnatal TP treatment advanced penile histology at d25 to more resemble adult histology. AGD strongly correlated with final penis length. It is concluded that adult penile size depends critically on androgen action during the MPW but subsequent growth depends on later androgen exposure. Foetal and/or postnatal TP exposure does not increase adult penile size above its

  11. Role of Androgen Receptor in Growth of Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Charlie

    2003-01-01

    ...) overexpression is the only consistent change in the progression of prostate cancer. In the last grand period, I confirmed by western blot analysis that androgen receptor protein is higher in HR than HS tumors...

  12. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  13. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  14. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  15. Vaccination Against Toxoplasmosis (RH Virulent Strain) by Using Gamma Irradiated Cysts to Protect Sheep from Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.; El Gawish, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Joxoplasma gondii is perhaps the most prevalent parasitic infection of human in the world, although only a limited number of individuals actually become symptomatic from infection. It would be desirable to have a vaccine for the immunization of sheep to prevent abortion because sheep can develop a protective immunity against infection with T. gondii. The present study was designed to produce a vaccine against T. gondii in sheep using an optimum dose of gamma irradiation (0.4 kGy). Twenty seven of female sheep serologi-cally free from T. gondii were divided into three groups, nine for each group. Two groups were injected with the proposed vaccine at dose of 2 ml and 3 ml to stimulate the immune response. The third group was left without immunization and served as control group. The liters of T. gondii antibodies were assayed for eight weeks after immunization by modified agglutination test. After a month of pregnancy, the three groups were challenged with a virulent RH strain of 7| gondii. The results of these study revealed that the immunized groups of sheep with 2 or 3 ml of gamma irradiated cysts of T. gondii gave healthy lambs with normal weight, while the control group suffered from abortion. This work with further investigation is promising for commercial production of vaccine to protect animals from T. gondii infection and consequently prevent the transmission of the disease to human. n addition to humans, T. gondii can infect all mammalian species. It is a major :ause of abortion in domestic livestock making it a major economic concern to igriculture industry. As a result of the hidden nature of toxoplasmosis, many aimers remain unaware of the true cause of the losses they are suffering. Abortions, stillbirths and neonatal mortality occur when susceptible sheep ire infected during pregnancy (Buxton, 1991). Infection of sheep in early ;estation leads to death and re-absorption of the fetus and can be mistaken for nfertility (Johnston, 1988)

  16. PTTG1, A novel androgen responsive gene is required for androgen-induced prostate cancer cell growth and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Jin, Bo; Jin, Yaqiong; Huang, Shengquan; Niu, Xiaohua; Mao, Zebin; Xin, Dianqi

    2017-01-01

    Androgens (AR) play an important role in initiation and progression of prostate cancer. It has been shown that AR exert their effects mainly through the androgen-activated AR which binds to androgen response elements (AREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes to regulate the transcription of androgen-responsive genes, thus, identification of AR downstream target gene is critical to understand androgen function in prostate cancer. In this study, our results showed that androgen treatment of LNCaP cells induced PTTG1 expression, which was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist, Casodex. Bioinformatics analysis and experiments using PTTG1 promoter deletion mutants showed that the PTTG1 promoter contains a putative androgen response element (ARE), which localizes in the −851 to −836 region of the promoter. Androgen activated androgen receptor (AR) binding to this ARE was confirmed by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Furthermore, Knockdown of PTTG1 expression using short hairpin RNA significantly reduced androgen-induced LNCaP cell growth and invasion. In addition, we showed PTTG1 is highly expressed in metastasis prostate cancer tissue. These results suggest that PTTG1 is a novel downstream target gene of androgen receptor and take part in prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. - Highlights: • Androgen treatment of LNCaP cells induced PTTG1 expression. • Knockdown of PTTG1 expression significantly reduced androgen-induced LNCaP cell growth and invasion. • PTTG1 is highly expressed in metastasis prostate cancer tissue. • PTTG1 is a novel downstream target gene of androgen receptor.

  17. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss...... in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. This supports the relevance of the sheep model to the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, making it a relevant preclinical model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research........ Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7months. At 7months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed...

  18. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  19. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  20. Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Wanda V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive prostate cell death. However, cancer cells later appear as androgen-independent PCa. To investigate the role of AR in prostate cell proliferation and survival, we introduced a vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA. This siRNA targeted 5'-untranslated region of AR mRNA for extended suppression of AR expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate LNCaP cells. Results The siRNA design successfully suppressed endogenous AR expression, as revealed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells did not proliferate in the absence of AR and underwent apoptosis, based on elevated phospho-Histone H2B expression and higher number of apoptotic body as compared to control cells. Conclusion We demonstrated that AR is vital for prostate cell proliferation and survival in this androgen-sensitive prostate cell line. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that AR can be a therapeutic target for treating androgen-sensitive stages of PCa. Unlike antiandorgens, however, siRNA targeting AR provides a direct inactivation of AR function through the suppression of AR protein expression.

  1. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  2. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  3. Therapeutic Use of Androgens in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in men, the same is not true for women. Media stories about how testosterone increases libido (sexual desire) ... medications, do have lower androgen levels than healthy women. In addition, despite claims in the popular media that getting testosterone levels checked is “a small ...

  4. The relationship between follicular fluid androgen concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of oligoanovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism in women and characterized by abnormal folliculogenesis. The androgen receptoe ( AR) is present in the ovary in almost all stages of folliculogenesis and has been suggested to play a proliferative role for ...

  5. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Androgen receptor signalling in Vascular Endothelial cells is dispensable for spermatogenesis and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC do not express androgen receptor (AR suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. Findings AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for targeting VE cells. Immunofluorescent detection revealed expression of YFP (and therefore Cre Recombinase function limited to VE cells and an interstitial population of cells, believed to be macrophages, that did not express AR. Mating of Tie2-Cre males to females carrying a floxed AR gene produced Vascular Endothelial Androgen Receptor Knockout (VEARKO mice and littermate controls. Ablation of AR from all VE cells was confirmed; however, no significant differences in bodyweight or reproductive tissue weights could be detected in VEARKO animals and spermatogenesis and fertility was unaffected. Conclusions We demonstrate the successful generation and empirical validation of a cell-specific knockout of AR from VE cells, and conclude that AR expression in VE cells is not essential for spermatogenesis or male fertility.

  7. Gendered Peer Involvement in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Effects of Prenatal Androgens, Gendered Activities, and Gender Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Bryk, Kristina; McHale, Susan

    2018-05-01

    A key question in understanding gender development concerns the origins of sex segregation. Children's tendencies to interact with same-sex others have been hypothesized to result from gender identity and cognitions, behavioral compatibility, and personal characteristics. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to time spent with boys and girls, and how that gendered peer involvement was related to sex-typed activities and gender identity and cognitions. We studied 54 girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure: 40 girls with classical CAH (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical CAH (NC-CAH) exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Home interviews and questionnaires provided assessments of gendered activity interests and participation, gender identity, and gender cognitions. Daily phone calls over 7 days assessed time spent in gendered activities and with peers. Girls with both C-CAH and NC-CAH interacted more with girls than with boys, with no significant group differences. The groups did not differ significantly in gender identity or gender cognitions, but girls with C-CAH spent more time in male-typed activities and less time in female-typed activities than did girls with NC-CAH. Time spent with girls reflected direct effects of gender identity/cognitions and gender-typed activities, and an indirect effect of prenatal androgens (CAH type) through gender-typed activities. Our results extend findings that prenatal androgens differentially affect gendered characteristics and that gendered peer interactions reflect combined effects of behavioral compatibility and feelings and cognitions about gender. The study also shows the value of natural experiments for testing hypotheses about gender development.

  8. Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-04-20

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Sheep and goat production practice in agroforestry systems of Gedio Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamawit Debele

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practice in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone, southern Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and were 5.63, 6.97 and 3.4 in Wenago, Dilla and Kochera sites, respectively. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%. The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3% kids, young flock (9.64% lambs; 13.24% kids and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1% in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; where the major ones are availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Sheep and goats are very important smallholder producers due to their biological factors such as short generation interval, twinning, have short growth periods and do not require much space. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12658 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 296-307

  10. Endogenous retroviruses of sheep: a model system for understanding physiological adaptation to an evolving ruminant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are present in the genome of all vertebrates and are remnants of ancient exogenous retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. Sheep betaretroviruses offer a unique model system to study the complex interaction between retroviruses and their host. The sheep genome contains 27 endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) related to the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer in sheep. The enJSRVs can protect their host against JSRV infection by blocking early and late steps of the JSRV replication cycle. In the female reproductive tract, enJSRVs are specifically expressed in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia as well as in the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) trophectoderm and in utero loss-of-function experiments found the enJSRVs envelope (env) to be essential for conceptus elongation and trophectoderm growth and development. Collectively, available evidence in sheep and other mammals indicate that ERVs coevolved with their hosts for millions of years and were positively selected for biological roles in genome plasticity and evolution, protection of the host against infection of related pathogenic and exogenous retroviruses, and placental development.

  11. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four

  12. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Rekow, Stephen S; Skinner, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8-14 (E8-E14) to 100mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin induced a transgenerational testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm number. In contrast, the flutamide exposures resulted in a testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm numbers in the F1 generation only, and not the F2 and F3 generation adult males. Interestingly, some of the low dose (5mg/kg) flutamide F2 generation offspring developed spinal agenesis and supernummery development (polymelia) of limbs. Although the actions of vinclozolin and flutamide appear similar in the F1 generation males, the transgenerational effects of vinclozolin do not appear to be acting through the same anti-androgenic mechanism as flutamide.

  13. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  14. BA321, a novel carborane analog that binds to androgen and estrogen receptors, acts as a new selective androgen receptor modulator of bone in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Endo, Yasuyuki; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR). We have synthesized BA321, a novel carborane compound, which binds to AR. We found here that it also binds to ERs, ERα and ERβ. In orchidectomized (ORX) mice, femoral bone mass was markedly reduced due to androgen deficiency and BA321 restored bone loss in the male, whilst the decreased weight of seminal vesicle in ORX mice was not recovered by administration of BA321. In female mice, BA321 acts as a pure estrogen agonist, and restored both the loss of bone mass and uterine atrophy due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In bone tissues, the trabecular bone loss occurred in both ORX and OVX mice, and BA321 completely restored the trabecular bone loss in both sexes. Cortical bone loss occurred in ORX mice but not in OVX mice, and BA321 clearly restored cortical bone loss due to androgen deficiency in ORX mice. Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male. - Highlights: • A novel carborane compound BA321 binds to both AR and ERs, ERα and ERβ. • BA321 restores bone loss in orchidectomized mice without effects on sex organ. • BA321 acts as an estrogen agonist in bone and uterus in ovariectomized mice. • BA321 may be a new SARM to prevent the loss of musculoskeletal mass in elder men.

  15. BA321, a novel carborane analog that binds to androgen and estrogen receptors, acts as a new selective androgen receptor modulator of bone in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenta [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Cooperative Major in Advanced Health Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Hirata, Michiko [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tominari, Tsukasa [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Chiho [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Endo, Yasuyuki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1, Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 981-8558 (Japan); Murphy, Gillian [Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cambridge, CB2 0RE (United Kingdom); Nagase, Hideaki [Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FY (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-09

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR). We have synthesized BA321, a novel carborane compound, which binds to AR. We found here that it also binds to ERs, ERα and ERβ. In orchidectomized (ORX) mice, femoral bone mass was markedly reduced due to androgen deficiency and BA321 restored bone loss in the male, whilst the decreased weight of seminal vesicle in ORX mice was not recovered by administration of BA321. In female mice, BA321 acts as a pure estrogen agonist, and restored both the loss of bone mass and uterine atrophy due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In bone tissues, the trabecular bone loss occurred in both ORX and OVX mice, and BA321 completely restored the trabecular bone loss in both sexes. Cortical bone loss occurred in ORX mice but not in OVX mice, and BA321 clearly restored cortical bone loss due to androgen deficiency in ORX mice. Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male. - Highlights: • A novel carborane compound BA321 binds to both AR and ERs, ERα and ERβ. • BA321 restores bone loss in orchidectomized mice without effects on sex organ. • BA321 acts as an estrogen agonist in bone and uterus in ovariectomized mice. • BA321 may be a new SARM to prevent the loss of musculoskeletal mass in elder men.

  16. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N; Berry, Jacqueline L; Clements, Dylan N; Nussey, Daniel H; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-13

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe's fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild.

