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Sample records for female sexual response

  1. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  2. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  3. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  4. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  5. Female responses to experimental removal of sexual selection components in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Innocenti, Paolo; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the common assumption that multiple mating should in general be favored in males, but not in females, to date there is no consensus on the general impact of multiple mating on female fitness. Notably, very little is known about the genetic and physiological features underlying the female response to sexual selection pressures. By combining an experimental evolution approach with genomic techniques, we investigated the effects of single and multiple matings on female fecundi...

  6. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  7. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  8. Men's sexual response to female partner's intranasal oxytocin administration for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: an open prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Dana A; Sheikh Rezaei, Safoura; Tremmel-Scheinost, Max; Salama, Mohamed; Luger, Anton; Wolzt, Michael; Husslein, Peter W; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    To study sexual function, quality of life, and depression in men, whose female partners are undergoing double-blind placebo-controlled randomized treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Open prospective cohort study of 22 weeks. Academic medical center. Male partners of 30 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with HSDD. Baseline, 3-month, and 5-month assessment (for 8 weeks each) of male response to female partner's use of oxytocin nasal spray (32 IE) and placebo within 50 minutes before sexual intercourse. Primary outcome parameters were Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire-Male, Sexual Activity Record, Partner Performance Questionnaire, and Hamilton Depression Scale. Male Sexual Life Quality questionnaire improved significantly from -7.4 ± 9.9 at baseline to 8.2 ± 12 with female partners' treatment with oxytocin nasal spray and to 10.8 ± 13.8 with placebo. Frequency of intercourse improved slightly but not significantly from 6.3 ± 3.9 at baseline to 7.3 ± 4 with female oxytocin therapy, but not with placebo. Male desire and arousal remained stable throughout the study period. Evaluation of female partners' performance by men improved significantly from 8.9 ± 2.8 at baseline to 10.6 ± 2.2 with oxytocin and to 11.2 ± 2.6 with placebo. Female treatment with either oxytocin or placebo for HSDD significantly improves male sexual quality of life and evaluation of female partner's sexual performance with no difference between oxytocin and placebo on any outcome parameters. A nonsignificant improvement was seen in the frequency of intercourse, male arousal, desire, satisfaction, and Hamilton depression scale. NCT02229721. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  10. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  11. The Impact of a Topical Sexual Enhancement Cream on the Female Sexual Response and Its Relationship to Clitoral Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Michael; Stofman, Guy M; Niren, Neil

    2016-12-13

    The aim of this investigation was to determine, through two Investigational Review Board (IRB)-approved studies, if a new topical vasodilating cream (NTVC; Life Science Enhancement Corporation, Pittsburgh PA) could improve female sexual response. Study I subjectively evaluated sexual female response as accessed by a modification of the Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI). FIEI was developed at the University of California as an immediate outcome measure of medical intervention to treat female sexual dysfunction.1 In Study II, 10 randomly selected positive responders from Study I were subsequently analyzed objectively with clitoral plethysmography in order to determine the effect of the NTVC and placebo on blood flow.2 RESULTS: In the subjective Study I (81 patients ranging in age from 18 to 63), a positive response trend for the NTVC was demonstrated compared to the placebo. In the objective Study II, 10 randomly selected patients who responded positive in Study I were objectively evaluated for response of increased blood flow in the clitoris after application of both the NTVC and placebo. The clitoral blood flow was shown to have increased with statistical significance for the NTVC in all 10 patients compared to the placebo, with the NTVC exhibiting an average 69% increase in clitoral blood flow. The female sexual response is complex. In the subjective Study I, the NTVC demonstrated positive trends for enhanced lubrication, genital sensation, intercourse, and overall sexual experience. In the objective Study II, 10 of the positive subjective responders from Study I were randomly selected to evaluate their response to the NTVC compared to the placebo. This was done via Doppler plethysmography (DP). All 10 patients demonstrated a statistically significant response rate for increase in clitoral blood flow using the NTVC compared to the placebo, with an average blood flow increase of 69%. This portion of the investigation demonstrates a significant positive end

  12. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain — that distress you or strain your ... You have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual ...

  13. Affective and Autonomic Responses to Erotic Images: Evidence of Disgust-Based Mechanisms in Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePesa, Natasha S; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i.e., facial electromyography [EMG] and self-report) and autonomic (i.e., heart rate and electrodermal activity) responses to disgusting, erotic, positive, and neutral images. Significant differences were predicted in responses to erotic images only. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the FSIAD group would display affective and autonomic responses consistent with a disgust response, while responses from the control group would align with a general appetitive response. Results largely supported study hypotheses. The FSIAD group displayed significantly greater negative facial affect, reported more subjective disgust, and recorded greater heart rate deceleration than the control group in response to erotic stimuli. Greater subjective disgust response corresponded with more sexual avoidance behavior. Planned follow-up analyses explored correlates of subjective disgust responses.

  14. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  16. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C

    2016-05-01

    The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2010 and to make specific recommendations according to the Oxford Centre for evidence based medicine (2009) "levels of evidence" wherever relevant. Recommendations were made for particular studies to be undertaken especially in controversial aspects in all six sections of the reviewed topics. Despite numerous laboratory assessments of female sexual function, genital assessments alone appear insufficient to characterise fully the complete sexual response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  19. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.

  20. Future Targets for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa; Yoon, Hana; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-08-01

    Female sexual function reflects a dynamic interplay of central and peripheral nervous, vascular, and endocrine systems. The primary challenge in the development of novel treatments for female sexual dysfunction is the identification and targeted modulation of excitatory sexual circuits using pharmacologic treatments that facilitate the synthesis, release, and/or receptor binding of neurochemicals, peptides, and hormones that promote female sexual function. To develop an evidence-based state-of-the-art consensus report that critically integrates current knowledge of the therapeutic potential for known molecular and cellular targets to facilitate the physiologic processes underlying female sexual function. State-of-the-art review representing the opinions of international experts developed in a consensus process during a 1-year period. Expert opinion was established by grading the evidence-based medical literature, intensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Scientific investigation is urgently needed to expand knowledge and foster development of future treatments that maintain genital tissue integrity, enhance genital physiologic responsiveness, and optimize positive subjective appraisal of internal and external sexual cues. This article critically condenses the current knowledge of therapeutic manipulation of molecular and cellular targets within biological systems responsible for female sexual physiologic function. Future treatment targets include pharmacologic modulation of emotional learning circuits, restoration of normal tactile sensation, growth factor therapy, gene therapy, stem cell-based therapies, and regenerative medicine. Concurrent use of centrally and peripherally acting therapies could optimize treatment response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  2. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  3. Sexual Assault against Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to want to participate in social activities. Many women report difficulty trusting others after the assault, so it can be difficult to develop new relationships. Performance at work and school can also be affected. Sexual problems ...

  4. Programme potential for the prevention of and response to sexual violence among female refugees: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.

  5. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  6. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  7. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  8. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female ... Cultural traditions and social pressures can.

  9. Women's sexual and emotional responses to male- and female-produced erotica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Bellen, G.; Hanewald, G.

    1994-01-01

    Whether erotic films made by women are more arousing for women than erotic films made by men was studied. Forty-seven subjects were exposed to both a woman-made, female-initiated, and female centered, erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic vaginal pulse amplitude was recorded continuously.

  10. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to r...... both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.......The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...

  11. Sexual and Contraceptive Practices among Female Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There is a high level of sexual activity and low contraceptive use among female undergraduate students in Southwest Nigeria. More reproductive health education and promotion is necessary to safeguard their sexual health. KEYWORDS: sexual behaviour, contraception, female undergraduates, Nigeria ...

  12. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  13. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  14. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  15. Why is impaired sexual function distressing to women? The primacy of pleasure in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Eighty-seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Measure of Sexual Consequences. Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce fem...

  17. Recent advances in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A R

    2000-06-01

    Female sexuality has received little scientific study. Recently, increased interest in this field has generated new research in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacotherapy of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). A new FSD classification system has been proposed. Although sexual difficulties are highly prevalent among women, the degree of associated distress is unknown. Risk factors for FSD are probably both psychologic and physiologic. Aging or menopause is associated with lubrication difficulties, which can be treated with hormone replacement. Hysterectomy seems more likely to result in improvement rather then deterioration of sexual functioning. Depression may be a predictor of sexual dysfunction after hysterectomy. Vasoactive agents are currently being evaluated as treatment for female sexual arousal disorder. The most important advance in the study of female sexual function is the recent surge of interest in this relatively unexplored field.

  18. The role of the local microenvironment in regulating susceptibility and immune responses to sexually transmitted viruses in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu

    2009-12-01

    Sexually transmitted viruses cause chronic infections that have serious long-term health consequences. Based on the evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies, women carry a disproportionately higher burden of sexually transmitted diseases. The reasons for this are not well understood and possibly relate to a variety of social, behavioral and economic factors. In addition to these factors there are biological reasons that contribute to the higher prevalence in women. In this context it is critical to focus on and understand the local microenvironment of the female genital tract, since the majority of viral infections in women occur by heterosexual transmission. The genital tract is also the target site for initiation and maintenance of protective immune responses that could prevent or eliminate viral infections. The epithelial cells of the genital tract provide the first line of defense against viral entry. The interactions between each sexually transmitted virus and the genital epithelium are distinct and determine the outcome of exposure. They are also influenced by a number of factors in the local genital milieu. Among these factors are the female sex hormones that regulate both the susceptibility as well as immune responses to viral infections in the genital tract. Better understanding of the interactions of viruses with the local environment in the female genital tract will lead to development of novel methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections as well as to enhance innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  20. Exploring the effect of sexual empowerment on sexual decision making in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lien, Yu-Fen; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2010-03-01

    Traditional health education may not provide adequate sexual information to female adolescents. Sexual health education for female adolescents broadens opportunities for nurses to help female adolescents adopt appropriate sexual attitudes and make appropriate decisions. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of sexual empowerment on sexual decision making in female adolescents. Twenty-nine female students with steady boyfriends were invited to participate in a sexual empowerment course. Course activities specifically related to sexual empowerment were audio-tape-recorded. Dialogue content was analyzed, and content provided by each study participant was reconfirmed in face-to-face interviews to understand the entire empowerment process in terms of how such may affect responses and to assess the possibility of correctly reinterpreting findings during the member check process. This study also took into consideration degrees of reliability and rigorousness. The four themes found to underlie participant perceptions of their sexual empowerment to make sex-related decisions were as follows: (a) proactively seeking sexual knowledge, (b) reexamining relationships with boyfriends, (c) the right to say "no" and to engage in self-protection, and (d) the need to change sexual attitudes and behaviors. Using the peer group intervention in sexual empowerment may positively impact sexual health decision making in adolescent girls. Nursing professionals may consider peer group intervention as a sexual empowering method in healthcare.

  1. Female sexual function in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzevier, Hendrik Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe in chapter two the evaluation of female sexual function in an outpatient urologic clinic related to different urological complaints. Sexual abuse appeared to be a quite frequent problem in urological practice. In chapter three sexual abused patients are evaluated in

  2. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  3. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males. PMID:22563262

  4. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Kwun [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  5. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Yang, Jong Chul; Kim, Seok Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  6. Sexual satisfaction in females with premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard

    2010-11-01

    The impact of premenstrual symptoms, such as the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), on sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and sexual behaviors has not yet been established. To assess the correlates and risk factors of sexual satisfaction and to evaluate sexual behaviors among Polish women with premenstrual symptoms. 2,500 females, aged 18 to 45 years, from the Upper Silesian region of Poland were eligible for the questionnaire-based, prospective population study. All the inclusion criteria were met by 1,540 women who constituted the final study group. The participants were further divided into two subgroups: PMS+ (749 females) and PMS- (791 healthy subjects). Two additional subgroups were created: PMDD+ encompassing 32 subjects diagnosed with PMDD, and PMDD- comprising 32 healthy women, matched to the PMDD+ females for age, marital status, education level, employment status, place of living, and body mass index. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of PMS on sexual satisfaction and adjust for potential confounders. To evaluate risk factors for sexual dissatisfaction in a population of Polish females of reproductive age, diagnosed with PMS and PMDD. Women from the PMS+ group were less sexually satisfied than PMS- (77.73% vs. 88.66%, P=0.001) and reported more sexual distress (28.65% vs. 15.24%, P=0.001). There were no significant differences in sexual satisfaction between PMDD- and PMDD+. Sexual satisfaction correlated positively with a higher frequency of sexual intercourses and a higher level of education. The presence of PMS correlated negatively with sexual satisfaction, even after adjusting for potential confounders in the multivariate logistic regression model (odds ratio=0.48; confidence interval: 0.26-0.89; P=0.02). The presence of PMS is a risk factor for sexual dissatisfaction in Polish women of reproductive age. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Female sexual dysfunction: a focus on flibanserin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodise NM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Lodise Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Flibanserin is the first US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved option for sexual dysfunction, specifically low sexual desire. Until recently, there were no FDA-approved medication options to assist the ~40% of women affected by female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Often, patients report feeling uncomfortable discussing sexual health, identifying a strong need for health care professionals (HCPs to proactively reach out to patients to identify concerns and initiate a discussion about sexual health and the available treatment options. Within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DMS-5, the criteria of female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD are outlined, encompassing one of the most common sexual concerns, formerly in its own category defined as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD or low sexual desire. HSDD is the absence or deficiency of sexual interest and/or desire leading to significant distress and interpersonal difficulties. HCPs offer an important service in assessing their patients and providing information about treatment considerations while ensuring patient comfort with this topic. This article provides an overview of the types and potential causes associated with FSD and the role of flibanserin in practice as a treatment option. Despite a need for additional study in diverse populations, flibanserin has demonstrated efficacy with increased female sexual function index (FSFI total and desire domain scores in clinical studies indicating benefit in sexual desire. Common patient or provider-administered assessment tools to assist in identifying affected patients and patient counseling strategies are reviewed. Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, low sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, pharmacotherapy, flibanserin

  8. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  9. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  10. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual Function in Female Veterans: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Laina; Carroll, Richard

    2017-04-03

    Women comprise a significant proportion of the veteran population. Much research has been devoted to physical and mental health outcomes in veterans, both of which show significant decreases in quality of life. However, little is known about the effects of female veterans' unique military experience on sexual function. In particular, military sexual trauma, general military stressors, mental health diagnoses, and other vulnerability factors contribute to sexual dysfunction, dissatisfaction, and decreases in mental health-related quality of life. We propose a model whereby all of these factors interact and contribute to sexual dysfunction in female veterans, and areas for growth in assessment and treatment are discussed.

  12. The impact of childbirth on female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Leal

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare variables related to sexual functioning, namely: sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, sexual satisfaction and sexual function in women during the pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive, quantitative study. A non-probability, convenience sample of 62 women in the first stage, and of 52 women in the second stage, was used. The two groups were not significantly different regarding socio-demographic aspects. The main outcome measures used were the female sexual function as assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a Socio-demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Results: The women presented higher mean levels of sexual satisfaction after birth, than during the pregnancy presenting statistically significant differences. Also they had lower mean levels of sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication after delivery. Regarding the orgasm, they presented higher mean levels in the postpartum period. The overall sexual function after childbirth did not present significant differences when comparing the pregnancy period to the postpartum, but presented higher mean levels during the pregnancy. Pain levels were higher during the pregnancy. Conclusion: We found no significant differences between the two groups, in most of the studied variables. However, Sexual Arousal and Sexual Satisfaction presented statistically significant differences.

  13. Antidepressant-Induced Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Because 1 in 6 women in the United States takes antidepressants and a substantial proportion of patients report some disturbance of sexual function while taking these medications, it is a near certainty that the practicing clinician will need to know how to assess and manage antidepressant-related female sexual dysfunction. Adverse sexual effects can be complex because there are several potentially overlapping etiologies, including sexual dysfunction associated with the underlying mood disorder. As such, careful assessment of sexual function at the premedication visit followed by monitoring at subsequent visits is critical. Treatment of adverse sexual effects can be pharmacological (dose reduction, drug discontinuation or switching, augmentation, or using medications with lower adverse effect profiles), behavioral (exercising before sexual activity, scheduling sexual activity, vibratory stimulation, psychotherapy), complementary and integrative (acupuncture, nutraceuticals), or some combination of these modalities. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  15. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  16. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  17. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  19. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  20. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Althof, Stanley; Simon, James A; Bradford, Andrea; Bitzer, Johannes; Carvalho, Joana; Flynn, Kathryn E; Nappi, Rossella E; Reese, Jennifer B; Rezaee, Roya L; Schover, Leslie; Shifrin, Jan L

    2017-12-01

    Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner. To review the literature and describe the best practices for assessing and treating women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The committee undertook a comprehensive review of the literature and discussion among themselves to determine the best assessment and treatment methods. Using a biopsychosocial lens, the committee presents recommendations (with levels of evidence) for assessment and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The numerous significant strides in FSD that have occurred since the previous International Consultation of Sexual Medicine publications are reviewed in this article. Although evidence supports an integrated biopsychosocial approach to assessment and treatment of these disorders, the biological and psychological factors are artificially separated for review purposes. We recognize that best outcomes are achieved when all relevant factors are identified and addressed by the clinician and patient working together in concert (the sum is greater than the whole of its parts). Kingsberg SA, Althof S, Simon JA, et al. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14. J Sex Med 2017;14:1463-1491. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  1. Female Sexuality as Capacity and Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The article argues for an approach to studies of sexuality in Africa that considers the subject of female sexuality from the perspective of capacity and power. Based on data from Mozambique, and informed by conceptual frameworks as well as by research findings from other African countries......, the article investigates preparations of the erotic female body such as body tattoos, hip belts of glass beads, and elongated labia. It also discusses how “traditional” sexual capacity-building has been transferred from rural contexts into urban settings, empowering young women in love relationships...

  2. The Rectal Cancer Female Sexuality Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyø, Anne; Emmertsen, Katrine J; Laurberg, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction and impaired quality of life is a potential side effect to rectal cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple scoring system intended to evaluate sexual function in women treated for rectal cancer. DESIGN......: This is a population-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Female patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 2001 and 2014 were identified by using the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database. Participants filled in the validated Sexual Function Vaginal Changes questionnaire. Women declared to be sexually active...... in the validation group. PATIENTS: Female patients with rectal cancer above the age of 18 who underwent abdominoperineal resection, Hartmann procedure, or total/partial mesorectal excision were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was the quality of life that was negatively affected because...

  3. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. History of the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinplatz, Peggy J

    2018-01-22

    This article reviews the history of the treatment of women's sexual problems from the Victorian era to the twenty-first century. The contextual nature of determining what constitutes female sexual psychopathology is highlighted. Conceptions of normal sexuality are subject to cultural vagaries, making it difficult to identify female sexual dysfunctions. A survey of the inclusion, removal, and collapsing of women's sexual diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 1952 to 2013 illuminates the biases in the various editions. Masters and Johnson's models of sexual response and dysfunction paved the way for the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual dysfunctions. Their sex therapy paradigm is described. Conceptions of and treatments for anorgasmia, arousal difficulties, vaginismus, dyspareunia, and low desire are reviewed. The medicalization of human sexuality and the splintering of sex therapy are discussed, along with current trends and new directions in sexual health care for women. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk and Female Sexuality-Part I. Risk Factors and Potential Pathophysiological Underpinnings for Female Vasculogenic Sexual Dysfunction Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, Elisa; Scavello, Irene; Vignozzi, Linda

    2018-05-02

    Erectile dysfunction is recognized as an opportunity for preventing cardiovascular (CV) events, and assessing the impairment of penile vascular flow by Doppler ultrasound is an important tool to ascertain CV risk. Conversely, the role of genital vascular impairment in the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) remains contentious. To focus on the current scientific support for an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in the 1st part of a 2-part review. A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the associations between CV risk factors and FSD and their underlying mechanisms was performed using the PubMed database. We present a summary of the evidence from clinical studies and discuss the possible mechanisms providing the pathophysiologic bases of vasculogenic FSD syndromes. The peripheral sexual response in women is a vascular-dependent event, and evidence suggests that cardiometabolic-related perturbations in endothelial function can determine vascular insufficiency in female genital tissues. Although epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the prevalence of FSD is higher in women with diabetes mellitus, a cause-effect relation between these clinical conditions cannot be assumed. Evidence on the effect of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome on sexual function in women is controversial. Data on the associations of dyslipidemia and hypertension with FSD are limited. Common cardiometabolic alterations could affect vascular function in the female genital tract. Based on limited data, there is an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in women; however, this association appears milder than in men. Maseroli E, Scavello I, Vignozzi L. Cardiometabolic Risk and Female Sexuality-Part I. Risk Factors and Potential Pathophysiological Underpinnings for Female Vasculogenic Sexual Dysfunction Syndromes. Sex Med Rev 2018;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International

  7. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... FGM act) and female sexual function index (a 19-item self-reported questionnaire for assessing ... married educated women had FGM with their 272 matched controls (their matching was .... Urine retention. 73. 30.6 ... strata.14 This was also proved by the current work (39.3% of ... It is a single author paper.

  8. Decolonizing the Female Sexuality: What Nigerian Female Writers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...

  9. Think, ! responsible sexuality !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelín Bosque Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at supporting the social health worker 's job to motivate teenagers and young people to learn easily about differe nt topics concerning sexuality by increasing the information they already have, and by stating how dangerous an irresponsible sexual behaviour can be, thus reinforcing the value of responsibility. The software “Sexualidad Responsable” provides informatio n on sexual education taking into account the following subject matters: Couple Relationship, Adolescent Pregnancy, Methods of Contraception, Sexually Transmitted Infections (HIV/AIDS, Moral Value Acquisition, Family Role, Violence and its expressions, D eviation and Sexual Preferences, among others. It also has didactic games, a gallery with pictures, videos and curiosities.There is a glossary of scientific terms included and the software’s tutorial section that orients us how to use them. In the software the health workers will find a very useful and supporting tool to work out the theme Sexuality with teenagers and young people, this software will foster the creation of scientific societies and supporting groups. The social health workers can also sear ch information on the topics, learn and then debate them among the members of different dysfunctional families or even in their own families if necessary.

  10. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697

  11. Perceptions of female sexual health and sexual dysfunction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These respondents further defined FSD as either the inability of a female to respond to sex, a lack of urge to engage in sexual activities, or inability to attain orgasm. About half of the respondents (n=21) did not know that FSD could be managed; however, 70% of them felt comfortable with discussing FSD symptoms with a ...

  12. sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates in tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    female undergraduates, the causes and effects of such unhealthy behaviour on healthy living. Hence ... larger scale what they started in secondary schools. Again ... 1, 2010. 103 mostly under the influence of “psychotropic drugs” that put them in a ... the respondents on issues relating to sexual promiscuity and its attendant.

  13. Competence of Healthcare Workers in Sexual Health Education for Female Adolescents at Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Javadnoori; Sanaz Zangeneh; Mitra Tadayon; Mohamadreza Akhoond

    2016-01-01

    Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual heal...

  14. Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The author combines a literature review with results from her school-based research to argue that the anti-sex rhetoric surrounding sex education and school-based clinics inhibits the development of sexual responsibility and subjectivity in female adolescents. Current practices lead to increased victimization, teenage pregnancy, and dropout rates.…

  15. Female sexual distress in infertile Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. 
 Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.

  16. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  17. Advances in pharmacotherapy for treating female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Cucinella, Laura

    2015-04-01

    'Female sexual dysfunction' (FSD) is an umbrella term comprising a range of common disorders, including hypoactive sexual desire, reduced subjective and/or physical genital arousal (poor sensation, vasocongestion, lubrication), sexual pain and inability to achieve orgasm/satisfaction, which are multidimensional by nature and often coexisting. Psychological and contextual factors have a significant influence on organic components of sexual response and behavior and a tailored medical approach to sexual symptoms is inevitably limited. The paper reports the most recent advances in pharmacotherapy for women taking into account the biopsychosocial model. Hormone therapy, including estrogens, testosterone, tibolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, are discussed in term of efficacy and safety in postmenopausal women both for female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) and genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. Ospemifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, approved to treat dyspareunia at menopause, is also discussed. Data on psychoactive agents for treatment of FSIAD in premenopausal women are discussed, including the potential use of on-demand combined hormonal (testosterone) and non-hormonal (buspirone or sildenafil) treatments to address possible neurophysiological profiles of women. We are still waiting for an approved pharmacotherapy for FSD. This is not the result of gender inequality in sexual medicine, but it reflects the need of balancing benefits and risks in order to provide effective and safe treatments to women of any age.

  18. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among females in a university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-29

    Jun 29, 2014 ... A self-administered structured pretested questionnaire on sexual activity was administered (the Female ... Results: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSFI score ≤ 26.50) was 53.3%. ..... Sample size determination.

  19. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  1. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  2. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  3. Endorsement of Models Describing Sexual Response of Men and Women with a Sexual Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Sand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    , erectile dysfunction and dissatisfaction with sexual life were significantly related to endorsement of the Basson model or none of the models (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: No single model of sexual response could describe men's and women's sexual responses. The majority of men and women with no sexual......INTRODUCTION: Several models have been used to describe men's and women's sexual responses. These models have been conceptualized as linear or circular models. The circular models were proposed to describe women's sexual function best. AIM: This study aims to determine whether men and women thought...... that current theoretical models of sexual responses accurately reflected their own sexual experience and to what extent this was influenced by sexual dysfunction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a large, broadly sampled, nonclinical population, cohort of Danish men and women. The Female Sexual Function...

  4. Female Remating, Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Dr. Shree Ram; Singh, Dr. B N; Hoenigsberg, Dr. H F

    2002-01-01

    Female remating is the fundamental to evolutionary biology as it determines the pattern of sexual selection and sexual conflict. Remating in females is an important component of Drosophila mating systems because it is associated with pattern of sperm usage and sexual selection. Remating is common in females of many species of Drosophila in both natural and laboratory populations. It is reported in many insect species and vertebrates also. Female remating is prerequisite for the ...

  5. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.

  6. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Sexual Violence against Female Students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tora, Abebayehu

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…

  8. [Sexual pain disorders in females and males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, M; Mimoun, S; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of pain during sex is one of the most common complaints in gynecological and sexological practice but nonetheless one of the most difficult problems to deal with and treat effectively. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012 dealing with sexual pain in women and men. The different descriptions of painful intercourse (dyspareunia, vestibulo-vulvodynies, vaginismus) are not separate entities but the result of the interaction of many factors including genital pain, emotional and behavioral responses to penetration, caresses, desire and excitement, in a context of possible organic pathology (infection, endometriosis, inflammatory or dermatological disease, morphological or pelvic abnormality, hormonal deficiency) sometimes associated with chronic pain phenomena self-sustained by neurogenic inflammation. The clinical expression of sexual pain is as variable as its causes are many. The etiological investigation is essential but should not omit the sexological context and the need for appropriate management. The neurogenic inflammation and hypersensitivity impose an algological approach associated to etiological and sexological treatment. Chronic sexual pains, whether they are superficial or deep, can be the sign of organic or psycho-sexual (primary or secondary) disorders. The development of a "therapeutic program" helps patients, allows them to restore self-confidence and leads to the disappearance of the symptom in more than half cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Female youth who sexually coerce: prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and

  10. Sexual and social competition: broadening perspectives by defining female roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2012-08-19

    Males figured more prominently than females in Darwin's view of sexual selection. He considered female choice of secondary importance to male-male competition as a mechanism to explain the evolution of male ornaments and armaments. Fisher later demonstrated the importance of female choice in driving male trait evolution, but his ideas were largely ignored for decades. As sexual selection came to embrace the notions of parent-offspring and sexual conflict, and experimental tests of female choice showed promise, females began to feature more prominently in the framework of sexual selection theory. Recent debate over this theory has centred around the role of females, not only over the question of choice, but also over female-female competition. Whereas some have called for expanding the sexual selection framework to encompass all forms of female-female competition, others have called for subsuming sexual selection within a broader framework of social selection, or replacing it altogether. Still others have argued for linking sexual selection more clearly to other evolutionary theories such as kin selection. Rather than simply debating terminology, we must take a broader view of the general processes that lead to trait evolution in both sexes by clearly defining the roles that females play in the process, and by focusing on intra- and inter-sexual interactions in males and females.

  11. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders BERGLUND

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In sex role reversed species, predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits, such as ornaments and/or weapons. Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species, whether sex role reversed or not. However, sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species, present in both males and females. This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles: males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments. At the same time, females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons, used in competition over resources or in predator defence. Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare, almost absent, in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons, conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation, and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments. Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males, at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits, as trait costs reduce a female’s fecundity. I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons. The same may apply to paternally investing males. Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated [Current Zoology 59 (4: 564–568, 2013].

  12. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  13. Factors influencing fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sarah; Heckard, Danyeal; Hassell, James; Uphouse, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, produces sexual side effects with low sexual desire being the most prevalent effect in females. In few studies have preclinical models for such antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction been fruitful. In the current manuscript, the effects of fluoxetine on multiple measures of female sexual motivation and sexual receptivity were examined. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 500 μg progesterone. Partner preference, active investigation of the male, and measures of sexual behavior were examined after injection with 15 mg/kg fluoxetine. Factors (pretesting for sexual behavior, size of the test arena, non-contact time with a male) that differ among experiments designed to study antidepressant-induced female rat sexual dysfunction were studied. The male preference ratio was not affected by fluoxetine treatment but active investigation of the male was reduced; lordosis behavior was inhibited and pretesting for sexual receptivity amplified fluoxetine's inhibition; size of the testing arena or non-contact experience with the male had no effect. Regardless of test condition, when given the opportunity to escape from the male, fluoxetine-treated females displayed escape behavior. Measures of male preference and active investigation, but not lordosis behavior, appeared to be affected by fluoxetine's impact on activity. The collective data provided a behavioral profile of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. These findings reinforce the value of multiple measures when attempting to model antidepressant-induced female sexual dysfunction. PMID:22835821

  14. Different Equals Less: Female Sexuality in Recent Marriage Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Shankweiler, Penelope J.

    1971-01-01

    Bestselling marriage manuals were examined to see if changes had occurred in the portrayal of female sexuality. It was found that the woman is still assumed to have less sexual interest and experience than the man, who is ascribed the instrumental role of cultivating his wife's sexuality. (Author)

  15. Prevalence of Sexual Activity and Outcome among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual ...

  16. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...

  17. The Development of Female Sexual Behavior Requires Prepubertal Estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, O.; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence ofovarian sex hormone actions. However,inaprevious study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to

  18. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among females in a university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: This is a cross‑sectional study involving 500 females recruited randomly in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A self‑administered structured pretested questionnaire on sexual activity was administered (the Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software ...

  19. Pharmacological therapy for female sexual dysfunction - Has progress been made?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Susan R.; Nijland, Esme A.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is an evolving area in which definitions and models for female sexual functioning are being continually reviewed and revised. The lack of consensus amongst experts in the field and regulating authorities regarding appropriate inclusion and

  20. Sexual Experience in Female Rodents: Cellular Mechanisms and Functional Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Robert L.; Mullins, Amanda J.

    2007-01-01

    The neurobiology of female sexual behavior has largely focused on mechanisms of hormone action on nerve cells and how these effects translate into the display of copulatory motor patterns. Of equal importance, though less studied, are some of the consequences of engaging in sexual behavior, including the rewarding properties of sexual interactions and how sexual experience alters copulatory efficiency. This review summarizes the effects of sexual experience on reward processes and copulation in female Syrian hamsters. Neural correlates of these sexual interactions include long-term cellular changes in dopamine transmission and postsynaptic signaling pathways related to neuronal plasticity (e.g., dendritic spine formation). Taken together, these studies suggest that sexual experience enhances the reinforcing properties of sexual behavior, which has the coincident outcome of increasing copulatory efficiency in a way that can increase reproductive success. PMID:16978593

  1. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  2. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  3. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  4. Consequences of sexual harassment in sport for female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K

    2002-01-01

    Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...

  5. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women∗: ∗2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  7. Female sexual compulsivity: a new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martha

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses women who have sexual compulsivity, a disorder that is intensely shame-based and difficult to treat. The case studies presented show the family preconditioning of abandonment in childhood through inadequate care, abuse, neglect, and the presence of other addictions. As children, these women searched for something to soothe their distress when they could not rely on their caregivers. Maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as masturbation, food, romantic or violent fantasies, and any behavior to would gain attention, maintained their sanity in childhood. However, these behaviors also advanced to autonomy, eliminating the option of choices. In adulthood, the numbing of psychic pain by these found solutions became a preoccupation around which life was organized. Consequences developed and as the disease progressed, large amounts of time were regularly lost in fantasy and ritualistic behaviors, causing life to become unmanageable. The fear of being discovered, loneliness, and sexually transmitted diseases typically escalates to spiritual bankruptcy and eventual spiritual, psychological, and possibly physical death. The dilemma is too deep and powerful for women to heal themselves over time, partly because of her impaired thinking, unresolved trauma, and desperation-driven repeat of the behaviors. Proper intervention and treatment can make a difference. Restoration to full health takes years, requiring diligence, motivation, and a therapist who is knowledgeable, committed, patient, and willing to use all available modalities. Trust is a huge issue for these women, and even when taking a positive risk in therapy, trauma responses from early childhood may be evoked. These women are exquisitely sensitive to criticism, but if feeling safe most can learn to trust and will respond to help, because they long to be restored to their values, be self-sufficient, and have a voice that is respected. Uncovering sexual secrets from previous generations, still

  8. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  9. Evolution of female carotenoid coloration by sexual constraint in Carduelis finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Gonçalo C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Females often express the same ornaments as males to a similar or lesser degree. Female ornaments can be adaptive, but little is known regarding their origins and mode of evolution. Current utility does not imply evolutionary causation, and therefore it is possible that female ornamentation evolved due to selection on females, as a correlated response to selection on males (sexual constraint, or a combination of both. We tested these ideas simulating simple models for the evolution of male and female correlated traits, and compared their predictions against the coloration of finches in the genus Carduelis. Results For carotenoid-based ornamental coloration, a model of sexual constraint on females fits the Carduelis data well. The two alternative models (sexual constraint on males, and mutual constraint were rejected as causing the similarities in carotenoid coloration between males and females. For melanin coloration, the correlation between the sexes was weaker, indicating that males and females evolved independently to a greater extent. Conclusions This indicates that sexual constraint on females was an important mechanism for the evolution of ornamental carotenoid coloration in females, but less so for melanin coloration. This does not mean that female carotenoid coloration is non-adaptive or maladaptive, because sexual dichromatism could evolve if it were maladaptive. It suggests, however, that most evolution of female carotenoid coloration was male-driven and, when adaptive, may not be an adaptation stricto sensu.

  10. Perceptions of female sexual health and sexual dysfunction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions asked ranged from sexual activity in the preceding 6 months, menopausal status, if they thought they had sexual dysfunction to their willingness to discuss an FSD with a sexual health physician if they had access to one. Results: Over 50% (n=28) of the respondents had an idea about what FSD was before the ...

  11. Penis size: Survey of female perceptions of sexual satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenman Russell

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Does the size of the male penis, in terms of length or width, make a difference in female sexual satisfaction? Method To study the effect of penis width vs. length on female sexual satisfaction, 50 sexually active female undergraduate students were asked which felt better, i. e., was penis width or length more important for their sexual satisfaction. Results None reported they did not know, or that width and length were equally satisfying. A large majority, 45 of 50, reported width was more important (p Conclusion Implications are discussed, including the fact that the data seem to contradict Masters and Johnson about penis size having no physiological effect on female sexual satisfaction.

  12. Extinction of Aversive Classically Conditioned Human Sexual Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Both, S.

    INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish

  13. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, is related to neurophysiological responses elicited by sexual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn R. Steele

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire. Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual “addiction”. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods: Fifty-two (13 female individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results: Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion: Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.

  14. Sexual function in female patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren

    2011-01-01

    function and distress are sparse. Aim. To investigate sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and to determine which factors are of importance for their sexual function. Methods. We investigated 80 female patients (ages 28–64) admitted to a sleep laboratory...... and who after investigation received a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. All subjects answered questions drawn from three self-administered questionnaires on sexuality. The results were compared with a population sample (N = 240). Main Outcome Measure. Data from nocturnal respiratory recordings...

  15. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: definitions and classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, R.; Berman, J.; Burnett, A.; Derogatis, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fourcroy, J.; Goldstein, I.; Graziottin, A.; Heiman, J.; Laan, E.; Leiblum, S.; Padma-Nathan, H.; Rosen, R.; Segraves, K.; Segraves, R. T.; Shabsigh, R.; Sipski, M.; Wagner, G.; Whipple, B.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual

  16. Sexual behavior induction of c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity are sensitized by previous sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, K C; Meisel, R L

    2001-03-15

    Dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens can be activated by drugs, stress, or motivated behaviors, and repeated exposure to these stimuli can sensitize this dopamine response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether female sexual behavior activates nucleus accumbens neurons and whether past sexual experience cross-sensitizes neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens to amphetamine. Using immunocytochemical labeling, c-Fos expression in different subregions (shell vs core at the rostral, middle, and caudal levels) of the nucleus accumbens was examined in female hamsters that had varying amounts of sexual experience. Female hamsters, given either 6 weeks of sexual experience or remaining sexually naive, were tested for sexual behavior by exposure to adult male hamsters. Previous sexual experience increased c-Fos labeling in the rostral and caudal levels but not in the middle levels of the nucleus accumbens. Testing for sexual behavior increased labeling in the core, but not the shell, of the nucleus accumbens. To validate that female sexual behavior can sensitize neurons in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the locomotor responses of sexually experienced and sexually naive females to an amphetamine injection were then compared. Amphetamine increased general locomotor activity in all females. However, sexually experienced animals responded sooner to amphetamine than did sexually naive animals. These data indicate that female sexual behavior can activate neurons in the nucleus accumbens and that sexual experience can cross-sensitize neuronal responses to amphetamine. In addition, these results provide additional evidence for functional differences between the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens and across its anteroposterior axis.

  17. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  19. Incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in infertile females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S. Aggarwal

    2013-09-01

    Results: In our study 170 (63.67% patients in the infertile group (n = 267 had female sexual dysfunction as compared to108 (46.35% in the fertile group (n = 233, which is statistically significant (P 0.0001. Most common dysfunction observed was arousal (70% in infertile patients. Common dysfunctions observed in fertile females were desire (40% and orgasm (40%. FSD was significantly higher in infertile females of the 31–37 years age group (P 0.002, while more common in fertile females of >42 years of age (P < 0.0001. Higher female sexual dysfunction was observed in illiterate infertile females (P 0.039. Among the pathological factors endometriosis was the statistically significant factor associated with female sexual dysfunction and infertility (P < 0.0001. No significant correlation in duration of infertility or type of infertility was observed with female sexual dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction as the cause or the effect should be ascertained in infertility.

  20. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  1. Development of a sexual function questionnaire for clinical trials of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirk, Frances H.; Heiman, Julia R.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Laan, Ellen; Smith, Michael D.; Boolell, Mitra

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To better evaluate efficacy in clinical trials of drugs as potential treatments for female sexual dysfunctions (FSD), a brief, multidimensional measure of female sexual function was developed. METHODS: Data from semistructured interviews with 82 women with or without FSD, aged 19-65

  2. A multivariate twin study of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burri, A.; Greven, C.U.; Leupin, M.; Spector, T.; Rahman, Q.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little work on the etiology of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), a highly contentious and heterogeneous disorder from classification and clinical perspectives. Clarifying causative mechanisms may enhance current psychiatric nosology. AIM: To elucidate the structure of genetic

  3. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction......, but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic......-Meyer KS, Bohm-Starke N, Damsted Petersen C, Fugl-Meyer A, Parish S, and Giraldi A. Standard operating procedures for female genital sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  4. Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Assault among Female Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sexual assault is a violent crime against both the individual and society but is largely underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of sexual assault among female students in the University of Maiduguri. Methods: A crossectional descriptive study using a close ended, self ...

  5. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  6. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  7. Sexual Violence among Female Undergraduates in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression and guilt were the major health consequences reported. Sexual violence is high at the University of Port Harcourt, which warrants targeted preventive action. Keywords: Sexual violence, epidemiology, health consequences, females, University. Nous avons menée une étude sur la prévalence, la configuration, ...

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the female sexual function index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E; Milhausen, Robin R

    2013-01-01

    The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000 ) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine desire and arousal problems. The objective of this article was to evaluate and compare four models of the Female Sexual Functioning Index: (a) single-factor model, (b) six-factor model, (c) second-order factor model, and (4) five-factor model combining the desire and arousal subscales. Cross-sectional and observational data from 85 women were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Local and global goodness-of-fit measures, the chi-square test of differences, squared multiple correlations, and regression weights were used. The single-factor model fit was not acceptable. The original six-factor model was confirmed, and good model fit was found for the second-order and five-factor models. Delta chi-square tests of differences supported best fit for the six-factor model validating usage of the six domains. However, when revisions are made to the DSM-5, the Female Sexual Functioning Index can adapt to reflect these changes and remain a valid assessment tool for women's sexual functioning, as the five-factor structure was also supported.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Event Diary in a Sample of Dutch Women With Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Yvonne; Bloemers, Jos; Kessels, Rob; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Rooij, Kim; Gerritsen, Jeroen; DeRogatis, Leonard; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2018-05-01

    such data. Consistent with the US-English version, the Dutch version of the SED is a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument, and suitable for use in evaluating effects of on-demand drugs in women with FSIAD. van Nes Y, Bloemers J, Kessels R, et al. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Event Diary in a Sample of Dutch Women With Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder. J Sex Med 2018;15:722-731. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses Following Sexual and Non-Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; And Others

    Assault victims exhibit a variety of emotional responses including fear, depression, and sexual impairment. For most assault victims, these responses decline over time. This study examined the pattern of post-assault responses during the first 12 weeks and compared the pattern of responses following rape with non-sexual criminal assault reactions.…

  11. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with endometriosis: Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. Materials and Methods: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18-47 years who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. Results: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. Conclusion: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients.

  12. Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction: II. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Gruenwald, Ilan; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Lowenstein, Lior; Pyke, Robert E; Reisman, Yakov; Revicki, Dennis A; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio

    2016-12-01

    The second article in this series, Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction, focuses on measurement of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Together with the design of appropriate phase I to phase IV clinical trials, the development, validation, choice, and implementation of valid PRO measurements-the focus of the present article-form the foundation of research on treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions. PRO measurements are assessments of any aspect of a patient's health status that come directly from the patient (ie, without the interpretation of the patient's responses by a physician or anyone else). PROs are essential for assessing male and female sexual dysfunction and treatment response, including symptom frequency and severity, personal distress, satisfaction, and other measurements of sexual and general health-related quality of life. Although there are some relatively objective measurements of sexual dysfunction (ie, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, frequency of sexual activity, etc), these measurements do not comprehensively assess the occurrence and extent of sexual dysfunction or treatment on the patient's symptoms, functioning, and well-being. Data generated by a PRO instrument can provide evidence of a treatment benefit from the patient's perspective. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence, types and consequences of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in the University. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Using a cluster sampling method, 295 female students resident in the four campuses of the university were recruited and ...

  14. Sexual Abuse among Female Secondary School Students in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sexual abuse is one of the most stressful life events and is associated with many adverse consequences including physical and mental health problems, substance abuse and criminality Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that was conducted among female secondary school students in ...

  15. Female Sexuality in Contemporary African Literature: From Achebe's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study develops from the premise that female sexuality is a theme that has received minimal critical and creative attention in African literature, implying that an important aspect of womanhood has been overlooked or deliberately ignored in much of African literature. Thus, this paper examines the treatment of female ...

  16. Management of female sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Goldfinger, Corrie; Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia has been fundamentally altered over the past two decades due to increased attention and empirically sound research in this domain. This increased knowledge base has included a shift from a dualistic view of the etiology of painful and/or difficult vaginal penetration being due to either psychological or physiological causes, to a multifactorial perspective. The present chapter reviews current classification and prevalence rates, including ongoing definitional debates. Research regarding the etiology, assessment and management of sexual pain disorders is discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Cyclical theories of the development and maintenance of sexual pain disorders, which highlight the complex interplay among physiological, psychological and social factors, are described. Medical/surgical treatment options, pelvic floor rehabilitation and psychological approaches are reviewed, as well as future directions in treatment research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  18. Female methamphetamine users: social characteristics and sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.

  19. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    knowledge of family planning. Condom ... relationship between respondents with multiple ... cause of healthy life lost. ... power imbalance between women ... working on female reproductive health ..... consequences among student nurses.

  20. HIV risk and sexual health among female migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-09-01

    Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Vaginal application of testosterone : A study on pharmacokinetics and the sexual response in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apperloo, M; Midden, M; van der Stege, J; Wouda, J; Hoek, A; Schultz, WW

    Introduction. Androgen substitution is advocated to improve sexual functioning in women with androgen insufficiency. Nevertheless, the role of androgens in female sexual functioning is not yet unraveled. Even less is known about changes in androgens and the female sexual response. Aim. The aim of

  2. Possible evolutionary origins of human female sexual fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    I propose an evolutionary theory of human female sexual fluidity and argue that women may have been evolutionarily designed to be sexually fluid in order to allow them to have sex with their cowives in polygynous marriage and thus reduce conflict and tension inherent in such marriage. In addition to providing an extensive definition and operationalization of the concept of sexual fluidity and specifying its ultimate function for women, the proposed theory can potentially solve several theoretical and empirical puzzles in evolutionary psychology and sex research. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) confirm the theory's predictions that: (i) women (but not men) who experience increased levels of sexual fluidity have a larger number of children (suggesting that female sexual fluidity, if heritable, may be evolutionarily selected); (ii) women (but not men) who experience marriage or parenthood early in adult life subsequently experience increased levels of sexual fluidity; and (iii) sexual fluidity is significantly positively correlated with known markers of unrestricted sexual orientation among women whereas it is significantly negatively correlated with such markers among men. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Sexual violence against female university students in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie; Hagos, Mihiret Abreham

    2017-07-24

    Though many women are suffering the consequences of sexual violence, only few victims speak out as it is sensitive and prone to stigma. This lack of data made it difficult to get full picture of the problem and design proper interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with sexual violence among female students of Wolaita Sodo University, south Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 462 regular female Wolaita Sodo University students on April 7/2015. Participants were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done by EPI info and SPSS statistical packages respectively. Descriptive statistics were done. Moreover, bivariate and multivariate analyses were also carried out to identify predictors of sexual violence. The age of respondents ranged from 18 to 26 years. Lifetime sexual violence was found to be 45.4%. However, 36.1% and 24.4% of respondents reported experiencing sexual violence since entering university and in the current academic year respectively. Life time sexual violence was positively associated with witnessing inter-parental violence as a child, rural childhood residence, having regular boyfriend, alcohol consumption and having friends who drink regularly; while it was negatively associated with discussing sexual issues with parents. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon among the students. More detailed research has to be conducted to develop prevention and intervention strategies.

  4. Can sexual selection drive female life histories? A comparative study on Galliform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, N; Stein, R W; Mooers, A Ø; Verspoor, J J; Cunningham, E J A

    2007-03-01

    Sexual selection has been identified as a major evolutionary force shaping male life history traits but its impact on female life history evolution is less clear. Here we examine the impact of sexual selection on three key female traits (body size, egg size and clutch size) in Galliform birds. Using comparative independent contrast analyses and directional discrete analyses, based on published data and a new genera-level supertree phylogeny of Galliform birds, we investigated how sexual selection [quantified as sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and social mating system (MS)] affects these three important female traits. We found that female body mass was strongly and positively correlated with egg size but not with clutch size, and that clutch size decreased as egg size increased. We established that SSD was related to MS, and then used SSD as a proxy of the strength of sexual selection. We found both a positive relationship between SSD and female body mass and egg size and that increases in female body mass and egg size tend to occur following increases in SSD in this bird order. This pattern of female body mass increases lagging behind changes in SSD, established using our directional discrete analysis, suggests that female body mass increases as a response to increases in the level of sexual selection and not simply through a strong genetic relationship with male body mass. This suggests that sexual selection is linked to changes in female life history traits in Galliformes and we discuss how this link may shape patterns of life history variation among species.

  5. Assessment of sexually related personal distress accompanying premenopausal sexual dysfunction with an Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K

    2017-10-01

    To assess sexually related personal distress among premenopausal women with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) via a validated Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, between May 2015 and July 2016. In a pilot study to evaluate test-retest reliability and internal consistency, 42 sexually active premenopausal women (aged ≥20 years) completed the Arabic FSDS at recruitment and 2 weeks later. Subsequently, premenopausal sexually active women (aged 20-45 years) were asked to complete the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire; those with FSD (FSFI score ≤26.55) were invited to return to complete the validated version of the Arabic FSDS. The Arabic FSDS showed good test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.93-0.98) and internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.83-0.92). Overall, 140 (58.1%) of 241 women who completed the FSFI had sexual dysfunction, of whom 51 (36.4%) had sexually related personal distress. Marriage duration was significantly increased among women with FSD (P<0.001). All FSFI sexual domains except lubrication were negatively correlated with FSDS. FSD and sexually related personal distress were highly interrelated and prevalent. An Arabic version of the FSDS was found to be valid and reliable for evaluation of sexually related personal distress. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. A cost of sexual attractiveness to high-fitness females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A F Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mate choice by females is an important component of sexual selection in many species. The evolutionary consequences of male mate preferences, however, have received relatively little study, especially in the context of sexual conflict, where males often harm their mates. Here, we describe a new and counterintuitive cost of sexual selection in species with both male mate preference and sexual conflict via antagonistic male persistence: male mate choice for high-fecundity females leads to a diminished rate of adaptive evolution by reducing the advantage to females of expressing beneficial genetic variation. We then use a Drosophila melanogaster model system to experimentally test the key prediction of this theoretical cost: that antagonistic male persistence is directed toward, and harms, intrinsically higher-fitness females more than it does intrinsically lower-fitness females. This asymmetry in male persistence causes the tails of the population's fitness distribution to regress towards the mean, thereby reducing the efficacy of natural selection. We conclude that adaptive male mate choice can lead to an important, yet unappreciated, cost of sex and sexual selection.

  7. Combat deployment is associated with sexual harassment or sexual assault in a large, female military cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardmann, Cynthia A; Pietrucha, Amanda; Magruder, Kathryn M; Smith, Besa; Murdoch, Maureen; Jacobson, Isabel G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gackstetter, Gary; Smith, Tyler C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the prevalence, risk factors, and health correlates of sexual stressors in the military, but have been limited to specific subpopulations. Furthermore, little is known about sexual stressors' occurrence and their correlates in relation to female troops deployed to the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using longitudinal data from Millennium Cohort participants, the associations of recent deployment as well as other individual and environmental factors with sexual harassment and sexual assault were assessed among U.S. female military personnel. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate the associations. Of 13,262 eligible participants, 1,362 (10.3%) reported at least one sexual stressor at follow-up. Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-2.64) or both sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61-3.78) compared with nondeployers. In addition, significant risk factors for sexual stressors included younger age, recent separation or divorce, service in the Marine Corps, positive screen for a baseline mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual stressor experiences. Although deployment itself was not associated with sexual stressors, women who both deployed and reported combat were at a significantly increased odds for sexual stressors than other female service members who did not deploy. Understanding the factors associated with sexual stressors can inform future policy and prevention efforts to eliminate sexual stressors. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  9. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  10. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  11. Sexual function in females after radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.; Fossaa, Sophie D.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Background. Knowledge about female sexual problems after pre- or postoperative (chemo-)radiotherapy and radical resection of rectal cancer is limited. The aim of this study was to compare self-rated sexual functioning in women treated with or without radiotherapy (RT+ vs. RT?), at least two years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and materials. Female patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 were identified from a national database, the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Eligible patients were without recurrence or metastases at the time of the study. The Sexual function and Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ) was used to measure sexual functioning. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 172 of 332 invited and eligible women (52%). The mean age was 65 years (range 42-79) and the time since surgery for rectal cancer was 4.5 years (range 2.6-12.4). Sexual interest was not significantly impaired in RT+ (n=62) compared to RT? (n=110) women. RT+ women reported more vaginal problems in terms of vaginal dryness (50% vs. 24%), dyspareunia (35% vs. 11%) and reduced vaginal dimension (35% vs. 6%) compared with RT? patients; however, they did not have significantly more worries about their sex life. Conclusion. An increased risk of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness was observed in women following surgery combined with (chemo-)radiotherapy compared with women treated with surgery alone. Further research is required to determine the effect of adjuvant therapy on female sexual function

  12. Experimental removal and elevation of sexual selection: does sexual selection generate manipulative males and resistant females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudgington, Helen S; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brüstle, Lena; Green, Kathleen; Snook, Rhonda R

    2005-05-01

    Sexual conflict over reproduction can occur between males and females. In several naturally promiscuous insect species, experimental evolution studies that have enforced monogamy found evidence for sexual conflict. Here, we subjected the naturally promiscuous, sperm-heteromorphic fruit fly Drosophila pseudoobscura to enforced monogamy, standard levels of promiscuity, and elevated opportunities for promiscuity in four replicate lines. We examined the effect of male and female selection history and the proximate effect of variation in male density on female fitness parameters. We found that male density rather than male selection history explained a greater degree of female fecundity, egg hatching success, and productivity. Additionally, females selected under elevated promiscuity had greater fecundity and hatching success than did enforced monogamy females. Selection line males do not differ in their capacity to coerce females to remate, suggesting no divergence in precopulatory manipulative ability. However, these males did vary in their ability to suppress female remating, suggesting postcopulatory manipulation. These results indicate that sexual conflict can be manifested through both the proximate effects of male density and the historical levels of sexual selection and that the sexes respond differentially to these factors and further stress the multifarious channels of sexual communication that contribute to fitness.