  17. Genomic prediction of reproduction traits for Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Brown, D J; Swan, A A; van der Werf, J H J; Hayes, B J; Daetwyler, H D

    2017-06-01

    Economically important reproduction traits in sheep, such as number of lambs weaned and litter size, are expressed only in females and later in life after most selection decisions are made, which makes them ideal candidates for genomic selection. Accurate genomic predictions would lead to greater genetic gain for these traits by enabling accurate selection of young rams with high genetic merit. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the accuracy of a genomic prediction method for female reproduction in sheep using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for sires and ewe phenotypes (when individual ewes were genotyped) for three reproduction traits: number of lambs born (NLB), litter size (LSIZE) and number of lambs weaned. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), BayesR and pedigree BLUP analyses of the three reproduction traits measured on 5340 sheep (4503 ewes and 837 sires) with real and imputed genotypes for 510 174 SNPs were performed. The prediction of breeding values using both sire and ewe trait records was validated in Merino sheep. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by across sire family and random cross-validations. Accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) were assessed as the mean Pearson correlation adjusted by the accuracy of the input phenotypes. The addition of sire DTD into the prediction analysis resulted in higher accuracies compared with using only ewe records in genomic predictions or pedigree BLUP. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy based on the combined records (ewes and sire DTD) was 0.43 across traits, but the accuracies varied by trait and type of cross-validations. The accuracies of GEBVs from random cross-validations (range 0.17-0.61) were higher than were those from sire family cross-validations (range 0.00-0.51). The GEBV accuracies of 0.41-0.54 for NLB and LSIZE based on the combined records were amongst the highest in the study. Although BayesR was not significantly different from GBLUP in prediction accuracy

  18. Seroepidemiology and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Dechassa; Kelifa, Amin; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Yohannes, Moti

    2016-12-09

    T.gondii is a global zoonotic disease and is considered as the most neglected tropical disease in sub-Saharan countries. The exact seroepidemiological distribution and risk factors for the infection of food animals and humans in Ethiopia was less studied although, such studies are important. The objective of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 in South west Ethiopia in four selected districts of Jimma zone (n = 368). Slide agglutination test (Toxo-latex) was used to detect anti-T.gondii antibodies. Logistic regression was used to determine potential risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 57.60% (212/368; 95% CI: 52.55-62.6) was detected. 58.18% (148/252; 95% CI: 52.75-64.88) and 55.18% (64/116; 95% CI: 46.13-64.23) sero prevalence was found in sheep and goats respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in adult sheep and goats [(sheep: Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5, confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.23; p = 0.015), (goats: OR = 3.9, confidence interval (CI):1.64-9.41: p = 0.002)] than in young sheep and goats, in female [(sheep: OR = 1.93, CI: 1.11-3.36, p = 0.018, (goats: OR = 2.9, CI: 121-6.93, p = 0.002)] than in males sheep and goats, in Highland [(sheep: OR = 4.57, CI: 1.75-12.66, P = 0.000, (goats: OR = 4.4, CI: 1.75-13.66, p = 0.004)] than sheep and goats from lowland. This study indicates that seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in small ruminants is high, therefore, it is decidedly indispensable to minimize risk factors exposing to the infection like consumption of raw meat as source of infection for humans.

  19. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep

  20. The use of Eucalyptus staigeriana nanoemulsion for control of sheep haemonchosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley L.C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN in small ruminants has been based on the use of alternative methods, including targeted selective treatment, such as FAMACHA. Another GIN control alternative is the use of herbal medicines, although in many cases their use is based on empirical knowledge. Biopolymer nanoformulations has been investigated to maximize the essential oil effects against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of the present study was to combine a Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil nanoemulsion (EsNano with FAMACHA as an alternative control for sheep haemonchosis. The study was performed over six months at a commercial sheep farm located in a semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. Initially, a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in sheep with levamisole, ivermectin and oxfendazole in sheep was performed used to determine the most effective anthelmintic to use as the positive control. Levamisole has been selected because it showed efficacy superior to 95%. EsNano was obtained and then its physicochemical properties were characterized. The average (±SE size of the particles in the nanoemulsion was 276.8 (±12.3 nm with bimodal distribution and polydispersity. Nine visits were performed, from April to September 2013, with an interval of 17 days. One hundred sixty-two male and female sheep were divided into three groups (n=54 each and were treated when FAMACHA score was 3, 4, or 5: G-EsNano 250mg kg-1 EsNano; G-Lev 7.5mg kg-1 levamisole (positive control, and G-Neg was not treated (negative control. Feces from sheep were collected to quantify the number of eggs per gram of feces (epg and to identify nematode genera. Sheep weight gain was monitored. The epg data for each group and the average sheep weight gains were analyzed by variance analysis and compared with the Tukey’s test (P0.05. The epg variation was similar in the G-EsNano and G-Lev groups on visits (P>0.05, except the second and fifth

  1. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

    2012-10-23

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult

  2. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    SIT against L. cuprina in Australia would be similar to that reported for screwworm in Florida, the costs of a SIT campaign were estimated to be several times the potential annual benefits. The discover of meiotic drive (MD) in Drosophila rekindled interest in autocidal control and triggered establishment of the L. cuprina genetics research program in 1966. Subsequent research failed to detect MD systems suitable for genetic control, but by 1970 it was recognised that strains carrying chromosome rearrangements might be more cost-effective than SIT. This led in 1971 to expansion of the genetics and strain development program, and establishment of an ecological research program (quantification of population dynamics). Both programs have been enormously successful. Not only have they enabled the development and successful field testing of a genetic method of suppressing sheep blowfly populations, but they have increased our knowledge of this pest to the stage where a simulation model of genetic control (GENCON), which incorporates both genetic and ecological data, is a valuable tool in strain design, selection of control strategies, and evaluation of field trial data. Comparison using computer simulations, of SIT with female-killing (FK) systems based on sex-linked translocations, suggests that with a suppression and containment strategy, the latter would provide greater benefits for less cost than SIT. Moreover, our projections indicate that large-scale genetic control would be less costly and more effective than the current system based on insecticides and other pest control practices

  3. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Cell Population of the Arcuate Nucleus: Sex Differences and Effects of Prenatal Testosterone in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In ...

  4. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  5. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  6. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  7. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COW AND SHEEP'S BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan Ahmed Elhouri Ahmed; Mubarak Dirar Abdallah2

    2017-01-01

    In this work five samples of (cow and sheep's bones) were prepared to powders in a period of crashing (10 up to 50 sec); weight = 56.73mg To find values of: Refractive index Energy gap And Electrical Conductivity

  8. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  9. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  10. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  11. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  12. Androgen levels in women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction : Associations with cardiometabolic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N. M P; Jaspers, L.; Koster, M. P H; Broekmans, F. J M; De Rijke, Y. B.; Franco, O. H.; Laven, J. S E; Kavousi, M.; Fauser, B. C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are differences in androgen levels among women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities? SUMMARY ANSWER Androgen levels differed substantially between women with and without ovarian dysfunction, and increased androgen levels were

  13. CAG repeat testing of androgen receptor polymorphism: is this necessary for the best clinical management of hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francomano, Davide; Greco, Emanuela A; Lenzi, Andrea; Aversa, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    It is controversial whether or not testing the length of the androgen receptor polymorphism in clinical practice is useful for correct diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism. To describe the molecular and clinical implications of testing the length of the androgen receptor polymorphism for treatment of hypogonadism in both male and female subjects. A systematic Medline search was conducted using several terms related to and including the terms "androgen receptor," "CAG-repeat polymorphism," "male hypogonadism," "female hypogonadism," and "neurodegenerative disease." Clinical evidence that demonstrates the importance of CAG repeat number investigation in male and female hypogonadism. A thorough review of the clinical utility of CAG repeat polymorphism investigation in men and women with hypogonadism is presented. The role of AR CAG repeat number investigation in hypogonadism (male and female) is not yet established in the clinical practice. In both sexes, a role during clinical management of hormonal replacement therapies may be hypothesized, but the CAG repeat number's relationship with the presence or absence of hypogonadal symptoms remains unclear. Pharmacogenomic investigations of the AR polymorphism may be a future option to tailor testosterone titration individually and to better identify subjects as potentially more or less responsive to treatments; also, investigation may be important to individually predict beneficial and side effects in special subpopulations, specifically, obese men and postmenopausal women. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  15. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep managed under traditional husbandry system in Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2008-11-25

    The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) nematodes in different age groups, sexes and breeds (genotypes) of sheep through necropsy and faecal analysis over a period of 2 years in Kashmir valley, India. A total of 1533 sheep were examined [faecal examination: 1035 (year 1: 561, year 2: 474); necropsy: 498 (year 1: 232, year 2: 266)]. Out of these, 945 (61.64%) were found infected [faecal examination: 697 (67.34%, year 1: 390 (69.51%), year 2: 307 (46.99%); necropsy: 248 (49.79%, year 1: 123 (53.01%), year 2: 125 (64.69%)] with GIT nematodes. The over all prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in year 1 was 64.76 and 58.37% in year 2 (P=0.04). The parasites in decreasing order of prevalence (%) in sheep were Haemonchus contortus (59.6); Ostertagia circumcincta (38.0); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (37.7); Chabertia ovina (37.7); Trichostrongylus spp. (33.9); Nematodirus spathiger (29.4); Oesophagostomum columbianum (28.4); Trichuris ovis (23.5) and Marshallagia marshalli (22.1). Season, sex, age, and genotype were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in the present study. The maximum nematode infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P=0.0005). Local Kashmiri breed was less infected as compared to other genotypes (P>0.05). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P>/=0.05). Prevalence was higher in rams (males) than eves (females) (P>0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to the existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT nematodes of small ruminants and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT nematodiasis of sheep reared under the temperate agro-climatic conditions.

  16. The Role of (BETA)-Catenin in Androgen Receptor Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhowmick, Neil A

    2006-01-01

    .... Our preliminary data seem indicate stromally derived paracrine Wnt family members activate theepithelial frizzled receptor to enable prostate epithelial survival in an androgen deficient environment...

  17. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    Background It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic

  18. Cellular androgen content influences enzalutamide agonism of F877L mutant androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel J.; Van Hook, Kathryn; King, Carly J.; Schwartzman, Jacob; Lisac, Robert; Urrutia, Joshua; Sehrawat, Archana; Woodward, Josha; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gulati, Roman; Thomas, George V.; Beer, Tomasz M.; Gleave, Martin; Korkola, James E.; Gao, Lina; Heiser, Laura M.; Alumkal, Joshi J.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and second-most lethal cancer among men in the United States. The vast majority of prostate cancer deaths are due to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) – the lethal form of the disease that has progressed despite therapies that interfere with activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. One emergent resistance mechanism to medical castration is synthesis of intratumoral androgens that activate the AR. This insight led to the development of the AR antagonist enzalutamide. However, resistance to enzalutamide invariably develops, and disease progression is nearly universal. One mechanism of resistance to enzalutamide is an F877L mutation in the AR ligand-binding domain that can convert enzalutamide to an agonist of AR activity. However, mechanisms that contribute to the agonist switch had not been fully clarified, and there were no therapies to block AR F877L. Using cell line models of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we determined that cellular androgen content influences enzalutamide agonism of mutant F877L AR. Further, enzalutamide treatment of AR F877L-expressing cell lines recapitulated the effects of androgen activation of F877L AR or wild-type AR. Because the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ-1 was previously shown to block androgen activation of wild-type AR, we tested JQ-1 in AR F877L-expressing CRPC models. We determined that JQ-1 suppressed androgen or enzalutamide activation of mutant F877L AR and suppressed growth of mutant F877L AR CRPC tumors in vivo, demonstrating a new strategy to treat tumors harboring this mutation. PMID:27276681

  19. Cotargeting of Androgen Synthesis and Androgen Receptor Expression as a Novel Treatment for Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    disease [2-4]. The major mechanism underlying the development of CRPC is the reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR), the driver of prostate cancer ...Epigenetic Activator of Androgen Receptor Expression in Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer . Indiana Basic Urological Research (IBUR) Symposium...principal discipline(s) of the project? Androgen receptor (AR) is the driver of prostate cancer development and progression and is the validated

  20. Context dependent regulatory patterns of the androgen receptor and androgen receptor target genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Jan Roger; Azeem, Waqas; Hellem, Margrete Reime; Marvyin, Kristo; Hua, Yaping; Qu, Yi; Li, Lisha; Lin, Biaoyang; Ke, XI- Song; Øyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl- Henning

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the androgen receptor (AR) is associated with androgen-dependent proliferation arrest and terminal differentiation of normal prostate epithelial cells. Additionally, activation of the AR is required for survival of benign luminal epithelial cells and primary cancer cells, thus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to apoptosis in both benign and cancerous tissue. Escape from ADT is known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In the course of CRPC development the AR typically switches from being a cell-intrinsic inhibitor of normal prostate epithelial cell proliferation to becoming an oncogene that is critical for prostate cancer cell proliferation. A clearer understanding of the context dependent activation of the AR and its target genes is therefore desirable. Immortalized human prostate basal epithelial EP156T cells and progeny cells that underwent epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), primary prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) and prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, VCaP and 22Rv1 were used to examine context dependent restriction and activation of the AR and classical target genes, such as KLK3. Genome-wide gene expression analyses and single cell protein analyses were applied to study the effect of different contexts. A variety of growth conditions were tested and found unable to activate AR expression and transcription of classical androgen-dependent AR target genes, such as KLK3, in prostate epithelial cells with basal cell features or in mesenchymal type prostate cells. The restriction of androgen- and AR-dependent transcription of classical target genes in prostate basal epithelial cells was at the level of AR expression. Exogenous AR expression was sufficient for androgen-dependent transcription of AR target genes in prostate basal epithelial cells, but did not exert a positive feedback on endogenous AR expression. Treatment of basal prostate epithelial cells with inhibitors of epigenetic gene silencing was not efficient in

  1. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  2. Effects of Androgen Blockade on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigaby, James

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine the nature and severity of cognitive impairments experienced by men undergoing continuous androgen deprivation or intermittent androgen deprivation treatment...