  13. Sexual harassment of female physicians by patients. What is to be done?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the responses of female physicians who have been sexually harassed by patients, as a means of answering the question, "What is to be done?" DESIGN: As part of a larger study on the topic, randomly selected participants were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about the nature and extent of sexual harassment by patients and about resulting feelings, actions, and suggestions for prevention. SETTING: Family practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of ...

  14. Sexual experience of female partners of men with erectile dysfunction: the female experience of men's attitudes to life events and sexuality (FEMALES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Rosen, Raymond C; Eardley, Ian; Sand, Michael; Goldstein, Irwin

    2005-09-01

    Much research has explored the experience of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with ED, but far less attention has been paid to the perceptions and sexual experiences of the female partners of men with ED. The objective of this study was to characterize the attitudes, beliefs, and sexual experience of female partners of men with erectile difficulties. Female partners of men with ED who had participated in the Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study were recruited for this research via mail or Internet, after their male partners consented to this contact. Female partners of men with ED (N = 293) responded to questionnaire measures assessing their frequency of sexual activity and the nature of their sexual experience, both before and after the development of their partner's ED, and in relation to their partner's use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Women reported engaging in sexual activity significantly less frequently after their partner developed ED in comparison with before (P effects on the female partner's sexual experience. Women with partners who were currently using PDE5 inhibitors had a more satisfying sexual experience than those whose partners did not use a PDE5 inhibitor.

  15. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an extinction phase. Possible resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses may have important clinical implications. However, resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned human sexual response has not been studied using extensive extinction trials. This article aims to study resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses in sexually functional men and women. A differential conditioning experiment was conducted, with two erotic pictures as conditioned stimulus (CSs) and a painful stimulus as unconditioned stimuli (USs). Only one CS (the CS+) was followed by the US during the acquisition phase. Conditioned responses were assessed during the extinction phase. Penile circumference and vaginal pulse amplitude were assessed, and ratings of affective value and subjective sexual arousal were obtained. Also, a stimulus response compatibility task was included to assess automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Men and women rated the CS+ more negative as compared with the CS-. During the first trials of the extinction phase, vaginal pulse amplitude was lower in response to the CS+ than in response to the CS-, and on the first extinction trial women rated the CS+ as less sexually arousing. Intriguingly, men did not demonstrate attenuated genital and subjective sexual response. Aversive conditioning, by means of painful stimuli, only affects sexual responses in women, whereas it does not in men. Although conditioned sexual likes and dislikes are relatively persistent, conditioned affect eventually does extinguish. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  18. Dopamine D5 receptor modulates male and female sexual behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, A E; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Cabrera, D M; Sibley, D R; Rissman, E F

    2005-07-01

    Dopamine exerts its actions through at least five receptor (DAR) isoforms. In female rats, D5 DAR may be involved in expression of sexual behavior. We used a D5 knockout (D5KO) mouse to assess the role of D5 DAR in mouse sexual behavior. Both sexes of D5KO mice are fertile and exhibit only minor disruptions in exploratory locomotion, startle, and prepulse inhibition responses. This study was conducted to characterize the sexual behavior of male and female D5KO mice relative to their WT littermates. Female WT and D5KO littermates were ovariectomized and given a series of sexual behavior tests after treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Once sexual performance was optimal the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), was substituted for P. Male mice were observed in pair- and trio- sexual behavior tests. To assess whether the D5 DAR is involved in rewarding aspects of sexual behavior, WT and D5KO male mice were tested for conditioned place preference. Both WT and D5KO females can display receptivity after treatment with EB and P, but APO was only able to facilitate receptivity in EB-primed WT, not in D5KO, mice. Male D5KO mice display normal masculine sexual behavior in mating tests. In conditioned preference tests, WT males formed a conditioned preference for context associated with either intromissions alone or ejaculation as the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, D5KO males only showed a place preference when ejaculation was paired with the context. In females, the D5 DAR is essential for the actions of dopamine on receptivity. In males, D5 DAR influences rewarding aspects of intromissions. Taken together, the work suggests that the D5 receptor mediates dopamine's action on sexual behavior in both sexes, perhaps via a reward pathway.

  19. Female sexual pain disorders: dyspareunia and vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Chiara; Eleuteri, Stefano; Petruccelli, Filippo; Rossi, Roberta

    2014-11-01

    To analyze literature on sexual pain disorders and to review and summarize the articles published throughout 2013 which contribute to the current knowledge on this subject. By age 40, 7.8% of women reported vulvar pain. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, has combined vaginismus and dyspareunia into the same diagnostic label. The research reviewed in this article seems to differently point toward two conditions, focusing on different aspects both on the etiological and on the treatment area. Higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of partner catastrophizing were associated with less pain intensity in women with entry dyspareunia, independent of women's pain perception and self-efficacy. Alexithymia and fear were found to be important etiological factors in vaginismus. The present findings did not provide clear evidence in support of the superiority of any treatment and highlight the need for randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compare treatments in the future. A lot of work remained to be done to understand such a complex and multifaceted disturbance as genital sexual pain, but the articles examined showed that we are slowly adding more knowledge on the etiological cause and treatment models for such conditions.

  20. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.

  1. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Interoception and sexual response in women with low sexual desire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD). Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95). There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women’s heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting), were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting) was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship. PMID:29020067

  3. Interoception and sexual response in women with low sexual desire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Velten

    Full Text Available Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception, past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD. Fifty-two women with SIAD completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA, a validated self-report measure of interoception, and completed a heart-beat accuracy test, an objective measure of interoception. They also participated in a laboratory-based assessment of physiological sexual arousal and self-reported sexual arousal while viewing an erotic film. Mental and physiological arousal were correlated at r = 0.27 (range -0.80 to 0.95. There was no significant association between sexual concordance and women's heartrate awareness. However, five aspects of interoceptive awareness (noticing, emotional awareness, self-regulation, body-listening, and trusting, were predictive of lower, and one aspect (not-distracting was predictive of higher sexual concordance. We discuss the findings in relation to the role of emotions and arousal states in the interoception-sexual concordance relationship.

  4. Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle. ... Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.

  5. Evolution of male and female genitalia following release from sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, Luis; Maklakov, Alexei A; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2011-08-01

    Despite the key functions of the genitalia in sexual interactions and fertilization, the role of sexual selection and conflict in shaping genital traits remains poorly understood. Seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) males possess spines on the intromittent organ, and females possess a thickened reproductive tract wall that also bears spines. We investigated the role of sexual selection and conflict by imposing monogamous mating on eight replicate populations of this naturally polygamous insect, while maintaining eight other populations under polygamy. To establish whether responses to mating system manipulation were robust to ecological context, we simultaneously manipulated life-history selection (early/late reproduction). Over 18-21 generations, male genital spines evolved relatively reduced length in large males (i.e., shallower static allometry) in monogamous populations. Two nonintromittent male genital appendages also evolved in response to the interaction of mating system and ecology. In contrast, no detectable evolution occurred in female genitalia, consistent with the expectation of a delayed response in defensive traits. Our results support a sexually antagonistic role for the male genital spines, and demonstrate the evolution of static allometry in response to variation in sexual selection opportunity. We argue that further advances in the study of genital coevolution will require a much more detailed understanding of the functions of male and female genital traits. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. ATTITUDES OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ITS PECULIARITIES

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    R. S. Brito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the attitudes of female sexual behavior. This is a descriptive and quantitative. The sample consisted of 100 women attending the Family Health Strategy Sinop - MT. Data were collected through a semistructured interview containing questions regarding sexual health. The study complied with the ethical standards of research with humans. It is noteworthy that the age of participants ranged from 18 to 85 years and 3% said to be sex workers. Note that 40% of respondents cannot be sexual excited before penetration and 14% have dyspareunia. As to orgasm, 4% reported never having reached, 1% do not have an orgasm at the moment and 95% have made it clear that orgasm. Thus, sexual function may be affected, facts that can be avoided and / or minimized with comprehensive care in nursing consultation.

  7. Association between Sexting and Sexual Coercion among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Ouytsel, Joris Van; Temple, Jeff R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females’ involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. PMID:27814493

  8. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these difficulties. However, there is a lack of studies on the influence of these cognitive-affective dimensions regarding female orgasm. To assess the role of automatic thoughts and affect during sexual activity in predicting female orgasm occurrence and to investigate the mediator role of these variables in the relation between sexual activity and orgasm occurrence. Nine hundred twenty-six sexually active heterosexual premenopausal women reported on frequency of sexual activities and frequency of orgasm occurrence, cognitive factors, and social desirability. Participants completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire-Automatic Thoughts Subscale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Socially Desirable Response Set. Multiple linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed, controlling for the effect of covariates such as social desirability, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and relationship factors. The main outcome measurement was orgasm frequency as predicted and mediated by automatic thoughts and affect experienced during sexual activities. The presence of failure thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity significantly and negatively predicted female orgasm, whereas positive affect experienced during sexual activity significantly and positively predicted female orgasm. Moreover, negative automatic thoughts and positive affect during sexual activity were found to mediate the relation between sexual activity and female orgasm occurrence. These data suggest that the cognitive aspects of sexual involvement are critical to enhancing female orgasm experience and can aid the development of strategies that contemplate the central role

  9. RIG-1 expression is associated with sexual malfunctions of female type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hajebrahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D suffer from the malfunctions of the sexual behaviors, and several mechanisms have been proposed to describe these disorders. The innate immunity may be involved in the malfunctions of T2D patients. Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5 and retinoic acid (RA-inducible gene 1 (RIG-1, as the innate immunity receptors, are the responsible molecules for the activation of some intracellular signaling pathways and the induction of inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to examine the molecules which may participate in the induction/stimulation of sexual malfunctions in the female T2D patients. Methods: Sexual functions were evaluated in 41 female T2D patients using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was used to quantify MDA5 and RIG-1 mRNA levels. Results: Results showed that increased RIG-1 mRNA levels were significantly associated with the bad orgasm in the female T2D patients compared to the female patients with good orgasm. Expression of RIG-1 and MDA5 levels were not associated with other sexual functions’ criteria. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that bad orgasm is associated with the increased RIG-1 expression. Consequently, the correlation between inflammation and bad orgasm in a RIG-1 dependent manner is suggested.

  10. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

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    Felipe Navarro-Cremades

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.

  11. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

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    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  12. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  13. Silencing women’s sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to

  14. Cell-type specific increases in female hamster nucleus accumbens spine density following female sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffend, Nancy A; Hedges, Valerie L; Chemel, Benjamin R; Watts, Val J; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Female sexual behavior is an established model of a naturally motivated behavior which is regulated by activity within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated activation of the mesolimbic circuit by female sexual behavior elevates dopamine release and produces persistent postsynaptic alterations to dopamine D1 receptor signaling within the nucleus accumbens. Here we demonstrate that sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters significantly increases spine density and alters morphology selectively in D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens core, with no corresponding change in dopamine receptor binding or protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that previous life experience with a naturally motivated behavior has the capacity to induce persistent structural alterations to the mesolimbic circuit that can increase reproductive success and are analogous to the persistent structural changes following repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse.

  15. Socio-sexual behavior of female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Carla B; Young, Robert J; Mendes, Sergio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-07-01

    Female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) are known to engage in frequent copulations with multiple partners, a pattern that in other primates has been attributed to various functions such as confusing paternity, reducing male aggression, or ensuring fertilization. However, in some female primates, promiscuity is restricted to times when conceptions are unlikely. We investigated whether female northern muriquis might exhibit a similarly mixed strategy by examining their mating, social, and activity patterns during their conception cycles versus other times. Systematic behavioral data were collected during an 18-month period between August 2001 and February 2003 on 13 adult females in a well-studied group at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Females mated on an average of 12.5+/-7.9 days during the study period, and spent significantly less time resting and engaging in non-sexual social behaviors, and significantly more time in sexual behaviors on days that they copulated than on days they did not. Three of the eight females for which sufficient data were available copulated significantly more often with their spatially closest non-kin associates, and four of five females that could be analyzed copulated significantly more often with their most frequent non-kin embrace partners. Comparisons between conception and non-conception periods revealed no differences in female activity budgets or in either the number of copulations or the number of different mating partners per female. Our results suggest that some females mate preferentially with close associates and social partners, but there is no indication that females alter their behavior during the cycles in which they conceive.

  16. Cutoff score of the sexual interest and desire inventory-female for diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clayton, Anita H.; Segraves, Robert T.; Bakish, David; Goldmeier, David; Tignol, Jean; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; Nappi, Rossella E.; Wunderlich, Glen; Kimura, Toshio; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane J.; Pyke, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To determine the most appropriate cutoff value for the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female (SIDI-F) score to discriminate between women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and those with no female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The SIDI-F is a clinician-rated instrument consisting of 13

  17. Sexuality Within Female Same-Gender Couples: Definitions of Sex, Sexual Frequency Norms, and Factors Associated with Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Ritchie, Lane; Knopp, Kayla; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2018-04-01

    Despite a growing number of female same-gender (FSG) relationships, couples-based research and interventions have focused primarily on mixed-gender couples. Consequently, research has applied a heteronormative lens to understanding some relationship factors, including sexuality. The current study sought to provide descriptive data regarding frequency and conceptualizations of sex across partners in FSG relationships, as well as to analyze how relationship factors are associated with sexual satisfaction in this population. Participants (N = 206) were 103 adult FSG couples who had been together for at least 2 months. Individuals provided self-report data on how they conceptualized sex, and actor-partner models were utilized to assess relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction. Findings indicated that women in FSG relationships hold broad definitions of sex, with the majority of behaviors conceptualized as sex, including acts that involved partnered genital touching. In dyadic actor-partner models, sexual satisfaction was predicted by several factors including sexual frequency, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Unexpectedly, higher desired sexual frequency was associated with lower sexual satisfaction; however, this finding only emerged after controlling for actual sexual frequency, suggesting that discrepancies between desired and actual sex frequency may be important for FSG couples. Implications for clinical practice with FSG couples are explored, including a strength-based focus on broad conceptualizations of sex within this population and targeting relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction.

  18. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Perineoplasty on Female Sexual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan İnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ackground: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005. However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184. The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005. Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia.

  20. Have you been sexually harassed in school? What female high school students regard as harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Eva; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore what behaviors experienced from peers and school staff at school are acknowledged as sexual harassment, and perceived as problematic, by female high school students, and what other factors may be relevant. Analyses were performed of responses (to 540 questionnaires) in an anonymous self-report mail survey from a random sample of female Swedish high-school students (59% response rate). Exposure to relevant behaviors, of varying levels of severity, alone, does not explain the acknowledgment of harassment. Many students were subjected to many of the potentially offensive behaviors without labeling them as sexual harassment, despite the fact that they saw many of them as problematic. Further, viewing the relevant behaviors as problems in one's school did not necessarily lead to acknowledging that sexual harassment in general was a problem. However, the behaviors seen as problems were less likely to be dismissed as sexual harassment than personal experiences. This was especially true of the most common behaviors, namely verbal ones. The results demonstrate female students' reluctance to label incidents as sexual harassment, despite the fact that actual behaviors are perceived as environmental problems. Potentially offensive sex-related behaviors become normalized in the school environment and are difficult to address, when little support is provided by schools.

  1. Sexual harassment of female physicians by patients. What is to be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the responses of female physicians who have been sexually harassed by patients, as a means of answering the question, "What is to be done?" DESIGN: As part of a larger study on the topic, randomly selected participants were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about the nature and extent of sexual harassment by patients and about resulting feelings, actions, and suggestions for prevention. SETTING: Family practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of the 1064 female certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada in active practice in Ontario during 1992 was selected. A total of 599 were surveyed; 422 (70%) replied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to survey questions. RESULTS: Of the 422 respondents, 76% reported sexual harassment by patients and their reactions to it. Though most respondents had many suggestions about how to minimize harassment, written comments suggested confusion as to its cause. Many participants wondered whether their behaviour, manner, or dress provoked unwanted responses. The ability to root the cause of the harassment externally as a social rather than a personal problem seemed to decrease immobilization. CONCLUSIONS: There is no single effective response to sexual harassment, but understanding its source as an abuse of the power of gender* (perhaps to overcome the powerlessness felt as a patient) could enable female physicians to act in protective and effective ways. PMID:8924816

  2. Understanding the Role of Serotonin in Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Harry A

    2017-12-01

    The neurobiology of sexual response is driven in part by dopamine and serotonin-the former modulating excitatory pathways and the latter regulating inhibitory pathways. Neurobiological underpinnings of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are seemingly related to overactive serotonin activity that results in underactive dopamine activity. As such, pharmacologic agents that decrease serotonin, increase dopamine, or some combination thereof, have therapeutic potential for HSDD. To review the role of serotonin in female sexual function and the effects of pharmacologic interventions that target the serotonin system in the treatment of HSDD. Searches of the Medline database for articles on serotonin and female sexual function. Relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature were included. Female sexual response is regulated not only by the sex hormones but also by several neurotransmitters. It is postulated that dopamine, norepinephrine, oxytocin, and melanocortins serve as key neuromodulators for the excitatory pathways, whereas serotonin, opioids, and endocannabinoids serve as key neuromodulators for the inhibitory pathways. Serotonin appears to be a key inhibitory modulator of sexual desire, because it decreases the ability of excitatory systems to be activated by sexual cues. Centrally acting drugs that modulate the excitatory and inhibitory pathways involved in sexual desire (eg, bremelanotide, bupropion, buspirone, flibanserin) have been investigated as treatment options for HSDD. However, only flibanserin, a multifunctional serotonin agonist and antagonist (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] 1A receptor agonist and 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist), is currently approved for the treatment of HSDD. The central serotonin system is 1 biochemical target for medications intended to treat HSDD. This narrative review integrates findings from preclinical studies and clinical trials to elucidate neurobiological underpinnings of HSDD but is limited to 1 neurotransmitter system

  3. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  4. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  5. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an

  6. Association between sexting and sexual coercion among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Male mice ultrasonic vocalizations enhance female sexual approach and hypothalamic kisspeptin neuron activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Akari; Osakada, Takuya; Touhara, Kazushige; Kato, Masahiro; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-08-01

    Vocal communication in animals is important for ensuring reproductive success. Male mice emit song-like "ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)" when they encounter female mice, and females show approach to the USVs. However, it is unclear whether USVs of male mice trigger female behavioral and endocrine responses in reproduction. In this study, we first investigated the relationship between the number of deliveries in breeding pairs for 4months and USVs syllables emitted from those paired males during 3min of sexual encounter with unfamiliar female mice. There was a positive correlation between these two indices, which suggests that breeding pairs in which males could emit USVs more frequently had more offspring. Further, we examined the effect of USVs of male mice on female sexual behavior. Female mice showed more approach behavior towards vocalizing males than devocalized males. Finally, to determine whether USVs of male mice could activate the neural system governing reproductive function in female mice, the activation of kisspeptin neurons, key neurons to drive gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus, was examined using dual-label immunocytochemistry with cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB). In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the number of kisspeptin neurons expressing pCREB significantly increased after exposure to USVs of male as compared with noise exposure group. In conclusion, our results suggest that USVs of male mice promote fertility in female mice by activating both their approaching behavior and central kisspeptin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Competence of Healthcare Workers in Sexual Health Education for Female Adolescents at Schools

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    Mozhgan Javadnoori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual health education at schools in 2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was completed by the healthcare workers in order to assess their competence in sexual health education at healthcare centers of Khuzestan, Iran. To assess the competence of the participants (i.e., knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance, descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative variables. Also, mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the subjects’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance. Also, the association between demographic variables and participants’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance was evaluated, using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and confidence of healthcare workers in sexual health education were desirable. However, the subjects showed a poor performance in teaching students the required skills to control their emotions, instincts, homosexual tendencies, and masturbation. There was a significant correlation between performance, attitude, and confidence, knowledge and attitude, performance and confidence, and confidence, performance, and attitude (P

  9. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Female Sexual Dysfunction in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wen-Jia; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Lan; Han, Shao-Mei; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jing-He; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-20

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent and often underestimated problem. However, large-scale, population-based epidemiological surveys of FSD are scarce in China. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and the potential risk factors of FSD across a selection of social groups in Beijing, China, based on the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A cross-sectional study based on the multiple-stage cluster sampling was performed with adult women throughout the Dongcheng and Shunyi districts of Beijing. The Chinese version of FSFI was used, as well as questions on demographic characteristics, the disease-related context, and social relationships. A total of 6000 consecutive women entered this study, with an actual response from 5024 women, corresponding to a response rate of 83.7%. A total of 4697 (78.3%) questionnaires were effective. The prevalence of adult FSD in Beijing was 2973 (63.3%) using a score of 26.55 as the boundary value, whereas the total mean FSFI score was 23.92 ± 6.37. However, 1423 (30.3%) women did not seek help. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the possible potential risk factors included age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.051), dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability (OR = 3.520), poor marital affection (OR = 2.087), spouse sexual difficulties (OR = 1.720), dissatisfaction with married life (OR = 1.476), living in a rural area (OR = 1.292), chronic pelvic pain (OR = 1.261), chronic disease (OR = 1.534), previous pelvic surgery (OR = 1.605), vaginal delivery (OR = 2.285), lower education (OR = 3.449) and postmenopausal (OR = 3.183). As suggested by the FSFI scores, female sexual problems are highly prevalent in Beijing. Dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability, poor marital affection, sexual difficulties of the spouse, dissatisfaction with the marriage, rural life, CPP, and postmenopausal were conceivable risk factors for FSD in Beijing women.

  10. Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females

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    Amidu Nafiu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexuality is a complex phenomenon that is being influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. Its dysfunction includes desire, arousal, orgasmic and sex pain disorders. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD and related risk factors in a cohort of Ghanaian women. Method The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS was administered to 400 healthy women between 18 and 58 years old (mean +/- SD: 30.1 +/- 7.9 domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis. Results The response rate was 75.3% after 99 were excluded. Of the remaining 301 women, 50% were engaged in exercise, 26.7% indulge in alcoholic beverages and only 2% were smokers. A total of 62.1% of the women had attained high education, whilst, 28.9% were married. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol emerged (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0 - 3.8; p = 0.04 as the main risk factor for SD. The overall prevalence of SD in these subjects was 72.8%. Severe difficulties with sexual function were identified in 3.3% of the studied population. The most prevalent areas of difficulty were anorgasmia (72.4%, sexual infrequency (71.4%, dissatisfaction (77.7%, vaginismus (68.1%, avoidance of sexual intercourse (62.5%, non-sensuality (61.5% and non-communication (54.2%. Whereas 8% had severe difficulties with anorgasmia, only 6% had severe difficulties with vaginismus. Conclusion SD affects more than 70% of Ghanaian women who are sexually active. Alcohol significantly influences sexual activity.

  11. Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a complex phenomenon that is being influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. Its dysfunction includes desire, arousal, orgasmic and sex pain disorders. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and related risk factors in a cohort of Ghanaian women. Method The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was administered to 400 healthy women between 18 and 58 years old (mean +/- SD: 30.1 +/- 7.9) domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis. Results The response rate was 75.3% after 99 were excluded. Of the remaining 301 women, 50% were engaged in exercise, 26.7% indulge in alcoholic beverages and only 2% were smokers. A total of 62.1% of the women had attained high education, whilst, 28.9% were married. After logistic regression analysis, alcohol emerged (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0 - 3.8; p = 0.04) as the main risk factor for SD. The overall prevalence of SD in these subjects was 72.8%. Severe difficulties with sexual function were identified in 3.3% of the studied population. The most prevalent areas of difficulty were anorgasmia (72.4%), sexual infrequency (71.4%), dissatisfaction (77.7%), vaginismus (68.1%), avoidance of sexual intercourse (62.5%), non-sensuality (61.5%) and non-communication (54.2%). Whereas 8% had severe difficulties with anorgasmia, only 6% had severe difficulties with vaginismus. Conclusion SD affects more than 70% of Ghanaian women who are sexually active. Alcohol significantly influences sexual activity. PMID:20809943

  12. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2011-05-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health.

  14. Effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N C; Uludag, Aysegul; Sahin, Melih; Gencer, Meryem; Uysal, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). In a study at a university hospital in Canakkale, Turkey, women affected by vaginal discharge and age-matched healthy control women were recruited between January and December 2012. Women were grouped in accordance with their vaginal discharge complaints and each participant completed the FSFI questionnaire. A total of 114 women were included in the study. Women in the first group (n=58) had no vaginal discharge or had physiologic vaginal discharge, those in the second group (n=29) had abnormal vaginal discharge with itching, and those in the third group (n=27) had abnormal vaginal discharge without itching. Compared with the first group, women in the second and third groups had higher FSFI scores for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain, in addition to higher overall FSFI scores. Women with genital malodor had significantly higher FSFI scores than patients without genital malodor (23.83 ± 5.07 vs 21.15 ± 4.78; P=0.008). Women with abnormal vaginal discharges were found to have better FSFI scores for some domains. This finding may be attributed to the adverse effects of sexual intercourse on vaginal infections. © 2013.