  3. Effects of Androgen Blockade on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigsby, James

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine the nature and severity of cognitive impairments experienced by men undergoing continuous androgen deprivation or intermittent androgen deprivation treatment...

  4. Effects of Androgen Blockade on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigsby, James P; Brega, Angela G

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the nature and severity of cognitive impairments experienced by men undergoing continuous androgen deprivation or intermittent androgen deprivation treatment (ADT...

  5. The effect of androgen excess on maternal metabolism, placental function and fetal growth in obese dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Romina; Maliqueo, Manuel; Hu, Min; Hadi, Laila; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M; Ebefors, Kerstin; Nyström, Jenny; Labrie, Fernand; Jansson, Thomas; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-08-14

    Pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight or obese. To study the effects of maternal androgen excess in obese dams on metabolism, placental function and fetal growth, female C57Bl6J mice were fed a control (CD) or a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 4-10 weeks, and then mated. On gestational day (GD) 15.5-17.5, dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (CD-DHT, HF/HS-DHT) or a vehicle (CD-Veh, HF/HS-Veh). HF/HS dams had higher fat content, both before mating and on GD18.5, with no difference in glucose homeostasis, whereas the insulin sensitivity was higher in DHT-exposed dams. Compared to the CD groups, the livers from HF/HS dams weighed more on GD18.5, the triglyceride content was higher, and there was a dysregulation of liver enzymes related to lipogenesis and higher mRNA expression of Fitm1. Fetuses from HF/HS-Veh dams had lower liver triglyceride content and mRNA expression of Srebf1c. Maternal DHT exposure, regardless of diet, decreased fetal liver Pparg mRNA expression and increased placental androgen receptor protein expression. Maternal diet-induced obesity, together with androgen excess, affects maternal and fetal liver function as demonstrated by increased triglyceride content and dysfunctional expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in de novo lipogenesis and fat storage.

  6. The Sheep as a Model of Preclinical Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluations of Candidate Microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Jonathon D. S.; Cameron, David; Dias, Nicola; Holding, Jeremy; Muntendam, Alex; Oostebring, Freddy; Dreier, Peter; Rohan, Lisa; Nuttall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    When developing novel microbicide products for the prevention of HIV infection, the preclinical safety program must evaluate not only the active pharmaceutical ingredient but also the product itself. To that end, we applied several relatively standard toxicology study methodologies to female sheep, incorporating an assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and local toxicity of a dapivirine-containing human vaginal ring formulation (Dapivirine Vaginal Ring-004). We performed a...

  7. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition alter thyroid hormone axis function in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Lærke; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2013-01-01

    the lambs were slaughtered. Remaining sheep (exclusively females) were fed the same moderate diet until 2-years of age (young adults). At 6-months and 2-years of age fasting challenges were conducted and target tissues were collected at autopsy. LG-UN caused adult hyperthyroidism associated with increased...... signaling in adipose versus other tissues may be part of a mechanism whereby fetal malnutrition can predispose for obesity and other metabolic disorders....

  8. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  9. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  10. The PPARγ ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V.

    2010-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPARγ ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPARγ ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPARγ. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPARγ and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  11. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  12. Sex hormones and female homosexuality: a critical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F

    1979-03-01

    To ascertain the validity of hormonal theories of human homosexuality, which are based on animal research, this article reviews psychoendocrine data on lesbian and transsexual women. Sex hormone levels were found to be normal in the majority of homosexual women, but about a third of the subjects studied had elevated androgen levels. In women with prenatal androgen excess, heterosexuality appears to be more frequent than bisexuality, and exclusive homosexuality is rare. Two recent reports suggest abnormalities of the neuroendocrine regulation of LH secretion in female transsexuals. Clearly, prenatal or postpubertal hormone levels do not determine the development of sexual orientation, but a facilitating neuroendocrine predisposition cannot be ruled out at present.

  13. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  14. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  15. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  16. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Maria; Fornes, Romina; Qi, Xiaojuan; Folmerz, Elin; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2018-03-22

    Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hyperandrogenism, is suggested to increase anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Because PCOS is closely linked to obesity, we investigated the impact of an adverse hormonal or metabolic maternal environment and offspring obesity on anxiety in the offspring. The obese PCOS phenotype was induced by chronic high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) consumption together with prenatal dihydrotestosterone exposure in mouse dams. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in adult offspring with the elevated-plus maze and open-field tests. The influence of maternal androgens and maternal and offspring diet on genes implicated in anxiety were analyzed in the amygdala and hypothalamus with real-time PCR ( n = 47). Independent of diet, female offspring exposed to maternal androgens were more anxious and displayed up-regulation of adrenoceptor α 1B in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone ( Crh). By contrast, male offspring exposed to a HFHS maternal diet had increased anxiety-like behavior and showed up-regulation of epigenetic markers in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic Crh. Overall, there were substantial sex differences in gene expression in the brain. These findings provide novel insight into how maternal androgens and obesity exert sex-specific effects on behavior and gene expression in the offspring of a PCOS mouse model.-Manti, M., Fornes, R., Qi, X., Folmerz, E., Lindén Hirschberg, A., de Castro Barbosa, T., Maliqueo, M., Benrick, A., Stener-Victorin, E. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

  17. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  18. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FLRecent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  20. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  1. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    resistant prostate cancer ; docetaxel; cabazitaxel; chemotherapy; androgen receptor splice variants; microtubule; ligand-binding domain; microtubule... receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) are associated with resistance to taxane chemotherapy in castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, this...androgen receptor inhibitors in prostate cancer . Nat Rev Cancer . 2015;15:701–11.

  2. Illicit use of androgens and other hormones: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-06-01

    To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Androgens and other appearance-enhancing and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, and clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public health concern.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  4. Opportunities for detection and use of QTL influencing seasonal reproduction in sheep: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notter David R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.

  5. A simple chromatographic method for the radioimmunoassay of four androgenic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Small Sephadex LH-20 columns were used to separate testosterone (T), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Δ 4 -androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) present in serum prior to radioimmunoassay, to remove cross reacting steroids. The column successfully separated all major cross reactants and, where steroids overlapped, cross reactivity with the specific antiserum was low. The technique is simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible and inexpensive. Serum concentrations of these androgenic steroids in normal males and females were measured and were found to be comparable to previously published results. In hypogonadism, concentrations of testosterone in the male serum were significantly lower than in normal males. (UK)

  6. New perspectives on Mars and Venus: unravelling the role of androgens in gender differences in cardiovascular biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Martin K C

    2007-06-01

    There are substantial gender differences in the pattern, severity and clinical outcomes of coronary heart disease independent of environmental risk factor exposure. As a consequence, there has been considerable interest in the potential role of sex hormones in atherogenesis, particularly the potential protective effects of oestrogen. However, the failure of the recent clinical randomised trials to show a cardioprotective effect for oestrogen coupled with a growing interest in androgen replacement therapy in elderly men has refocused interest on the role of androgens in cardiovascular biology and disease. Over the last decade, compelling evidence has emerged that sex differences in vascular biology are not only determined by gender-related differences in sex steroid levels but also by gender-specific tissue and cellular characteristics which mediate sex-specific responses to a variety of stimuli. In the vasculature, androgens often act in a gender-specific manner, with differential effects in male and female cells. This gender-dependent regulation may have important implications for understanding the basis of the gender gap in atherosclerosis and may eventually lead to the development of sex-specific treatments for cardiovascular disease. This review will summarise the current data for the role of androgens in gender differences in coronary heart disease and cardiovascular biology.

  7. The sexually dimorphic adipose fin is an androgen target tissue in the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisar, Olcay; Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Hisar, Şükriye Aras; Budak, Harun; Gültepe, Nejdet

    2013-04-01

    An investigation has been described on the relationship of body length, age and sex with adipose fin length and the number of androgen receptor (AR)-containing cells in the adipose fin as a secondary sexual characteristic for brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Firstly, body and adipose fin lengths of 2- to 5-year-old brown trout were measured. Thereafter, these fish were killed by decapitation, then their sexes were determined, and adipose fins were excised. The cellular bases of AR binding activities in the adipose fins were analyzed with an antibody against human/rat AR peptide. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting techniques were performed with this antibody. Analysis of morphological measurements indicated that body length and age had a linear relationship with adipose fin length. The coefficients of determination for the body length and age were 0.92 and 0.85 in the male fish and 0.76 and 0.73 in the female fish against the adipose fin length, respectively. At 2 years of age, cells in the adipose fin did not exhibit AR immunoreactivity. However, AR-immunopositive cells were abundant in the adipose fin of 3- to 5-year-old fish. Moreover, the number of AR-immunopositive cells was significantly (P brown trout is a probable target for androgen action and that tissue function or development may to some extent be androgen dependent. In addition, it is likely that such an effect will be mediated by specific androgen receptors.

  8. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  9. Vinclozolin--no transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects after maternal exposure during organogenesis via the intraperitoneal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steffen; Marxfeld, Heike; Gröters, Sibylle; Buesen, Roland; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the potential transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects induced by Vinclozolin administered intraperitoneally to pregnant Wistar rats (Crl:WI[Han]). Dams were dosed with Vinclozolin at 0, 4 or 100mg/kg bw/d on gestation days 6-15. Male offspring of F1-F3 generations were bred with untreated females to yield F2-F4 offspring. No evident anti-androgenic effects were observed at 4mg/kg bw/d, but a case of hypospadias as well as delayed sexual maturation in F1 male offspring was observed as a sign of anti-androgenicity at 100mg/kg bw/d. However, F1-F3 males developed normally to sexual maturity and were able to mate and to generate healthy progeny. Sperm count, morphology and motility were not affected in F1-F4 generation male offspring. In conclusion, transgenerational inheritance of Vinclozolin's anti-androgenic effects was not evident in outbred Wistar rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Androgen receptor-related diseases: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, G C; Plaga, A R; Shankar, E; Gupta, S

    2016-05-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the androgen-AR signaling pathway play a significant role in male sexual differentiation and the development and function of male reproductive and non-reproductive organs. Because of AR's widely varied and important roles, its abnormalities have been identified in various diseases such as androgen insensitivity syndrome, spinal bulbar muscular atrophy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. This review provides an overview of the function of androgens and androgen-AR mediated diseases. In addition, the diseases delineated above are discussed with respect to their association with mutations and other post-transcriptional modifications in the AR. Finally, we present an introduction to the potential therapeutic application of most recent pharmaceuticals including miRNAs in prostate cancer that specifically target the transactivation function of the AR at post-transcriptional stages. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Targets to treat androgen excess in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common androgen disorder in reproductive-aged women. Excessive biosynthesis and secretion of androgens by steroidogenic tissues is its central pathogenetic mechanism. The authors review the potential targets and new drugs to treat androgen excess in PCOS. Besides our lab's experience, a systematic search (MEDLINE, Cochrane library, ClinicalTriasl.gov, EU Clinical Trials Register and hand-searching) regarding observational studies, randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and patents about this topic was performed. PCOS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is unlikely that a single drug would cover all its possible manifestations. Available treatments for androgen excess are not free of side effects that are of particular concern in these women who suffer from cardiometabolic risk even without treatment. A precise characterization of the source of androgen excess must tailor antiandrogenic management in each woman, avoiding undesirable side effects.