  15. Treatment of Female Sexual Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Liossi, Christina; Curran, Natasha; Schoth, Daniel E; Graham, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual pain disorders affect women's sexual and reproductive health and are poorly understood. Although many treatments have been evaluated, there is no one "gold standard" treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate what treatments for female sexual pain have been evaluated in clinical studies and their effectiveness. The search strategy resulted in 65 papers included in this review. The articles were divided into the following categories: medical treatments; surgical treatments; physical therapies; psychological therapies; comparative treatment studies; and miscellaneous and combined treatments. Topical and systemic medical treatments have generally been found to lead to improvements in, but not complete relief of, pain, and side effects are quite common. Surgical procedures have demonstrated very high success rates, although there has been variability in complete relief of pain after surgery, which suggests less invasive treatments should be considered first. Physical therapies and psychological therapies have been shown to be promising treatments, supporting a biopsychosocial approach to sexual pain disorders. Although most of the interventions described have been reported as effective, many women still experience pain. A multidisciplinary team with active patient involvement may be needed to optimize treatment outcome.

  16. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  17. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Armeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII (T→C substitution and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576 (G→A substitution with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days, were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype of rs2234693 (PvuII polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic of rs53576 (OXTR polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR polymorphisms (T + A group was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences.

  18. Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase

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    Lim Dae-sik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse.

  19. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  20. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  1. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction during pregnancy among Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Madny, Elham H; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) during pregnancy in a sample of women from Egypt. This prospective cohort study was conducted among pregnant women who presented to the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic - Suez Canal University Hospital for routine antenatal care between February 2012 and February 2013. The 451 women who completed the study attended during their first trimester with a singleton pregnancy and were in a stable relationship with their partners for the last 6 months. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire during the 4 weeks preceding pregnancy and then in each trimester during the antenatal visits. Prevalence of FSD during pregnancy was estimated to be 68.8%. According to the FSFI, scores of all domains and total score were significantly reduced during the whole period of pregnancy (average 22.5 ± 3.7) compared to the pre-conception period (30.5 ± 5.6). However, there was significant increase of all domains and total score during the second trimester (26.6 ± 3.9) in comparison to the first and third trimesters (22.4 ± 4.1 and 18.6 ± 3.8, respectively). Total FSFI score was found to be positively correlated to pre-conception total FSFI score. However, age, parity and duration of marriage were negatively correlated. FSD is a prevalent problem during pregnancy among Egyptian women. The magnitude of the problem is highest during the third trimester while the second trimester represents the peak of sexual function during pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. [Construct validity of a Portuguese version of the Female Sexual Function Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnella, Rodolfo de Carvalho; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of a version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The version was inserted into a multidimensional questionnaire and applied face-to-face to 235 sterilized women. Non-response rate was 1.7%. The sample proved to be highly homogeneous, with low income and education. Cronbach's alpha of 0.948 indicated high internal consistency. Factor analysis showed that the instrument was measuring four factors: desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm/satisfaction, and pain. This may reflect characteristics of the instrument itself, female sexual response, or even the sample's cultural peculiarities, which can affect understanding of the questions or concepts with which the instrument deals. This study emphasizes the need for further research in the general population to determine the psychometric properties of the FSFI, such as its factor composition and definition of appropriate cut-off points for the Brazilian population.

  5. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  6. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Abler

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12, and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12 not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation, activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual

  7. Sexual Self-Acceptance, Communication with Partner, and Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…

  8. Perceived and Actual Behavior in Female Sexual Assertiveness: A Within-Couple Analysis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S F

    2018-01-02

    Studies in female sexual assertiveness have generally focused on individuals rather than couples, and little research has been conducted in the Chinese context. This study examined perceived and actual female sexual assertiveness at the couple level, and also explored its impact on marital and sexual satisfaction with a representative sample of 770 couples in Hong Kong. The results showed that husbands reported a higher level of acceptance of female sexual assertiveness in both perception and actual behavior; furthermore, couples reported greater congruence in their perception of female sexual initiation than actual behavior. Multiple logistic regressions showed that actual female sexual assertiveness, not the perception of it, affects both spouses' marital and sexual satisfaction. Compared with couples in which neither accepted female sexual initiation in practice, husbands where both spouses accepted this were more likely to be satisfied with the marriage. Husbands who accepted female sexual refusal whilst their wives did not were also more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship. Similarly, wives who did accept female sexual assertiveness but whose husbands did not were more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship.

  9. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2011-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the responsiveness to estradiol, with males exhibiting muted, and in some cases reverse, effects compared with females. The lack of lordosis in males may be explained by differences in synaptic organization or estrogen responsiveness, or both, in the VMH. However, given that damage to other brain regions unmasks lordosis behavior in males, a male-typical VMH is unlikely the main factor that prevents lordosis. In females, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms whereby ovarian hormones modulate VMH function to promote lordosis. PMID:21338620

  10. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  11. Female burying beetles benefit from male desertion: sexual conflict and counter-adaptation over parental investment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Boncoraglio

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.

  12. Female Burying Beetles Benefit from Male Desertion: Sexual Conflict and Counter-Adaptation over Parental Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence. PMID:22355390

  13. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  14. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these

  15. Sexpectations: male college students' views about displayed sexual references on females' social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of sexual orientation using the hemodynamic brain response to visual sexual stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    in a nonclinical sample of 12 heterosexual men and 14 homosexual men. During fMRI, participants were briefly exposed to pictures of same-sex and opposite-sex genitals. Data analysis involved four steps: (i) differences in the BOLD response to female and male sexual stimuli were calculated for each subject; (ii......) these contrast images were entered into a group analysis to calculate whole-brain difference maps between homosexual and heterosexual participants; (iii) a single expression value was computed for each subject expressing its correspondence to the group result; and (iv) based on these expression values, Fisher...... response patterns of the brain to sexual stimuli contained sufficient information to predict individual sexual orientation with high accuracy. These results suggest that fMRI-based classification methods hold promise for the diagnosis of paraphilic disorders (e.g., pedophilia)....

  17. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Methamphetamine facilitates female sexual behavior and enhances neuronal activation in the medial amygdala and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Mary K; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Zup, Susan L; Blutstein, Tamara; Benham, Rebecca S; McCarthy, Margaret M; Mong, Jessica A

    2010-02-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Users of MA report dramatic increases in sexual drive that have been associated with increased engagement in risky sexual behavior leading to higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies. The ability of MA to enhance sexual drive in females is enigmatic since related psychostimulants like amphetamine and cocaine appear not to affect sexual drive in women, and in rodents models, amphetamine has been reported to be inhibitory to female sexual behavior. Examination of MA's effects on female sexual behavior in an animal model is lacking. Here, using a rodent model, we have demonstrated that MA enhanced female sexual behavior. MA (5mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered once daily for 3 days to adult ovariectomized rats primed with ovarian steroids. MA treatment significantly increased the number of proceptive events and the lordosis response compared to hormonally primed, saline controls. The effect of MA on the neural circuitry underlying the motivation for sexual behavior was examined using Fos immunoreactivity. In the medial amygdala and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nuclei implicated in motivated behaviors, ovarian hormones and MA independently enhance the neuronal activation, but more striking was the significantly greater activation induced by their combined administration. Increases in dopamine neurotransmission may underlie the MA/hormone mediated increase in neuronal activation. In support of this possibility, ovarian hormones significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala. Thus our present data suggest that the interactions of MA and ovarian hormones leads to changes in the neural substrate of key nuclei involved in mediating female sexual behaviors, and these changes may underlie MA's ability to enhance these behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  20. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiru?u, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was u...

  1. Playing a Videogame with a Sexualized Female Character Increases Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance and Tolerance Toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.

  2. Infusions of ascorbic acid into the medial preoptic area facilitate appetitive sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2013-10-02

    Ascorbic acid (AA), also known as Vitamin C, enhances dopamine (DA) transmission in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal terminals and augments DA-mediated behaviors. It is not yet known whether AA has a similar influence in other DA terminals, in particular terminals of the incertohypothalamic system that modulate the function of the medial preoptic area (mPOA). In female rats, DA in the mPOA plays a critical role in the generation of appetitive sexual responses, notably solicitations, hops, and darts, and we have shown previously that the role of DA in this region on female sexual behavior changes depending on the hormonal profile of the female. Since AA has often been used as a vehicle control in the examination of rat sexual behavior, the present study examined the effect of infusions of AA to the mPOA of sexual experienced ovariectomized rats under two hormonal conditions: partially-primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone or fully-primed with EB and progesterone. Relative to saline baselines, females under both hormonal conditions displayed a significant increase in appetitive sexual behaviors following infusions of AA. No difference in lordosis behavior was observed following AA infusions relative to saline baselines. We suggest that the mechanism by which AA infusions to the mPOA increase appetitive sexual behaviors in female rats may be through dose-dependent DA receptor interactions, possibly through both presynaptic release mechanisms and postsynaptic DA D1-related messenger systems. © 2013.

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction Among Muslim Women: Increasing Awareness to Improve Overall Evaluation and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sameena

    2018-04-17

    Muslim women are an increasingly underserved population in the United States and worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction bring unique challenges because of the conservative nature of those practicing the religion. Several cultural and religious codes of conduct affect sexual behavior and the dysfunction that can ensue. To assess and describe the types of sexual dysfunction that have been found in Muslim women internationally and encourage a better understanding of their issues to enhance health care delivery. A comprehensive review of the literature through Ovid and PubMed was performed in search of articles reviewing female sexual dysfunction, Muslim women, and Islam. A brief explanation and review of the interpretations of sexuality within Islam are discussed. The link is made between conservative sexual relations and interpretations and the types of sexual dysfunction experienced. Female sexual dysfunction is explored in relation to how female chastity is extolled and how cultural procedures continue despite the ethical and health concerns related to them. Most Muslim women experience sexual dysfunction similar to other women, including arousal, desire, and orgasmic disorders related to organic and psychologic factors. Sexual pain disorders might be more prevalent in this population, particularly concerning unconsummated marriage. There are special concerns related to maintaining virginity and preserving the hymen until marriage. Female genital cutting, practiced by some Muslim countries, has potential sexual consequences. Understanding Islamic views on sexuality and how they can affect sexual dysfunction in Muslim women is critical in opening lines of communication with patients and approaching female sexual dysfunction impartially. Although some issues that arise might introduce ethical dilemmas for the provider, having the cultural competence to address these issues will facilitate improved health care delivery. Rahman S. Female Sexual

  4. Sexual Violence and Associated Factors among Female Youths in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the bivariate analysis, low self-esteem, lack of partner risk self-efficacy, having had sexually transmitted infections in a life-time, early sexual debut, not being employed and medium to high sexually permissive attitudes were associated with having experienced sexual violence. Programmes in combating sexual violence ...

  5. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  6. Sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence as predictors of HIV-related sexual risk during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H; Chao, B S

    1995-03-01

    This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.

  7. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny-Shefer, Yamit; Zilkha, Noga; Lavi-Avnon, Yael; Bezalel, Nadav; Rogachev, Ilana; Brandis, Alexander; Dayan, Molly; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-12-12

    Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2 -/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2 -/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2 -/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2 -/- males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamit Beny-Shefer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2−/− and wild-type male mice. TrpC2−/− males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2−/− males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2−/− males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice.

  10. Female sexuality and historical time: a comparison of sexual biographies of German women born between 1895 and 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sydow, K

    1996-10-01

    Ninety-one German women ages 50 to 91 years (birth cohorts: 1895 to 1936) were interviewed in-depth about their sexual development through the life span. This article presents the results on the historical change in female sexuality during childhood, puberty, and young marriage. The sample was divided into four subgroups, according to the year of birth, which were compared to each other. In contrast to the older groups, a higher percentage of women in the younger cohorts had experience in childhood sexual play, masturbation, "real" and faked orgasm, with historical time only having a slight influence on marital sexuality and fertility experiences. Data indicate that subjects born later were not only more experienced sexually but changed intraindividually more often in sexual matters, whereas the older women mostly "conserved" the sexual morals and habits learned in youth. Subjective sexual experience of the interviewees is illustrated by quotations.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  12. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno

    Full Text Available Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females.We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula, a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females.In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these

  13. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  14. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  15. Different Characteristics of the Female Sexual Function Index in a Sample of Sexually Active and Inactive Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Krisztina; Mészáros, Veronika; Kövi, Zsuzsanna; Márki, Gabriella; Szabó, Marianna

    2017-09-01

    The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is a widely used measurement tool to assess female sexual function along the six dimensions of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. However, the structure of the questionnaire is not clear, and several studies have found high correlations among the dimensions, indicating that a common underlying "sexual function" factor might be present. To investigate whether female sexual function is best understood as a multidimensional construct or, alternatively, whether a common underlying factor explains most of the variance in FSFI scores, and to investigate the possible effect of the common practice of including sexually inactive women in studies using the FSFI. The sample consisted of 508 women: 202 university students, 177 patients with endometriosis, and 129 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Participants completed the FSFI, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of this instrument in the total sample and in samples including sexually active women only. The FSFI is a multidimensional self-report questionnaire composed of 19 items. Strong positive correlations were found among five of the six original factors on the FSFI. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that in the total sample items loaded mainly on the general sexual function factor and very little variance was explained by the specific factors. However, when only sexually active women were included in the analyses, a clear factor structure emerged, with items loading on their six specific factors, and most of the variance in FSFI scores was explained by the specific factors, rather than the general factor. University students reported higher scores, indicating better functioning compared with the patient samples. The reliable and valid assessment of female sexual function can contribute to better understanding, prevention, and treatment of different sexual difficulties and dysfunctions. This study provides a

  16. Fertility and sexual function in female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeltink, Corien M; Incrocci, Luca; Witte, Birgit I; Meurs, Saskia; Visser, Otto; Huijgens, Peter; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2013-12-01

    To assess the perceived fertility status and to determine the association between perceived fertility status and sexual function, as reported by young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. Young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors are at risk of infertility and impaired sexual function. However, little is known about their awareness of infertility and its association with sexual functioning. A descriptive questionnaire survey. In this cross-sectional study, a survey was completed by female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (40 years). Outcome measures included self-reported fertility status and sexual problems and the internationally validated Female Sexual Function Index. In total, 36 survivors were included (mean age 32 years, SD 4). Eighteen women (50%) thought themselves fertile. Eight survivors (22%) who perceived themselves as being infertile were more often treated with alkylator-based chemotherapy, and 63% reported sexual dysfunction. Ten survivors (28%) were not aware as to whether they were fertile or not; seven of these would like to have children. The reported fertility status was related to age and chemotherapy regimen. Regarding sexuality, 14 (39%) of the female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors reported one or more sexual problem and none reported recovery. Female sexual dysfunction according to the Female Sexual Function Index was reported by 11 (31%) survivors. Almost 30% of Hodgkin lymphoma survivors do not know whether they are fertile or not. Overall sexual dysfunction is common in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors and comparable to the general population. However, a lack of desire was significantly more often reported in female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. To prevent assumed infertility and unintended childlessness by postponing parenthood in young female survivors, awareness of fertility status is needed. There is also a need to routinely assess sexual function and provide adequate interventions to improve arousal and lubrication problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Androgens and Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction--Findings From the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R; Worsley, Roisin; Miller, Karen K; Parish, Sharon J; Santoro, Nanette

    2016-02-01

    Androgens have been implicated as important for female sexual function and dysfunction. To review the role of androgens in the physiology and pathophysiology of female sexual functioning and the evidence for efficacy of androgen therapy for female sexual dysfunction (FSD). We searched the literature using online databases for studies pertaining to androgens and female sexual function. Major reviews were included and their findings were summarized to avoid replicating their content. Quality of data published in the literature and recommendations were based on the GRADES system. The literature supports an important role for androgens in female sexual function. There is no blood androgen level below which women can be classified as having androgen deficiency. Clinical trials have consistently demonstrated that transdermal testosterone (T) therapy improves sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women who have been assessed as having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The use of T therapy is limited by the lack of approved formulations for women and long-term safety data. Most studies do not support the use of systemic dehydroepiandrosterone therapy for the treatment of FSD in women with normally functioning adrenals or adrenal insufficiency. Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaginal testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy are ongoing. Available data support an important role of androgens in female sexual function and dysfunction and efficacy of transdermal T therapy for the treatment of some women with FSD. Approved T formulations for women are generally unavailable. In consequence, the prescribing of T mostly involves off-label use of T products formulated for men and individually compounded T formulations. Long-term studies to determine the safety of T therapy for women and possible benefits beyond that of sexual function are greatly needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Ou?draogo, Saide Yacine Y.A.; Sisawo, Ebrima J.; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-01

    Background Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. Methods The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried o...

  19. Sexual Function and Marital Satisfaction in Female with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raeisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Considering the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in females with OCD and its impact on marital satisfaction, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual function and marital satisfaction in a group of female OCD patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 36 females with OCD, referred to the clinic of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital (related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and 3 private offices in Tehran, were selected by random sampling and completed questionnaires including: demographic FSFI, BDI-II, MOCI, OCI-R and researcher-developed marital satisfaction questionnaire. Results: 80.6% of women reported sexual dysfunction. The results of studying sexual function questionnaire subscales was as following: 50 % low sexual desire, 58.3 % low sexual arousal, 36.1 % decreased lubrication, 44 % orgasmic disorder, 52.8 % sexual pain disorder and 41.7 % sexual dissatisfaction. Furthermore, statistically significant correlation was found between sexual dysfunction (total score and arousal, lubrication, pain and satisfaction subscales and marital dissatisfaction. Studying the relation between obession(MOCI questionnaire and marital satisfaction revealed that the correlation between washing subscale of MOCI and marital dissatisfaction was also significant while there were not any significant correlation between obsession (OCJ-R, MOCI and sexual function (FSFI. Conclusion: High prevalence of sexual dysfunction in OCD patients, significant relationship between obsession and marital satisfaction, and sexual function and marital satisfaction could demonstrate relationship between sexual function, OCD and marital satisfaction.

  20. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  1. Prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction amongst female with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unadike, B.C.; Eregie, A.; Ohwovoriole, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction (SD) amongst female with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Benin City, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional study. A total of 225 female with DM and 225 female without DM who served as controls were studied. Data obtained included age, anthropometric indexes, presence and type of sexual dysfunction. Fifteen (6.6%) subjects with DM had sexual dysfunction and four (1.7%) in the control group had SD with sexual pain disorder being the commonest SD, seen in both groups. Other SD seen was lubrication disorder and sexual arousal disorder. The prevalence of SD in diabetic female was significantly higher than in the control group (6.6% vs. 1.7% p < 0.05). Sexual Dysfunction appears to be relatively uncommon amongst Nigerian women with Diabetes Mellitus. However diabetes care providets should address this issue during consultations with patients and provide treatment as this is a treatable condition. (author)

  2. Baseline characteristics and concerns of female cancer patients/survivors seeking treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeanne; Stabile, Cara; Seidel, Barbara; Baser, Raymond E; Gunn, Abigail R; Chi, Stephanie; Steed, Rebecca F; Goldfarb, Shari; Goldfrank, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize patients seeking treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program and examine their sexual/vaginal health issues. Data from clinical assessment forms were extracted from 509 women referred to the Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program during/after cancer treatment. The form consists of a Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS), vaginal health items, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ], Sexual Self-Schema Scale [SSS], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]), and exploratory items. Of 509 patients, 493 (97 %) completed PROs; 253 (50 %) received a pelvic examination. The majority had a history of breast (n = 260, 51 %), gynecologic (n = 184, 36 %), or colorectal/anal (n = 35, 7 %) cancer. Mean age was 51.2 years; 313 (62 %) were married/partnered. Approximately two thirds had elevated vaginal pH scores (5-6.5 [35 %] or 6.5+ [33 %]) and minimal (62 %) or no (5 %) vaginal moisture. Eighty-seven patients (44 %) experienced pain during their exam (23 % mild, 11 % moderate, 1.5 % severe, and 8.5 % not indicated). Fifty-three percent engaged in sexual activity with a partner; only 43 % felt confident about future sexual activity. Ninety-three percent were somewhat to very concerned/worried about sexual function/vaginal health. Approximately half had moderate/severe dryness (n = 133, 51 %) and dyspareunia (n = 120, 46 %). The mean SSS score was 60.7, indicating a slightly positive sexual self-view. However, 93.5 % (n = 429) had an FSFI score <26.55, suggesting sexual dysfunction. At initial consult, women reported vaginal dryness, pain, and sexual dysfunction. For many women, pelvic exams showed elevated vaginal pH, lack of moisture, and discomfort with the exam itself. Future analyses will examine changes over time.

  3. International Spinal Cord Injury Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  4. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  5. Can sexual selection drive female life histories? A comparative study on Galliform birds

    OpenAIRE

    Kolm, N.; Stein, R. W.; Mooers, A. O.; Verspoor, J. J.; Cunningham, E. J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection has been identified as a major evolutionary force shaping male life history traits but its impact on female life history evolution is less clear. Here we examine the impact of sexual selection on three key female traits (body size, egg size and clutch size) in Galliform birds. Using comparative independent contrast analyses and directional DISCRETE analyses, based on published data and a new genera-level supertree phylogeny of Galliform birds, we investigated how sexual selec...

  6. A Comparison of Sexual Dysfunctions in Female Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tonguç Demir Berkol; Süheyla Doðan Bulut; Esra Alataþ; Dicle Görkem; Esra Çavdar; Ýlker Özyýldýrým

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is assessment of sexual dysfunction in female patients with major depressive disorder and panic disorder and compare the two groups. Methods: Total 76 female patients with primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder ( 46 patients) and panic disorder ( 30 patients) according to DSM-IV, who is sexually active and not use psychotropic medication were inclued. Sociodemographic data aqcusition form and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) were adminis...

  7. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  9. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  10. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  11. Is infertility a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millheiser, Leah S; Helmer, Amy E; Quintero, Rodolfo B; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B

    2010-11-01

    To determine the impact of infertility on female sexual function. A case-control study. Academic infertility and gynecology practices. One hundred nineteen women with infertility and 99 healthy female controls without infertility between the ages of 18 and 45 years were included in this study. Anonymous survey and Female Sexual Function Index. Female Sexual Function Index scores, frequency of sexual intercourse and masturbation, and sex-life satisfaction. Twenty-five percent of our control group had Female Sexual Function Index scores that put them at risk for sexual dysfunction (masturbation. The patients with infertility retrospectively reported a sex-life satisfaction score that was similar to that of the controls before their diagnosis, whereas their current sex-life satisfaction scores were significantly lower than those of the controls. Women with a diagnosis of infertility were found to be at higher risk for sexual dysfunction on the basis of their Female Sexual Function Index scores compared with women without infertility. The interaction of sexual function and infertility is complex and deserves further study. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Knockout mutations of insulin-like peptide genes enhance sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.

  14. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2015-04-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. The impact of primary Sjogren's syndrome on female sexual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Jolien F.; Arends, Suzanne; van Zuiden, Greetje S.; Vissink, Arjan; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika

    Objective. Prevalence of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia is high in women with primary SS (pSS). Our aim was to compare sexual function and sexual distress in women with pSS with healthy controls, as well as to assess parameters that are associated with sexual dysfunction and distress in pSS.

  16. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.

  17. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: a selfreport study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  18. Effects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid autoimmunity on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, A; Franceschi, E; Atzeni, F; Taberlet, A; Mariotti, S

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid hormones affect male and female sexual functions, but data in hypo- and hyperthyroid women are scanty. To investigate sexual function in hypo- and hyperthyroid women before and immediately after restoration of euthyroidism and in women with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Fifty-six women with thyroid diseases (age 19-50 yr; 22 with hyperthyroidism, 17 with hypothyroidism, and 17 with euthyroid HT) and 30 age-matched healthy women. Hypoactive sexual desire, disorders of sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and sexual pain (SPD) were assessed by Female Sexual Function Index. Serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyroperoxidase, and TSH-receptor antibodies) were assessed at the diagnosis; FT4 and TSH were repeated after treatment to confirm normalization of thyroid function. All sexual domains scores were significantly reduced (p ranging hyperthyroid women. Correction of hypothyroidism was associated to normalization of desire, satisfaction, and pain, while arousal and orgasm remained unchanged. In hyperthyroid women therapy normalized sexual desire, arousal/lubrication, satisfaction, and pain, while orgasm remained significantly impaired. Interestingly, euthyroid HT women displayed a significant decrease in sexual desire (phyperthyroidism markedly impair female sexual function. A rapid improvement is observed with the restoration of euthyroidism, although a longer period of time may be needed for full normalization. Preliminary data suggest that thyroid autoimmunity may selectively impair sexual desire, independently from thyroid function.

  19. “It's Sweet Without Condom”: Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Nigerian Female University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Idowu Ajayi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over a million people globally acquire sexually transmitted infections (STI every day mainly through unprotected sexual contact. While the consequences of risky sexual behaviour are well documented, the literature on young educated women's perceptions of, and narratives about risky sexual behaviour is limited, and thus, it is difficult to fathom from available sources why such behaviour persists. This study examined the prevalence of sexual risk-taking and assessed female University students' knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sex and reasons why such behaviour persists. Paradoxes between their narratives and risky sexual behaviour were discussed. Methods: The study adopted a mixed study design involving a survey of 420 students selected using cluster random sampling, 20 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions. The analysis of the quantitative data involves the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, while thematic content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: High prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse was reported and was not associated with age, year of study, place of residence and religion. The narratives of participants indicate that female university students were aware of the risks associated with unprotected sex. Participants generally condemned sexual risk-taking and asserted that freedom, peer influence, poverty, ignorance, lack of sex education, civilisation, promiscuity, and satisfying sexual urge were the reasons for the persistent risky sexual behaviour among female university students. Also, perceived reduced fun associated with condom use, nourishment of marital expectations, and equivalence of unprotected sex with trust are among the reasons for persistent sexual risk-taking among female university students. Conclusion: Our findings show that female students practice risky sexual behaviour despite having knowledge of its consequences. Change in sexual behaviour

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for female sexual dysfunction among Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Zakia Mahdy; Ahmed, Magdy Refaat; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed Ali

    2013-06-01

    To assess sexual function among married women and determine associated risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 509 non-pregnant married females 20-59 years old who were enrolled into the study after approval of the ethics committee. The study population was recruited among women attending gynecology outpatient clinic or their relatives visiting inpatients of obstetrics and gynecology department at Suez Canal University Hospital. Female and male partner-related data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using female sexual function index (FSFI). Mean female age was 39.5 years. About half of the participants were premenopausal (48.7 %). Most of the females were circumcised (71.7 %). Desire and Orgasm domains were the most affected with 52.8 % of the participants having sexual dysfunction. Total FSFI score of ≤26.55 was the cutoff value for diagnosis of FSD and female age, postmenopausal status, duration of marriage, circumcision, partner's age, and the presence of male sexual dysfunction were found to be significant associated factors with FSD. FSD is highly prevalent in Egypt and orgasm and desire scores were the most affected domains. Several personal (female age, postmenopausal status, duration of marriage and circumcision) and male partner (age, and the presence of sexual dysfunction) factors were significantly associated.

  1. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. Afr...

  2. Hormonal contraception and female pain, orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-02-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintentional, unplanned, or mistimed. Most unplanned pregnancies result from inconsistent, incorrect, or nonuse of a contraceptive method. Diminished sexual function and pleasure may be a barrier to using hormonal contraception. This study explores sexual function and behaviors of women in relation to the use of hormonal vs. nonhormonal methods of contraception. Data were collected as part of an online health and sexuality study of women. Main outcomes variables assess frequencies in two domains: (i) sexual function (proportion of sexual events with experiences of pain or discomfort, arousal, contentment and satisfaction, pleasure and enjoyment, lubrication difficulty, and orgasm) and (ii) sexual behavior (number of times engaged in sexual activity, proportion of sexual events initiated by the woman, and proportion of sexual events for which a lubricant was used). Sociodemographic variables and contraceptive use were used as sample descriptors and correlates. The recall period was the past 4 weeks. The sample included 1,101 women with approximately half (n = 535) using a hormonal contraceptive method exclusively or a combination of a hormonal and nonhormonal method, and about half (n = 566) using a nonhormonal method of contraception exclusively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of hormonal contraceptive use to each of the dependent variables. Women using a hormonal contraceptive method experienced less frequent sexual activity, arousal, pleasure, and orgasm and more difficulty with lubrication even when controlling for sociodemographic variables. This study adds to the literature on the potential negative sexual side effects experienced by many women using hormonal contraception. Prospective research with diverse women is needed to enhance the understanding of potential negative sexual side effects of hormonal contraceptives, their prevalence, and possible mechanisms

  3. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  4. The construct of sexual openness for females in steady intimate relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Diana; Dekker, Arne; Rettenberger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed. PMID:28636608

  5. The construct of sexual openness for females in steady intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Diana; Dekker, Arne; Rettenberger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed.

  6. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  7. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  8. Clinical Assessment of Tribulus terrestris Extract in the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Carlos RB; Lasmar, Ricardo; Gama, Gustavo F; Abreu, Camila S; Nunes, Carlos P; Geller, Mauro; Oliveira, Lisa; Santos, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This is a qualitative–quantitative study based on hospital records of female patients of reproductive age, presenting sexual dysfunction, and treated with 250 mg Tribulus terrestris extract (1 tablet thrice daily for 90 days). Safety monitoring included vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse events. Efficacy analysis included results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels together with total and free testosterone, and the patient and physician assessments. There was a statistically significant improvement in total FSFI scores (P terrestris extract is safe and effective in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. PMID:25574150

  9. Clinical Assessment of Tribulus terrestris Extract in the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Carlos Rb; Lasmar, Ricardo; Gama, Gustavo F; Abreu, Camila S; Nunes, Carlos P; Geller, Mauro; Oliveira, Lisa; Santos, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This is a qualitative-quantitative study based on hospital records of female patients of reproductive age, presenting sexual dysfunction, and treated with 250 mg Tribulus terrestris extract (1 tablet thrice daily for 90 days). Safety monitoring included vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse events. Efficacy analysis included results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels together with total and free testosterone, and the patient and physician assessments. There was a statistically significant improvement in total FSFI scores (P terrestris extract is safe and effective in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  10. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  11. "Lesbian"/female same-sex sexualities in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Ashley; Migraine-George, Thérèse

    2017-04-03

    Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.

  12. Effect of midurethral sling (transobturator tape surgery on female sexual function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transobturator tapes (TOT are frequently used in the management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI. We evaluated the effect of TOT on sexual function in Indian women with stress urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: 34 sexually active women (mean age 42.38 years with SUI were evaluated before TOT placement for sexual function using the NSF-9 sexual scoring system questionnaire. The evaluation was repeated at the 3 rd , 6 th and 12 th months post surgery and then yearly. Results: There was significant improvement in scores in all domains of sexual function post-surgery. The frequency improved in 24 (70.5% patients, lubricacy improved in 12 (57.1% patients, orgasm improved in 21 (67.1% patients, pain improved in 14 (70% patients and, in leaking patients, sexual satisfaction improved in 85.7% while in non-leaking patients improvement was seen in 40%. Sexual relation was not satisfactory in 26 (76.4% of the patients before surgery; of them, 21 (80% patients had improved sexual satisfaction after surgery. De novo urgency and dyspareunia developed in one and two patients, respectively. Conclusions: The TOT procedure has no significant negative impact on sexual function and it significantly improves female sexual function and overall sexual satisfaction in majority of the patients with SUI.

  13. "The Pleasure Is All Mine": Music and Female Sexual Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Strube, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To analyze sexual autonomy this paper concentrates on the recent concept of relational autonomy, which is different from the classic tradition in its multilevel perspective on persons as embodied, desiring, creative as well as rational creatures. I then apply this concept to music asking in which way women performers are both relational and (sexually) autonomous.

  14. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more

  15. Sexual Assault against Female Nigerian Students | Kullima | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio ...

  16. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences.

  18. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [''Liva"--population survey of female sexual habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Munk, Christian; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2010-11-22

    Sexual and contraceptive habits, e.g. early age at first intercourse, multiple sexual partners and non-use of condoms, are well-established risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy. The aim was to examine if and how educational level and degree of urbanization are related to age at first intercourse, lifetime number of sexual partners and condom use. We used data from a large population-based questionnaire survey conducted during 2004-2005, including a random sample of 20,478 women (18-45 years) (participation rate: 81.4%). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) of early sexual debut (≤ 15 years old), having had > 5 lifetime sexual partners and never-use of condoms associated with educational level and degree of urbanization. The OR of having had an early sexual debut was almost twofold higher among women with a lower educational level (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.73-2.15) than among women with higher educational level, and the OR of having had > 5 lifetime sexual partners was highest among women in the capital centre (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 2.16-2.57) compared with women in the small provincial town areas. Furthermore, the OR of never-use of condoms was 2.53 (95% CI: 2.15-2.97) for women with a lower educational level compared with those with a higher educational level (mutually adjusted for age, degree of urbanization and educational level). Low educational level is associated with young age at first sexual intercourse and never-use of condoms, and living in an area of high urbanization is associated with a higher lifetime number of sexual partners. This information may be of importance for prevention in relation to women's reproductive health.

  20. Food insecurity, HIV/AIDS pandemic and sexual behaviour of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of hunger and food insecurity in the sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria within the context of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and induced abortion among the respondents.

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Couples' Relationships: Female Survivors' Reports in Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Follette, Victoria M.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of female child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors showed relationship themes. The two most frequent were difficulties with emotional communication or intimacy and polarized positions on control. Whereas these themes were correlated with survivors' CSA characteristics, sexual difficulties were correlated with survivors' level of current…

  2. The Impact of a University Policy on the Sexual Harassment of Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of undergraduate student survey results of 1983, 1986, and 1989 at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) indicate that reports of faculty/staff sexual harassment of female undergraduates have declined over the past six years. Analysis suggests that the sexual harassment policy and grievance procedure established in 1982 have been…

  3. Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk

    1998-01-01

    Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

  4. Toward a More Evidence-Based Nosology and Nomenclature for Female Sexual Dysfunctions—Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parish, Sharon J; Goldstein, Andrew T; Goldstein, Sue W

    2016-01-01

    to definitions of female sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm disorders and persistent genital arousal disorder. The attendees consisted of 10 psychiatrists and psychologists; 12 health care providers in specialties such as gynecology, internal medicine, and sexual medicine; three basic scientists; and one...

  5. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Lucres MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.

  6. Sexual harassment among females in working place at Dhangadhi municipality Kailali, District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Bahadur Kunwar; Bir Bahadur Kunwar; Poshan Thapa; Ishor Sharma; Shankar Singh Dhami; Lalit Jung Rokaya

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a challenging issue where women and men work together. It is being recognized as a violation of human rights and human dignity which undermines the equality of opportunity and treatment between men and women. So, this descriptive study was conducted in Dhangadhi Municipality Kailali District, Nepalto find out the experience of sexual harassment in female at working place. Only female respondents who were working in office were taken purposively from four sectors such as g...

  7. Female condom acceptability in urban India: Examining the role of sexual pleasure

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bindra, Nyamat; Dave, Bhaktiben; Sharma, Ritika; Sundarraman, Vikram; Thirupathur Dharuman, Sivakumar; Herbenick, Debby

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the acceptability of female condoms in urban India, with a focus on sexual pleasure. We conducted focus group discussions with 50 women and 19 men, as well as a small number of individual interviews with women (n = 3), in Chennai and New Delhi. Perceived benefits of female condoms included protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, increased sense of empowerment for women, and simple clean up. The most common drawback was reduc...

  8. HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore

    OpenAIRE

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Female injection drug users {IDU} who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17% of female study participants (n=307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and fo...

  9. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  10. Intimate Violence as It Relates to Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2017-10-05

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The influence of running away on the risk of female sexual assault in the subsequent year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault.

  12. Social polyandry, parental investment, sexual selection, and evolution of reduced female gamete size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malte

    2004-01-01

    Sexual selection in the form of sperm competition is a major explanation for small size of male gametes. Can sexual selection in polyandrous species with reversed sex roles also lead to reduced female gamete size? Comparative studies show that egg size in birds tends to decrease as a lineage evolves social polyandry. Here, a quantitative genetic model predicts that female scrambles over mates lead to evolution of reduced female gamete size. Increased female mating success drives the evolution of smaller eggs, which take less time to produce, until balanced by lowered offspring survival. Mean egg size is usually reduced and polyandry increased by increasing sex ratio (male bias) and maximum possible number of mates. Polyandry also increases with the asynchrony (variance) in female breeding start. Opportunity for sexual selection increases with the maximum number of mates but decreases with increasing sex ratio. It is well known that parental investment can affect sexual selection. The model suggests that the influence is mutual: owing to a coevolutionary feedback loop, sexual selection in females also shapes initial parental investment by reducing egg size. Feedback between sexual selection and parental investment may be common.

  13. The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Sibonginkosi; Odimegwu, Clifford; De Wet, Nicole; Adedini, Sunday; Akinyemi, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.

  14. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

  15. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. © 2013.

  16. Female sexual outcomes in primiparous women after vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... The individual domain scores after the delivery was significantly lower in comparison with pre- ..... no difference between the groups with regard to the birth .... sexual counseling should be a part of antenatal follow-up.

  17. Reaching Urban Female Adolescents at Key Points of Sexual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive .... the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned. Action38. ...... World Health Organization.

  18. The control of male sexual responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Frédérique; Carrier, Serge; Charvier, Kathleen; Guertin, Pierre A; Journel, Nicolas Morel

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spinal mediation of erection and its underlying mechanism with nitric oxide (NO), followed by the description of the ejaculation process, its neural mediation and its coordination by the spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE), followed by the occurrence of climax as a multisegmental sympathetic reflex discharge. Brain modulation of these reflexes will be discussed through neurophysiological evidence involving structures such as the medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the nucleus para-gigantocellularis (nPGI), and through neuropharmacological evidence involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and oxytocin. The pharmacological developments based on these mechanisms to treat male sexual dysfunctions will complete this review, including phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitors and intracavernous injections (ICI) for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions (ED), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of premature ejaculation, and cholinesterase inhibitors as well as alpha adrenergic drugs for the treatment of anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Evidence from spinal cord injured studies will be highlighted upon each step.

  19. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y A; Sisawo, Ebrima J; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-04

    Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried out in two traffic stations in Burkina Faso namely Bittou customs station and Boromo bus station. Female hawkers aged 13 - 24 years were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey and local key informants were recruited to partake in an in-depth interview. The recruitment was based on their duties related to the hawkers. The study included 264 participants in the survey and 16 interviewees. The survey showed that three quarter of participants had primary education or lower. About half of them had been sexually harassed, with clients, public members and co-hawkers as the most common source of assault. Most (68.6%) hawkers were sexually active; among them 43.7% had received money or gifts for sex. Positive factors associated with commercial sex include working in Boromo and age above 17, while negative factors include being Muslim and having female genital mutilation. The interviews confirmed the relationship between hawking and the socio-economic situation of participant's family, and pointed out societal factors that expose hawkers to risky sexual behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of young female hawking activity in Boromo and Bittou. Implementing an empowerment program for female street vendors and their families, and an efficient surveillance system might help reduce these hazards.

  1. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on others not only via the auditory and visual mode but also via chemosignals. In three studies, we attempted to replicate and extend Gelstein et al.'s findings by including an additional condition with irritant tears, by using pictures of sexually attractive women, and by testing related hypotheses on the pro-social effects of exposure to tears. All three studies, separately or combined in a meta-analysis, failed to replicate the original inhibitory effects of tears. In addition, sniffing tears did not affect measures of connectedness, aggression and pro-social behaviour. It is concluded that the effects of female tears on male arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, if any, are very weak at best. Rather, it seems that crying exerts its strong inter-personal effects through the visual and auditory sensory channels.

  2. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  3. Neuroendocrine response to film-induced sexual arousal in men and women.

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    Exton, N G; Truong, T C; Exton, M S; Wingenfeld, S A; Leygraf, N; Saller, B; Hartmann, U; Schedlowski, M

    2000-02-01

    The psychoneuroendocrine responses to sexual arousal have not been clearly established in humans. However, we have demonstrated previously that masturbation-induced orgasm stimulates cardiovascular activity and induces increases in catecholamines and prolactin in blood of both males and females. We presently investigated the role of orgasm in producing these effects. Therefore, in this study parallel analysis of prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol concentrations, together with cardiovascular variables of systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were undertaken during film-induced sexual arousal in nine healthy adult men and nine healthy adult women. Blood was drawn continuously via an indwelling cannula and connected tubing system passed through a mini-pump. In parallel, the cardiovascular parameters were recorded continuously via a computerised finger-cuff sensor. Subjective sexual arousal increased significantly in both men and women during the erotic film, with sexual arousal eliciting an increase in blood pressure in both males and females, and plasma noradrenaline in females only. In contrast, adrenaline, cortisol and prolactin levels were unaffected by sexual arousal. These data further consolidate the role of sympathetic activation in sexual arousal processes. Furthermore, they demonstrate that increases in plasma prolactin during sexual stimulation are orgasm-dependent, suggesting that prolactin may regulate a negative-feedback sexual-satiation mechanism.

  4. Modeling and simulation of sexual activity daily diary data of patients with female sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Laurent; Cox, Eugene H; McFadyen, Lynn; Pidgen, Alwyn; Johnson, Patrick J; Haughie, Scott; Boolell, Mitra; Bruno, Rene

    2006-08-01

    To develop a model to explore the dose-response of sildenafil citrate in patients with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) based on telephone sexual activity daily diary (TSADD) data obtained in double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studies. Data were available on 614 patients with FSAD. A parametric model (Weibull distribution) was developed to describe the probability density function of the time between sexual events. Orgasm satisfaction scores and overall sexual satisfaction scores were simultaneously modeled as ordered categorical variables. Simulations were performed to evaluate the expected clinical response in patients with FSAD. The expected time between sexual events was approximately 3.5 days. Satisfaction scores increased with time to achieve a plateau after 3 to 4 weeks on treatment. The expected probability of satisfying orgasm (score of 3 and higher) ranged from 34.7% for placebo to 41.6% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate. Treatment effect (difference from placebo) was 6.9% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate, ranging from 0.6 to 24.7% for testosterone levels of 0.1 to 4.0 pg/ml. The treatment effect in postmenopausal women was larger than in premenopausal women. A modeling and simulation framework to support drug development in FSAD was developed. Sildenafil citrate demonstrated a dose-dependent effect in patients with FSAD.

  5. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

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    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  6. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordello, Maria Co; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha r = 0.862, p self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication.

  7. EFFECT OF MID URETHRAL SLING (TVT SURGERY ON FEMALE SEXUAL FUNCTION

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    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mid Urethral Slings is the main stay of therapy in the management of stress urinary incontinence in the female, w e evaluated the effect of TVT on sexual function in women who are from the rural backward districts of Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS & METHODS: 30 Women with a mean age of 44 yrs with SUI were evaluated before TVT procedure and then every 3months for 1yr for sexual health using NSF - 9 questionnaire . RESULTS: The sexual function in all the domains including desire, frequency ar ousal , orgasm remained the same as before surgery in more than 80% pts. The satisfaction rate was better in pts who were leaking during sex before surgery in six out of ten patients. CONCLUSIONS: TVT surgery does not have any significant impact on sexual function Sexual function is not an important issue for the female beyond the age of 40 yrs in the perimenopau s e/ post menopause period

  8. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD): Prevalence and impact on quality of life (QoL).

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    Nappi, Rossella E; Cucinella, Laura; Martella, Silvia; Rossi, Margherita; Tiranini, Lara; Martini, Ellis

    2016-12-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and quality of life (QOL) are both multidimensional and have a bidirectional relationship across the reproductive life span and beyond. Methodological difficulties exist in estimating the real prevalence of FSD because it is hard to determine the level of distress associated with sexual symptoms in a large-scale survey. Approximately 40-50% of all women report at least one sexual symptom, and some conditions associated with hormonal changes at menopause, such as vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), have a significant impact on sexual function and QOL. Sexual distress peaks at midlife, declines with age and is strongly partner-related. Many postmenopausal women are still sexually active, especially if they are in a stable partnership. Even though sexual functioning is impaired, a variety of psychosocial factors may maintain sexual satisfaction. That being so, health care providers (HCPs) should proactively address sexual symptoms at midlife and in older women, from a balanced perspective. Adequate counselling should be offered. Women with distressing symptoms may benefit from tailored hormonal and non-hormonal therapies, whereas women without distress related to their sexual experiences should not receive any specific treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attributions of blame and responsibility in sexual harassment: reexamining a psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S

    2011-04-01

    Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.

  10. Azadirachtin impact on mate choice, female sexual receptivity and male activity in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribi, N; Oulhaci, M C; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Sandoz, J C; Kaiser, L; Denis, B; Joly, D

    2017-11-01

    Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD 50 (0.63μg) on the day of adult emergence and its effect was evaluated on several traits of reproductive behavior: mate choice, male activity, female sexual receptivity, sperm storage and female sterility. In choice and no choice conditions, only male treatment reduced mating probability. Female treatment impaired mating probability only when males had the choice. Males' mating ability may have been impaired by an effect of the treatment on their mobility. Such an effect was observed in the actimeter, which revealed that treated males were less active than untreated ones, and this effect persisted over 8days. Azadirachtin treatment had, however, no effect on the nycthemeral rhythm of those males. Even when mating occurred, Azadirachtin treatment impaired post-mating responses especially when females or both sexes were treated: remating probability increases and female fertility (presence of larvae) decreases. No impairment was observed on the efficiency of mating, evaluated by the presence of sperm in the spermatheca or the ventral receptacle. Male treatment only had no significant effect on these post-mating responses. These findings provide clear evidence that Azadirachtin alters the reproductive behavior of both sexes in D. melanogaster via mating and post-mating processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Sources of sex information and its effects on sexual practices among in-school female adolescents in Osisioma Ngwa LGA, south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Oshi, Daniel C; Ndimele, Eugene C; Chuku, Nneoma C; Onyemuchara, Ifunanya L; Ezekwere, Sandra C; Oshi, Sarah N; Emelumadu, Obiageli F

    2011-10-01

    Prevalence of adolescent sexual activity is on the increase globally, resulting in increased risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes among them. Sources of sex information are key factors that influence female adolescents' sexual decision-making. Consequently, this study is aimed at identifying adolescents' sources of sexuality information, and its likely effect on their sexual practices among in-school female adolescents in Osisioma LGA, in southeastern Nigeria. A total of 304 girls selected by multi-stage sampling technique were studied. Responses were elicited from them using pretested, semi-structured, self administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using MS Excel and Epi-6. Primary and subsequent sources of sexuality information were mainly the media and peers. Families and schools mostly were not involved in provision of early sex education. Media and peer influence were predominantly negative. Female adolescents' knowledge of issues of sex was low. Premarital sex, early sexual initiation, and unprotected sex was common among them. Consequently, adverse implication of negative sexual behavior, such as unplanned pregnancies and induced abortion, was prevalent. The study highlights the need for increased roles of parents and teachers in early sexuality education of adolescent girls. This can be done by increasing capacity of parents to discuss sexuality issues with their children. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

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    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  14. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…

  15. Comparing Sexual Function in Females of Reproductive Age Referred to Rural and Urban Healthcare Centers in Ahvaz, Iran

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    Javadifar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthy sexual function can be considered as an important element to improve personal and public hygiene. The sexual desire plays an important role in mental health and improving the quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to compare sexual function of females in urban and rural areas. Methods The current descriptive study adopted 800 females of reproductive age (range 15 - 45 years referred to rural and urban healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Samples were randomly selected. Applied instruments in the study were demographic information and female sexual dysfunction questionnaires (FSFI. Independent T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed to analyze data by SPSS ver. 22. Results The result showed a significant statistical difference between females in urban and rural areas in terms of sexual desire, vaginal lubrication, intercourse pain and sexual function (P 0.05. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was 59.9% in females in rural and36.5% in urban areas and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (0.000. In both groups, the highest sexual disorder frequency was related to intercourse pain. Conclusions According to the obtained results, females in the rural areas had lower sexual function than the ones in the urban areas. It is suggested to establish female sexual health units in healthcare centers to give female sexual function consultation adjusted with awareness and culture of females and consider the existing problems.

  16. Physical Therapy in the Treatment of Central Pain Mechanisms for Female Sexual Pain.

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    Vandyken, Carolyn; Hilton, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of female sexual pain requires an interdisciplinary approach. Physical therapists trained in pelvic health conditions are well positioned to be active members of an interdisciplinary team addressing the assessment and treatment of female sexual pain. Changes within physical therapy practice in the last ten years have resulted in significant utilization of pelvic floor muscle relaxation and manual therapy techniques to address a variety of pelvic pain conditions, including female sexual pain. However, sexual pain is a complex issue giving credence to the necessity of addressing all of the drivers of the pain experience- biological, psychological and social. This review aims to reconcile current pain science with a plan for integrating a biopsychosocial approach into the evaluation and subsequent treatment for female sexual pain for physical therapists. A literature review of the important components of skilled physical therapy interventions is presented including the physical examination, pain biology education, cognitive behavioral influences in treatment design, motivational interviewing as an adjunct to empathetic practice, and the integration of non-threatening movement and mindfulness into treatment. A single case study is used to demonstrate the biopsychosocial framework utilized in this approach. Appropriate measures for assessing psychosocial factors are readily available and inform a reasoned approach for physical therapy design that addresses both peripheral and central pain mechanisms. Decades of research support the integration of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of complex pain, including female sexual pain. It is reasonable for physical therapists to utilize evidence based strategies such as CBT, pain biology education, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), yoga and imagery based exercises to address the biopsychosocial components of female sexual pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine

  17. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-11-01

    Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038. Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  18. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  20. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L. M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  1. Fertility and sexual function in female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors of reproductive age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeltink, C.M.; Incrocci, L.; Witte, B.I.; Meurs, S.; Visser, O.; Huijgens, P.C.; de Leeuw, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To assess the perceived fertility status and to determine the association between perceived fertility status and sexual function, as reported by young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. Background: Young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors are at risk of infertility and impaired

  2. Sexual Violence, Weight Perception, and Eating Disorder Indicators in College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff Stephens, Sara; Wilke, Dina J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between sexual violence experiences, inaccurate body weight perceptions, and the presence of eating disorder (ED) indicators in a sample of female US college students. Participants: Participants were 6,090 college females 25 years of age and younger. Methods: A secondary analysis of National College Health…

  3. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  4. Evaluation of sexuality in a Paraguayan mid-aged female urban population using the six-item Female Sexual Function Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S C; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Ortiz-Benegas, M E; Palacios-De Franco, Y

    2016-06-01

    Background There are scant data related to sexuality assessed among mid-aged women from Paraguay. Objective To assess sexual function in a sample of mid-aged Paraguayan women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 265 urban-living women from Asunción (Paraguay) aged 40-65 years were surveyed with the six-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and a questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results The median age of the sample was 48 years, 48.2% were postmenopausal (median/interquartile range age at menopause 46/13 years), 11.3% used hormone therapy, 37.0% used psychotropic drugs, 44.5% had hypertension, 7.2% diabetes, 46.1% abdominal obesity and 89.4% had a partner (n = 237). Overall, 84.1% (223/265) of surveyed women were sexually active, presenting a median total FSFI-6 score of 23.0, and 25.6% obtained a total score of 19 or less, suggestive of sexual dysfunction (lower sexual function). Upon bivariate analysis, several factors were associated with lower total FSFI-6 scores; however, multiple linear regression analysis found that lower total FSFI-6 scores (worse sexual function) were significantly correlated to the postmenopausal status and having an older partner, whereas coital frequency was positively correlated to higher scores (better sexual function). Conclusion In this pilot sample of urban-living, mid-aged Paraguayan women, as determined with the FSFI-6, lower sexual function was related to menopausal status, coital frequency and partner age. There is a need for more research in this regard in this population.

  5. Rapid response to syphilis outbreak among female sex workers

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    Shaily B Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outbreak of syphilis, i.e., 16 cases of rapid plasma reagin (RPR reactive cases of syphilis was reported in Community Based Organization (CBO Sahyog of Surat, India, from April to August 2014. The aim of the study was to find risk factors and take immediate actions to prevent spread. Materials and Methods: Outbreak investigation of 16 Female Sex Workers of CBO Sahyog in Surat who were found Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA positive from April to August 2014; was carried out. Clinico-epidemiological and laboratory-based evidence for different sexually transmitted infections (STIs conducted at Government Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Surat. Root cause analysis (RCA of index case was carried out. Results: Desk review for the past 3 years data of STI revealed total STI cases as 88 (2011, 95 (2012, and 130 (2013, of which 4, 2, and 2 found RPR reactive, respectively. Data from April to August 2014 revealed 16 RPR reactive cases and confirmed by TPHA. On examination, one had ulcerative cervical lesion, rest did not have any symptoms of syphilis. Eleven had vaginal/cervical discharge, 11 had lower abdominal pain. A total of 11 had unprotected sex, 7 encountered condom tear in the past 6 months, and 5 reported sexual violence. Seven had sexual activity under influence of alcohol. Laboratory investigation revealed two as HIV-positive. RPR reactivity reported highest (9 out of 16 from same area of hotspot. RCA of probable index case revealed factors responsible as violence and nonuse of condoms. Conclusions: Outbreak investigation revealed one probable index case. All 16 treated with injection Penidure. Violence or condom tear is responsible for the spread. Crisis management team should be strengthened.