  12. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  13. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  14. Myocardial infarction, androgen and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, M M; Meyrick, G; Jeans, W D; Murphy, D; Burton, J L

    1978-01-01

    Various indices of masculinity were compared in 48 men who had recovered from myocardial infarction and in their age-matched controls. We found little evidence to support the idea that myocardial infarction is related to increased androgenic stimulation. The patients with myocardial infarction had no increase in plasma testosterone, muscle thickness, sebum excretion rate, maximal sweat secretion rate, male pattern alopecia or density of terminal body hair, but as a group they had a slight increase in skin and bone thickness compared with the controls.

  15. Embodied masculinity and androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the findings from an ethnographic study of 16 Anglo-Australian men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced prostate cancer. Utilising a social constructionist gendered analysis, participants' experiences, particularly in relation to embodied masculinity, are described in the context of reduced testosterone that accompany ADT. The findings indicated that participants reformulated many ideals of hegemonic masculinity in response to functional body changes. However, hegemonic masculinity strongly influenced participants' philosophical resolve to "fight" prostate cancer. The findings are considered in broader ongoing debates about essentialist sex and the social construction of gender.

  16. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  17. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  18. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  19. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  20. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  1. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  2. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  3. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  4. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  5. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  6. ENERGY AND PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING PELIBUEY SHEEP UNDER TROPICAL CONDITIONS ESTIMATED FROM A LITERATURE DATABASE ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from previous studies were used to estimate the metabolizable energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth and basal metabolism energy requirement of male Pelibuey sheep under tropical conditions were estimated. In addition, empty body weight and mature weight of males and female Pelibuey sheep were also estimated. Basal metabolism energy requirements were estimated with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System – Sheep (CNCPS-S model using the a1 factor of the maintenance equation. Mature weight was estimated to be 69 kg for males and 45 kg for females. Empty body weight was estimated to be 81% of live weight. Metabolizable energy and protein requirements for growth were 0.106 Mcal MEm/kg LW0.75 and 2.4 g MP/kg LW0.75 for males. The collected information did not allowed appropriate estimation of female requirements. The basal metabolism energy requirement was estimated to be 0.039 Mcal MEm/kg LW0.75. Energy requirements for basal metabolism were lower in Pelibuey sheep than those reported for wool breeds even though their total requirements were similar.

  7. Prenatal and adult androgen activities in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, B; Mühle, C; Braun, B; Weinland, C; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Behrens, J; Kubis, S; Mikolaiczik, K; Muschler, M-R; Saigali, S; Sibach, M; Tanovska, P; Huber, S E; Hoppe, U; Eichler, A; Heinrich, H; Moll, G H; Engel, A; Goecke, T W; Beckmann, M W; Fasching, P A; Müller, C P; Kornhuber, J

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is more prevalent in men than in women. The evidence for how prenatal and adult androgens influence alcohol dependence is limited. We investigated the effects of prenatal and adult androgen activity on alcohol dependence. Moreover, we studied how the behaviours of pregnant women affect their children's prenatal androgen load. We quantified prenatal androgen markers (e.g., second-to-fourth finger length ratio [2D : 4D]) and blood androgens in 200 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients and 240 controls (2013-2015, including a 12-month follow-up). We also surveyed 134 women during pregnancy (2005-2007) and measured the 2D : 4D of their children (2013-2016). The prenatal androgen loads were higher in the male alcohol-dependent patients compared to the controls (lower 2D : 4D, P = 0.004) and correlated positively with the patients' liver transaminase activities (P alcohol withdrawal severity (P = 0.019). Higher prenatal androgen loads and increasing androgen levels during withdrawal predicted earlier and more frequent 12-month hospital readmission in alcohol-dependent patients (P alcohol (P = 0.010) and tobacco consumption (P = 0.017), and lifetime stressors (P = 0.019) of women during pregnancy related positively to their children's prenatal androgen loads (lower 2D : 4D). Androgen activities in alcohol-dependent patients and behaviours of pregnant women represent novel preventive and therapeutic targets of alcohol dependence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Androgens and Hypertension in Men and Women: a Unifying View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Costanzo; Lanzolla, Giulia; Moretti, Marta; Gnessi, Lucio; Carmina, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    This review was designed to revaluate the androgen role on the mechanisms of hypertension and cardiovascular risks in both men and women. Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but pathophysiological mechanism is not well understood. Androgens have an important effect on metabolism, adipose and endothelial cell function, and cardiovascular risk in both men and women. A focal point in this contest is represented by the possible gender-specific regulation of different tissues and in particular of the adipose cell. Available data confirm that androgen deficiency is linked to increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Adipocyte dysfunction seems to be the main involved mechanism. Androgen replacement reduces inflammation state in man, protecting by metabolic syndrome progression. In women, androgen excess has been considered as promoting factor of cardiovascular risk. However, recent data suggest that excessive androgen production has little effect per se in inducing hypertension in young women of reproductive age. Also in postmenopausal women, data on relative androgen excess and hypertension are missing, while adrenal androgen deficiency has been associated to increased mortality. Molecular mechanisms linking androgen dysregulation to hypertension are almost Unknown, but they seem to be related to increased visceral fat, promoting a chronic inflammatory state through different mechanisms. One of these may involve the recruitment and over-activation of NF-kB, a ubiquitous transcription factor also expressed in adipose cells, where it may cause the production of cytokines and other immune factors. The NF-kB signalling pathway may also influence brown adipogenesis leading to the preferential enlargement of visceral adipocytes. Chronic inflammation and adipocyte dysfunction may alter endothelial function leading to hypertension. Both in men and in women, particularly in the post-menopausal period, hypoandrogenism seems to be

  9. The long-term outcome of boys with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and a mutation in the androgen receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas-Herald, A.; S. Bertelloni (Silvano); A. Juul (Anders); J. Bryce (Jillian); Jiang, J.; M. Rodie (Martina); R. Sinnott (Richard); Boroujerdi, M.; Lindhardt Johansen, M.; O. Hiort (Olaf); P-M. Holterhus (Paul-Martin); M.L. Cools (Martine); Guaragna-Filho, G.; Guerra-Junior, G.; N. Weintrob (Naomi); S.E. Hannema (Sabine); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); T. Guran (Tulay); F. Darendeliler (Feyza); A. Nordenström (Anna); I.A. Hughes (Ieuan A.); Acerini, C.; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, R.; S.F. Ahmed (Faisal)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In boys with suspected partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), systematic evidence that supports the long-term prognostic value of identifying a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is lacking. Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and long-term

  10. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Franchini, M; Banfi, G

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) are chemical and pharmacological derivatives of the male hormone testosterone which are widely used for increasing burst and sprinting activities in sports. Although AASs are thought to be transversal to the plurality of sports disciplines, they are principally misused by bodybuilders, weightlifters, shot, hammer, discus or javelin throwers, rugby and American football players as well as by swimmers and runners. AAS exert a kaleidoscope of effects on human biology, principally through the 5-α-reductase-mediated conversion into dihydrotestosterone, the aromatase-mediated conversion into female sex hormones, a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors, the potential stimulation of erythropoietin secretion as well as psychoactive effects on the brain. The influence of AASs on physical performance is still undefined, since the large number of studies published so far have described discordant and often contradictory outcomes. Nevertheless, animal and human investigations support the hypothesis that the administration of AASs might increase lean body mass, muscle mass, and maximal voluntary strength especially in men, so that they would represent an appealing form of doping for increasing power capacity, sustaining intensive training periods and, last but not least, as a cosmetic muscle makeover. The aim of this article is to review the biochemistry, physiology and the ergogenic effects of AASs.

  11. Maintaining intimacy for prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) causes erectile dysfunction and increases patients' emotionality while diminishing their sexual interest. ADT has been linked to erosion of spousal bonds; however, this is not an invariant outcome. Understanding the factors that lead to these various outcomes may help couples deal with ADT. A subset of couples report that they became closer as a result of the patients going on ADT. Recent data suggest that what helps couples most is preemptive awareness of ADT's side-effects and congruence in how patients and their partners understand and accept the psychosexual impact of ADT. Sex therapy for prostate cancer patients divides along gendered lines, with distinctly 'male' (recovery of erections) and 'female' (promoting sexual practices that are not erection dependent) approaches. Unfortunately, neither is very effective for couples when the patient is on ADT. Options beyond the standard gendered framework, such as use of an external penile prosthesis, may be worth offering to ADT patients trying to find a 'new normal' that is sexually rewarding for them. Intimacy is sharing something with someone that one shares with no one else. Exploring novel sexual practices can help couples stay intimate, even when the patient is on ADT.

  12. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...... osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. METHODS: Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC......-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium...

  13. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in Dall's sheep and the negative association of the abomasal nematode, Marshallagia marshalli, with fitness indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleuy, O Alejadro; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Hoberg, Eric P; Veitch, Alasdair; Simmons, Norman; Kutz, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths can have a detrimental effect on the fitness of wild ungulates. Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are ideal for the study of host-parasite interactions due to the comparatively simple ecological interactions and limited confounding factors. We used a unique dataset assembled in the early seventies to study the diversity of gastrointestinal helminths and their effect on fitness indicators of Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Parasite diversity included nine species, among which the abomasal nematode Marshallagia marshalli occurred with the highest prevalence and infection intensity. The intensity of M. marshalli increased with age and was negatively associated with body condition and pregnancy status in Dall's sheep across all the analyses performed. The intensity of the intestinal whipworm, Trichuris schumakovitschi, decreased with age. No other parasites were significantly associated with age, body condition, or pregnancy. Our study suggests that M. marshalli might negatively influence fitness of adult female Dall's sheep.

  14. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unraveling the Complexities of Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Heemers, Hannelore V.; Tindall, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Androgen signaling is critical for proliferation of prostate cancer cells but cannot be fully inhibited by current androgen deprivation therapies. A study by Xu et al. in this issue of Cancer Cell provides insights into the complexities of androgen signaling in prostate cancer and suggests avenues to target a subset of androgen-sensitive genes.

  16. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  17. Androgens and estrogens in skeletal sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Laurent

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an endocrine tissue expressing androgen and estrogen receptors as well as steroid metabolizing enzymes. The bioactivity of circulating sex steroids is modulated by sex hormone-binding globulin and local conversion in bone tissue, for example, from testosterone (T to estradiol (E2 by aromatase, or to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-reductase enzymes. Our understanding of the structural basis for gender differences in bone strength has advanced considerably over recent years due to increasing use of (high resolution peripheral computed tomography. These microarchitectural insights form the basis to understand sex steroid influences on male peak bone mass and turnover in cortical vs trabecular bone. Recent studies using Cre/LoxP technology have further refi ned our mechanistic insights from global knockout mice into the direct contributions of sex steroids and their respective nuclear receptors in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and other cells to male osteoporosis. At the same time, these studies have reinforced the notion that androgen and estrogen defi ciency have both direct and pleiotropic effects via interaction with, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1, inflammation, oxidative stress, central nervous system control of bone metabolism, adaptation to mechanical loading, etc., This review will summarize recent advances on these issues in the fi eld of sex steroid actions in male bone homeostasis.