  6. Development of sexual behavior in free-ranging female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-09-01

    We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sexual harassment of female chiropractors by their patients: a pilot survey of faculty at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleberzon, Brian; Statz, Rachel; Pym, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to survey a group of female chiropractors and inquire as to whether or not they had been sexually harassed by their patients. Methods: An online questionnaire was emailed via Survey Monkey to 47 female faculty members at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). Respondents were asked if they had been sexual harassed and, if so, the characteristics of the incident(s), their response to it, how serious they perceived the problem to be and whether or not they felt prepared to deal with it. Results: Nineteen of 47 questionnaires were completed and returned. Of these 19, eight respondents reported being sexually harassed by a patient (all male), most commonly within the first 5 years of practice and most commonly involving a ‘new’ patient. It was rarely anticipated. The nature of the harassment varied and respondents often ignored the incident. Most respondents perceive this to be a problem facing female chiropractors. Discussion: Although this is the first survey of its kind, this is a significant problem facing other healthcare professionals. Conclusions: Among this group of respondents, sexual harassment by patients was a common occurrence. More training on how to handle it, during either a student’s chiropractic education or offered as a continuing education program, may be warranted. PMID:26136603

  8. Raising Darwin's consciousness : Female sexuality and the prehominid origins of patriarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdy, S B

    1997-03-01

    Sociobiologists and feminists agree that men in patriarchal social systems seek to control females, but sociobiologists go further, using Darwin's theory of sexual selection and Trivers's ideas on parental investment to explain why males should attempt to control female sexuality. From this perspective, the stage for the development under some conditions of patriarchal social systems was set over the course of primate evolution.Sexual selection encompasses both competition between males and female choice. But in applying this theory to our "lower origins" (prehominid ancestors), Darwin assumed that choices were made by essentially "coy" females. I argue here that female solicitation of multiple males (either simultaneously or sequentially, depending on the breeding system) characterized prehominid females; this prehominid legacy of cyclical sexual assertiveness, itself possibly a female counter-strategy to male efforts to control the timing of female reproduction, generated further male counter-strategies. This dialectic had important implications for emerging hominid mating systems, human evolution, and the development of patriarchal arrangements in some human societies. For hominid males who will invest in offspring, there would be powerful selection for emotions, behaviors, and customs that ensure them certainty of paternity. The sexual modesty that so struck Darwin can be explained as a recent evolved or learned (perhaps both) adaptation in women to avoid penalties imposed by patrilines on daughters and mates who failed to conform to the patriline's prevailing norms for their sex. Other supposedly innate universals, such as female preferences for wealthy husbands, are also likely to be facultative accommodations by women to constraints set up when patrilines monopolized resources needed by females to survive and reproduce, and passed on intergenerational control of these resources preferentially to sons.

  9. Sexual violence among female high school students in Debark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 19 (8.8%) who reported rape being performed on them, unwanted pregnancy, suicide attempt, vaginal discharge and abortion were the consequences in 21%, 15.8%, 10.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Sexual violence is a major public health problem with high rates of underreporting .Sex education should ...

  10. Reaching urban female adolescents at key points of sexual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Worldwide, adolescents contribute 11% of births, many of which are in low and middle-income countries. This study uses recently collected longitudinal data ...

  11. Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction Through Symbolic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemetz, Georgia H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Clients (N=16) were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either individual or group treatment. Treatment consisted of relaxation training followed by viewing 45 videotaped vignettes depicting graduated sexual behaviors. Improvement remained stable through a one-year follow-up. Control clients showed no improvement and trends toward…

  12. Sexual dysfunction in females with depression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnankutty Sreelakshmy

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Female sexual dysfunction (FSD in depression albeit common is strikingly understudied. The condition, if addressed properly, can be readily cured, improving the quality of life of the patient. Methods A consecutive sample of drug-naïve married female patients with depression was assessed. Depression was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and sexual dysfunction, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results Sexual dysfunction was found in 90% of the patients in our study. Patients with medical comorbidities showed a significant decrease in the desire subset of the FSFI (Mann-Whitney U=11.0, p=0.009, however there was no significant association with other subsets. Patients who expressed passive death wishes had higher scores on all indicators of sexual function and a significantly higher score in the orgasm subset of the FSFI (Mann-Whitney U=11.0, p=0.009. Conclusion The study showed a high prevalence of FSD in depressed females regardless of type and severity of depression. Depression with medical comorbidities was associated with a significant decrease in desire. Patients who expressed passive death wishes showed improved sexual function and significantly better orgasm.

  13. Counselling Sexual-Violence Survivors: The Evolution of Female Counsellors' Critical Political Consciousness and the Effects on Their Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Mary Kate

    2011-01-01

    This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…

  14. Sexual-incentive motivation and paced sexual behavior in female rats after treatment with drugs modifying dopaminergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Ellinor; Agmo, Anders

    2004-03-01

    The effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine, the dopamine releaser amphetamine, and the dopamine receptor antagonist cis(Z)-flupenthixol on sexual-incentive motivation and on paced-mating behavior were studied in female rats. Apomorphine, in the doses of 0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg, showed a tendency to reduce incentive motivation. Ambulatory activity was inhibited, evidenced both by diminished distance moved and reduced velocity of movement. Amphetamine (0.25 and 1 mg/kg) and flupenthixol (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) failed to modify incentive motivation while stimulating and reducing ambulatory activity, respectively. In the mating test, apomorphine enhanced the latency to enter the male's half and reduced the number of proceptive behaviors. However, these effects were associated with the appearance of stereotyped sniffing. Amphetamine increased the propensity to escape from the male after a mount without having other effects. Flupenthixol augmented the duration of the lordosis posture. Neither amphetamine nor flupenthixol affected sniffing. These data show that facilitated dopaminergic neurotransmission stimulates neither paced female sexual behavior nor sexual-incentive motivation. Dopamine receptor blockade has slight consequences. It is concluded that dopamine is not a transmitter of major importance for unconditioned female sexual motivation and behavior.

  15. Sexual risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Robert; Riono, Pandu; Nurhayati; Saputro, Eko; Mustikawati, Dyah; Anartati, Atiek; Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Majid, Nurholis; Morineau, Guy

    2010-10-01

    To assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation among female sex workers (FSW) in Indonesia using data from the 2007 Integrated Biological-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS). Behavioural data were collected from time-location samples of 5947 FSW in 10 cities in late 2007. HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia test results were obtained for 4396, 4324, 3291 and 3316 FSW, respectively. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed via linkage with sentinel surveillance data. Factors associated with HIV, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. HIV prevalence averaged 10.5% among direct and 4.9% among indirect FSW, and had increased steadily among direct FSW from 2002 to 2007. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and active syphilis averaged 35.6%, 31.8% and 7.3%, respectively, among direct FSW, and 28.7%, 14.3% and 3.5% among indirect FSW. Being a direct FSW, younger age and having current infection with syphilis and gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV infection. Number of clients in the past week and consumption of alcohol before having sex were associated with a higher likelihood of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia infection, while having received a STI clinic check-up in the previous 3 months and/or periodic presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 6 months were associated with reduced likelihood of infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic among FSW in Indonesia appears to be expanding, albeit unevenly across provinces and types of FSW. High STI prevalence is conducive to further expansion, but recent efforts to strengthen STI control appear promising.

  16. An Automated Fading Procedure to Alter Sexual Responsiveness in Pedophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, D. R.; Pawlowski, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    An automated stimulus fading procedure was used to strengthen sexual responsiveness to adult stimuli in two pedophiles. The degree of responsiveness was indicated by changes in the penile response. Implications for future research are discussed. (Author)

  17. Toward Personalized Sexual Medicine (Part 1) : Integrating the “Dual Control Model” into Differential Drug Treatments for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.; van Rooij, K.; Poels, S.; Goldstein, I.; Everaerd, W.; Koppeschaar, H.; Chivers, M.; Gerritsen, J.; van Ham, D.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women

  18. Social support for female sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Granero-Molina, José; Matarín Jimenez, Tamara María; Ramos Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida Maria; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and understand experiences related to social support for women with fibromyalgia who suffer from sexual dysfunction. An interpretive qualitative research methodology based on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics was used. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with 13 women who averaged 44.8 years of age and 14.3 years since being diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Data were analyzed using Fleming’s method and two themes were identified: ...

  19. Harassment and Mental Distress Among Adolescent Female Students by Sexual Identity and BMI or Perceived Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah

    2017-08-01

    Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Representations of female sexuality in Spanish television fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charo Lacalle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available La sobrerrepresentación de la sexualidad en la televisión y el debate suscitado por las nuevas feminidades han convertido la investigación sobre sexualidad y ficción televisiva en un fructífero campo de estudio. El análisis de contenido muestra que la televisión ofrece una imagen distorsionada de la sexualidad y que la información sobre cuestiones sexuales raramente figura en los programas. Este artículo analiza las representaciones de los personajes femeninos de la ficción televisiva española, mediante la utilización de un método híbrido que combina herramientas como el programa estadístico SPSS con la socio-semiótica. La muestra comprende los 709 personajes femeninos incluidos en la ficción propia de estreno de 2012 y 2013. La actividad sexual de los personajes femeninos está condicionada por el atractivo y por la edad, a excepción de las niñas y adolescentes. Los personajes jóvenes de la muestra identifican el empoderamiento con la asertividad y el control, mientras que las representaciones de las mujeres mayores de 45 años son muy escasas. Las relaciones sexuales son representadas como el desenlace “natural” de las relaciones románticas y la seducción

  1. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women's Sexual Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Bouchard, Katrina N; Timmers, Amanda D

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or "straight" women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women's sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women's sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed.

  2. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L.; Bouchard, Katrina N.; Timmers, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or “straight” women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women’s sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed. PMID:26629910

  3. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Postmating sexual conflict and female control over fertilization during gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C

    2018-06-01

    Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e.g., increased sperm fertilizing capacity), much less attention has been given to the evolutionary consequences of postmating sexual conflict for egg form and function. Specifically, increased sperm competitiveness can be detrimental by giving rise to an elevation in reproductive failure resulting from polyspermy. Spanning literature on both internal and external fertilizers, in this review I discuss how females respond to sperm competition via fertilization barriers that mediate sperm entry. These findings, which align directly with sexual conflict theory, indicate that females have greater control over fertilization than has previously been appreciated. I then consider the implications of gametic sexual conflict in relation to the development of reproductive isolation and speculate on potential mechanisms accounting for "egg defensiveness." Finally, I discuss the functional significance of egg defensiveness for both the sexes, and sperm selection for females. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Understanding the Broader Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.

  6. Condyloma acuminata in a 3-year-old female: Sexual abuse or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Abbas Rizvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminata (also known as anogenital warts or venereal warts a sexually transmitted disease (STD is usually seen in younger adults. However, genital warts have been reported in all age groups of children including infants. The possibility of sexual abuse is a major concern in the evaluation of children with genital warts. We hereby report a case of genital warts in a three year old female child.

  7. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2005-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...

  8. Sexual self-regulation and cognitive absorption as factors of sexual response toward virtual characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Patrice; Trottier, Dominique; Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne L; Goyette, Mathieu; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The eye movements and penile responses of 20 male participants were recorded while they were immersed with virtual sexual stimuli. These participants were divided into two groups according to their capacity to focus their attention in immersion (high and low focus). In order to understand sexual self-regulation better, we subjected participants to three experimental conditions: (a) immersion with a preferred sexual stimulus, without sexual inhibition; (b) immersion with a preferred sexual stimulus, with sexual inhibition; and (c) immersion with a neutral stimulus. A significant difference was observed between the effects of each condition on erectile response and scanpath. The groups differed on self-regulation of their erectile responses and on their scanpath patterns. High focus participants had more difficulties than low focus participants with inhibiting their sexual responses and displayed less scattered eye movement trajectories over the critical areas of the virtual sexual stimuli. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual self-regulation and cognitive absorption in virtual immersion. In addition, the use of validated virtual sexual stimuli is presented as a methodological improvement over static and moving pictures, since it paves the way for the study of the role of social interaction in an ecologically valid and well-controlled way.

  9. HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Female injection drug users {IDU} who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17% of female study participants (n=307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and four times as likely to report a recent STI. Injection risk did not differ significantly, but sexual minority women reported higher prevalence of socio-economic instability, negative health indicators, and fewer network financial, material, and health support resources. There is a need to identify and address socio-economic marginalization, social support, and health issues among female IDUs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. PMID:25504312

  10. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  11. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  12. Prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment among female faculty and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.

  13. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  14. Female sexual function and fertility after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Thevy; Lefevre, Jeremie H; Shields, Conor; Chafai, Najim; Tiret, Emmanuel; Parc, Yann

    2016-03-01

    A potential complication in women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is sexual impairment and reduced fertility. The aim was to evaluate sexual function and fertility after IPAA. All female patients who underwent an IPAA between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively included. Sexual function, fertility, and continence were explored by the female sexual function index (FSFI), telephonic interview, and Wexner's score. Among 127 women included, 93 responded to the questionnaires (73.2%). Seventy five were sexually active, and 48 (64%) had normal sexual function (FSFI > 26). In univariate analysis, there was a significant relationship between ulcerative colitis (p = 0.0161), age > 40 years (p = 0.01311), number of bowel movements (p = 0.0238), nocturnal pouch activity (p = 0.0094), use of loperamide (p = 0.0283), and existence of sexual dysfunction. After multivariate analysis, age and nocturnal pouch activity were associated with a worse sexual function (p = 0.0235, OR = 3.3 (1.2-9.9) and p = 0.0094, OR = 4.1 (1.4-13.5)). Of 16 patients who wished to have children, 10 (63%) became pregnant without recourse to in vitro fertilization, of whom 3 had two or more pregnancies. In total, there were 13 children born after IPAA. The mean time between the first pregnancy and surgery was 24.8 ± 22 months. At 12 and 24 months after cessation of contraception, 57 and 67% had at least one pregnancy. While sexual function is impaired in a limited number of patients, the impact of surgery can be regarded as modest. Age and nocturnal pouch activity were some independent factors of worse sexual function. The risk of infertility should not preclude consideration of IPAA as a treatment option.

  15. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.O. Lordello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ, and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Result The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001, but the sexual domain scored lower than expected ( r = 0.65. The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. Conclusions The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication.

  16. Correlates of sexual violence among adolescent females in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.

  17. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  18. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Chemokine-mediated immune responses in the female genital tract mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    The genital tract mucosa is the site where sexually transmitted infections gain entry to the host. The immune response at this site is thus critical to provide innate protection against pathogens that are seen for the very first time as well as provide long-term pathogen-specific immunity, which would be required for an effective vaccine against sexually transmitted infection. A finely regulated immune response is therefore required to provide an effective barrier against pathogens without compromising the capacity of the genital tract to allow for successful conception and fetal development. We review recent developments in our understanding of the immune response in the female genital tract to infectious pathogens, using herpes simplex virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Chlamydia trachomatis as examples, with a particular focus on the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell migration necessary to achieve effective innate and adaptive immune responses in the female genital tract.

  20. Comparison of Sexual Dysfunction Using the Female Sexual Function Index following Surgical Treatments for Uterine Fibroids

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    Allison Ryann Louie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine fibroids are a common problem in women. Statistics showing 20–50% of fibroids produce symptoms and consequently patients seek surgical intervention to improve their quality of life. Treatments for fibroids are typically successful in controlling the fibroid disease, yet sexual function following invasive surgical treatments for fibroids can be jeopardized. The Sexual Function Index (FSFI is a valid instrument producing quantifiable reproducible results. In this paper three case reports are evaluated by the FSFI and compared between the following treatment groups: hysterectomy, myomectomy, and uterine embolization. Our goal is to illustrate how each of these treatment outcomes can result in sexual dysfunction and therefore decreased quality of life. Effects of invasive fibroid treatments on sexual functioning would be helpful in guiding patient’s ultimate decisions regarding treatment.

  1. Sexual initiation and contraceptive use among female adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    regression model to quantify the effects of a set of factors on female .... based on a weighing of benefits (such as school fees, .... urban areas are exposed to a more diverse life style .... received money or gift or favours in return for sex.

  2. Legal Consciousness and Responses to Sexual Harassment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446

  3. The construct of sexual openness for females in steady intimate relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rausch

    Full Text Available The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed.

  4. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

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    Tahereh Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms.Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively.Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions.

  5. Sexual harassment among females in working place at Dhangadhi municipality Kailali, District of Nepal

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    Lal Bahadur Kunwar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a challenging issue where women and men work together. It is being recognized as a violation of human rights and human dignity which undermines the equality of opportunity and treatment between men and women. So, this descriptive study was conducted in Dhangadhi Municipality Kailali District, Nepalto find out the experience of sexual harassment in female at working place. Only female respondents who were working in office were taken purposively from four sectors such as government sectors, Company, Government and Public School and NGOs/INGOs for the study by using pre-structured interview schedules. From each sectors 25% of the total female respondents which was 23 people were selected. Data were collected on the basis of first come first take method till the required number was achieved. The study was conducted among 92 respondents. It was observed that women workers were victimized by all form of sexual harassment such as verbal (56.3%, physical (16.9%, Written or Graphical(11.3%, gesture(8.5% and emotional(7.0% form of sexual harassment. Co-workers (52.1% are the major harassers to the women workers. Among 92 respondents, 71(77.2% respondents were facing sexual harassment at working place and major cause of sexual harassment was (36.9% power and position of male but they often ignore the incidence. Female workers are very much vulnerable to sexual harassment by their male co‐workers, immediate Supervisor and manager. It negatively impacts their performance in work, mental and physical health, their human right and dignity.

  6. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Does the Severity of Overactive Bladder Symptoms Correlate With Risk for Female Sexual Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliato, Cássia Raquel Teatin; Melotti, Iane Glauce Ribeiro; Junior, Luiz Carlos Santos; Britto, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira; Riccetto, Cássio Luiz Zanettini

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have associated overactive bladder (OAB) with female sexual dysfunction (FSD); however, there are no reports using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity and to relate OAB to the risk of FSD. To evaluate women with OAB and to correlate the severity of their urinary symptoms with their sexual function. This cross-sectional study included 267 women older than 18 years with untreated OAB. All subjects completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Linear regression was used to analyze the association between variables and the numeric FSFI score, and categorical FSFI scores were analyzed using logistic regression. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ICIQ-OAB results and the different FSFI domains. The significance level was 5%. Subjects' mean age was 50.2 ± 11.9 years. Most women were married, had at least three children, and were postmenopausal (54.3%). Mean FSFI total score was 19.2 ± 9.8. For menopausal status, 65.6% of premenopausal women had a risk for FSD vs 86.2% of postmenopausal women. Mean ICIQ-OAB score was 10 ± 3.17. Postmenopausal women had the following risk factors statistically associated with sexual dysfunction: age, ICIQ score, and marital status. For these women, greater OAB severity, especially those with urgency and/or urge incontinence, was associated with worse scores in the arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual pain domains. However, there was no statistically significant association for premenopausal women. Health professionals have to pay attention to OAB in women because of the greater risk for FSD in these patients. The strength was using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity in a larger population. Limitations include a convenience sample with no power calculation; exclusion of women who did not have sexual intercourse in the past month; unmeasured distress

  8. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Sexual satisfaction in the elderly female population: A special focus on women with gynecologic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Elena S; Erekson, Elisabeth A; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A

    2011-11-01

    SEXUAL FUNCTION IN AGING WOMEN: Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. THE IMPACT OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS ON SEXUAL FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN: Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman's sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic

  10. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  11. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

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    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  12. Males Resemble Females: Re-Evaluating Sexual Dimorphism in Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae.

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    Leonardo Maiorino

    Full Text Available Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical "males" and "females" within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between "males" and "females" are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.

  13. Sexual Violence Among Out-of-School Female Adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Kofoworola Odeyemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence against females is a public health problem. This descriptive cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of sexual violence among out-of-school female adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria and examine the context in which it occurs. Three hundred and fifty adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, working in Sandgrouse market, Lagos, were selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Almost half (42.9% of the respondents have had sexual intercourse, and median age at initiation was 17 years. Forced initiation was reported by 15.8%, and 36.3% reported that first intercourse was due to coercion. Among the sexually active, only 12.3% stated that “it is what they desire.” Majority of respondents (64.1% believe that rape is common in their community, and 18% of the sexually active have experienced rape. Out-of-school adolescents in this community are at risk of sexual violence. The factors that make them vulnerable need to be addressed.

  14. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  15. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  16. Heterosexual female adolescents' decision-making about sexual intercourse and pregnancy in rural Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Paulina; Leipert, Bev; Evans, Marilyn; Regan, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Rural female adolescents experience unique circumstances to sexual health care and information as compared to urban adolescents. These circumstances are largely due to their more isolated geographical location and rural sociocultural factors. These circumstances may be contributing factors to an incidence of adolescent pregnancy that is higher in rural areas than in urban cities. Thus, this higher incidence of pregnancy may be due to the ways in which rural adolescents make decisions regarding engagement in sexual intercourse. However, the rural female adolescent sexual decision-making process has rarely, if ever, been studied, and further investigation of this process is necessary. Focusing on rural female adolescents aged 16-19 years is especially significant as this age range is used for reporting most pregnancy and birth statistics in Ontario. Charmaz's guidelines for a constructivist grounded theory methodology were used to gain an in-depth understanding of eight Ontario rural female adolescents' decision-making process regarding sexual intercourse and pregnancy, and how they viewed rural factors and circumstances influencing this process. Research participants were obtained through initial sampling (from criteria developed prior to the study) and theoretical sampling (by collecting data that better inform the categories emerging from the data). Eight participants, aged 16-19 years, were invited to each take part in 1-2-hour individual interviews, and four of these participants were interviewed a second time to verify and elaborate on emerging constructed concepts, conceptual relationships, and the developing process. Data collection and analysis included both field notes and individual interviews in person and over the telephone. Data were analyzed for emerging themes to construct a theory to understand the participants' experiences making sexual decisions in a rural environment. The adolescent sexual decision-making process, Prioritizing Influences, that

  17. Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Heistermann, Michael; Saggau, Carina; Agil, Muhammad; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-06-18

    Female signals of fertility have evolved in diverse taxa. Among the most interesting study systems are those of multimale multifemale group-living primates, where females signal fertility to males through multiple signals, and in which there is substantial inter-specific variation in the composition and reliability of such signals. Among the macaques, some species display reliable behavioural and/or anogenital signals while others do not. One cause of this variation may be differences in male competitive regimes: some species show marked sexual dimorphism and reproductive skew, with males fighting for dominance, while others show low dimorphism and skew, with males queuing for dominance. As such, there is variation in the extent to which rank is a reliable proxy for male competitiveness, which may affect the extent to which it is in females' interest to signal ovulation reliably. However, data on ovulatory signals are absent from species at one end of the macaque continuum, where selection has led to high sexual dimorphism and male reproductive skew. Here we present data from 31 cycles of 19 wild female crested macaques, a highly sexually dimorphic species with strong mating skew. We collected measures of ovarian hormone data from faeces, sexual swelling size from digital images, and male and female behaviour. We show that both sexual swelling size and female proceptivity are graded-signals, but relatively reliable indicators of ovulation, with swelling size largest and female proceptive behaviours most frequent around ovulation. Sexual swelling size was also larger in conceptive cycles. Male mating behaviour was well timed to female ovulation, suggesting that males had accurate information about this. Though probabilistic, crested macaque ovulatory signals are relatively reliable. We argue that in species where males fight over dominance, male dominance rank is surrogate for competitiveness. Under these circumstances it is in the interest of females to increase

  18. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    OpenAIRE

    McLean Lynn; Robertson Duncan H; Davidson Amanda J; Armstrong Stuart D; Simpson Deborah M; Roberts Sarah A; Beynon Robert J; Hurst Jane L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing...