  18. Androgens and estrogens in skeletal sexual dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël; Antonio, Leen; Sinnesael, Mieke; Dubois, Vanessa; Gielen, Evelien; Classens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Bone is an endocrine tissue expressing androgen and estrogen receptors as well as steroid metabolizing enzymes. The bioactivity of circulating sex steroids is modulated by sex hormone-binding globulin and local conversion in bone tissue, for example, from testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2) by aromatase, or to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-reductase enzymes. Our understanding of the structural basis for gender differences in bone strength has advanced considerably over recent years due to increasing use of (high resolution) peripheral computed tomography. These microarchitectural insights form the basis to understand sex steroid influences on male peak bone mass and turnover in cortical vs trabecular bone. Recent studies using Cre/LoxP technology have further refined our mechanistic insights from global knockout mice into the direct contributions of sex steroids and their respective nuclear receptors in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and other cells to male osteoporosis. At the same time, these studies have reinforced the notion that androgen and estrogen deficiency have both direct and pleiotropic effects via interaction with, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1, inflammation, oxidative stress, central nervous system control of bone metabolism, adaptation to mechanical loading, etc., This review will summarize recent advances on these issues in the field of sex steroid actions in male bone homeostasis. PMID:24385015

  19. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Metabolomics for informing adverse outcome pathways: Androgen receptor activation and the pharmaceutical spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Ekman, D.R.; Skelton, D.M.; LaLone, C.A.; Ankley, G.T.; Cavallin, J.E.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Collette, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics identified potential key events in an androgen receptor activation AOP. • Metabolomics indicate spironolactone may elicit effects via multiple nuclear receptors. • Spironolactone exposure may elicit interactive effects in multi-stressor environments. - Abstract: One objective in developing adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) is to connect biological changes that are relevant to risk assessors (i.e., fecundity) to molecular and cellular-level alterations that might be detectable at earlier stages of a chemical exposure. Here, we examined biochemical responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to inform an AOP relevant to spironolactone’s activation of the androgen receptor, as well as explore other biological impacts possibly unrelated to this receptor. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to measure changes in endogenous polar metabolites in livers of male and female fish that were exposed to five water concentrations of spironolactone (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 μg L"−"1) for 21 days. Metabolite profiles were affected at the two highest concentrations (5 and 50 μg L"−"1), but not in the lower-level exposures, which agreed with earlier reported results of reduced female fecundity and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. We then applied partial least squares regression to assess whether metabolite alterations covaried with changes in fecundity, VTG gene expression and protein concentrations, and plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Metabolite profiles significantly covaried with all measured endpoints in females, but only with plasma testosterone in males. Fecundity reductions occurred in parallel with changes in metabolites important in osmoregulation (e.g., betaine), membrane transport (e.g., L-carnitine), and biosynthesis of carnitine (e.g., methionine) and VTG (e.g., glutamate). Based on a network analysis program (i.e., mummichog), spironolactone also affected

  1. Conditional Expression of the Androgen Receptor Increases Susceptibility of Bladder Cancer in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Johnson

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN. We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development.

  2. Metabolomics for informing adverse outcome pathways: Androgen receptor activation and the pharmaceutical spironolactone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M., E-mail: davis.john@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Ekman, D.R., E-mail: ekman.drew@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Skelton, D.M. [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); LaLone, C.A.; Ankley, G.T.; Cavallin, J.E.; Villeneuve, D.L. [U.S. EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Collette, T.W. [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics identified potential key events in an androgen receptor activation AOP. • Metabolomics indicate spironolactone may elicit effects via multiple nuclear receptors. • Spironolactone exposure may elicit interactive effects in multi-stressor environments. - Abstract: One objective in developing adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) is to connect biological changes that are relevant to risk assessors (i.e., fecundity) to molecular and cellular-level alterations that might be detectable at earlier stages of a chemical exposure. Here, we examined biochemical responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to inform an AOP relevant to spironolactone’s activation of the androgen receptor, as well as explore other biological impacts possibly unrelated to this receptor. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to measure changes in endogenous polar metabolites in livers of male and female fish that were exposed to five water concentrations of spironolactone (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 μg L{sup −1}) for 21 days. Metabolite profiles were affected at the two highest concentrations (5 and 50 μg L{sup −1}), but not in the lower-level exposures, which agreed with earlier reported results of reduced female fecundity and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. We then applied partial least squares regression to assess whether metabolite alterations covaried with changes in fecundity, VTG gene expression and protein concentrations, and plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Metabolite profiles significantly covaried with all measured endpoints in females, but only with plasma testosterone in males. Fecundity reductions occurred in parallel with changes in metabolites important in osmoregulation (e.g., betaine), membrane transport (e.g., L-carnitine), and biosynthesis of carnitine (e.g., methionine) and VTG (e.g., glutamate). Based on a network analysis program (i.e., mummichog), spironolactone also

  3. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  4. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of detomidine constant rate infusion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Rauane Sousa; Bittar, Isabela Plazza; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Villela, Ana Carolina Vasquez; Dos Santos Júnior, Marcelo Borges; Borges, Naida Cristina; Franco, Leandro Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    The use of sheep in experiments is widespread and is increasing worldwide, and so is the need to develop species-specific anaesthetic techniques to ensure animal safety. Previous studies have mentioned several protocols involving the administration of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists in sheep; however, assessment of the efficacy and safety of these infusion techniques is still relatively new. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) in sheep by measuring the cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas variables and sedation scores. Eight adult female Santa Inês sheep received 20 µg/kg of detomidine hydrochloride intravenously as a bolus loading dose, followed by an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h. The heart rates and respiratory rates changed continuously during the CRI period. No arrhythmias were observed. The reduction in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) was not significant, but one animal showed signs of hypoxaemia (minimum PaO 2 of 66.9 mmHg). The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) increased, but the animals did not become hypercapnic. The bicarbonate (HCO 3- ), pH and base excess (BE) tended towards metabolic alkalosis. The cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI) and ejection fraction (EF%) showed no significant changes. The fractional shortening (FS%) decreased slightly, starting at T 45min . Sedation scores varied between 3 (0/10) after sedation and during recovery and 7 (0/10) during CRI. We concluded that administering detomidine at an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h in Santa Inês sheep is a simple technique that produces satisfactory sedation for minimally invasive procedures.

  5. Androgenic alopecia; the risk–benefit ratio of Finasteride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rowland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is currently approved and largely used as a therapeutic option for androgenetic alopecia. Apparently a safe drug and effective at the onset, several concerns appeared over time regarding the frequency and magnitude of finasteride adverse effects, which in some cases seem to be even irreversible. This paper presents administration of finasteride in androgenic alopecia from two distinct perspectives. On one hand, androgenic alopecia is a condition that affects especially the self-image and esteem, aspects that are subjective, namely changeable and thus relative. On the other hand, this condition presents a multifactorial etiology, androgens being only in part involved. In addition, androgens have their own physiological roles within the body, so that any androgenic suppression should be carefully advised. Yet, adverse effects induced by Finasteride are only in part documented and treatable. Finally, alternative therapeutic approaches (like topical finasteride become available, so that the oral administration of Finasteride for androgenic alopecia should be in our opinion reevaluated. As a conclusion, a very detailed and informed discussion should take place with such patients accepting to start a therapy with finasteride for androgenic alopecia.

  6. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  7. Neural androgen receptors modulate gene expression and social recognition but not social investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Karlsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of sex and androgen receptors (ARs for social preference and social memory is rather unknown. In this study of mice we compared males, females and males lacking ARs specifically in the nervous system, ARNesDel, with respect to social preference, assessed with the three-chambered apparatus test, and social recognition, assessed with the social discrimination procedure. In the social discrimination test we also evaluated the tentative importance of the sex of the stimulus animal. Novel object recognition and olfaction were investigated to complement the results from the social tests. Gene expression analysis was performed to reveal molecules involved in the effects of sex and androgens on social behaviors. All three test groups showed social preference in the three-chambered apparatus test. In both social tests an AR-independent sexual dimorphism was seen in the persistence of social investigation of female conspecifics, whereas the social interest towards male stimuli mice was similar in all groups. Male and female controls recognized conspecifics independent of their sex, whereas ARNesDel males recognized female but not male stimuli mice. Moreover, the non-social behaviors were not affected by AR deficiency. The gene expression analyses of hypothalamus and amygdala indicated that Oxtr, Cd38, Esr1, Cyp19a1, Ucn3, Crh and Gtf2i were differentially expressed between the three groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that ARs are required for recognition of male but not female conspecifics, while being dispensable for social investigation towards both sexes. In addition, the AR seems to regulate genes related to oxytocin, estrogen and William’s syndrome.

  8. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    . Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. Mood disturbances (e.g. depression, [hypo-]mania, psychotic features) are likely to be dose and drug dependent. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects (such as depression) seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract. One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users. The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone (androstanolone) that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones (estradiol and estrone), antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown. The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis (due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins), thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms. AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed

  9. Androgens regulate gene expression in avian skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Fuxjager

    Full Text Available Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus, zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata, and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus. Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird's body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca(2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction.

  10. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  11. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  12. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown

  13. Environmental concentrations of an androgenic progestin disrupts the seasonal breeding cycle in male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan; Fick, Jerker; Brandt, Ingvar; Brunström, Björn

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic steroid hormones from contraceptive pharmaceuticals have become global aquatic contaminants. Progestins, the synthetic analogs to progesterone, are receiving increasing attention as contaminants and have been shown to impair reproduction in fish and amphibians at low ng L(-1) concentrations. Certain progestins, such as levonorgestrel have androgenic properties and seem to be several orders of magnitude more potent in terms of reproductive impairment in fish than non-androgenic progestins and progestagens. We recently reported that levonorgestrel has strong androgenic effects in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), including induction of the normally male-specific glue protein spiggin and suppression of vitellogenesis. In light of this we investigated if exposure to levonorgestrel could disrupt the highly androgen-dependent seasonal reproductive cycle in male sticklebacks. Male sticklebacks that were in the final stage of a breeding period were exposed to various concentrations of levonorgestrel for six weeks in winter conditions in terms of light and temperature, after which reproductive status was evaluated from gross morphology, histology and key gene transcript levels. During the experimental period the controls had transitioned from full breeding condition into the non-breeding state, including regression of secondary sex characteristics, cessation of spiggin production in the kidney, and resumption of spermatogenesis in the testes. This is ascribed to the natural drop in plasma androgen levels after breeding. However, in the groups concurrently exposed to levonorgestrel, transition to the non-breeding condition was dose-dependently inhibited. Our results show that levonorgestrel can disrupt the seasonal breeding cycle in male sticklebacks. The fitness costs of such an effect could be detrimental to natural stickleback populations. Some effects occurred at a levonorgestrel concentration of 6.5 ng L(-1), well within the range of

  14. Factors affecting litter size in Texel sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharafeldin, M.A.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of age of ewes and of different lambing years on fertility expressed as number of lambs born and surviving to 2 months per lambing has been studied in field data collected by the herdbook for Texel sheep in North Holland. The fertility of ewes was compared when first bred at about 8

  15. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  16. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorus levels in various organs, tissues, bones, body fluids or excretory products of sheep reflected dietary ... did decrease bone mineral deposition slightly. Rumen fluid P and total daily urinary P levels did .... which were alike in composition except for their levels of. P and Ca. After 98 days rib biopsy specimens were.

  17. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  18. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  19. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  20. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  1. Relationships of Smiling and Flirtation to Aggression and 2D:4D, a Prenatal Androgen Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Burton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smiling has been reported to be a signal of submission/lower status, or a sign of cooperation. In the present study, use of smiling and flirtation to “make people receptive to my ideas” was conceptualized as mild aggression, since it is mildly manipulative of the perception of others as to one's internal emotional status. For 91 participants (55 female, 36 male, use of smiling and flirtation to make others receptive to one's ideas were associated with relational aggression and a more male-typical (smaller right 2D:4D finger length ratio. The only significant relationship in the male sample alone was the relationship between smiling and relational aggression. In the female sample alone, use of smiling and flirtation to “make people receptive to my ideas” was associated with a more male-typical 2D:4D finger length ratio pattern, and there was a trend for flirtation to be associated with greater physical aggression. Both 2D:4D and physical aggression have been associated with higher prenatal androgen level. It is concluded that deliberate smiling and flirtation are mild forms of relational aggression, and are related to prenatal androgenic activity in a manner similar to physical aggression. These findings are discussed in terms of the different evolutionary strategies of men and women to control their social environments.

  2. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K.; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) increases in uterine weight were seen in only those receiving 10 or 100 mg/kg PNP. Furthermore, in castrated immature male rats implanted with a silastic tube (length, 5 mm) containing crystalline testosterone and injected subcutaneously with 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PNP daily for 5 days, those receiving the doses of 0.1 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) weight decreases in seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, and glans penis. Plasma FSH and LH levels did not change in female rats but were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in male rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg PNP. These results clearly demonstrated that PNP has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in-vivo. Our results therefore suggest that diesel exhaust emissions and the degradation of parathion can lead to accumulation of PNP in air, water, and soil and thus could have serious deleterious effects on wildlife and human health

  3. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  4. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  5. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The PPAR{gamma} ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V., E-mail: lstewart@mmc.edu

    2010-12-10

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPAR{gamma} ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPAR{gamma}. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPAR{gamma} and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  7. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete’s urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as ‘T-equivalent’ concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact. PMID:26998755

  8. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  9. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  10. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  11. Androgenic alopecia in women: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to investigate androgenic alopecia (AA) utilizing clinical and investigative procedures to establish the pattern of AA in the Indian subcontinent. A total of 35 consecutive women presenting with AA were included. After obtaining informed consent, a detailed history/examination, hair pull test, trichogram, and a scalp biopsy were performed in patients. AA classification was attempted across Ludwig and Norwood guidelines. Of 35 women, 16 had grade I, 10 had grade II, and 1 had grade III Ludwig classification. In addition, 6 other women had Christmas tree baldness: 1 each of fronto-parietal and male pattern baldness. Several investigations including hormonal profile were inconclusive; however, hair pull test and trichogram may be helpful in understanding the sequence in AA in women. AA has infrequently been reported, particularly India and in Asia in general.

  12. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  13. Performance of the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    failure, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malignancy. Relevant socio- demographic and diabetes-related information were documented. Clinical evaluation of androgen deficiency. Participants completed the original ...

  14. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-31

    Jan 31, 1990 ... initial samples, the immobilization stress response and the response to exogenous GnRH administration, for ... the sex-specific differences in plasma androgens is confounded by other variables such as the reproductive.

  15. Male sexual polymorphism, alternative reproductive tactics, and androgens in combtooth blennies (pisces: blenniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R F; Canario, A V; Grober, M S

    2001-09-01

    In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois males that compete for access to mates invest in typically male behaviors, such as building elaborated nests or displaying ornaments; and (2) parasitic males that take advantage of the success of the bourgeois males in attracting females and attempt "sneaker" fertilizations (e.g., sneaker and satellite males). In combtooth blennies (Blenniidae) the co-occurrence of ART and male sexual polymorphism has been described for two temperate species: the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, and the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius sanguinolentus parvicornis. Interestingly, while in the peacock blenny the alternative male morph adopts a sneaker tactic, in the rock-pool blenny parasitic males act as satellites to nest-holder males. Thus, this variation in the ART expressed in these two closely related species allows for a comparative study of the proximate and ultimate factors affecting the expression of the two ART. In this article we summarize the available information on androgen levels in bourgeois and parasitic males of natural populations of the two species and of recent studies on the effect of exogenous administration of androgens on tactic switching in parasitic males of the two species. The information is discussed within the frame of the relative plasticity hypothesis, which predicts that plastic alternative morphs should show differences in hormone levels and that the administration of sex steroids should be effective in promoting the switch from the parasitic to bourgeois tactic. The evidence is only partly consistent with this hypothesis. Alternatively, a social

  16. A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO THE DETECTION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR GENE-MUTATIONS AND PEDIGREE ANALYSIS IN FAMILIES WITH X-LINKED ANDROGEN INSENSITIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RISSTALPERS, C; HOOGENBOEZEM, T; SLEDDENS, HFBM; VERLEUNMOOIJMAN, MCT; DEGENHART, HJ; DROP, SLS; HALLEY, DJJ; Oosterwijk, Jan; HODGINS, MB; TRAPMAN, J; BRINKMANN, AO

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disorder in which defects in the androgen receptor gene have prevented the normal development of both internal and external male structures in 46,XY individuals. This survey reports the analysis of 11 AIS subjects. The androgen receptor gene of

  17. A practical approach to the detection of androgen receptor gene mutations and pedigree analysis in families with x-linked androgen insensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Hoogenboezem, T.; Sleddens, H. F.; Verleun-Mooijman, M. C.; Degenhart, H. J.; Drop, S. L.; Halley, D. J.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Hodgins, M. B.; Trapman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disorder in which defects in the androgen receptor gene have prevented the normal development of both internal and external male structures in 46,XY individuals. This survey reports the analysis of 11 AIS subjects. The androgen receptor gene of

  18. Molecular analysis of the androgen-receptor gene in a family with receptor-positive partial androgen insensitivity: an unusual type of intronic mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie); S. Ramnarain; M.C. Verleun-Mooijman; D.P.E. Satijn (David); J. Trapman (Jan); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn the coding part and the intron-exon boundaries of the androgen-receptor gene of a patient with partial androgen insensitivity, no mutation was found. The androgen receptor of this patient displayed normal ligand-binding parameters and migrated as a

  19. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Bifunctional Modulators of the Androgen Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Wittmann, B.; Dwyer, M.; Cui, H.; Dye, D.; McDonnell, D.; Norris , J. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by second-site androgen receptor antagonists...Wittmann, B.; Dwyer, M.; Cui, H.; Dye, D.; McDonnell, D.; Norris , J. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by second-site androgen receptor...important clin- ical problem in diseases such as asthma (51, 52), ne- phrotic syndrome (53), and malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (54

  20. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  1. Muscle Dysfunction in Androgen Deprivation: Role of Ryanodine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    reversible pharmacological treatment is a key therapeutic goal in prostate cancer patients. This life prolonging treatment is accompanied by the adverse... reversible pharmacological treatment, is a key therapeutic goal of androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) used in patients with androgen-dependent...gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Aug 2000;85(8):2839

  2. Estrogens and Androgens in Skeletal Physiology and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Maria; Laurent, Michaël R.; Dubois, Vanessa; Claessens, Frank; O'Brien, Charles A.; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably t...

  3. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  4. Dissecting the roles of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer from molecular perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jieping; Wang, Gongxian; Sun, Ting

    2017-05-01

    Androgen receptor plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer progression, and androgen deprivation therapy to intercept androgen receptor signal pathway is an indispensable treatment for most advanced prostate cancer patients to delay cancer progression. However, the emerging of castration-resistant prostate cancer reminds us the alteration of androgen receptor, which includes androgen receptor mutation, the formation of androgen receptor variants, and androgen receptor distribution in cancer cells. In this review, we introduce the process of androgen receptor and also its variants' formation, translocation, and function alteration by protein modification or interaction with other pathways. We dissect the roles of androgen receptor in prostate cancer from molecular perspective to provide clues for battling prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  5. Further Evaluation of Androgen Therapy In Aplastic Anemia: With Special Reference to Correlation Between Response to Androgen and EEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Kee Suk [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-03-15

    Patients with aplastic anemia were treated with a combination of depo-testosterone cyclopentylpropionate (Upjohn) and dexamethasone. In 7 of 15 patients treated, there was response in which either a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, a prolonged interval or a cessation of blood transfusion requirement developed during androgen therapy. Younger patients with cellular marrow appeared to be better responding to androgen. EEI (Effective Erythropoietic Index) formulated by Gardner and Nathan (1966) which was a helpful measurement as to whether patients with myelofibrosis would response to androgen, was evaluated in patients with aplastic anemia. It was concluded that EEI as well as ferrokinetics indices (Plasma-{sup 59}Fe-disappearance rate, RBC {sup 59}Fe net incorporation) did not significantly correlate with the degree of response to androgen in aplastic anemia.

  6. Further Evaluation of Androgen Therapy In Aplastic Anemia: With Special Reference to Correlation Between Response to Androgen and EEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Kee Suk

    1967-01-01

    Patients with aplastic anemia were treated with a combination of depo-testosterone cyclopentylpropionate (Upjohn) and dexamethasone. In 7 of 15 patients treated, there was response in which either a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, a prolonged interval or a cessation of blood transfusion requirement developed during androgen therapy. Younger patients with cellular marrow appeared to be better responding to androgen. EEI (Effective Erythropoietic Index) formulated by Gardner and Nathan (1966) which was a helpful measurement as to whether patients with myelofibrosis would response to androgen, was evaluated in patients with aplastic anemia. It was concluded that EEI as well as ferrokinetics indices (Plasma- 59 Fe-disappearance rate, RBC 59 Fe net incorporation) did not significantly correlate with the degree of response to androgen in aplastic anemia.

  7. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  8. Detection of antibodies against pestivirus in sheep with history of reproductive disorder in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Carrillo Gaeta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Gaeta N.C., Rizzo H., Meira Jr E.B.S., Pituco E.M., Okuda L.H., Ribeiro C.P. & Gregory L. [Detection of antibodies against pestivirus in sheep with history of reproductive disorder in the State of São Paulo.] Detecção de anticorpos anti-pestivírus em ovinos com histórico de problema reprodutivo no Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(2:153-156, 2016. Departamento de Clínica Médica. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. E-mail: natalia.gaeta@hotmail.com Pestivirus are responsible for reproductive disorders in sheep and, although they are widely studied in other countries, Brazil lacks information on the prevalence of virus in sheep flocks. To investigate the occurrence of pestiviruses in the State of São Paulo, 268 samples of serum sheep with a history of reproductive problems from 28 properties were collected. Using virusneutralization as the diagnostic technique, it was found two (1% positive animals, with antibody titer of 20, with both females showing a history of reproductive problems, one with neonatal death and another, showing uterine secretion. Two properties studied showed reactive animals (7%. In five of these (18%, bovine co-creation was observed. There were no associations between any reagent animals and the risk factors studied. This work is one of the pioneers in the study of the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in Brazilian sheep flocks. The low frequency and low viral titer observed suggest that pestivirus are not an important agent related to the presence of reproductive disorders in sheep herds.

  9. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

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    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  10. Prepubertal Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity Is Altered by Sex, Age, and Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Eden A; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown. We hypothesized GnRH neurons are active before puberty and that this activity is sexually differentiated and altered by PNA. Dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on days 16 to 18 post copulation to generate PNA mice. Action potential firing of GFP-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old and adult mice was monitored. GnRH neurons were active at all ages tested. In control females, activity increased with age through 3 weeks, then decreased to adult levels. In contrast, activity did not change in PNA females and was reduced at 3 weeks. Activity was higher in control females than males from 2 to 3 weeks. PNA did not affect GnRH neuron firing rate in males at any age. Short-term action potential patterns were also affected by age and PNA treatment. GnRH neurons are thus typically more active during the prepubertal period than adulthood, and PNA reduces prepubertal activity in females. Prepubertal activity may play a role in establishing sexually differentiated neuronal networks upstream of GnRH neurons; androgen-induced changes during this time may contribute to the adult PNA, and possibly PCOS, phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  12. The promotion on cell growth of androgen-dependent prostate cancer by antimony via mimicking androgen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwen; Li, Penghao; Wen, Yingwu; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yangyi; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-15

    Antimony is a widely used heavier pnictogens in industry, and its toxicity has been a matter of concern. Although previous studies have suggested that antimony may have the function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in several cancers, the molecular basis underlying antimony-mediated transformation is still unclear. In the current study, we attempt to elucidate the potential role of antimony in the development of prostate cancer. Our results showed that the concentration of antimony was much higher in serum of prostate cancer patients, and was closely associated with poor outcome of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Additionally, low dose of antimony could promote proliferation and invasion of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that exposure to antimony triggered the phosphorylation of androgen receptor (AR), which transcriptionally regulates the expression of androgen-related targets, including PSA and NKX3.1. Overall, our results unearthed that antimony could promote tumor growth by mimicking androgen activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Therefore, these findings expanded our understanding on the molecular mechanism of antimony in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of prostate cancer, and it appears to be an inspiring strategy to restrain prostate cancer by inhibiting antimony-induced androgen-like effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  14. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.; Adler, G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44 Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  16. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  17. Exposure to paper mill effluent at a site in North Central Florida elicits molecular-level changes in gene expression indicative of progesterone and androgen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Brockmeier

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.

  18. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  19. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  20. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    with ewe-juvenile groups at Allan Gulch, Tweed Creek, Peck Gulch and eventually Stone Hill marked the northward progression of all age and sex classes...r ~W- k’-P-.- M N rer. C.A. l12. Tioe Birh-_rrn sheep Co-- rad: C. 6zare. F :.Pa.r:: D- r~. A.S., F.A. Jcn-rstone. C.A.P.. Savory , an-1 fl.F.D:srn

  1. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  2. Preliminary Results Regarding Organic Sheep Meat Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With a national flock of  10.07 million sheep, Romania currently occupies the 3rd place in the EU (after the UK and Spain in terms of the sheep numbers. However, only 0.85% (85.419 heads are being reared in organic production systems. The development of sheep breeding in organic systems is very heavily influenced by the economic factors, but also by the consumer demand for organic products. An empirical study on consumer behavior towards sheep meat produced in organic system was developed in 2016. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of developing sheep breeding sector in the organic system, in the terms of the consumer’s behavior towards  sheep meat obtained in organic system in order to develop strategies that will lead to sustainable development of the sector. The finding shown that 85% of consumers consider that sheep meat produced in organic farming system is more expensive compared to that produced in the conventional systems. However, 74% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. The availability of the respondents to pay an additional price for organic sheep product is high, hovering around 77%. Current research highlights the potential production and marketing of sheep from Romania in organic system, which could have a positive impact on overall farm income and on animal welfare.