  19. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  20. Participation in Athletics and Female Sexual Risk Behavior: The Evaluation of Four Causal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James

    2002-01-01

    Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…

  1. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  2. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  3. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  4. Study on sexual and reproductive health behaviors of unmarried female migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Zhou, Y.; Ji, N.; Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Moyer, E.; Minkauskiene, M.; Pang, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to broadly assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried female migrants in China. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted and a self-administered questionnaire was

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  6. Sexual Harassment in the 1990s: A University-Wide Survey of Female Faculty, Administrators, Staff, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Parsons, Beth

    2000-01-01

    A survey of all female employees (n=446) and a sample of students (n=319) at a southeastern university with a published policy regarding sexual harassment found 19-43 percent of female staff, faculty, administrators, and students had experienced sexual harassment. Reported perpetrators were most often other employees (by employees), other students…

  7. Relationship between female pelvic floor dysfunction and sexual dysfunction: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, Arianna; Vanti, Carla; Banchelli, Federico; Guccione, Andrew A; Pillastrini, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The ability to express one's sexuality and engage in sexual activity requires multisystemic coordination involving many psychological functions as well as the integrity of the nervous, hormonal, vascular, immune, and neuromuscular body structures and functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among pelvic floor function, sexual function, and demographic and clinical characteristics in a population of women initiating physical therapy evaluation and treatment for pelvic floor-related dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, vulvodynia, vaginismus, and constipation). We consented and collected completed demographic data and data related to symptoms and clinical condition on 85 consecutive patients in an outpatient physical therapy clinic. Clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed descriptively. Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses were used to analyze Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale ratings, whereas zero-inflated beta-binomial regression was applied to the pain subscale. Main outcome measure was FSFI score, whereas the secondary outcome measure was the FSFI subscale score related to pain. Women in our sample were 38 years old on average, 33% of whom had given birth and 82% of whom had high tone pelvic floor. Being in the middle-tercile age group and exhibiting low pelvic floor tone (Beta = 6.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.4; 12.0]) were significantly associated with lower levels of sexual dysfunction. Women with low tone pelvic floor also reported lower pain (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI = [1.6; 9.6]), whereas younger aged and physically unsatisfied subjects were more likely not to have sexual activity in the month prior to scale measurement. In female patients with pelvic floor muscle dysfunction undergoing physical therapy and rehabilitation, sexual dysfunction appears to be significantly correlated with age and high pelvic floor muscle tone. © 2015

  8. Woman and partner-perceived partner responses predict pain and sexual satisfaction in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Leclerc, Bianca; Lambert, Bernard; Steben, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that results in significant sexual dysfunction, psychological distress, and reduced quality of life. Although some intra-individual psychological factors have been associated with PVD, studies to date have neglected the interpersonal context of this condition. We examined whether partner responses to women's pain experience-from the perspective of both the woman and her partner-are associated with pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. One hundred ninety-one couples (M age for women=33.28, standard deviation [SD]=12.07, M age for men=35.79, SD=12.44) in which the woman suffered from PVD completed the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, assessing perceptions of partners' responses to the pain. Women with PVD also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, depression, and dyadic adjustment. Dependent measures were women's responses to: (i) a horizontal analog scale assessing the intensity of their pain during intercourse; (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for depression, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher levels of women's vulvovaginal pain intensity. This association was significant for partner-perceived responses (β=0.29, Psexual function and dyadic adjustment, woman-perceived greater solicitous partner responses (β=0.16, P=0.02) predicted greater sexual satisfaction. Partner-perceived responses did not predict women's sexual satisfaction. Partner responses were not associated with women's sexual function. Findings support the integration of dyadic processes in the conceptualization and treatment of PVD by suggesting that partner responses to pain affect pain intensity and sexual satisfaction in affected women. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Female Partners of Men With Peyronie's Disease Have Impaired Sexual Function, Satisfaction, and Mood, While Degree of Sexual Interference Is Associated With Worse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Gerard, Marina; Binik, Yitzchak M; Carrier, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) causes penile deformity and can result in sexual dysfunction and psychological distress. Currently, nothing is known about the psychosexual impact on the partners of men with PD. Research carried out on the partners of men with other chronic illnesses suggests that the partners of men with PD might have increased rates of sexual dysfunction and decreased sexual satisfaction. To examine (i) sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, negative affect, and relationship satisfaction of men with PD and their female partners and (ii) the effect of male-perceived sexual interference on partners' outcomes. Forty-four men diagnosed with PD and their female partners completed a questionnaire package. Each partner filled out the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (women) or the International Index of Erectile Function (men). Overall, partners of men with PD were found to have decreased sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and mood compared with population-based norms. Men and their partners showed non-distressed levels of relationship satisfaction. The degree to which PD interfered with sexual activity was an important correlate of outcomes. Increased sexual interference was associated with lower sexual function and satisfaction for the person experiencing interference. Sexual interference also was associated with negative affect and relationship satisfaction in partners and the person experiencing interference. PD is associated with negative psychosexual and psychosocial effects on those with the disease and their partners. As a result, assessment and intervention should include the two members of the couple. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of life, depression, and sexual dysfunction in spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Koca, Irfan; Celen, Esra; Korkmaz, Nurdan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of life and psychological condition of female patients with fibromyalgia and their spouses on sexual function. A total of 32 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their spouses were analyzed. Thirty married couples were included in the study as the control group. The demographic data of the fibromyalgia patients were recorded, a visual analog scale was used to evaluate the level of pain, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the symptoms on the quality of life of the patients. The quality of life of both the patients and the control group were evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and psychological variables were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index for female participants and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for male participants. The IIEF erectile dysfunction scores were significantly lower in the spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia than in the control group (p fibromyalgia (p fibromyalgia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). In all spouses of FMS patients and controls, there was a significantly negative correlation between erectile function, the BDI score, and to be married with FMS patient and positive correlations between erectile function and emotional role, social function, mental health, SF-36 pain score, and general health (p fibromyalgia might significantly interfere with quality of life and lead to a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Spouses of patients with fibromyalgia might also be investigated for sexual dysfunction and quality of life. Treatment programs for this group should be considered.

  11. Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higham James P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female signals of fertility have evolved in diverse taxa. Among the most interesting study systems are those of multimale multifemale group-living primates, where females signal fertility to males through multiple signals, and in which there is substantial inter-specific variation in the composition and reliability of such signals. Among the macaques, some species display reliable behavioural and/or anogenital signals while others do not. One cause of this variation may be differences in male competitive regimes: some species show marked sexual dimorphism and reproductive skew, with males fighting for dominance, while others show low dimorphism and skew, with males queuing for dominance. As such, there is variation in the extent to which rank is a reliable proxy for male competitiveness, which may affect the extent to which it is in females’ interest to signal ovulation reliably. However, data on ovulatory signals are absent from species at one end of the macaque continuum, where selection has led to high sexual dimorphism and male reproductive skew. Here we present data from 31 cycles of 19 wild female crested macaques, a highly sexually dimorphic species with strong mating skew. We collected measures of ovarian hormone data from faeces, sexual swelling size from digital images, and male and female behaviour. Results We show that both sexual swelling size and female proceptivity are graded-signals, but relatively reliable indicators of ovulation, with swelling size largest and female proceptive behaviours most frequent around ovulation. Sexual swelling size was also larger in conceptive cycles. Male mating behaviour was well timed to female ovulation, suggesting that males had accurate information about this. Conclusion Though probabilistic, crested macaque ovulatory signals are relatively reliable. We argue that in species where males fight over dominance, male dominance rank is surrogate for competitiveness. Under these

  12. The effects of ketamine on sexual behavior, anxiety, and locomotion in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Gonzalez, Chantal M F; Lucero, Devon; Womble, Paige D; Abdel-Rahim, Heba; DeVore, Jennie; Kunkel, Marcela Nicole; Quadlander, Emma; Stinnett, Morgan; Boyette-Davis, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    The present study characterized the effects of ketamine on sexual behavior and anxiety in female rats. In Experiment 1, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline 30min prior to a sexual partner-preference test during which each female subject was given the opportunity to interact with a female stimulus or a sexually vigorous male stimulus. Immediately afterwards, female subjects were tested for locomotion in an open field test. Ketamine-treated subjects spent significantly more time with the male stimulus than saline-treated subjects. No other measures of mating behavior (i.e., paced mating behavior, lordosis) were affected by ketamine. Ketamine also had no effect on locomotion. In Experiment 2, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg), or saline daily for 10days to investigate the possibility that sexual dysfunction emerges only after repeated exposure. Similar to the results of Experiment 1, ketamine-treated subjects spent significantly more time with the male stimulus than saline-treated subjects. Chronic ketamine treatment also decreased the likelihood of leaving the male after mounts, without affecting any other measures of sexual behavior. Chronic ketamine had no effect on locomotion. In Experiment 3, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline and were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test and for locomotion in an open field test. Acute ketamine had no effect on anxiety or locomotion. In Experiment 4, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline daily for 10days to investigate the possibility that anxiety emerges only after repeated exposure. Chronic ketamine exposure had no effect on any measure of anxiety. However, chronic ketamine exposure increased locomotion. The results from these experiments indicate that unlike other medications prescribed for depression, neither acute nor chronic ketamine treatment causes anxiety or disruption of

  13. Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex: re-reading Freud's 'Female sexuality'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haute, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.

  14. States of emergence: Writing African female same-sex sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Brenna M

    2017-04-03

    Tracing a series of intertextually linked short stories from the 1990s to the present by women writers from Nigeria and its diaspora-Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Unoma Azuah, Chinelo Okparanta, and Lola Shoneyin-I suggest that although the figure of the African lesbian appears "new" in the context of heightened contemporary attention to the issue of homosexuality, this figure has a literary history. Ghanaian Ama Ata Aidoo's novel Our Sister Killjoy: Or, Reflections From A Black-Eyed Squint (1977) inaugurates this formation, in which the imagining of female same-sex desire is entangled with articulating the experience of migration under the shadow of imperial histories. In these short stories, the emphasis on the difficulties of love in puritanical times and transnational places produces the figure of the African lesbian as a symbol of appealingly human vulnerability, resilience, and complexity.

  15. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  16. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  17. "Did you come?" A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Claire M A; Fisher, William A

    2014-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in young adult heterosexual men's and women's experiences, beliefs, and concerns regarding the occurrence or nonoccurrence of orgasm during sexual interactions, with emphasis on the absence of female orgasm during intercourse. Qualitative reports were obtained from five female focus groups (N = 24, M age = 19.08) and five male focus groups (N = 21, M age = 19.29), involving three to five participants per group. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed for emerging themes across focus group discussions. Results indicated that, for both male and female participants, the most common concern regarding lack of female orgasm in a partnered context focused on the negative impact this might have on the male partner's ego. Male and female participants also agreed that men have the physical responsibility to stimulate their female partner to orgasm, while women have the psychological responsibility of being mentally prepared to experience the orgasm. Men and women tended to maintain different beliefs, however, regarding clitoral stimulation during intercourse, as well as the importance of female orgasm for a woman's sexual satisfaction in a partnered context. Findings suggest foci for sexual education.

  18. Evidence That the Microbiota Counteracts Male Outbreeding Strategy by Inhibiting Sexual Signaling in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Heys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota is increasingly being recognized as having important impacts on many host biological processes. However, evidence of its effects on animal communication and breeding strategy is lacking. In this three-factorial study, we show that females were more willing to mate with related males, with relatedness likely being assessed through the microbiota. By contrast, male mating investment is concurrently determined by both the relatedness and microbiota status of the female. When the microbiota in female Drosophila melanogaster is altered by an antibiotic, male investment in sperm number increased when mating with unrelated females compared to related ones. Contrastingly, the presence of an intact microbiota in females canceled this male outbreeding strategy. As a consequence, the microbiota, when intact, decreased the fitness of the mating couple. Furthermore, we showed that female sexual signaling (cuticular hydrocarbons, with regards to kin recognition, significantly interacts with microbiota. Interestingly, the interaction is significant for hydrocarbons expressed by both sexes, but not for female-specific compounds. Taken together, our results suggest that microbiota can influence kin recognition by disfavoring male outbreeding strategies, likely by inhibiting key olfactory sexual signaling. This represents the first evidence of a host outbreeding strategy counteracted by their microbiota.

  19. A multi-method study of health behaviours and perceived concerns of sexual minority females in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Rawat, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    This multi-method study explores the perceived health status and health behaviours of sexual minority (i.e. self-identifying with a sexual identity label other than heterosexual) females (i.e. those assigned female at birth who may or may not identify as women) in Mumbai, India, a population whose health has been generally absent in scientific literature. Using community-based participatory research approaches, this study is a partnership with The Humsafar Trust (HST). HST is India's oldest and largest LGBT-advocacy organisation. An online survey targeted towards sexual minority females was conducted (n=49), with questions about sexual identity, perceived health and wellbeing, physical and mental healthcare access and experiences, and health behaviours (including substance use). Additionally, photo-elicitation interviews in which participants' photos prompt interview discussion were conducted with 18 sexual minority females. Sexual minority females face obstacles in health care, mostly related to acceptability and quality of care. Their use of preventative health screenings is low. Perceived mental health and experiences with care were less positive than that for physical health. Participants in photo-elicitation interviews described bodyweight issues and caretaking of family members in relation to physical health. Substance use functioned as both a protective and a risk factor for their health. Our findings point to a need for more resources for sexual minority females. Education on screening guidelines and screening access for sexual minority females would also assist these individuals in increasing their rates of preventative health.

  20. Male and female adolescents' perceived interpersonal communication skills according to history of sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, V; Reis, J; Stephens, Y

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the experience of 61 female adolescents recruited through a private adolescent family planning clinic, and 183 9th through 12th-grade adolescents recruited from a private suburban high school regarding their experiences with dating relationships, sexual communication skills, and psychological status. The samples were predominantly white and middle to upper income. Perceptions of interpersonal communication skills were analyzed according to gender, clinic versus school, and history of sexual coercion. The adolescents were generally confident that they could assert their own preferences and stand up to other regarding sexual issues with the exception of the small group of high school males reporting having had experienced sexual coercion. This group (N = 20) expressed difficulty in talking to their partners about safer sex, getting their partner(s) to listen to them, or turning down alcohol or drugs prior to having sex. These boys were also more likely to report missing classes or having other kinds of trouble with school, to be concerned about use of alcohol and drugs, and about feeling unpopular. None of the female groups had this profile of communication and emotional problems. Implications for preventive education programming on interpersonal skills and sexuality are considered.

  1. Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Johnson, Kiersten

    2009-03-01

    Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

  2. Oestradiol and prostaglandin F2α regulate sexual displays in females of a sex-role reversed fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Costa, Silvia Santos; Teles, Magda C.; Silva, Helena; Inglês, Mafalda; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating sexual behaviours in female vertebrates are still poorly understood, mainly because in most species sexual displays in females are more subtle and less frequent than displays in males. In a sex-role reversed population of a teleost fish, the peacock blenny Salaria pavo, an external fertilizer, females are the courting sex and their sexual displays are conspicuous and unambiguous. We took advantage of this to investigate the role of ovarian-synthesized hormones in the induction of sexual displays in females. In particular, the effects of the sex steroids oestradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and of the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) were tested. Females were ovariectomized and their sexual behaviour tested 7 days (sex steroids and PGF2α) and 14 days (sex steroids) after ovariectomy by presenting females to an established nesting male. Ovariectomy reduced the expression of sexual behaviours, although a significant proportion of females still courted the male 14 days after the ovary removal. Administration of PGF2α to ovariectomized females recovered the frequency of approaches to the male's nest and of courtship displays towards the nesting male. However, E2 also had a positive effect on sexual behaviour, particularly on the frequency of approaches to the male's nest. T administration failed to recover sexual behaviours in ovariectomized females. These results suggest that the increase in E2 levels postulated to occur during the breeding season facilitates female mate-searching and assessment behaviours, whereas PGF2α acts as a short-latency endogenous signal informing the brain that oocytes are mature and ready to be spawned. In the light of these results, the classical view for female fishes, that sex steroids maintain sexual behaviour in internal fertilizers and that prostaglandins activate spawning behaviours in external fertilizers, needs to be reviewed. PMID:24452030

  3. Sexuality and Aging: An Overview for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, Dave

    1982-01-01

    Discusses male and female sexual response in aging adults. Describes common medical problems and their relationship to sexuality in older adults. Considers common surgeries including hysterectomy, mastectomy, and prostatectomy and sexuality in older adults. Discusses implications for counselors. (RC)

  4. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

  5. Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for web-based administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Fellner, Angela N; Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-02-01

    Web-based questionnaires are becoming increasingly valuable for clinical research. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is the gold standard for evaluating female sexual function; yet, it has not been validated in this format. We sought to validate the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for web-based administration. Subjects enrolled in a web-based research survey of sexual function from the general population were invited to participate in this validation study. The first 151 respondents were included. Validation participants completed the web-based version of the FSFI followed by a mailed paper-based version. Demographic data were collected for all subjects. Scores were compared using the paired t test and the intraclass correlation coefficient. One hundred fifty-one subjects completed both web- and paper-based versions of the FSFI. Those subjects participating in the validation study did not differ in demographics or FSFI scores from the remaining subjects in the general population study. Total web-based and paper-based FSFI scores were not significantly different (mean 20.31 and 20.29 respectively, p = 0.931). The six domains or subscales of the FSFI were similar when comparing web and paper scores. Finally, intraclass correlation analysis revealed a high degree of correlation between total and subscale scores, r = 0.848-0.943, p Web-based administration of the FSFI is a valid alternative to the paper-based version.

  6. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  7. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  8. Social Responsibility Personality Differences between Male and Female Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, Alan M.; Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to explore in what ways, if any, male public relations practitioners differ from their female counterparts in their level of social responsibility. Subjects were 105 public relations practitioners (60% female and 40% male) and 215 college students (71% female and 29% male), who completed the Berkowitz-Lutterman SRS Scale. The…

  9. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.

  10. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    5.4.3.2. Sexual Assault Examination Process (see Enclosure 6, Healthcare section) 5.4.3.3. Emergency Contraception /Sexually Transmitted...pregnancy, options for emergency contraception , and any necessary follow-up care and/or referral services. E3.2.7.2.3. Assessment for the need...and listen/engage in quiet support, as needed, and provide the victim appropriate emotional support resources. To the extent practicable, accommodate

  11. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  12. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.

  13. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  14. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Undergraduate Students in Wuhan, China: The Only-Child versus Students with Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. METHODS: Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergrad...

  15. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  16. Correlates of sexual function in male and female patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Starowicz, Michal; Rola, Rafal

    2014-09-01

    Many factors have been suggested to contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but the research on their impact on sexual functioning (SF) and sexual quality of life (SQoL) remains scant. The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of SF and SQoL in MS patients, as well as possible gender differences. 204 MS patients were interviewed, completed the questionnaires, and underwent neurological assessment. Primary outcome measures included the International Index of Erectile Function, the Female Sexual Function Questionnaire, the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The course and duration of the disease did not predict patients' SF. Negative correlations were found for brainstem symptoms with orgasmic function and overall satisfaction in men and between cognitive functioning and the partner domain in women. Interestingly, brainstem symptoms correlated positively with the arousal domain in women. More than half (52.1%) of patients fulfilled Beck Depression Inventory criteria for depression, and these patients showed more SD than nondepressive individuals. The strongest negative correlations with depressive symptoms were found for desire, erectile function, and overall satisfaction with sexual life in men and for orgasm and sexual enjoyment in women. Deterioration in particular domains of SF was clearly related with diminished SQoL. The main gender difference was a strong influence of decreased desire on SQoL in women and no such correlation in men. Negative assessment of the relationship with partner significantly affected all domains of SF and SQoL in MS women and the desire domain in MS men. Several correlates of SF in MS patients were found. The role of brainstem symptoms needs further investigation. Clinicians should pay close attention to depressive symptoms and relationship factors in MS patients who suffer from SD. © 2014 International Society for

  17. Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Likeliness of Sexual Behaviors of Black Lower-Socioeconomic Father-Present vs. Father-Absent Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…

  18. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males.Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species.The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  19. Methylmercury Exposure Induces Sexual Dysfunction in Male and Female Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Srikumar, Syian; Aamer, Sarah; Pandareesh, Mirazkar D; Chauhan, Abha

    2017-09-24

    Mercury, an environmental health hazard, is a neurotoxic heavy metal. In this study, the effect of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure was analyzed on sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), because neurons play a vital role in sexual functions. The virgin male and female flies were fed a diet mixed with different concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM) for four days, and the effect of MeHg on copulation of these flies was studied. While male and female control flies (no MeHg) and flies fed with lower concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5 µM) copulated in a normal manner, male and female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg (113, 226, and 339 µM) did not copulate. When male flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control female flies, only male flies fed with 113 µM MeHg were able to copulate. On the other hand, when female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control male flies, none of the flies could copulate. After introduction of male and female flies in the copulation chamber, duration of wing flapping by male flies decreased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner from 101 ± 24 seconds (control) to 100.7 ± 18, 96 ±12, 59 ± 44, 31 ± 15, and 3.7 ± 2.7 seconds at 28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM MeHg, respectively. On the other hand, grooming in male and female flies increased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that MeHg exposure causes sexual dysfunction in male and female Drosophila melanogaster . Further studies showed that MeHg exposure increased oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels in a concentration-dependent manner in both male and female flies, suggesting that MeHg-induced oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels may partly contribute to sexual dysfunction in fruit flies.

  20. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko.

  1. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  2. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  3. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI form. Material and methods: Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI, i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results: The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions: All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter.

  4. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargin, M. A.; Yassa, M.; Taymur, B. D.; Akca, G.; Tug, N.; Taymur, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Methodology: Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. Results: The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 +- 3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). Conclusion: An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health. (author)

  5. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Taymur, Bulent; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-FreemanHalton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 ±3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health.

  6. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating Health Belief model component about sexual and reproductive health in college female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aslani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: One of the critical steps in providing social and family health by concentrating on women's health is expanding sexual and reproductive health and addressing it in various aspects of the national and international level. Therefore in this study the goal is analyzing the components of the health belief model about sexual and reproductive health of female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis which conducted by participation of 397 female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud in 2014. The data collecting tool was a questionnaire that was consisted of demographic information, knowledge and structures of health belief model. The data was analyzed by SPSS software and t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that students had high self-efficacy (17.7 ± 2 in reproductive health care but the rate of their perceived barriers (3.02± 1.37 that was reported was almost high. Also there was a direct relation between demographic variable of age and the knowledge of students. The average score of students' awareness of sexually transmitted disease that was obtained was 9.97 ± 2.62. There was no significant relationship between age, marital status and their study major with structures of health belief model about sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS and its preventive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the self-efficacy of students about preventive behaviors of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS is high. In other hand the average of perceived barriers in students is relatively high. Considering the findings it is recommended that sexual and reproductive health programs should be applied in order to reduce the barriers and to further increase the ability of young people. Paper Type: Research Article.

  8. Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Satarupa

    2013-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship.

  9. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Earnshaw, Valerie A

    2012-12-01

    Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women's and men's level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO's association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO's association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO's association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use.

  10. Breast functions perceived by Korean mothers: infant nutrition and female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Yoo, Eunkwang

    2010-04-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional study of 2,235 Korean postpartum women was conducted to explore (a) feeding types with related factors, (b) the perceived benefits of each feeding type, (c) the perceived sexuality-related barriers to breast-feeding, and (d) the perceived relative significance of breast functions. The most frequently utilized feeding type was breast-feeding only. The gender of infants, vaginal delivery, not being employed, having a nuclear family, previous breast-feeding experience, and previously receiving breast-feeding education were statistically significant factors of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding and mixed feeding mothers indicated that their feeding choices were based on nutritional benefits, convenience, and improving family relationships. Only breast-feeding mothers reported changes in breast shape as a perceived sexuality-related barrier to breast-feeding. All mothers reported that infant feeding was a more significant concern than female sexual functioning, but post hoc Schéffe revealed that the breast-feeding mothers appreciated infant feeding function more than female sexual functioning.

  11. Female sexuality and consent in public discourse: James Burt's "love surgery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sarah B

    2013-04-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, gynecologist and obstetrician James Burt developed what he called "love surgery" on unknowing women after they gave birth. It was, he later told them, a modification of episiotomy repair. In the mid-1970s, Burt began promoting love surgery as an elective sexual enhancement surgery and women came to his clinic in hopes of a surgically-enabled better sex life. But though Burt now offered love surgery, he continued to perform it on patients who did not come to him for it through the late 1980s. Over the course of more than two decades, discourse on love surgery occurred twice nationally. In the late 1970s, feminists and sex therapists attacked love surgery as altering a woman's body for male sexual pleasure. Though Burt never hid his continued use of love surgery on women who had not elected for it, the public discourse at this time focused on love surgery as a reflection of larger cultural ideas about female sexuality. In the late 1980s, when Burt's love surgery again appeared in the national media, the issue of informed consent, largely absent from the discourse about love surgery in the late 1970s, moved to the center. Though significant activity happened within the local medical and legal communities beginning in the mid-1970s regarding Burt and his practice of love surgery, my interest here is on these two periods when the discourse regarding love surgery, female sexuality, and informed consent occurred within a national frame.

  12. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  13. Enhancing the emergency department approach to pediatric sexual assault care: implementation of a pediatric sexual assault response team program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Monika K; Mollen, Cynthia J; Hayes, Katie L; Molnar, Jennifer; Christian, Cindy W; Scribano, Philip V; Lavelle, Jane

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of a novel pediatric sexual assault response team (SART) program in the first 3 years of implementation and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. This was a retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (ED) who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with sex, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. One hundred eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 (SD, 4.6) years. The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among girls (P < 0.01), but not by sex. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical examination was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal girls were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (P < 0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, and HIV prophylaxis (P < 0.01). In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on examination. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault.

  14. Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Tøttrup, Anders P; Coppack, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Global warming has led to earlier spring arrival of migratory birds, but the extent of this advancement varies greatly among species, and it remains uncertain to what degree these changes are phenotypically plastic responses or microevolutionary adaptations to changing environmental conditions. We...... suggest that sexual selection could help to understand this variation, since early spring arrival of males is favoured by female choice. Climate change could weaken the strength of natural selection opposing sexual selection for early migration, which would predict greatest advancement in species...... in the timing of first-arriving individuals, suggesting that selection has not only acted on protandrous males. These results suggest that sexual selection may have an impact on the responses of organisms to climate change, and knowledge of a species' mating system might help to inform attempts at predicting...

  15. Female Mice Deficient in Alpha-Fetoprotein Show Female-Typical Neural Responses to Conspecific-Derived Pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, O.; Keller, M.; Douhard, Q.; Bakker, J.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to

  16. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.

  17. A study of possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 2 gene and female sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Annika; Jern, Patrick; Westberg, Lars; Johansson, Ada; Salo, Benny; Burri, Andrea; Spector, Tim; Eriksson, Elias; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2015-03-01

    Female sexual desire and arousal problems have been shown to have a heritable component of moderate size. Previous molecular genetic studies on sexual desire have mainly focused on genes associated with neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that hormones with more specific functions concerning sexuality could have an impact on sexual desire and arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in estrogen receptor genes on female sexual desire and subjective and genital arousal (lubrication). Based on previous research, we hypothesized that ESR1 and ESR2 are relevant genes that contribute to female sexual desire and arousal. The desire, arousal, and lubrication subdomains of the Female Sexual Function Index self-report questionnaire were used. The present study involved 2,448 female twins and their sisters aged 18-49 who had submitted saliva samples for genotyping. The participants were a subset from a large-scale, population-based sample. We found nominally significant main effects on sexual desire for three ESR2 -linked SNPs when controlled for anxiety, suggesting that individuals homozygous for the G allele of the rs1271572 SNP, and the A allele of the rs4986938 and rs928554 SNPs had lower levels of sexual desire. The rs4986938 SNP also had a nominally significant effect on lubrication. No effects for any of the SNPs on subjective arousal could be detected. The number of nominally significant results for SNPs in the ESR2 gene before correcting for multiple testing suggests that further studies on the possible influence of this gene on interindividual variation in female sexual functioning are warranted. In contrast, no support for an involvement of ESR1 was obtained. Our results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in independent, large samples. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Substance use and the risk for sexual intercourse with and without a history of teenage pregnancy among adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the associations between initiation and intensity of substance use and with sexual experience with and without a history of teenage pregnancy. Participants were high school females (weighted n = 3,451) who participated in the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being sexually experienced (but never pregnant) and teenage pregnancy (reference group: never had sexual intercourse) as a function of age at substance use initiation (i.e., age 12 or younger, 13-14 years of age, and age 15 or older) and intensity of substance use (i.e., nonuser, experimental/ new or nondaily, nonexperimental/daily user) for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, while controlling for race/ethnicity, metropolitan location, symptoms of depression, and illegal drug availability at school. A major finding of our study is that substance use behaviors across each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) independently contributed to an increased risk in sexual intercourse experience with and without a history of teenage pregnancy (vs. nonsexually experienced females). A dose-response relationship was also observed between an increased likelihood of a teenage pregnancy and marijuana behaviors. Furthermore, the risk for teenage pregnancy was compounded for daily cigarette smokers who initiated use at age 12 or younger. Screening substance use behaviors can help to identify girls who may benefit from pregnancy prevention strategies. Targeting cigarette and marijuana behaviors as early as age 12 or younger may provide an added benefit. Prevention strategies should also consider the role of race above and beyond substance use behaviors.

  19. Differential evolution of asexual and sexual females in a benign culture environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report one of the first investigations of evolvability of lifespan and reproduction in metazoans, examining both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We tested effects on senescence of an environmental variable (simulated lake hydroperiod, the length of time an aquatic habitat is inundated), female reproductive physiology (asexual females that reproduce by ameiosis, versus sexual females reproducing by meiosis), and time in a benign culture environment (minimal, if any, external mortality factors). To do this we established chemostat cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis s.s., and maintained the cultures for 385 d. Hydroperiod alone or in interaction with the effects of time in the benign environment (season) or reproductive physiology had no significant effect on the net reproductive rate, generation time, or rate of aging. Yet combining animals from both ephemeral and permanent hydroperiods revealed a 26% increase in asexual female lifespan across seasons (23% decrease in the rate of aging) and a 56% increase in asexual fecundity, suggesting that maintenance in benign laboratory conditions leads to slower aging. The relative stasis of traits for sexual females implies an impact of reproductive physiology on evolvability. In addition we found a positive correlation between fecundity and lifespan, suggesting an absence of trade-offs in life history traits in the benign laboratory environment. PMID:24795527

  20. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  1. Hymen protection and the sexual practices, perceptions, and attitudes of female university students from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kak, Faysal; El Salibi, Noura; Yasmine, Rola; Ghandour, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    To investigate associations between hymen protection and women's alternative sexual practices, perceptions, and attitudes. A cross-sectional online survey was administered among university students (aged 18-30 years) in Lebanon between April 30 and August 31, 2012. The present analysis focused on female students who had engaged in oral/anal sex. Among 416 included women, 163 (39.3%) reported anal/oral sex to protect their hymen. Women ever concerned with hymen protection were less likely to be non-Lebanese and not religious/spiritual, but more likely to report unwanted sexual activities, a relationship in which they felt things were moving too fast physically, and to feel guilty about sexual feelings (all Pwomen who later engaged in vaginal sex (n=75) were less religious and more accepting of premarital sex than were those who continued to protect their hymen (n=88; all PWomen concerned about hymen-breaking engage in alternative sexual practices, yet experience pressure, guilt, worry, and indecisiveness regarding their sex-related decisions. The navigation of sexual decisions is a more vulnerable process for these women because of prevailing patriarchal values and discriminating gender norms in Lebanon. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. A qualitative study of sexual harassment of female doctors by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Phillips, S P

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the qualitative data from a study of sexual harassment of female family physicians by patients. In addition to the everyday harassment that any woman might encounter in a work setting, the physicians in this study also reported types of harassment which are unique to the practice of medicine. These include opportunistic harassment such as exposure of the genitals, inappropriately touching the physician when the examination requires close contact, excessive discussion of sexual matters for apparent erotic gratification, and acting out behaviours from non-competent patients. Other reported behaviours were not, strictly speaking, sexual harassment but were troublesome nonetheless, including spontaneous erections during physical examinations, physically intimidating behaviour, and ambiguous behaviours which were sexual in nature, but difficult to interpret. The findings are discussed in the context of theory pertaining to contrapower harassment. It is concluded that for some patients the gender of the physician takes precedence over her occupational status and, this combined with the unique characteristics of the doctor/patient relationship, can make the practice of family medicine more conductive to sexual harassment than other professions.

  3. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  6. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  7. Clinical Assessment of Extract in the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R.B. Gama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative—quantitative study based on hospital records of female patients of reproductive age, presenting sexual dysfunction, and treated with 250 mg Tribulus terrestris extract (1 tablet thrice daily for 90 days. Safety monitoring included vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse events. Efficacy analysis included results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels together with total and free testosterone, and the patient and physician assessments. There was a statistically significant improvement in total FSFI scores ( P < 0.0001 post-treatment, with improvement among 106 (88.33% subjects. There was a statistically significant ( P < 0.0001 increase in the level of DHEA, while the levels of both serum testosterone ( P = 0.284 and free testosterone decreased ( P < 0.0001. Most adverse events recorded were related to the gastrointestinal tract. Physical examination showed no significant changes post-treatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that the T. terrestris extract is safe and effective in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  8. HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among male-to-female transgender people in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Dharma Nand

    2014-05-01

    Transgender women are a vulnerable and key risk group for HIV, and most research has shown an increased frequency of HIV infection among this minority population. This study examined the prevalence of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and the socio-demographic correlates with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons. Data were collected from a sample of 232 individuals through venue-based and snowball sampling and face-to-face interviews. The HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among the MtF transgender persons were: sex without using a condom (48.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-54.8), unprotected anal sex (68.1%; 95% CI 62.0-74.2), and unprotected sex with multiple partners (88.4%; 95% CI 84.3-92.5). Statistically significant differences were found for age, income, education, alcohol habit, and sex with more than two partners per day for these three different HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. MtF transgender persons with a secondary or higher level of education were three times (OR 2.93) more likely to have unprotected sex with multiple partners compared to those with a primary level or no education. Age, education, income, frequency of daily sexual contact, and an alcohol habit remain significant with regard to HIV-related sexual risk behavior. There is an urgent need for programs and interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviors in this minority population. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Sexual Orientation Identity on Medical Morbidities in Male-to-Female Transgender Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Romero, Angelita; Bowers, Marci L; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-02-01

    We aim to describe the relationship between sexual orientation identity and medical morbidities in a large sample of male-to-female (MTF) transgender patients. We reviewed medical records of patients presenting for MTF sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by a single, high-volume surgeon from 2011 to 2015. Sexual attraction to men (heterosexual), women (lesbian), or both (bisexual) was asked of each patient. We examined 16 medical morbidities for this analysis. During the study period, 330 MTF transgender patients presented for SRS. The average age at the time of surgery was 38.9 (range 18-76). One hundred and one patients (32%) reported being heterosexual, 110 patients (34%) reported being lesbian, and 108 patients (34%) reported being bisexual. Lesbian patients presented for SRS at older ages (mean = 43 years old) compared with heterosexual patients (mean = 36 years old) and bisexual patients (mean = 37), P sexual orientation identity. Lesbian patients had greater odds of having a history of depression, age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.40, compared with heterosexual patients. Lesbian patients had higher odds of being married or partnered, aOR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.27-4.19), compared with heterosexual patients. Heterosexual patients had higher odds of having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), aOR = 9.07, 95% CI (1.08-76.5) compared with lesbian patients. Sexual orientation identity in MTF transgender patients is variable. The majority of medical morbidities are not associated with sexual orientation identity. Although HIV and depression are common morbidities among MTF patients seeking SRS, the prevalence of these morbidities differs by sexual orientation identity, but these findings need replication. Counseling and future research initiatives in transgender care should incorporate sexual orientation identity and associated risk behavior.

  10. Prevalence and differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus regarding female sexual dysfunction: a cross-sectional Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Sedik, Wael F; Mohamed, Tamer Y

    2017-04-24

    To evaluate the female sexual dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study was carried out at Suez Canal University Hospitals from the start of February 2015 to the end of May 2016 among 189 married premenopausal women attending endocrinology and diabetology outpatient clinic for regular follow-up; 25 of whom refused to participate and 18 more were excluded due to incomplete data sets resulting in a final sample of 146 diabetic females. Ninety healthy women were recruited from the administrative staff at the hospital as a control group. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using female sexual function index (FSFI), a validated 19-item, self-administered, screening questionnaire comprising the six major sexual domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Responses to each question were reported and scored on 0-5 scale with 0 representing no sexual activity and 5 suggestive of normal sexual activity. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in both type 1 and 2 DM groups (44 and 25%, respectively) than in the control group (9%). FSFI mean total score was significantly lower in type 1 DM (21.1 ± 3.9) than type 2 DM (26.4 ± 4.2) and both were significantly lower than the control group (31.5 ± 5.8). With regard to FSFI domains, mean values for desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were significantly lower in both type 1 and type 2 DM groups when compared with the controls. FSD is a significant health problem among premenopausal diabetic Egyptian women. Type 1 DM women were more affected than type 2 DM that in turn was more affected than healthy control females.

  11. International spinal cord injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets-version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Marcalee S; New, Peter W; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2017-01-01

    S Scientific and Executive Committees and ASIA board of directors. RESULTS: The data sets were modified to a self-report format. They were reviewed for appropriateness for the pediatric age group and adapted to include a new variable to address the issue of sexual orientation. A clarification of the difference......STUDY DESIGN: Data set review and modification. OBJECTIVE: To describe modifications in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0 and the International SCI Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0. SETTING: International...... expert work group using on line communication. METHODS: An international team of experts was compiled to review and revise the International SCI Male Sexual Function and Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Sets Version 1.0. The group adapted Version 1.0 based upon review of published...

  12. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Murphy, Gregory P; Metzler, Ian; Sanford, Thomas; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Osterberg, E Charles; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group. Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the American Urological Association Symptom Index, and non-validated questions about history of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital numbness, and genital saddle sores (all self-reported). 3,118 (53.3%) Women completed the survey, comprising 1,053 (34%) non-cyclists, 1,656 (53%) low-intensity cyclists, and 409 (13%) high-intensity cyclists. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, tobacco use, race, marital status, urinary symptoms, and sexual activity, high-intensity cyclists had lower odds of self-reported sexual dysfunction compared to non-cyclists (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.7, P = .02). There were no statistically significant differences in urinary symptoms across groups. Compared to non-cyclists, both low- and high-intensity cyclists had higher odds of reporting a previous UTI (aOR 1.4, P < .001, and aOR 1.4, P = .009, respectively), genital numbness (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P < .001, and OR 9.1, P < .001, respectively), and saddle sores (OR 6.3, P < .001, and OR 22.7, P < .001, respectively). Women cyclists were more likely to report other genitourinary conditions, including UTIs, genital numbness, and saddle sores. This is the largest study comparing cyclists to other athletes with respect to sexual and urinary function. The study is limited by its cross-sectional design

  13. Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P

    2010-01-01

    Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed.

  14. Is Sexual Dimorphism in the Immune Response of Gryllodes sigillatus Related to the Quality of Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia, Adolfo; Cueva del Castillo, Raúl; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Whereas some authors have proposed that sexual dimorphism in the immune response is fixed, others pose that it is dynamic and depends on diet. The aim of the present study was to explore the second hypothesis. Immunocompetence differences between females and males can be linked to resource availability. We tested this idea by providing a low or high quality diet to two groups of Gryllodes sigilatus during their developmental period. Then, at the adult phase half of each group was challenged w...

  15. Validade de construto de uma versão em português do Female Sexual Function Index Construct validity of a Portuguese version of the Female Sexual Function Index

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    Rodolfo de Carvalho Pacagnella

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a validade de construto de uma versão do Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. A versão foi inserida ao final de um questionário multidimensional e aplicada face a face em 235 mulheres esterilizadas. O índice de não resposta foi de 1,7%. A amostra apresentou-se bastante homogênea com baixa renda e nível educacional. Um coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,948 indicou uma consistência interna muito alta. A análise fatorial demonstrou que o instrumento parece medir quatro fatores latentes: desejo/excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo/satisfação e dor. Isso pode referir-se a uma característica do próprio instrumento, às características da resposta sexual feminina ou ainda às peculiaridades culturais da amostra, o que pode interferir no entendimento das perguntas ou dos conceitos sobre os quais o instrumento versa. Assim aponta-se para necessidade de desenvolvimento de outros estudos na população geral para a definição do conjunto de propriedades do FSFI, como sua composição de fatores latentes e o estabelecimento de pontos de corte adequados à população brasileira.This study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of a version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The version was inserted into a multidimensional questionnaire and applied face-to-face to 235 sterilized women. Non-response rate was 1.7%. The sample proved to be highly homogeneous, with low income and education. Cronbach's alpha of 0.948 indicated high internal consistency. Factor analysis showed that the instrument was measuring four factors: desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm/satisfaction, and pain. This may reflect characteristics of the instrument itself, female sexual response, or even the sample's cultural peculiarities, which can affect understanding of the questions or concepts with which the instrument deals. This study emphasizes the need for further research in the general population to determine the

  16. Dealing with female sexuality: training, attitude, and practice of obstetrics and gynecology residents from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Teresa Cristina Souza Barroso; de Souza, Eduardo; da Silva, Ivaldo; Torloni, Maria Regina; Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2015-05-01

    There is little research on how obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents deal with female sexuality, especially during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents about sexuality. A cross-sectional survey of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in an online sexology course was conducted. A questionnaire assessed their training in sexuality during medical school and residency and their attitude and practice on sexual issues during pregnancy. Training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents regarding sexuality were the main outcome measures. A total of 197 residents, from 21 different programs, answered the online questionnaire. Mean age was 27.9 ± 2.2, most were female (87%), single (79%), and had graduated in the last 5 years (91%). Almost two-thirds (63%) stated that they did not receive any training at all and 28% reported having only up to 6 hours of training about sexuality in medical school. Approximately half of the respondents (49%) stated that they had received no formal training about sexuality during their residency up to that moment and 29% had received ≤6 hours of training. Over half (56%) never or rarely took a sexual history, 51% stated that they did not feel competent or confident to answer their pregnant patients' questions about sexuality, and 84% attributed their difficulties in dealing with sexual complaints to their lack of specific knowledge on the topic. The vast majority of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in a sexuality course had little previous formal training on this topic in medical school and during their residency programs. Most residents do not take sexual histories of pregnant patients, do not feel confident in answering questions about sexuality in pregnancy, and attribute these difficulties to lack of knowledge. These findings point to a clear need for additional training in sexuality among Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents. © 2015 International Society for

  17. Female dominance over males in primates: self-organisation and sexual dimorphism.

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    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available The processes that underlie the formation of the dominance hierarchy in a group are since long under debate. Models of self-organisation suggest that dominance hierarchies develop by the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing fights (the so-called winner-loser effect, but according to 'the prior attribute hypothesis', dominance hierarchies develop from pre-existing individual differences, such as in body mass. In the present paper, we investigate the relevance of each of these two theories for the degree of female dominance over males. We investigate this in a correlative study in which we compare female dominance between groups of 22 species throughout the primate order. In our study female dominance may range from 0 (no female dominance to 1 (complete female dominance. As regards 'the prior attribute hypothesis', we expected a negative correlation between female dominance over males and species-specific sexual dimorphism in body mass. However, to our surprise we found none (we use the method of independent contrasts. Instead, we confirm the self-organisation hypothesis: our model based on the winner-loser effect predicts that female dominance over males increases with the percentage of males in the group. We confirm this pattern at several levels in empirical data (among groups of a single species and between species of the same genus and of different ones. Since the winner-loser effect has been shown to work in many taxa including humans, these results may have broad implications.

  18. The influence of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, H-C; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Park, E-C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Methods Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as ?yes? or ?no?. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic ...

  19. What Is the Real Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Female Sexual Dysfunction? A Case Control Study

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    Mariana Rhein Felippe, ScM

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Women with UI were more likely to be sexual abstinent than continent women. Furthermore, women with UI showed less sexual desire, sexual comfort, and sexual satisfaction than their counterparts despite having a similar frequency of sexual activity.

  20. Ethnic Differences in Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among Female U.S. Navy Recruits: A Prospective Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stander, Valerie A; Merrill, Lex L; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and premilitary rape on the likelihood that female U.S. Navy recruits (N = 465) would experience rape during their first year of military service and to examine ethnic differences in sexual victimization and revictimization...

  1. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little

  2. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN AND TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PREGNANCY AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE SD RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Sufficient levels of androgens during fetal sexual differentiation in the mammal produces the male phenotype, and the absence of androgens or the dysfunction of the androgen receptor can produce the female phenotype. In previous studies in our laboratory, adminis...

  3. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  4. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  5. 'It's much worse than dying': the experiences of female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Maria José; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Osis, Maria José Duarte

    2017-08-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have suffered sexual violence and the impact and importance of that violence on their lives. Sexual violence against women is a serious problem worldwide. Studies need to investigate how women reorganise their lives after experiencing sexual violence. A qualitative design was used to explore women's experiences. This study analysed semistructured interviews of 11 women who had experienced a sexual assault. The interviews were performed at a specialised walk-in clinic at a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. A thematic analysis of the content led to the identification of the following themes: (1) impact and meaning of the violence; (2) feelings; (3) overcoming the violence and (4) expectations for the future. Sexual violence had a devastating impact on the lives of these women. The women's postviolence experiences caused feelings of guilt, impotence, fragility and immobility. These experiences also instilled a belief that they may have 'provoked' the violence. Nevertheless, the women showed resilience, investing all of their energy in returning their lives to pre-violence conditions. Family, friends and other important people, as well as the care that the women received from health services, were cited as factors that sustained this attitude of resilience. Providing appropriate care to female victims of sexual assault requires not only treating the physical damage caused by the violence but also evaluating the particularities of the experience's emotional impact on each woman and the psychosocial repercussions of the experience. Health professionals should follow up with women during their recovery period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of a private Human Medicine Faculty.

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    Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the

  7. Which are the male factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, E; Fanni, E; Mannucci, E; Fambrini, M; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M; Vignozzi, L

    2016-09-01

    It has been generally assumed that partner's erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation play a significant role in determining female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This study aimed to evaluate the role of the male partner's sexual function, as perceived by women, in determining FSD. A consecutive series of 156 heterosexual women consulting our clinic for FSD was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a structured interview and completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). FSFI total score decreased as a function of partner's age, conflicts within the couple, relationship without cohabitation and the habit of engaging in intercourse to please the partner; FSFI total score increased as a function of frequency of intercourse, attempts to conceive and fertility-focused intercourse. FSFI total score showed a negative, stepwise correlation with partner's perceived hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) (r = -0.327; p dysfunction, premature and delayed ejaculation. In an age-adjusted model, partner's HSD was negatively related to FSFI total score (Wald = 9.196, p = 0.002), arousal (Wald = 7.893, p = 0.005), lubrication (Wald = 5.042, p = 0.025), orgasm (Wald = 9.293, p = 0.002), satisfaction (Wald = 12.764, p sexual pleasure, and with a higher frequency of masturbation, even after adjusting for age. In patients not reporting any reduction in libido, FSFI total score was significantly lower when their partner's libido was low (p = 0.041); the correlation disappeared if the patient also experienced HSD. In conclusion, the presence of erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation of the partner may not act as a primary contributing factor to FSD, as determined by FSFI scores; conversely, women's sexuality seems to be mostly impaired by the perceived reduction in their partner's sexual interest. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  9. Condom Use at Last Sexual Intercourse and Its Correlates among Males and Females Aged 15–49 Years in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among people aged 15–49 years in Nepal. Secondary data analysis was performed using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The study was restricted to the respondents who reported ever having had sexual intercourse; 9843 females and 3017 males were included. Condom use was assessed by asking if respondents used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Complex Sample Analysis Procedure to adjust for sample weight and multistage sampling design. Overall, 7.6% of total, and 16.3% of males and 6.2% of females reported using condoms in their last sexual intercourse. Living in Far-Western region, age and wealth quintile were positively associated with condom use in both males and females. Being unmarried was the most important predictor of condom use among males. Higher education was associated with increased likelihood of condom use in females. However, mobility, having multiple sexual partners, and HIV knowledge were not significant correlates of condom use in both sexes. A big difference was observed in the variance accounted for males and females; indicating use of condoms is poorly predicted by the variables included in the study among females. Condom use was more associated with sociodemographic factors than with sexual behavior and HIV knowledge.

  10. Correlates for Consistency of Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Hsia Wang

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.

  11. Influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition in female broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila VS de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred and ninety six Arbor Acres females and 144 males were used to study the influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition. Treatments were: T1 = feeding at 6:30 am, T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 am and 50% at 3:30 pm (dual, T3 = feeding at 11:00 am, T4 = feeding at 3:30 pm. Nutrition and management were as recommended to the commercial line. Variables studied were: sexual maturity at 5% production (SM, mean egg production percentage (PEP body weight (BW, carcass composition, tibia weight (TIBW and tibia calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P contents. Analysis of variance was used, and the means were compared using Student's t test. T2 females reached SM at 25.92 weeks, which was earlier (p0.10 on carcass dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP and ash (ASH. DM, EE, TIBW, Ca and P increased (p<0.05 whereas CP and ASH decreased with age. Time of feeding influenced body weight, but not carcass composition. Hens fed twice a day had earlier sexual maturity and similar egg production compared to those fed once at 6:30 am.

  12. Independent evolution of sexual dimorphism and female-limited mimicry in swallowtail butterflies (Papilio dardanus and Papilio phorcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Thompson, M J; Collins, S; Vogler, A P

    2017-03-01

    Several species of swallowtail butterflies (genus Papilio) are Batesian mimics that express multiple mimetic female forms, while the males are monomorphic and nonmimetic. The evolution of such sex-limited mimicry may involve sexual dimorphism arising first and mimicry subsequently. Such a stepwise scenario through a nonmimetic, sexually dimorphic stage has been proposed for two closely related sexually dimorphic species: Papilio phorcas, a nonmimetic species with two female forms, and Papilio dardanus, a female-limited polymorphic mimetic species. Their close relationship indicates that female-limited polymorphism could be a shared derived character of the two species. Here, we present a phylogenomic analysis of the dardanus group using 3964 nuclear loci and whole mitochondrial genomes, showing that they are not sister species and thus that the sexually dimorphic state has arisen independently in the two species. Nonhomology of the female polymorphism in both species is supported by population genetic analysis of engrailed, the presumed mimicry switch locus in P. dardanus. McDonald-Kreitman tests performed on SNPs in engrailed showed the signature of balancing selection in a polymorphic population of P. dardanus, but not in monomorphic populations, nor in the nonmimetic P. phorcas. Hence, the wing polymorphism does not balance polymorphisms in engrailed in P. phorcas. Equally, unlike in P. dardanus, none of the SNPs in P. phorcas engrailed were associated with either female morph. We conclude that sexual dimorphism due to female polymorphism evolved independently in both species from monomorphic, nonmimetic states. While sexual selection may drive male-female dimorphism in nonmimetic species, in mimetic Papilios, natural selection for protection from predators in females is an alternative route to sexual dimorphism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  14. Views and Experiences of Malaysian Family Medicine Trainees of Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Tan, Sing Yee; Liew, Su May

    2016-11-01

    Sociocultural factors have been shown to be important influencers of sexual health and sexuality. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore the views and experiences of family medicine trainees regarding female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with a focus on the barriers and facilitators towards the initiation of conversation on this topic. A qualitative study design involving semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with 19 family medicine trainees in Malaysia. The conceptual framework used was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants perceived FSD as being uncommon and unimportant. According to our participants, patients often presented with indirect complaints, and doctors were not proactive in asking about FSD. Three main barriers were identified: doctor factors, perceived patient factors, and system factors. Lack of confidence, knowledge, experience, time, and embarrassment were the key barriers identified at the doctors' level. Lack of awareness, among patients regarding FSD, and local cultural and religious norms were the perceived patient barriers. System barriers were lack of time and privacy. Various facilitators, such as continuous medical education and public forums, were suggested as means to encourage family medicine trainees to initiate discussion on sexual matters during consultations. In conclusion, family medicine trainees found it difficult to initiate conversation on FSD with patients. Interventions to encourage conversation on FSD should target this and other identified barriers.

  15. The unethical use of ethical rhetoric: the case of flibanserin and pharmacologisation of female sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chańska, Weronika; Grunt-Mejer, Katarzyna

    2016-06-08

    The current debate around sexual dysfunctions focuses mostly on the pharmacological regulation of lowered sexual desire in women. The Food and Drug Administration approval of the first drug-Addyi-to treat this condition was preceded by a campaign, in which ethically saturated arguments were used to lobby policy makers. This article provides a critical evaluation of these arguments. In particular, we focus our attention on deceitful and unethical use of moral arguments and concepts. First, we present the context in which hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined as a serious medical condition, showing how non-medical and non-scientific influences shaped the understanding of the problem. Further, we demonstrate how in current discussions regarding lower sexual interest attention has been shifted from psychosocial to pharmacological solutions and we trace the ethical consequences of such a change. We argue that, in addition to typical detrimental effects of overmedicalisation, there are new serious perils. In particular, we demonstrate that it is highly probable that pharmacologisation of female desire-contrary to the emancipatory declarations of the drug proponents-exerts pressure on women and narrows the range of potential choices they can make. As a result, it is inconsistent with the very idea of free choice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. [Migrants' female partners: social image and the search for sexual and reproductive health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marín, Sandra C; Cristancho-Marulanda, Sergio; González-López, José Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Analysing the self-image and social image of migrants' female partners (MFP) and their relationship with the search for sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in communities having a high US migratory intensity index. 60 MFP were subjected to in-depth interviews between October 2004 and May 2005 and 19 semi-structured interviews were held with members of their families, 14 representatives from social organisations, 10 health service representatives and 31 men and women residing in the community. MFP self-image and social image regards women as being "vulnerable", "alone", "lacking sexual partner" and thus being sexually inactive. Consequently, "they must not contract sexually-transmitted diseases (STD), use contraceptives or become pregnant" when their partners are in the USA. The search for SRHS services was found to be related to self-image, social image and the notion of family or social control predominated in the behaviour expected for these women which, in turn, was related to conditions regarding their coexistence (or not) with their families. MFP living with their family or their partner's family were subject to greater "family" control in their search for SRHS services. On the contrary, MFP living alone were