  3. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

    2000-10-01

    Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles.

  4. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  5. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  6. Stakeholder Perceptions of Welfare Issues and Indicators for Extensively Managed Sheep in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Amanda K; Coleman, Grahame J; Hinch, Geoff N; Doyle, Rebecca E

    2017-03-23

    An online survey was designed to form the basis of a framework for the welfare assessment of extensively managed sheep in Australia. The survey focused on welfare compromise and useful welfare indicators. A total of 952 people completed the survey in its entirety, representing four stakeholder groups: Public (53.6%), Producer (27.4%), Scientist (9.9%), and Service provider (9.1%). Animal welfare was considered to be important by all participating groups in this survey (average score of 3.78/4). Respondents felt the welfare of grazing sheep was generally adequate but improvement was desired (2.98/5), with female members of the public rating sheep welfare significantly worse than other respondents ( p risk to welfare (3.87/5), followed by heat stress (3.79), lameness (3.57) and husbandry practices (3.37). Key indicators recognised by all respondents were those associated with pain and fear (3.98/5), nutrition (4.23), mortality/management (4.27), food on offer (4.41) and number of illness/injures in a flock (4.33). There were gender and stakeholder differences in the perceived importance of both welfare issues and indicators with women and the public consistently rating issues (all p indicators (all p < 0.05) to be of greater significance than other respondents. These results highlight the importance of including all stakeholders and an even balance of genders when developing a welfare framework that can address both practical and societal concerns.

  7. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villagra-Blanco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29% sheep from 12 (80% flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females, embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended.

  8. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra-Blanco, R.; Dolz, G.; Montero-Caballero, D.; Romero-Zúñiga, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377

  9. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  10. Concept and viability of androgen annihilation for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L

    2014-09-01

    There remains no standard of care for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen level after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy but who have no radiographic metastases, even though this is the second largest group of patients with prostate cancer (CaP) in the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may cure some men with advanced CaP based on single-institution series and a randomized clinical trial of immediate versus delayed ADT for men found to have pelvic lymph node metastasis at the time of radical prostatectomy. ADT may be more effective when initiated for minimal disease burden, which can be detected using PSA after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, and if more complete disruption of the androgen axis using newer agents decreases the chance that androgen-sensitive cells survive to adapt to a low-androgen environment. Androgens may be "annihilated" simultaneously using a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist or agonist to inhibit testicular production of testosterone, a P45017A1 (CYP17A1) inhibitor to diminish metabolism of testosterone via the adrenal pathway and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the backdoor pathway, a 5α-reductase (SRD5A) inhibitor to diminish testosterone reduction to DHT and backdoor metabolism of progesterone substrates to DHT, and a newer antiandrogen to compete better with DHT for the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain. Early initiation of androgen annihilation for induction as part of planned intermittent ADT should be safe, may reduce tumor burden below a threshold that allows eradication by the immune system, and may cure many men who have failed definitive local therapy. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  11. Novel, non-steroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with anabolic activity in bone and muscle and improved safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; Negro-Vilar, A

    2002-03-01

    A novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and possibly women, is the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that can stimulate formation of new bone with substantially diminished proliferative activity in the prostate, as well as reduced virilizing activity in women. Over the last several years, we have developed a program to discover and develop novel, non-steroidal, orally-active selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that provide improved therapeutic benefits and reduce risk and side effects. In recent studies, we have used a skeletally mature orchiectomized (ORX) male rat as an animal model of male hypogonadism for assessing the efficacy of LGD2226, a nonsteroidal, non-aromatizable, and non-5alpha-reducible SARM. We assessed the activity of LGD2226 on bone turnover, bone mass and bone strength, and also evaluated the effects exerted on classic androgen-dependent targets, such as prostate, seminal vesicles and muscle. A substantial loss of bone density was observed in ORX animals, and this loss was prevented by SARMs, as well as standard androgens. Biochemical markers of bone turnover revealed an early increase of bone resorption in androgen-deficient rats that was repressed in ORX animals treated with the oral SARM, LGD2226, during a 4-month treatment period. Differences in architectural properties and bone strength were detected by histomorphometric and mechanical analyses, demonstrating beneficial effects of LGD2226 on bone quality in androgen-deficient rats. Histomorphometric analysis of cortical bone revealed distinct anabolic activity of LGD2226 in periosteal bone. LGD2226 was able to prevent bone loss and maintain bone quality in ORX rats by stimulating bone formation, while also inhibiting bone turnover. LGD2226 also exerted anabolic activity on the levator ani muscle. Taken together, these results suggest that orally-active, non-steroidal SARMs may be useful therapeutics for both muscle and bone in elderly

  12. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-06-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (panabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals; we did not find females using anabolic steroids and that is why our research was limited to

  13. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  14. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  15. Hematopoiesis-activating effects of androgen (fluoxymesterone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakura, Takuo; Inoue, Tatsu; Maekawa, Tadashi.

    1978-01-01

    Hematopoiesis-activating effect of fluoxymesterone (FMT) (androgen preparation) on hematopoietic hematoblast was evaluated. The results were as follows. (1) To C 3 H/He strain male mice, 2 mg/day of FMT was injected into each femoral muscle alternatively. On the 5th day of the first injection, radioactive iron was injected intraperitoneally; after 48 hrs, blood was collected for examining the incorporation rate of 59 Fe. The results showed significant increase. (2) After 4 mg of FMT was injected once into the femoral muscle, spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) of the mouse femur were examined. Calculation of either of surface colonies and microscopic colonies showed absolute increase of the number of CFU-S in the femoral marrow. The microscopic colonies were classified into three colony types of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and megakaryocytes on the basis of histology of the cellular component; and changes were evaluated in each type of the colonies. This evaluation clarified that an increase in colonies which appeared 24 hrs after the injection of the hormon was due to an increase in the erythrocyte and megakaryocyte colonies and that which appeared 48 hrs after the injection was due to an increase in granulocyte colonies. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Mass spectrometry of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-07-01

    Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are an emerging class of drugs for treatment of various diseases including osteoporosis and muscle wasting as well as the correction of age-related functional decline such as muscle strength and power. Several SARMs, which have advanced to preclinical and clinical trials, are composed of diverse chemical structures including arylpropionamide-, bicyclic hydantoin-, quinoline-, and tetrahydroquinoline-derived nuclei. Since January 2008, SARMs have been categorized as anabolic agents and prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Suitable detection methods for these low-molecular weight drugs were based on mass spectrometric approaches, which necessitated the elucidation of dissociation pathways in order to characterize and identify the target analytes in doping control samples as well as potential metabolic products and synthetic analogs. Fragmentation patterns of representatives of each category of SARMs after electrospray ionization (ESI) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) as well as electron ionization (EI) are summarized. The complexity and structural heterogeneity of these drugs is a daunting challenge for detection methods. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Predictors of future anabolic androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars

    2006-09-01

    To prospectively study the stability of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and predictors of AAS use, and to investigate whether AAS use alters the risk of later emotional and behavioral problems. Survey of a national sample of Norwegian high school students (age 15-19) in 1994 followed up in 1999 (N = 2924). Measures of frequent alcohol intoxication (50+ times per 12 months), cannabis use (12 months), hard drug use (12 months), being offered cannabis, eating problems, conduct problems, sexual debut before age 15, BMI, involvement in power sports, perceived physical appearance, and satisfaction with body parts were obtained. Life-time prevalence of AAS use were 1.9 and 0.8% in the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that future AAS use was predicted by young age, male gender, previous AAS use, involvement in power sports, and frequent alcohol intoxication. AAS use did not predict future emotional or behavioral problems other than reducing the risk of future frequent alcohol intoxication. Frequent alcohol intoxication and involvement in power sports appear to predict future AAS use. At the population level there was little stability in individual AAS use from adolescence to early adulthood. No detrimental effects of AAS use could be detected in this study, but low statistical power limits this conclusion.

  18. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  19. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  20. Tamoxifen treatment for pubertal gynecomastia in two siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Goto, Motohide; Araki, Shunsuke; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Kawada, Yasusada; Kusuhara, Koichi; Igarashi, Maki; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen has been shown to be fairly safe and effective for idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia, it remains unknown whether it is also beneficial for gynecomastia associated with endocrine disorders. Here, we report the effect of tamoxifen on pubertal gynecomastia in 2 siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). Cases 1 and 2 presented with persistent pubertal gynecomastia at 13 and 16 years of age, respectively. Physical examinations revealed breast of Tanner stage 3 and normal male-type external genitalia in both cases. Clinical features such as female-type pubic hair and borderline small testis indicated mildly impaired masculinization. Molecular analysis identified a previously reported p.Arg789Ser mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) in the 2 cases. Two months of oral administration of tamoxifen ameliorated gynecomastia to Tanner stage 2 with no adverse events. Additional treatment with testosterone enanthate showed negligible effects on body hair and penile length. Hormone values of the 2 cases during tamoxifen treatment remained similar to those in previously reported untreated patients with PAIS. The results indicate that tamoxifen was effective in treating pubertal gynecomastia in these 2 patients with PAIS and may be considered as a therapeutic option in this situation pending further studies.

  1. Psychological outcomes and gender-related development in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Ahmed, S Faisal; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated psychological outcomes and gender development in 22 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Participants were recruited through a medical database (n = 10) or through a patient support group (n = 12). Controls included 14 males and 33 females, of whom 22 were matched to women with CAIS for age, race, and sex-of-rearing. Outcome measures included quality of life (self-esteem and psychological general well-being), gender-related psychological characteristics (gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior in childhood and adulthood), marital status, personality traits that show sex differences, and hand preferences. Women recruited through the database versus the support group did not differ systematically, and there were no statistically significant differences between the 22 women with CAIS and the matched controls for any psychological outcome. These findings argue against the need for two X chromosomes or ovaries to determine feminine-typical psychological development in humans and reinforce the important role of the androgen receptor in influencing masculine-typical psychological development. They also suggest that psychological outcomes in women with CAIS are similar to those in other women. However, additional attention to more detailed aspects of psychological well-being in CAIS is needed.

  2. Urinary excretion of androgen metabolites, comparison with excretion of radioactive metabolites after injection of [4-14C]testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslypere, J.P.; Sayed, A.; Vermeulen, A.; Wiers, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of age on the metabolic pattern of [4- 14 C]testosterone was studied in 20 young and 8 elderly males and compared to the metabolic pattern of endogenous androgens; the latter was also studied in 16 young and 8 elderly women. In both young and elderly males, androsterone and aetiocholanolone glucuronide represent 65% of [4- 14 C]testosterone metabolites: together with their suephoconjugates as well as with 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α, 17β-diol they represent even more than 75% of total urinary metabolites. The 5α/5β ratio of metabolites of [4- 14 C]testosterone was significantly (P 14 C]testosterone metabolites was generally higher than the ratio of metabolites of endogenous androgens, suggesting that the transformation of T to ring A saturated metabolites occurs at least partially in another compartment than the transformation of DHEA to these metabolites. For both [4- 14 C]testosterone and endogenous androgen metabolites we observed a statistically significant reduction of the 5α/5β ratio with age, a general phenomenon in both males and females. This reduction concern also 11-OH-androst-4-ene-3.17-dione metabolism. Neither sex hormone levels, nor specific binding seems to determine this age dependent shift; neither is there convincing evidence for latent hypothyroisism or liver dysfunction in the elderly. An age associated primary decrease of the 5α-reductase activity seems the most likely explanation. (author)

  3. Pure seminoma in the setting of androgen insensitivity syndrome treated with surgical resection and para-aortic radiation: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete androgen insensitivity is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by a female phenotype in a chromosomally male individual. Malignant transformation of the un-descended testis is a rare phenomena compared to other inter-sex syndromes. This is a case of a 32-year-old female who was diagnosed with androgen insensitivity and presented to the emergency room with pelvic pain. Later the pelvic pain was found to be due to testicular masses, one of which was pure seminoma. We reviewed the literature emphasizing the biochemical and endocrinologic abnormalities leading to the syndrome, as well as the potential for malignant changes of the un-descended testes, diagnosis, and therapeutic management. We discuss the importance of early diagnosis and the consequence associated with misdiagnosis.

  4. COLOUR AND pH VALUE OF ISTRIAN SHEEP LAMBS MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sex and slaughter weight of Istrian sheep lambs on pH value and meat colour. The study included 118 lambs of both sexes (64 male and 54 female which were, prior slaughter, divided into two groups: light (17.76 kg; 28 male and 32 female and heavy (20.17 kg; 3 male and 22 female. Carcass weight was determined immediately after carcass processing and after 24 hours, while the pH value and meat colour were determined 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter. Average hot and cold carcass weights in light lambs were 9.76 and 9.47 kg, and in heavy lambs 11.80 and 11.49 kg, with chilling loss of 2.96 and 2.60% respectively. Istrian sheep lambs carcasses are quite uniform in relation to sex in terms of all the investigated traits, except value of L* and a* colour parameters. For the production of larger lamb meat quantities it might be recommended to increase lambs slaughter weight since the higher slaughter weight has the positive effect on carcass weight and chilling loss while retaining the desirable values of meat quality parameters.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  6. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghadirian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 μg mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

  8. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, K.; Yoshida, K.; Nakayama, R.

    1982-01-01

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10 -9 M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [ 3 H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [ 3 H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [ 3 H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [ 3 H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  9. Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The postmenopausal ovary as an androgen-producing gland; hypothesis on the etiology of endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, V. H. W. M.; Sluijmer, A. V.; Heineman, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Postmenopausal estrogens originate from the peripheral conversion of androgens, which are produced by the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Estrogens are considered to contribute to the neoplastic development of endometrium. Hyperplasia of ovarian stroma is associated with an increased androgen

  11. Interaction Between a Novel p21 Activated Kinase (PAK6) and Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Zijie

    2005-01-01

    The effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), which plays a critical role in inducing normal differentiation of tissues of the reproductive organs and in the development and progression of prostate cancer...

  12. Characterizations of Factors Affecting Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Regulation in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garabedian, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... Expression of ART-27 in LNCaP cells, an androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, reduces androgen-mediated cellular proliferation, suggesting that ART-27 plays a role in suppressing cell growth...

  13. Nutritional Effect on Androgen-Response Gene Expression and Prostate Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2001-01-01

    .... The dietary influence on ventral prostate weight does not seem to involve androgen action axis because dietary components did not influence the expression of several androgen-response genes, serum testosterone...

  14. Effects of Androgen Blockade on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigsby, James

    2004-01-01

    .... Our major hypothesis is the patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy will experience impairments in those cognitive abilities reported in the research literature to be related to androgen levels (e.g...

  15. Effects of Androgen Blockade on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigaby, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Our major hypothesis is that patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy will experience impairments in those cognitive abilities reported in the research literature to be related to androgen levels (e.g...

  16. Increased Androgen Response to Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Administration in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wachs, Deborah S.; Coffler, Mickey S.; Malcom, Pamela J.; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Chang, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Context: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), excess ovarian androgen production is driven by increased LH secretion. Studies conducted in animals suggest that the granulosa cell may influence LH-stimulated theca cell androgen production.

  17. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  18. An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  19. Partial androgen deficiency, depression and testosterone treatment in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Quarta, Antonio Lucio; Tagariello, Pietro

    2009-02-01

    This study provides a critical review of the literature on depressive symptoms of partial androgen deficiency (PADAM) and their treatment with Testosterone (T). PADAM in aging males is responsible for a variety of behavioral symptoms, such as weakness, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, lower psychological vitality, depressive mood, anxiety, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and memory impairment. The psychological and behavioural aspects of PADAM may overlap with signs and symptoms of major depression. Evidence of the relationship between androgen deficiency and male depression comes from studies that have assessed depression in hypogonadal subjects, the association between low T level and male depressive illness, and the antidepressant action of androgen replacement. The etiology of depressive symptoms of PADAM is multifactorial, and results from the interaction of the biological and psychosocial changes that take place during the mid-life transition. Although data derived from androgen treatment trials and androgen replacement do not support T treatment or replacement as more efficacious than placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD), the clinical impression is that, in some sub-threshold depressive syndromes, T may lead to antidepressant benefits.

  20. Evolution of the androgen-induced male phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Miles, Meredith C; Schlinger, Barney A

    2018-01-01

    The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology. We anchor this framework in a review of our own studies of a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus), which has evolved an exaggerated acrobatic courtship display that is heavily androgen-dependent. The result is an example of how the cellular basis of androgenic action can be modified to support a unique reproductive repertoire. We end this review by highlighting a broad pathway forward to further pursue the intricate ways by which the mechanisms of hormone action evolve to support processes of adaptation and animal design.

  1. Evidence That Androgens Modulate Human Thymic T Cell Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nancy J.; Kovacs, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The thymus has long been recognized as a target for the actions of androgenic hormones, but it has only been recently recognized that alterations in circulating levels of gonadal steroids might affect thymic output of T cells. We had the opportunity to examine parameters of thymic cellular output in several hypogonadal men undergoing androgen replacement therapy. Methods Circulating naive (CD4+CD45RA+) T cells were quantitated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells bearing T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) were quantitated using real-time PCR amplification of DNA isolated from PBMCs from normal men and from hypogonadal men before and after testosterone replacement therapy. Results CD4+CD45+ (“naïve”) T cells comprised 10.5% of lymphocytes in normal males; this proportion was greatly increased in two hypogonadal men (35.5% and 44.4%). One man was studied sequentially during treatment with physiologic doses of testosterone. CD4+CD45RA+ cells fell from 37.36% to 20.05% after one month and to 12.51% after 7 months of normalized androgen levels. In two hypogonadal patients TREC levels fell by 83% and 78% after androgen replacement therapy. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the hypogonadal state is associated with increased thymic output of T cells and that this increase in recent thymic emigrants in peripheral blood is reversed by androgen replacement. PMID:21218609

  2. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  3. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  4. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, M.; Macleod, D. J.; Walker, M.; Smith, L. B.; Sharpe, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during t...

  5. Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Aimee S. L.; Edwards, Melissa C.; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Gilchrist, Robert B.; Handelsman, David J.; Walters, Kirsty A.

    2017-01-01

    The cause of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown, but androgen excess is a key feature. We combined a hyperandrogenized PCOS mouse model with global and tissue- and cell-specific androgen-resistant mouse lines to uncover the sites of androgen action that initiate PCOS. We demonstrate that direct androgen actions, particularly in neurons but less so in granulosa cells, are required for the development of key reproductive and metabolic PCOS features. These data highlight the previously ...

  6. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  7. Fertility outcome in male and female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kamoun

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Fertility in male and female patients with CAH is reduced. Early and adequate glucocorticoid therapy along with good compliance, careful monitoring of androgen levels and continuous psychological management could contribute to improved fertility rates in this population, even among those with the severe variant.

  8. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  9. Addisons disease in an Indian female – A rarity | Brar | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caused by autoimmune destruction of adrenal gland cortex. Those with Addisons disease have a deficiency of cortisol and aldostreone. These deficiencies are accompanied by adrenal androgen depletion. A case report of 43 year old female is hereby reported. The patient presented with hyperpigmentation of nipples, ...

  10. Umbilical KeyPort bilateral laparoscopic orchiectomy in patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe P. Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available MAIN FINDINGS: A 22-year-old woman with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS presenting with primary amenorrhea and normal female external genitalia was referred for laparoscopic gonadectomy. She had been diagnosed several years earlier but was reluctant to undergo surgery. CASE HYPOTHESIS: Diagnosis of this X-linked recessive inherited syndrome characterizes by disturbance of virilization in males with an AR mutation, XY karyotipe, female genitalia and severely undescended testis with risk of malignization. The optimal time to orchidectomy is not settled; neither the real risk of malignancy in these patients. Early surgery impacts development of a complete female phenotype, with enlargement of the breasts. Based on modern diagnostic imaging using DCE-MRI and surgical technology with single port laparoscopic access we hypothesize that the optimum time for gonadectomy is not at the time of diagnosis, but once feminization has completed. PROMISING FUTURE IMPLICATIONS: An umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site access for bilateral gonadectomy appears to be the first choice approach as leaves no visible incision and diminishes the psychological impact of surgery in a patient with CAIS absolutely reassured as female. KeyPort, a single port access with duo-rotate instruments developed by Richard Wolf facilitates this surgery and allows excellent cosmetic results.

  11. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  12. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  13. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  14. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  15. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  16. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  17. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  18. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  19. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  20. Gene expression and maturation evaluation of sheep oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated X protein (Bax) of matured sheep oocytes. To carry out this study, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) aspirated from sheep ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with various concentrations of FSE (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL).

  1. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  2. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  3. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism in Lori Sheep Vomeronasal Organ dimensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of gender on anatomy of vomeronasal organ (VNO) and their correlations with some external body measurements in Lori sheep. Six external body characteristics were measured on 21 Lori sheep (10 ewes and 11 rams). Heads of the animals were collected and several ...

  6. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  7. Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestiviruses including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV1), BVDV-2 and Border Disease Virus (BDV) have been reported in sheep populations worldwide. These viruses are not strictly host specific and can also infect cattle, goats, swine and wild ruminants. In sheep, clinical signs are related t...

  8. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  9. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.

    2007-01-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin,

  10. Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Vinggaard, Anne; Terouanne, B.

    2004-01-01

    steroidal androgens, two antiandrogens, an androgenic control, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and an antiandrogenic control, bicalutamide (ICI 176,334). All laboratories correctly detected the androgenic activity of 4-androsten-3,17-dione and 17alpha-methyl-testosterone. For both compounds...

  11. Super-Penetrant Androgen Receptor: Overcoming Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Prostate Cancer Research Symposium- Prostate Cancer Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer , May19... cancer cells rely critically on the androgen receptor (AR) for initiation, growth and progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC...Androgen receptor, castration resistant prostate cancer , Enzalutamide , kinases. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER

  12. Compounds from Cynomorium songaricum with Estrogenic and Androgenic Activities Suppress the Oestrogen/Androgen-Induced BPH Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueni; Tao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Miao, Lin; Wang, Yu; Munyangaju, Jose Edouard; Wichai, Nuttapong; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Erwei; Chang, Yanxu; Gao, Xiumei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the phytoestrogenic and phytoandrogenic activities of compounds isolated from CS and uncover the role of CS in prevention of oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH. Cells were treated with CS compounds, and immunofluorescence assay was performed to detect the nuclear translocation of ER α or AR in MCF-7 or LNCaP cells; luciferase reporter assay was performed to detect ERs or AR transcriptional activity in HeLa or AD293 cells; MTT assay was performed to detect the cell proliferation of MCF-7 or LNCaP cells. Oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH model was established in rat and the anti-BPH, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activities of CS in vivo were further investigated. The nuclear translocation of ER α was stimulated by nine CS compounds, three of which also stimulated AR translocation. The transcriptional activities of ER α and ER β were induced by five compounds, within which only ECG induced AR transcriptional activity as well. Besides, ECG stimulated the proliferation of both MCF-7 cells and LNCaP cells. CS extract suppressed oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH progress in vivo by downregulation of E2 and T level in serum and alteration of the expressions of ER α , ER β , and AR in the prostate. Our data demonstrates that compounds from CS exhibit phytoestrogenic and phytoandrogenic activities, which may contribute to inhibiting the oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH development.

  13. Stromal Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Damien A.; Buchanan, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer development and progression is the result of complex interactions between epithelia cells and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, in a series of dynamic process amenable to regulation by hormones. Whilst androgen action through the androgen receptor (AR) is a well-established component of prostate cancer biology, it has been becoming increasingly apparent that changes in AR signalling in the surrounding stroma can dramatically influence tumour cell behavior. This is reflected in the consistent finding of a strong association between stromal AR expression and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the relationship between AR signalling in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in the primary site, and detail the known functions, actions, and mechanisms of fibroblast AR signaling. We conclude with an evidence-based summary of how androgen action in stroma dramatically influences disease progression. PMID:28117763

  14. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  15. Prevalent glucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; George, Anuja A; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C; Schiltz, R Louis; Blazer, Vicki S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  16. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive