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Sample records for female reproductive aging

  1. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  2. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program.

  3. Female suprasegmental speech parameters in reproductive age and postmenopause.

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    Meurer, Eliséa Maria; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison

    2004-05-28

    During the female vital cycle verbal processes are influenced by secondary effects of steroid hormones. Verbal expression abilities favor more effective interpersonal communications. Verbal motor fluency is produced by the synchronization among voice, resonance and articulation. The present study compared phono-articulatory characteristics between women in reproductive age and postmenopause. Acoustic variations in vocal intonation, speed of the speech and the pause pattern were measured. Forty-five reproductive age women with regular menstrual cycles and taking no hormonal contraceptives and 45 postmenopause women receiving no hormonal replacement therapy for at least 3 years were interviewed and their verbal productions were recorded. Acoustic analyses were performed using the Kay Elemetrics Motor Speech Profile. Student's t-test was employed to compare data between the two groups when they presented normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney test when they were asymmetrical. Results showed that in the postmenopause group pause pattern was longer, the speed of the speech was slower, there was a vocal deepening without reduction of the vocal extension and there was also less vocal stability. A better understanding in this field will make possible to elaborate strategies to offer a better life quality for postmenopausal women.

  4. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

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    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  5. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

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    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  6. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

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    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  9. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  10. Mathematical modelling of decline in follicle pool during female reproductive ageing.

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    Thilagam, Alagu

    2016-03-01

    The factors which govern the subtle links between follicle loss and mammalian female reproductive ageing remain unclear despite extensive studies undertaken to understand the critical physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underly the accelerated decline in follicle numbers in women older than 37 years. It is not certain whether there is a sole control by the ovary or whether other factors which affect ageing also intersect with the ovarian effect. There is convincing experimental evidence for an interplay of several processes that seem to influence the follicle loss-female reproductive ageing links, with specific hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone) noted to play important roles in follicular dynamics and ovarian ageing. In this work, we examine the subtle links between the rate of follicular decline with ageing and the role of hormones via a series of non-autonomous equations. Simulation results based on the time evolution of the number of ovarian follicles and biochemical changes in the ovarian environment influenced by hormone levels is compared with empirical data based on follicle loss-reproductive ageing correlation studies. © Crown copyright 2015.

  11. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-07

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  12. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients.

  13. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

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    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  14. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

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    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  15. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals

    OpenAIRE

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging b...

  16. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

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    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system.

  17. Comparing Sexual Function in Females of Reproductive Age Referred to Rural and Urban Healthcare Centers in Ahvaz, Iran

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    Javadifar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthy sexual function can be considered as an important element to improve personal and public hygiene. The sexual desire plays an important role in mental health and improving the quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to compare sexual function of females in urban and rural areas. Methods The current descriptive study adopted 800 females of reproductive age (range 15 - 45 years referred to rural and urban healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Samples were randomly selected. Applied instruments in the study were demographic information and female sexual dysfunction questionnaires (FSFI. Independent T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed to analyze data by SPSS ver. 22. Results The result showed a significant statistical difference between females in urban and rural areas in terms of sexual desire, vaginal lubrication, intercourse pain and sexual function (P 0.05. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was 59.9% in females in rural and36.5% in urban areas and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (0.000. In both groups, the highest sexual disorder frequency was related to intercourse pain. Conclusions According to the obtained results, females in the rural areas had lower sexual function than the ones in the urban areas. It is suggested to establish female sexual health units in healthcare centers to give female sexual function consultation adjusted with awareness and culture of females and consider the existing problems.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

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    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. Female reproductive tract infections: understandings and care seeking behaviour among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinlusi Fatimat M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2% had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%, followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8% and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive

  20. Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations Were Altered with Oestrous Cycle Stage and Increasing Age in Reproductively Competent Wistar Females

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    Saffrey, M. Jill; Taylor, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in appetite occur during the ovarian cycle in female mammals. Research on appetite-regulatory gastrointestinal peptides in females is limited, because reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to control for. This study aimed to explore possible changes in the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin during the rodent oestrous cycle. Fed and fasted plasma and stomach tissue samples were taken from female Wistar rats (32–44 weeks of age) at each stage of the oestrous cycle for total ghrelin quantification using radioimmunoassay. Sampling occurred during the dark phase when most eating takes place in rats. Statistical analysis was by paired-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA on normally distributed data, with Tukey post-hoc tests, or Kruskal-Wallis if not. GLM univariate analysis was used to assess main effects and interactions in ghrelin concentrations in the fed or fasted state and during different stages of the ovarian cycle, with age as a covariate. No consistent fed to fasted ghrelin increases were measured in matched plasma samples from the same animals, contrary to expectations. Total ghrelin concentrations did not significantly change between cycle stages with ANOVA, in either fed or fasted plasma or in stomach tissue. This was despite significantly decreased fasted stomach contents at oestrus (P = 0.028), suggesting decreased food intake. There was however a significant interaction in ghrelin plasma concentrations between fed and fasted proestrus rats and a direct effect of age with rats over 37 weeks old having lower circulating concentrations of ghrelin in both fed and fasted states. The biological implications of altered ghrelin plasma concentrations from 37 weeks of age are as yet unknown, but warrant further investigation. Exploring peripheral ghrelin regulatory factor changes with increasing age in reproductively competent females may bring to light potential effects on

  1. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women’s loss of reproductive value

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    Dario eMaestripieri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual’s overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: 1 that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; 2 that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and 3 that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  2. No effect of partner age and lifespan on female age‐specific reproductive performance in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Hammers, Martijn; Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; Korsten, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Studies of age-specific reproductive performance are fundamental to our understanding of population dynamics and the evolution of life-history strategies. In species with bi-parental care, reproductive ageing trajectories of either parent may be influenced by their partner's age, but this has rarely

  3. Determinants of negative preference for female fetuses amongst women of reproductive age group at rural medical college

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    Deepti Shrivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing lowest child sex ratio of the world. The deficit of girl children has been progressively increasing, in spite of so many laws to favour them like Sharda act, act against dowry and law against female feticide, i.e. PC & PNDT. The present study attempted to explore the determinants of negative preference of female fetuses at rural setup and preferences for prevention of female foeticide. Methods: In a prospective, multicentric, cohort study, 2203 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed by pretested piloted structured questionnaire. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Common causes for not preferring daughters were related to their marriages expenses, dowry along with exogamy and practices regarding death ceremonies of parents. Self deprived image of today’s woman by herself is mainly responsible for not allowing her to welcome another girl child in a family. Conclusions: Female foeticide is still in practice inspite of awareness programmes and existing law. Main reason for it is societal need due to marriage related customs and cultures along with unethical practices by service providers. To increase in self-esteem of women can only reduce the volume of service receiver along with upliftment of moral and ethical values of service providers from the beginning of their medical training can prevent it to happen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 67-73

  4. Artificial insemination of individually caged broiler breeders. 1. Reproductive performance of males in relation to age and strain of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, G A; Crober, D C; Buckland, R B; Sefton, A E; Kennedy, B W

    1980-02-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the reproductive capacity of male broiler breeders used for artificial insemination over an extended period and mated to females of six strains. Biweekly determinations were made of semen volume, semen concentration, and spermatozoal motility for each of the 47 males caged individually from their 39th to 63rd week of age. The percent fertility, duration of fertility, and percent hatchability were determined at five-week intervals (periods) using three young and three force-molted broiler female strains. With young female strains, the mean percent fertility for a 7-day collection of eggs following a single insemination (1 to 7 days) ranged from 95.7 to 81.1 over six consecutive periods. The mean duration of fertility (days) and the mean percent hatchability of fertile eggs was 13.3 and 13.0, and 92.5 and 84.9 respectively, for the first two periods. With force-molted hens, the mean percent fertility (1 to 7 days) ranged between 97.2 and 86.0 over the first three periods, and the mean duration of fertility and the mean percent hatchability was 13.2 and 12.8, and 91.5 and 84.1, respectively, for the first two periods. Fertility of eggs collected for 10 days following a single insemination was slightly but consistently lower than fertility over 7 days for both female groups. Significant differences among males and between periods existed for each semen trait. The effects of male, young female strain and period on fertility and duration of fertility were significant. Hatchability was significantly affected by period only. No male by female strain interaction existed for percent fertility or hatchability. A significant male by period interaction existed for percent fertility, semen volume and concentration. The results obtained are considered to support the feasibility of maintaining broiler breeders in cages and the use of artificial insemination (AI) to produce broiler hatching eggs.

  5. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  6. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative.

  7. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  8. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  9. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Khattar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause.This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2 were assessed.The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001. However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92 as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72 and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30.We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females.

  10. Tuberculosis and female reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".

  11. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Age determination and reproduction of female Fin Whales Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), with special regard to baleen plates and ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht-Cock, van C.N.

    1965-01-01

    1. From Antarctic female Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, a collection, consisting of baleen plates and the parts of these plates embedded in the gum, ovaries, and a number of earplugs was examined, in order to determine the age of these animals and to get a better insight in some characteristics

  13. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangjfer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (less than or equal to 0.3/km(2)) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females greater than or equal to 14 years old. Females greater than or equal to 2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (greater than or equal to 14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P less than or equal to 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at die time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the precious year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate

  14. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.

  15. Effect of aging on the female reproductive system: evidence for a role of uterine senescence in the decline in female fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, F; Simón, C; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A

    1995-09-01

    To determine the effects of age on reproductive performance of women using oocyte donation as an in vivo model. Oocyte donation and IVF programs at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Seventy-six women undergoing 90 cycles of ovum donation, who were recipients of 36 donors undergoing IVF, and 9 fertile women. Prospective longitudinal study: [1] recipients underwent an artificial cycle to demonstrate adequate response of the endometrium to exogenous steroids; [2] oocytes from the same cohort of follicles were distributed randomly into recipients younger and older than 40 years; and [3] pregnancies were followed during the first trimester. Endometrial histology, fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and abortion rates in both groups of recipients. Serum E2, P and beta-hCG levels during initial pregnancy. Similar implantation rates but significantly higher abortion rates were detected in women > 40 years despite an appropriate action of P on the endometrium and the transfer of embryos in similar number and quality. The secretion of E2 and P by the placenta started earlier in pregnancies included in the group < 40 years. Age increases pregnancy losses in ovum donation patients after implantation is completed. This is accompanied by a retardation of steroid synthesis and suggests that the mechanism(s) responsible for placenta formation and functioning in the uterus is affected by age. Thus, uterine aging also is a factor influencing the poor reproductive performance of women with advancing age.

  16. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2005-07-14

    In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause). OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species) and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants). ROS are a double-edged sword - they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathophysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal embryopathies, preterm

  17. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  18. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Kung-Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels, and antral follicle count (AFC, as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility.

  19. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  20. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  1. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-12-13

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  2. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  3. Determinants of reproductive success in female adders, Vipera berus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Shine, Richard

    1992-10-01

    Female lifetime reproductive success in a small population of individually-marked adders in southern Sweden was studied over a period of seven years. Reproductive characteristics varied little from year to year and were consistent through time in individual females. Most females mature at four years of age and reproduce every two years. The total number of offspring produced by a female depends on her adult body size (and thus, litter size) and longevity (and thus, number of litters per lifetime). Adult body size in females is influenced mainly by subadult growth rates. Offspring size depends on maternal body size and a tradeoff between offspring size and offspring number. Maternal age does not affect litter sizes and offspring sizes except through ontogenetic changes in maternal body size.Survival of females after parturition is low because of the high energy costs of reproduction, compounded by low feeding rates of gravid females because of their sedentary behaviour at this time. About one-half of females produce only a single litter during their lifetimes, although some females live to produce four or five litters. On a proximate basis, rates of energy accumulation for growth (in subadults) and reproduction (in adults) may be the most important determinants of fitness in female adders.

  4. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.

  5. Call to action: continuum of care for females of reproductive age to prevent obesity and ensure better health outcomes of offspring through nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zive, Michelle M; Rhee, Kyung E

    2014-09-01

    The health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age has tremendous impact on the health of future populations; therefore, special attention should be paid to promoting women's health, especially a healthy weight at this critical time period. The purpose of the paper is to provide information on the nutritional needs of women at various stages of the reproductive age spectrum, including preconception/interconception and during pregnancy to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) is presented to help practitioners understand the importance of intervening where women of reproductive age live, work, and frequent.

  6. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the male, the human female has a ... male gonads produce male gametes (sperm). After an egg is fertilized by the sperm, the fertilized egg is called the zygote (pronounced: ...

  7. Fish histology: female reproductive systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillan, D.B

    2007-01-01

    ... on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Table of Contents Preface Chapter 1 Female Genital Systems of Fish Chapter 2 Ovarian Follicles Chapter 3 Ovulation Chapter 4 Events Associated with Fertilization Chapter 5 Oviducts and Oviparity Chapter 6 Viviparity References Index...

  8. NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMAS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are extremely rare among all tumors of female reproductive system. Diagnostic mistakes and inadequate therapeu- tic tactics in these diseases are results of usual absence of alertness of gynecologists. The aims are to analyze reasons of diagnostic mistakes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of female reproductive system and to discover definitive clinical and morphological characteristics of female reproductive system lymphoid tumors. During the period between 1989 and 2006, 305 cases of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lym- phomas were detected; female reproductive system was affected in 7% of patients (totally 40 patients, which were included in investigated group. In the whole analyzed group of women (n=40, median age 43 yrs, range 17-84 yrs, patients with primary lesion of female reproductive system had median age of 40 yrs and with secondary involvement - 46 yrs. Most of patients were fertile (60%, n=24. Such tumors was localized in breast in 40% of cases (n=16, in ovaries - 20% (n=8, in uterine corpus - 12,5% (n=5, in uterine cervix - 15% (n=6, and in vagina - remaining 12,5% (n=5. Average time from diagnosis to beginning of the treatment was 7,5 months. As a result, the onset of specific therapy was delayed in 65% cases (n=26 and 50% (n=20 underwent unneeded surgery. Diagnostic mistakes lead to inadequate treatment. Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of female reproductive system, both primary and secondary, are rare pathology. Primary lesion is more typical for older women, sec- ondary is mainly affecting younger women (in reproductive period. Chemotherapy response and prognosis are better in primary cases.

  9. Mycotoxins and female reproduction: in vitro approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848468; Schoevers, E.J.; Roelen, B.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859; Fink-Gremmels, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to adverse effects on female reproduction by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism or degradation of steroid hormones, interaction with steroid receptors or impairing oocyte maturation and competence. To assess such effects, many studies initially focussed

  10. Mycotoxins and female reproduction: in vitro approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R.R.; Schoevers, E.J.; Roelen, B.A.J.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to adverse effects on female reproduction by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism or degradation of steroid hormones, interaction with steroid receptors or impairing oocyte maturation and competence. To assess such effects, many studies initially focussed

  11. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 3. Reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial trial was performed to test the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on egg and chick production. Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708 pullets were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk: standard (approximate mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). Twelve birds per interaction (n = 288) were individually caged at 17 wk and monitored for egg and chick production to 58 wk of age. The low BW profile delayed onset of lay, particularly in 18WK hens. Low and standard birds had a greater initial egg weight than moderate birds. The 18WK photostimulation age resulted in production of 31 small eggs (birds. A settable (52 g) egg weight was reached earliest by standard birds (187 d of age). Average prime sequence length was reduced by 7.0 eggs in moderate and high birds compared with other profiles. The 18WK hens laid 9 more eggs (174) than 22WK birds, with no effect on unsettable eggs. The 22WK birds laid 7 more settable eggs due to increased early egg size. Total egg output was similar among BW profile treatments, although Ross 708-high hens under-performed compared with the other 708 profiles. The Ross 508-high birds laid the same number of eggs as Ross 508-standard birds (mean = 178.7). Feeding profiles affected egg production traits differently among strains. Feed intake had more effect on egg size and early production traits than BW profile or BW.

  12. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. Prostaglandins and reproduction in female farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, C W; Weems, Y S; Randel, R D

    2006-03-01

    Prostaglandins impact on ovarian, uterine, placental, and pituitary function to regulate reproduction in female livestock. They play important roles in ovulation, luteal function, maternal recognition of pregnancy, implantation, maintenance of gestation, microbial-induced abortion, parturition, postpartum uterine and ovarian infections, and resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. Prostaglandins have both positive and negative effects on reproduction; they are used to synchronize oestrus, terminate pseudopregnancy in mares, induce parturition, and treat retained placenta, luteinized cysts, pyometra, and chronic endometritis. Improved therapeutic uses for prostaglandins will be developed when we understand better their involvement in implantation, maintenance of luteal function, and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  14. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  15. Female reproductive competition in Eulemur rufifrons: eviction and reproductive restraint in a plurally breeding Malagasy primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2012-02-01

    In mammals with female philopatry, co-resident females inevitably compete with each other for resources or reproductive opportunities, thereby reducing the kin-selected benefits of altruism towards relatives. These counteracting forces of cooperation and competition among kin should be particularly pronounced in plurally breeding species with limited alternative breeding opportunities outside the natal group. However, little is still known about the costs of reproductive competition on females' fitness and the victims' potential counter-strategies. Here we summarize long-term behavioural, demographic and genetic data collected on a plurally breeding primate from Madagascar to illuminate mechanisms and effects of female reproductive competition, focusing on forcible eviction and potential reproductive restraint. The main results of our study indicate that females in groups of redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) above a critical size suffer from competition from their close relatives: females in larger groups face an increased probability of not giving birth as well as a higher probability of being evicted, especially during the annual mating and birth seasons. Eviction is not predicted by the number of adult females, the number of close female relatives, female age or inter-annual variation in rainfall but only by total group size. Thus, eviction in this species is clearly linked with reproductive competition, it cannot be forestalled by reproductive restraint or having many relatives in the group, and it occurs in the absence of a clear dominance hierarchy. Our study therefore also underscores the notion that potential inclusive fitness benefits from living with relatives may have been generally over-rated and should not be taken for granted.

  16. Pathological study of female reproductive organs of local zebus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological study of female reproductive organs of local zebus in Adamawa Region. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Results of this study indicated that lesions of the female reproductive system represent a significant ...

  17. Isotretinoin use and compliance with the Dutch Pregnancy Prevention Programme: a retrospective cohort study in females of reproductive age using pharmacy dispensing data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, M.; Visser, L.E.; Dufour, M.; Rodenburg, E.; Straus, S.M.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Stricker, B.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin is very effective in the treatment of severe acne. However, because of the teratogenic properties of this agent an isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) was implemented in the Netherlands to guarantee that treatment is contraindicated in women of reproductive age

  18. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  19. Is female attractiveness related to final reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Perrett, David I; Kluska, Sylwia

    2008-06-01

    In order to test the assumption that female attractiveness relates to reproductive success, photographs of 47 rural Polish women taken in their youth were rated for attractiveness, and BMI at age 18 was recorded; these measures of attractiveness were then compared with their subsequent life histories. Facial attractiveness did not relate to number of children or grandchildren. It also did not relate to age of marriage or husband's education. It did relate to number of marriages and husband's height. BMI at age 18 did not relate significantly to any of the outcome variables. These results suggest that although more attractive women may have married higher quality (taller) husbands and may in ancestral population have achieved greater reproductive success this way, there is no evidence in a modern, European Catholic society for their having greater reproductive success.

  20. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions.

  1. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  2. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  3. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becegato, Estella Z; Andrade, Janaina P; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Silva, Fernanda M de Oliveira e

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract of Sotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  4. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELLA Z. BECEGATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract ofSotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  5. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Di Mauro, Maria; Russo, Marco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ERs) on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth factors on thyroid

  6. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E and estrogen receptors (ERs on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth

  7. Development and aging of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the mammalian brain: what are the impacts on female reproductive function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eFranceschini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prominent role of the G protein coupled receptor GPR54 and its peptide ligand kisspeptin in the progression of puberty has been extensively documented in many mammalian species including humans. Kisspeptins are very potent GnRH secretagogues produced by two main populations of neurons located in two ventral forebrain regions, the preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus (ARC. Within the last two years a substantial amount of data has accumulated concerning the development of these neuronal populations and their timely regulation by central and peripheral factors during fetal, neonatal and peripubertal stages of development. This review focuses on the development of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the brain of female mouse, rat, sheep, monkey and humans. The notion that this system represents a major target through which signals from the environment early in life can re-program reproductive function will also be discussed.

  8. Reproduction in female South American domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, J B

    1999-01-01

    Alpacas and llamas are induced ovulators. They show marked reproductive seasonality in the Andean region, but under Northern Hemisphere conditions of feeding and management, they are non-seasonal breeders. Puberty is attained when they reach 50% of adult body weight. When they are not exposed to a male, females show successive waves of follicular maturation and atresia. Growth, maintenance and regression of a follicle each require an average of 4 and 6 days in alpacas and llamas, respectively. After sterile mating, progesterone concentrations in blood were increased from day 5, reached maximum concentrations on day 7-8, and declined rapidly at 9-10 days after mating. A fertile mating results in formation of a corpus luteum that remains functional throughout gestation. The duration of gestation is 340-346 days. Almost all fetuses were found to occupy the left uterine horn, even though ovulation occurs from both ovaries with equal frequency. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis have been described. Mating is recommended within 15-20 days after parturition to obtain good fertility rates and one offspring per year. The factors that contribute to high rates of embryonic mortality are unknown. Reproductive technologies, such as AI, superovulation, embryo transfer and IVF, have not been used very extensively in these species but can be successfully applied.

  9. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Möller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.

  10. The song of the old mother: reproductive senescence in female drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige B; Obrik-Uloho, Oghenemine T; Phan, Mai H; Medrano, Christian L; Renier, Joseph S; Thayer, Joseph L; Wiessner, Gregory; Bloch Qazi, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Among animals with multiple reproductive episodes, changes in adult condition over time can have profound effects on lifetime reproductive fitness and offspring performance. The changes in condition associated with senescence can be particularly acute for females who support reproductive processes from oogenesis through fertilization. The pomace fly Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model system for exploring the physiology of reproduction and senescence. In this review, we describe how increasing maternal age in Drosophila affects reproductive fitness and offspring performance as well as the genetic foundation of these effects. Describing the processes underlying female reproductive senescence helps us understand diverse phenomena including population demographics, condition-dependent selection, sexual conflict, and transgenerational effects of maternal condition on offspring fitness. Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive senescence clarifies the nature of life-history trade-offs as well as potential ways to augment and/or limit female fertility in a variety of organisms.

  11. Effect of age on reproductive attributes of an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OMKAR, SATYENDRA K. SINGH; KALPANA SINGH

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both male and female age was investigated on certain reproductive attributes, viz. mating incidence, mating duration, fecundity, percent egg viability, ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods and reproductive rate, of an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius). Females started mating at the age of 8 hours post-emergence (PE) and males at the age of 2 days PE. Mating in the laboratory was a maledominated phenomenon. The mating duration and reproductive rate of 10-day-old females when mated with males of varying ages increased up to the male age of 60 days, and thereafter decreased, whereas, fecundity, egg viability and ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods increased up to the male age of 50 days, and thereafter declined. However, when females of varying ages were mated with 10-day-old males, fecundity and reproductive rate increased up to 40 days of female age, respectively, then decreased. The ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods increased with increasing age of females. Mating age for optimal reproductive output was 10-50-day-old males and NE to 40-day-old females.Reproductive cessation in males was recorded after 50 days PE, whereas in females at the age of 40 days PE. Higher mating durations lead to elevated reproductive rates. Delay in the reproductive phase was positively correlated with longevity. The results of this study may aid mass multiplication of this ladybird by identifying and promoting usage of adults of optimal age. Our results also enhance our understanding of the effect of age on reproductive attributes in ladybirds.

  12. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  13. The reproductive advantages of a long life: longevity and senescence in wild female African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Fishlock, Victoria; Webber, C Elizabeth; Moss, Cynthia J

    Long-lived species such as elephants, whales and primates exhibit extended post-fertile survival compared to species with shorter lifespans but data on age-related fecundity and survival are limited to few species or populations. We assess relationships between longevity, reproductive onset, reproductive rate and age for 834 longitudinally monitored wild female African elephants in Amboseli, Kenya. The mean known age at first reproduction was 13.8 years; only 5 % commenced reproduction by 10 years. Early reproducers (life. Overall, 95 % of fertility was completed before 50, and 95 % of mortality experienced by age 65, with a mean life expectancy of 41 years for females who survived to the minimum age at first birth (9 years). Elephant females have a relatively long period (c. 16 years) of viability after 95 % completed fertility, although reproduction does not entirely cease until they are over 65. We found no evidence of increased investment among females aged over 40 in terms of delay to next birth or calf mortality. The presence of a mother reproducing simultaneously with her daughter was associated with higher rates of daughter reproduction suggesting advantages from maternal (and grandmaternal) co-residence during reproduction.

  14. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  15. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  16. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  17. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  18. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  19. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Corresponding ... and general population. Materials and methods: The study was conducted ... Key words: Female sex workers, reproductive tract infections, pathogens, distribution ... problem, especially in developing countries. FSWs constitute the ...

  20. Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Hooiveld, M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Roeleveld, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive disorders in male and female greenhouse workers. In 2002, data were collected from 4872 Dutch greenhouse workers and 8133 referents through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on reproductive disorders of the most recent pregnancy, lifesty

  1. Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Hooiveld, M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Roeleveld, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive disorders in male and female greenhouse workers. In 2002, data were collected from 4872 Dutch greenhouse workers and 8133 referents through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on reproductive disorders of the most recent pregnancy,

  2. Chronic Exposure to Diquat Causes Reproductive Toxicity in Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Qing Zhang; Bin-Wen Gao; Jing Wang; Xian-Wei Wang; Qiao-Ling Ren; Jun-Feng Chen; Qiang Ma; Bao-Song Xing

    2016-01-01

    Diquat is a bipyridyl herbicide that has been widely used as a model chemical for in vivo studies of oxidative stress due to its generation of superoxide anions, and cytotoxic effects. There is little information regarding the toxic effects of diquat on the female reproductive system, particularly ovarian function. Thus, we investigated the reproductive toxic effects of diquat on female mice. Chronic exposure to diquat reduced ovary weights, induced ovarian oxidative stress, resulted in granu...

  3. Fertility, aging and the brain neuroendocrinological studies in female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that fertility decreases in female mammals with advancing age. In women this decrease already starts around the age of 30 and shows a large variation between individuals. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate changes in the reproductive system, especially in the brain, that may un

  4. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporomandibular disorders in relation to female reproductive hormones: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen

    2004-05-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are common pain conditions that have the highest prevalence among women of reproductive age. The pattern of onset after puberty and lowered prevalence rates in the postmenopausal years suggest that female reproductive hormones may play an etiologic role in temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the role of female reproductive hormones in TMD. English-language peer-reviewed articles between 1975 and 2002 were identified using Medline as well as a hand search and were reviewed.

  6. Reproductive seasonality of the female Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Edward F; Binczik, Gerald A; Denslow, Nancy D; Guillette, Louis J

    2007-05-01

    Our objective was to characterize the reproductive seasonality of a wild population of female Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus. We measured the gonadosomatic index, plasma estradiol, testosterone, and vitellogenin concentrations, and follicle diameters of fish collected from Orange Lake, Florida (USA). Additionally, the reproductive stage of the ovary was resolved histologically. We observed a seasonal pattern in reproduction. Following a quiescent period in the summer, there was an increase in sex steroid hormones during the fall, associated with the onset of vitellogenesis and active oogenesis. During the February collection, we directly observed ovulation in several females. This observation was supported by a sharp decrease in the gonadosomatic index between February and March as well as a decline in plasma hormones to basal levels during the summer months. Our data suggest the Florida gar has a group-synchronous ovary and the majority of females spawned during the early spring, followed by a general decrease in reproductive parameters to summer levels. While hormone and vitellogenin peaks may vary annually and variations in these reproductive patterns are expected for different collection sites, this study is important as it is the first characterization of the seasonal morphological and endocrinological reproductive pattern in a female holostean species. Moreover, it increases our understanding of basic reproductive biology of semitropical fishes in general, and nonteleost, bony fishes in particular.

  7. Different Reproductive Strategies in Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1991-01-01

    Comments on Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper's article in this issue. Discusses the claim for a connection of stressful childhood environments and early pubertal maturation. Argues that early puberty need not imply a shift from a "quality" toward a "quantity" reproductive strategy and that nonevolutionary factors can account for…

  8. Delayed mating reduces reproductive output of female European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M; Rodríguez-Molina, M C; Stockel, J

    2002-06-01

    Virgin females of Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller were mated at ages of 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 days and the effect of mating delay on reproductive output assessed. Delayed mating did not affect female mating success but fertilization was reduced in 16-day-old females. Increased mating delays substantially affected daily oviposition pattern and resulted in a significant reduction of both fecundity and fertility, so that mean number of viable eggs laid decreased from 150 to 22 in 1- and 16-day-old mated females, respectively. Heavier females were more constrained than lighter ones by mating delays and female reproductive efficiency (no. viable eggs/female body weight) was also significantly reduced. Female longevity significantly increased and oviposition period gradually declined with mating delay. The number of viable eggs was positively correlated with both female weight and oviposition period; female longevity and female weight were also significantly correlated. However, the significance of these correlations declined with increased mating delay. Results overall indicated that mating delay drastically reduces female L. botrana reproductive output. The implications of delayed mating of females are discussed from an ecological perspective in relation to L. botrana control using mating disruption.

  9. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  10. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year...

  11. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  12. Modulation of inflammation in the female reproductive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Shalini Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Physiological inflammation occurs in the female reproductive tract, but pathological inflammation is implicated in reproductive pathologies such as preterm labour and endometrial cancer. Preterm labour (PTL, before 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of preterm birth, neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidities. Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer, and its pathogenesis is characterised by chronic inflammation. The overall aims of this thesis were ...

  13. Chronic Exposure to Diquat Causes Reproductive Toxicity in Female Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qing Zhang

    Full Text Available Diquat is a bipyridyl herbicide that has been widely used as a model chemical for in vivo studies of oxidative stress due to its generation of superoxide anions, and cytotoxic effects. There is little information regarding the toxic effects of diquat on the female reproductive system, particularly ovarian function. Thus, we investigated the reproductive toxic effects of diquat on female mice. Chronic exposure to diquat reduced ovary weights, induced ovarian oxidative stress, resulted in granulosa cell apoptosis, and disrupted oocyte developmental competence, as shown by reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, decreased polar body extrusion rates and increased apoptosis-related genes expression. Additionally, after diquat treatment, the numbers of fetal mice and litter sizes were significantly reduced compared to those of control mice. Thus, our results indicated that chronic exposure to diquat induced reproductive toxicity in female mice by promoting the ROS production of gruanousa cells and ooctyes, impairing follicle development, inducing apoptosis, and reducing oocyte quality. In conclusion, our findings indicate that diquat can be used as a potent and efficient chemical for in vivo studies of female reproductive toxicity induced by oxidative stress. Moreover, the findings from this study will further enlarge imitative research investigating the effect of ovarian damage induced by oxidative stress on reproductive performance and possible mechanisms of action in large domestic animals.

  14. The cost of dominance: suppressing subordinate reproduction affects the reproductive success of dominant female banded mongooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M B V; Nichols, H J; Gilchrist, J S; Cant, M A; Hodge, S J

    2012-02-07

    Social species show considerable variation in the extent to which dominant females suppress subordinate reproduction. Much of this variation may be influenced by the cost of active suppression to dominants, who may be selected to balance the need to maximize the resources available for their own offspring against the costs of interfering with subordinate reproduction. To date, the cost of reproductive suppression has received little attention, despite its potential to influence the outcome of conflict over the distribution of reproduction in social species. Here, we investigate possible costs of reproductive suppression in banded mongooses, where dominant females evict subordinates from their groups, thereby inducing subordinate abortion. We show that evicting subordinate females is associated with substantial costs to dominant females: pups born to females who evicted subordinates while pregnant were lighter than those born after undisturbed gestations; pups whose dependent period was disrupted by an eviction attained a lower weight at independence; and the proportion of a litter that survived to independence was reduced if there was an eviction during the dependent period. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study indicating a possible cost to dominants in attempting to suppress subordinate breeding, and we argue that much of the variation in reproductive skew both within and between social species may be influenced by adaptive variation in the effort invested in suppression by dominants.

  15. Costs of reproduction and terminal investment by females in a semelparous marsupial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana O Fisher

    Full Text Available Evolutionary explanations for life history diversity are based on the idea of costs of reproduction, particularly on the concept of a trade-off between age-specific reproduction and parental survival, and between expenditure on current and future offspring. Such trade-offs are often difficult to detect in population studies of wild mammals. Terminal investment theory predicts that reproductive effort by older parents should increase, because individual offspring become more valuable to parents as the conflict between current versus potential future offspring declines with age. In order to demonstrate this phenomenon in females, there must be an increase in maternal expenditure on offspring with age, imposing a fitness cost on the mother. Clear evidence of both the expenditure and fitness cost components has rarely been found. In this study, we quantify costs of reproduction throughout the lifespan of female antechinuses. Antechinuses are nocturnal, insectivorous, forest-dwelling small (20-40 g marsupials, which nest in tree hollows. They have a single synchronized mating season of around three weeks, which occurs on predictable dates each year in a population. Females produce only one litter per year. Unlike almost all other mammals, all males, and in the smaller species, most females are semelparous. We show that increased allocation to current reproduction reduces maternal survival, and that offspring growth and survival in the first breeding season is traded-off with performance of the second litter in iteroparous females. In iteroparous females, increased allocation to second litters is associated with severe weight loss in late lactation and post-lactation death of mothers, but increased offspring growth in late lactation and survival to weaning. These findings are consistent with terminal investment. Iteroparity did not increase lifetime reproductive success, indicating that terminal investment in the first breeding season at the expense

  16. Telomeres, age and reproduction in a long-lived reptile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Plot

    Full Text Available A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs. This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate

  17. Unethical female stereotyping in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Cusack, Simone; Dickens, Bernard M

    2010-06-01

    Stereotypes are generalized preconceptions defining individuals by group categories into which they are placed. Women have become stereotyped as homemakers and mothers, with the negative effect of precluding them from other roles and functions. Legislation and judicial constructions show a history, and often a continuing practice, of confining women to these stereotypical functions. In access to reproductive and sexual health care, for instance, women's requests have been professionally subject to approval of their husbands, fathers or comparable males. Choice of abortion is particularly significant, because it embeds moral values. Women's capacity to act as responsible moral agents is denied by stereotypical attitudes shown by legislators, judges, heads of religious denominations, and healthcare providers who consider women incapable of exercising responsible moral choice. These attitudes violate ethical requirements of treating patients with respect and equal justice. They can also result in violations of human rights laws that prohibit discrimination against women. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrasting drivers of reproductive ageing in albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froy, Hannah; Lewis, Sue; Nussey, Daniel H; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Age-related variation in reproductive performance is ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations and has important consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. The ageing trajectory is shaped by both within-individual processes, such as improvement and senescence, and the among-individual effects of selective appearance and disappearance. To date, few studies have compared the role of these different drivers among species or populations. In this study, we use nearly 40 years of longitudinal monitoring data to contrast the within- and among-individual processes contributing to the reproductive ageing patterns in three albatross species (two biennial and one annual breeder) and test whether these can be explained by differences in life histories. Early-life performance in all species increased with age and was predominantly influenced by within-individual improvements. However, reproductive senescence was detected in only two of the species. In the species exhibiting senescent declines, we also detected a terminal improvement in breeding success. This is suggestive of a trade-off between reproduction and survival, which was supported by evidence of selective disappearance of good breeders. We demonstrate that comparisons of closely related species which differ in specific aspects of their life history can shed light on the ecological and evolutionary forces shaping variation in ageing patterns. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  19. 已婚育龄妇女宫颈癌术后性生活质量的调查分析%Investigation and analysis in the sexual life quality of females at the reproductive ages after cervix cancer operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美玲; 孟春艳; 刘梅梅; 路丽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the sexual life quality of females at the reproductive ages after cervix cancer operation and supply evidence for establishment of correspondindg nursing measure. Methods We investigated the frequency of sexual life and satisfaction degree of sexual life in 40 females at the reproductive ages after cervix cancer operation by face-to-face investigations using questionnaires before and 4 months after operations. Then the difference of sexual life quality before and after operation were compared and analyzed. Results The frequency of sexual life (P<0.01,P<0.05) and satisfaction degree of sexual life (P<0.01,P<0.05) were evidently decreased. The sexual life quality was lower than that before operation. Conclusion The sexual life quality could be affected by many factors such as economic conditions, culture background, sexual conceptions and the attitude of their partners.%目的 了解育龄妇女宫颈癌术后性生活的情况,为制订相应的护理措施提供依据.方法 通过调查问卷方式进行逐一面对面调查,对40例育龄期宫颈癌患者,进行手术前、手术后4个月的性生活频率、性生活满意度的调查,比较分析宫颈癌患者手术前后性生活质量的差别.结果 宫颈癌患者术后的性生活频率及性生活满意度明显降低(P<0.05),性生活质量明显低于手术前.结论 经济条件、文化背景、性观念及配偶的态度等因素对宫颈癌患者术后的性生活质量均有影响.

  20. Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are ubiquitous and persistent compounds that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine homoeostasis. The female reproductive tract is exquisitely sensitive to the action of sex steroids, and oestrogens play a key role in normal reproductive function. Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are the fourth most common cancer in women, with endometrial cancer accounting for most cases. Established risk factors for development of endometrial cancer include high BMI and exposure to oestrogens or synthetic compounds such as tamoxifen. Studies on cell and animal models have provided evidence that many EDC can bind oestrogen receptors and highlighted early life exposure as a window of risk for adverse lifelong effects on the reproductive system. The most robust evidence for a link between early life exposure to EDC and adverse reproductive health has come from studies on women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Demonstration that EDC can alter expression of members of the HOX gene cluster highlights one pathway that might be vulnerable to their actions. In summary, evidence for a direct link between EDC exposure and cancers of the reproductive system is currently incomplete. It will be challenging to attribute causality to any single EDC when exposure and development of malignancy may be separated by many years and influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet (a source of phytoestrogens) and adiposity. This review considers some of the evidence collected to date.

  1. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  2. Basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, R.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigated basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches throughout the 48h egg laying cycle, during the egg production season, and, the non-breeding season. The main objectives were: (1) to evaluate the use of transcutaneous ultrasound scanning to visualize func

  3. REPRODUCTIVE NEOPLASMS IN WILD AND LONG-TERM CAPTIVE FEMALE FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Rotstein, David S; Ball, Ray L; Gerlach, Trevor J; Kinsel, Michael; Rodriguez, Maya; de Wit, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. This case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between April 2009 and May 2014. All cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) were made. The underlying cause of tumor development and effects on reproductive success is currently unknown, but possible asymmetric reproductive aging and/or a correlation between obesity and reproductive disorder in long-term nonreproductive female manatees are of interest and warrant further investigation.

  4. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  5. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Saran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean[M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72, PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13 and less serum E2(M = 50.00; SE = 2.25 and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31 than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73, (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84, (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60, and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27, respectively. This difference was statistically significant t(58 = 6.48, P <0.05; t(58 = 6.49, P < 0.05; t(58 = 12.47; P <0.05; and t(58 = 2.04, P <0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH(M = 12.14; SE = 0.40 and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27 were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40,(M = 6.22; SE = 0.25, respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t(58 = 1.61, P = 0.11; t(58 = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically insignificant.

  6. 'Post-mortem examination of the reproductive organs of female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-13

    In recent decades, wild boars (Sus scrofa) have increased in numbers and distribution in Europe. Compared to other wild ungulates of similar body size, wild boars have a high reproductive capacity. To increase the knowledge of wild boar reproduction, the objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of reproductive organs, and to provide information on the occurrence of abnormalities in reproductive organs from free-ranging female wild boars. Between December 2011 and December 2015, reproductive organs from female wild boars (>30 kg body weight), were collected during hunting in four Swedish counties at estates where supplementary feeding was applied. The organs were macroscopically examined and measured. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to the ovarian structures and in relation to uterus characteristics. Observed abnormalities were noted. The results from 569 animals that met the requirements to be included in this study showed significant differences in weight and length of the uterus between the various reproductive stages. Sampling region had significant effect on these differences. Abnormalities in the reproductive organs were present in approximately 10% of the examined animals. The prevalence of abnormalities increased significantly with age and was significantly affected by sampling region.

  7. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Ashok

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxidative stress (OS, a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms

  8. Characteristics of reproductive health of women in their generative age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any research of reproductive health has to encompass the relevant connotations of this complex term. In order to establish relevant multidimensional characteristics, it is necessary to assess intercorrelations of the characteristics most commonly used to describe it. Objective. Our aim was to describe the characteristics of reproductive health and to establish their significance in describing this term. Methods. Within the study of health of adult inhabitants of Serbia, on the sample of 2,817 women aged 20-49 years, the data on different reproductive health characteristics were collected by way of a structured questionnaire. By way of factorial analysis (principal components method, Kaisser Varimax criterion, representative characteristics (factors were selected out of a large number of characteristics, describing reproductive health of women in a multidimensional way, interrelationships of the factors were explained, and carriers - the most important individual characteristics - were selected for further analysis. Results. The characteristics of female reproductive health in Serbia are poor, both from the health policy standpoint and in comparison with other countries. Reproductive health describes 7 relevant factors and their carriers (characteristics which best reflect the variability of characteristics involved in a factor. These involve sexual behaviour (self-assessed HIV infection risk, contraception (use of contraceptive devices on one’s own initiative, adequate protection of reproductive health (usage of gynaecological services even when healthy, abortions (pregnancy outcome, HIV control (HIV testing usage, postpartal protection (visits of field nurses after being discharged from maternity ward and reproductive period (doctor visits after being discharged from maternity ward. Conclusion. All the characteristics of reproductive health used in various studies are not equally important in the description of this complex

  9. Reproductive toxicity in acrylamide-treated female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanwei; Li, Jian; Li, Xingmei; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the reproductive toxicity of acrylamide in female mice. The results from immunohistochemistry provided evidence that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) signaling was involved in the process of follicular development and atresia. Oral administration of acrylamide to female mice led to significantly reduced body weights, organ weights and the number of corpora lutea (Pacrylamide; however, 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were unchanged with treatment. Measurement of NOS activities indicated that total NOS (TNOS), iNOS and eNOS activities were significantly increased (Pacrylamide. The results from in vitro study indicated that acrylamide reduced the viability of mouse granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, acrylamide affected bodily growth and development, as well as reproductive organs, the number of corpora lutea and progesterone production in female mice, possibly acting through the NOS signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive Status of Females in the Eusocial Wasp Polistes ferreri Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, E R P; Torres, V O; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2014-12-01

    In the subfamily Polistinae, caste dimorphism is not pronounced and differences among females are primarily physiological and behavioral. We investigated factors that indicate the reproductive status in females of Polistes ferreri Saussure. We analyzed females from nine colonies and evaluated morphometric parameters, ovarian development, occurrence of insemination, relative age, and cuticular chemical profile. The colony females showed three kinds of ovarian development: type A, filamentous ovarioles; type B, ovarioles containing partially developed oocytes; and type C, long and well-developed ovarioles containing two or more mature oocytes. The stepwise discriminant analysis of the cuticular chemical profile showed that it was possible to distinguish the three groups of females: workers 1, workers 2, and queens. However, the stepwise discriminant analysis of the morphological differences did not show significant differences among these groups. The queens were among the older females in the colony and were always inseminated, while the age of the workers varied according to the stage of colony development.

  11. Effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjiang; Zhang, Hailing; He, Junlin; Chen, Xuemei; Ding, Yubing; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on female reproductive function and examine the morphology of the ovaries and uteri of rats exposed to NaF. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into four groups of 20: one control group and three NaF treated groups. The three NaF treated groups received 100, 150, and 200 ppm, respectively, of NaF for 6 months via their drinking water, while the control group (GC) received distilled water. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathomorphological evaluation of the uteri and ovaries was conducted after staining with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry. The rate of successful pregnancy in the NaF-treated groups declined in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of reproductive hormones was significantly lower in the three NaF-treated groups, and the endometrium was damaged. The maturation of follicles was inhibited. In addition, the total number of follicles of all types was significantly lower in the NaF-treated groups. These results suggest that female reproductive function is inhibited by NaF and that exposure to NaF causes ovarian and uterine structural damage. NaF may thus significantly reduce the fertility of female rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Reproductive Health Education on Knowledge and Attitudes Among Female Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad

    2015-09-01

    For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p reproductive health education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  13. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi; Ron Auslender; Martha Dirnfeld

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades.The same trend is seen also for men.The influence of maternal age on fertility,chromosomal anomalies,pregnancy complications,and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring,has been thoroughly investigated,and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling.Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention.The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of oaternal age on reoroductive outcome.

  14. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  15. Reproductive switching analysis of Daphnia similoides between sexual female and parthenogenetic female by transcriptome comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia’s reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides. PMID:27671106

  16. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  17. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

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    Felix Zajitschek

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  18. Female age in ART : When to stop?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, FJ; Klinkert, ER

    2004-01-01

    With increasing age the probability of ongoing pregnancy established by the use of assisted reproduction technology ( ART) decreases. As a result the question arises whether age limits for the application of ART should be established. From a literature review and ongoing research data it appears

  19. Fluoxetine alters reproductive performance of female fighting fish, Betta splendens

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of waterborne fluoxetine on the reproduction performance of female fighting fish (Betta splendens. For this purpose, mature, ready for spawning females were exposed to concentrations of 0, 0.54 and 54.0 µg/l fluoxetine for 7 days. Then they were introduced into the spawning tank containing pre-acclimated male and reproductive consequences including number of copulations per spawning, number of eggs per copulation, duration of spawning, fecundity and hatching rate were assessed. Fluoxetine concentration of 54.0 µg/l, was significantly affected on the number of produced eggs per copulation, fecundity and hatching rate. In addition, the mean number of copulations per spawning was not different between treatments but significantly different for the spawning duration between control and 54.0 µg/l treatments. The results suggest that fluoxetine can impacts on reproductive performance of female fighting fish at concentrations greater than those found in the aquatic environments.

  20. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  1. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  2. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  3. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  4. 387例育龄期垂体腺瘤女性临床特征及术后随访研究%Clinical features and postoperative follow-up of 387 female patients with pituitary adenomas during reproductive age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新梅; 刘军; 吴跃跃; 盛励; 徐炯; 陈灶萍; 丁和远; 查兵兵; 王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features,pathology,imaging,treatment,and prognosis in women with pituitary adenomas during reproductive age.Methods Total 387 cases of 15-50 years old females with pituitary adenomas were analyzed and followed up.Results During reproductive age,92.5% patients with pituitary adenomas complained of symptoms of menstrual disorders,menopause,galactorrhea and so on.The younger the patients,the higher preoperative growth hormone or prolactin levels,the more the patients were diagnosed by endocrine manifestation.69.5% patients suffered from macroadenomas and 60.21% patients were above 30 years old.Tumor size was positively related with patient's age.The common type was prolactinoma (34.1%).58.7% patients were suffering from invasive pituitary adenomas.Invasiveness of tumor were related with preoperative prolactin levels,tumor size,presence of endocrine manifestations,and pituitary apoplexy.95.4% patients underwent operation by transsphenoidal approach.The most common complications and clinical symptoms were polyuria (71.5%),hypernatremia (20.9%),hyponatremia (17.3%),and fever (5.0%) during the week after surgery.Craniotomy which caused the incidence of postoperative serum sodium level< 130 mmol/L or greater than 150 mmol/L was 19.7 times of that in transsphenoidal surgery.The older the age,the higher the incidence of postoperative polyuria was.Insufficiencies of luteinizing hormone,follicle-stimulating hormone,adrenocorticotropin,and thyroidstimulating hormone were found in 7.5%,7.5%,5.3%,and 4.4% of patients respectively after 3 months of surgery.Postoperative hypopituitarism was not related with hypopituitarism and tumor size before surgery (P > 0.05).The most common symptoms were hyposmia (22.47%),followed by fatigue (19.82%),and sexual dysfunction (16.74%) during the follow-up period.Replacement therapy consisted of daily 10-20 mg of hydrocortisone and 50-75 μg of levothyroxine after surgery

  5. The influence of age on reproductive performance of the predatory ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Pervez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age on reproductive performance of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta was examined using male and female beetles of varying ages (1-30 days after a single mating stimulus. All the intermediate (10 to 20 days old and old (30 days old age females mated with all intermediate and old age males, while only a fraction (0.29% of younger females, 1 to 5 days old, mated with males of similar or older age. The willingness to mate was male age dependent. It increased sigmoidally with increase in adult age. Adult males were more willing to mate with females irrespective of age. Mating duration was longest amongst older adults (30 day-old males and 20 day-old females. Male age did not contribute to shaping the fecundity of the female ladybird. Fecundity was female age dependent and it increased with age up to 20 days and thereafter decreased. 20 day-old females were most fecund producing 867 eggs after a single mating. Progeny production was male age dependent and eggs sired by 20-30 day-old males had significantly higher viability than those sired by younger males. Prolonged mating increased fecundity and egg viability. The results reveal that males of intermediate age were better mates. This information may improve our understanding of the effect of aging on reproduction in ladybirds and may help mass-multiplication of the ladybird beetles using adults of optimal age.

  6. Estimates of genetic correlations between testicular measurements and female reproductive traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, V D; Robison, O W

    1985-01-01

    Data from 528 male and 645 female progeny of 63 sires were used to estimate genetic correlations between female and male reproductive traits. Data were from two Hereford herds involved in a long-term selection program of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Service. Testicular measurements of circumference, diameter, length and volume were obtained on bulls at 205 and 365 d. Testicular growth measures were defined as differences between 205-and 365-d measurements. Heifers were placed in the breeding herd as yearlings and given two breeding seasons to produce a calf. Traits utilized from females were three age-at-first-breeding traits, two age-at-first-calving traits, two pregnancy rate traits, rebreeding interval and calving interval. Genetic correlations were estimated from half-sib and from sire-daughter analyses. Seventy-five percent or more of the correlations of testicular measurements with pregnancy rats, age at first breeding and age at first calving were in the favorable direction. Average correlations were .62, -.55 and -.66, respectively. For each of the remaining female traits, approximately 50% of the correlations were favorable and the average correlations were small. Correlations were summarized by testicular measurement with favorable correlations given a negative sign. Testicular diameter had more favorable correlations (80%) than length, volume or circumference (70%). However, average correlations were similar (-.31, -.30, -.34 and -.26, respectively). Testicular measurements taken at either 205 or 365 d had the same percentage of favorable correlations (72%), while testicular growth measurements had a slightly higher percentage of favorable correlations (78%). Average correlations of 365-d measures were higher (-.38) than either 205-d or growth measures (-.25 and -.28, respectively). Heritabilities for testicular measurements tended to be moderate to high, while those for female reproduction tended to be low to moderate. These results

  7. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  8. Periodic MRI Findings of Normal Uterus in Reproductive Age Female%育龄女性正常子宫周期性磁共振成像表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 徐萍; 黎规典

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the MRI findings of normal uterus in reproductive age female during different stages, and to select the optimal inspection time for patients, so as to gain the more accurate MRI findings of normal uterus. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers of reproductive age, all with regular menstrual cycles, underwent uterine MRI scanning with high resolution T2WI sequence in the menstrual phase (the first day of menstrual cycle), the proliferative phase (the 14th day of menstrual cycle) and the secretory phase (the 28th day of menstrual cycle). The thickness of uterine junctional zone and signal features of myometrium in different physiological cycles were analyzed. Results The thickness of uterine junctional zone were decreased from menstrual phase and proliferative phase to secretory phase, while the signal intensity of myometrium were increased from menstrual phase and proliferative phase to secretory phase. In menstrual phase, the uterine junctional zone showed symptoms of similar adenomyosis, the layers of uterus in secretory phase were clearer than those in the other two phases. Conclusions The layers structures of uterus can be distinguished clearly in secretory phase. Patients should undergo MRI scanning in secretory phase, which can improve the diagnostic accuracy of uterine diseases.%目的:正确认识健康育龄妇女子宫周期MRI影像表现,为患者预约最佳生理周期检查时间,以便获取更精准的子宫影像资料。方法采用高分辨T2WI序列对无子宫疾病且月经周期规律的30名年龄21~35岁健康志愿者,进行月经期(第1天)、增生期(第14天)及分泌期(第28天)的子宫MRI扫描。总结分析不同生理周期子宫结合带宽度及子宫肌层信号特征。结果子宫结合带的宽度于月经期、增生期和分泌期依次递减,子宫肌层的信号强度于月经期、增生期和分泌期依次递增;在月经期,子宫有类似腺肌症的征象,在分泌期,子宫

  9. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  10. Reproductive and Sexual Tract Infections Among Married Female Youth in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen K Kazi, Anita G Shenoy, Gajanan Velhal, Sudam R Suryawanshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The issues faced by the youth (15 – 24 years today like illiteracy, unemployment, high risky behavior can result in adverse economic, social and political consequences. Young women face additional problems, like malnutrition, anemia. They are forced into early marriage and child bearing. Hence, this study was carried out to study the Sexual & Reproductive Tract Infections among the Married Female Youth, in an Urban Slum of Mumbai. Methodology: Married Female Youth in the age group 15 – 24 who attended the Out Patient Department at the Urban Health Centre, Shivaji Nagar during the period from October to December 2011 were included in the study ( n= 192. Women were enquired about their socioeconomic status, including their age at marriage, age at 1st childbirth, number of children, spacing between children and history of Reproductive Tract Infection/ Sexually Transmitted Infection with the help of pretested, preformed, semi structured interview questionnaire. Results: It was found that women were married early (mean = 16.90, S.D=2.37 & even had their 1st child at an earlier age (mean 18.43, S.D=1.94. Factors, such as early age at marriage ( p= 0.059, early age at 1st childbirth ( p = 0.038, & less spacing between children ( p = 0.0316 was seen to have an influence on the Reproductive health of the women.

  11. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

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    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  12. Analysis of male pheromones that accelerate female reproductive organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly A; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

    2011-02-08

    Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

  13. Analysis of male pheromones that accelerate female reproductive organ development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Flanagan

    Full Text Available Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

  14. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredway Donald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women have been able to delay childbearing since effective contraception became available in the 1960s. However, fertility decreases with increasing maternal age. A slow but steady decrease in fertility is observed in women aged between 30 and 35 years, which is followed by an accelerated decline among women aged over 35 years. A combination of delayed childbearing and reduced fecundity with increasing age has resulted in an increased number and proportion of women of greater than or equal to 35 years of age seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment. Methods Literature searches supplemented with the authors' knowledge. Results Despite major advances in medical technology, there is currently no ART treatment strategy that can fully compensate for the natural decline in fertility with increasing female age. Although chronological age is the most important predictor of ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone, the rate of reproductive ageing and ovarian sensitivity to gonadotrophins varies considerably among individuals. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to depletion of the ovarian oocyte pool and reduction in oocyte quality. Thus, biological and chronological ovarian age are not always equivalent. Furthermore, biological age is more important than chronological age in predicting the outcome of ART. As older patients present increasingly for ART treatment, it will become more important to critically assess prognosis, counsel appropriately and optimize treatment strategies. Several genetic markers and biomarkers (such as anti-Müllerian hormone and the antral follicle count are emerging that can identify women with accelerated biological ovarian ageing. Potential strategies for improving ovarian response include the use of luteinizing hormone (LH and growth hormone (GH. When endogenous LH levels are heavily suppressed by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, LH supplementation may help

  15. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  16. Reproductive performance of dibromochloropropane-treated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, I; Sod-Moriah, U A; Kaplanski, J; Potashnik, G; Buchman, O

    1988-01-01

    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) is an effective nematocide which has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis and cause infertility in both men and male rats. There are no similar reports concerning the effects of DBCP on female reproduction. The purpose of the present study was to attempt to interfere with the various phases of oogenesis. Proestral or pregnant rats were injected subcutaneously once with 40 mg/kg DBCP on one of each days of L12-L20 of gestation; a double dose (80 mg/kg) was injected in eight consecutive days (L11-L18). In addition, L13 fetuses were injected--directly into the amniotic sac--with 0.1 mg DBCP. Pooled data from the various days of gestation revealed that postimplantation losses were three times as high in the DBCP-treated animals as in DMSO-treated controls. Perinatal deaths were 58% higher and mean pup weights were 30% lower in the DBCP-treated rats than in controls. The reproductive performance of females exposed to DBCP while in utero was affected only to a limited degree (reduced number of ovulations and implantations) as compared with their DMSO counterparts. Doubling the dose (80 mg/kg) seriously reduced the birth weight of pups (50% of controls), all of which died within several hours post-partum. Direct injection of DBCP into embryos or to proestral rats did not have any adverse effects on their future reproductive performance. In contrast to the effect on spermatogenesis, it appears that oogenesis and ova are unaffected by DBCP.

  17. Neurobiology of Stress-Induced Reproductive Dysfunction In Female Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Centeno, Maria Luisa; Cameron, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well accepted that stress can precipitate mental and physical illness. However, it is becoming clear that given the same stress, some individuals are very vulnerable and will succumb to illness while others are more resilient and cope effectively, rather than becoming ill. This difference between individuals is called stress sensitivity. Stress-sensitivity of an individual appears to be influenced by genetically inherited factors, early life (even prenatal) stress, and by the presence or absence of factors that provide protection from stress. In comparison to other stress-related diseases, the concept of sensitivity versus resilience to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction has received relatively little attention. The studies presented herein were undertaken to begin to identify stable characteristics and the neural underpinnings of individuals with sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. Female cynomolgus macaques with normal menstrual cycles either stop ovulating (Stress Sensitive) or to continue to ovulate (Stress Resilient) upon exposure to a combined metabolic and psychosocial stress. However, even in the absence of stress, the stress sensitive animals have lower secretion of the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, have higher heart rates, have lower serotonin function, have fewer serotonin neurons and lower expression of pivotal serotonin-related genes, have lower expression of 5HT2A and 2C genes in the hypothalamus, have higher gene expression of GAD67 and CRH in the hypothalamus and have reduced GnRH transport to the anterior pituitary. Altogether, the results suggest that the neurobiology of reproductive circuits in stress sensitive individuals is compromised. We speculate that with the application of stress, the dysfunction of these neural systems becomes exacerbated and reproductive function ceases. PMID:18931961

  18. Gap junction connexins in female reproductive organs: implications for women's reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhager, Elke; Kidder, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Connexins comprise a family of ~20 proteins that form intercellular membrane channels (gap junction channels) providing a direct route for metabolites and signalling molecules to pass between cells. This review provides a critical analysis of the evidence for essential roles of individual connexins in female reproductive function, highlighting implications for women's reproductive health. No systematic review has been carried out. Published literature from the past 35 years was surveyed for research related to connexin involvement in development and function of the female reproductive system. Because of the demonstrated utility of genetic manipulation for elucidating connexin functions in various organs, much of the cited information comes from research with genetically modified mice. In some cases, a distinction is drawn between connexin functions clearly related to the formation of gap junction channels and those possibly linked to non-channel roles. Based on work with mice, several connexins are known to be required for female reproductive functions. Loss of connexin43 (CX43) causes an oocyte deficiency, and follicles lacking or expressing less CX43 in granulosa cells exhibit reduced growth, impairing fertility. CX43 is also expressed in human cumulus cells and, in the context of IVF, has been correlated with pregnancy outcome, suggesting that this connexin may be a determinant of oocyte and embryo quality in women. Loss of CX37, which exclusively connects oocytes with granulosa cells in the mouse, caused oocytes to cease growing without acquiring meiotic competence. Blocking of CX26 channels in the uterine epithelium disrupted implantation whereas loss or reduction of CX43 expression in the uterine stroma impaired decidualization and vascularization in mouse and human. Several connexins are important in placentation and, in the human, CX43 is a key regulator of the fusogenic pathway from the cytotrophoblast to the syncytiotrophoblast, ensuring placental growth

  19. The reproductive-cell cycle theory of aging: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The Reproductive-Cell Cycle Theory posits that the hormones that regulate reproduction act in an antagonistic pleiotrophic manner to control aging via cell cycle signaling; promoting growth and development early in life in order to achieve reproduction, but later in life, in a futile attempt to maintain reproduction, become dysregulated and drive senescence. Since reproduction is the most important function of an organism from the perspective of the survival of the species, if reproductive-cell cycle signaling factors determine the rate of growth, determine the rate of development, determine the rate of reproduction, and determine the rate of senescence, then by definition they determine the rate of aging and thus lifespan. The theory is able to explain: 1) the simultaneous regulation of the rate of aging and reproduction as evidenced by the fact that environmental conditions and experimental interventions known to extend longevity are associated with decreased reproductive-cell cycle signaling factors, thereby slowing aging and preserving fertility in a hostile reproductive environment; 2) two phenomena that are closely related to species lifespan-the rate of growth and development and the ultimate size of the animal; 3). the apparent paradox that size is directly proportional to lifespan and inversely proportional to fertility between species but vice versa within a species; 4). how differing rates of reproduction between species is associated with differences in their lifespan; 5). why we develop aging-related diseases; and 6). an evolutionarily credible reason for why and how aging occurs-these hormones act in an antagonistic pleiotrophic manner via cell cycle signaling; promoting growth and development early in life in order to achieve reproduction, but later in life, in a futile attempt to maintain reproduction, become dysregulated and drive senescence (dyosis). In essence, the Reproductive-Cell Cycle Theory can explain aging in all sexually reproductive life

  20. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  1. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  2. KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per data from WHO, 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred globally in 2008, out of which 47,000 women died from abortionrelated complications, contributing to 13% of global maternal mortality. (1 Emergency contraceptive can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy in case of unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure or sexual assault. A considerable proportion of these abortions can be prevented by the timely use of emergency contraception. OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among women of reproductive age group. METHODS This is a government hospital-based prospective study done for a period of 3 months. The study included 500 women of reproductive age group (16 years to 40 years attending OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of IGMC and RI, Pondicherry. A predesigned questionnaire is provided to women asking about awareness regarding emergency contraceptives. RESULTS Majority of them were between 20 and 30 years of age, 59.6% were from urban background and 86.8% were educated; 66% of them had used regular method of contraception some time in their life, but the awareness level of emergency contraceptives was found to be only 5.4% of which only 2% (n=10 had ever used emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION Emergency contraceptives is an effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but unfortunately majority of women lack awareness about the emergency methods. Efforts should be focused on providing health education regarding EC among females through media and health professionals.

  3. Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariah, Afisah Yakubu; Alexander, Sophie; van Roosmalen, Jos; Buekens, Pierre; Kwawukume, Enyonam Yao; Frimpong, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains a severe problem in many parts of the world, despite efforts to reach MDG 5. In addition, underreporting is an issue especially in low income countries. Our objective has been to identify the magnitude of maternal deaths and the degree of underreporting of these deaths in Accra Metropolis in Ghana during a one year period. Methods A Reproductive Age Mortality survey (RAMOS) was carried out in the Accra Metropolis for the period 1st January 2002-31st December 2002. We reviewed records of female deaths aged 10–50 years in the Metropolis for the whole year 2002 using multiple sources. Maternal deaths identified through the review were compared with the officially reported maternal deaths for the same period. Results At the end of the study, a total of 179 maternal deaths out of 9,248 female deaths between the ages of 10–50 years were identified. One hundred and one (N = 101) of these were reported, giving an underreporting rate of 44%. The 179 cases consisted of 146 (81.6%) direct maternal deaths and 32 (17.9%) indirect maternal deaths and 1 (0.6%) non maternal death. The most frequent causes of direct maternal deaths were obstetric haemorrhage (57; 32%), pregnancies with abortive outcome (37; 20.8%), (pre) eclampsia (26; 14.6%) and puerperal sepsis (13; 7.3%). The most frequent indirect cause was sickle cell crisis in pregnancy (13; 7.3%). Conclusion A Reproductive Age Mortality Survey is an effective method that could be used to update data on maternal mortality in Ghana while efforts are made to improve on maternal death audits in the health facilities. Strengthening the existing community based volunteers to report deaths that take place at home and the civil registration systems of births and deaths is also highly recommended. PMID:19497092

  4. Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Roosmalen Jos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains a severe problem in many parts of the world, despite efforts to reach MDG 5. In addition, underreporting is an issue especially in low income countries. Our objective has been to identify the magnitude of maternal deaths and the degree of underreporting of these deaths in Accra Metropolis in Ghana during a one year period. Methods A Reproductive Age Mortality survey (RAMOS was carried out in the Accra Metropolis for the period 1st January 2002-31st December 2002. We reviewed records of female deaths aged 10–50 years in the Metropolis for the whole year 2002 using multiple sources. Maternal deaths identified through the review were compared with the officially reported maternal deaths for the same period. Results At the end of the study, a total of 179 maternal deaths out of 9,248 female deaths between the ages of 10–50 years were identified. One hundred and one (N = 101 of these were reported, giving an underreporting rate of 44%. The 179 cases consisted of 146 (81.6% direct maternal deaths and 32 (17.9% indirect maternal deaths and 1 (0.6% non maternal death. The most frequent causes of direct maternal deaths were obstetric haemorrhage (57; 32%, pregnancies with abortive outcome (37; 20.8%, (pre eclampsia (26; 14.6% and puerperal sepsis (13; 7.3%. The most frequent indirect cause was sickle cell crisis in pregnancy (13; 7.3%. Conclusion A Reproductive Age Mortality Survey is an effective method that could be used to update data on maternal mortality in Ghana while efforts are made to improve on maternal death audits in the health facilities. Strengthening the existing community based volunteers to report deaths that take place at home and the civil registration systems of births and deaths is also highly recommended.

  5. Female reproductive tract pain: targets, challenges, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eJobling

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.

  6. "Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, E

    2001-01-01

    Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

  7. Aging, life trajectories and female homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moraes Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The social science's literature about female homosexuality has recently grown in Brazil, showing the awakened interest in this issue. Since the 1990's, academic works have discussed female homosexuality: its meanings and its impact on gender issues, its relationships with social movements, specially the ones concerned with sexual rights in Brazil. Great part of these works focus on a young age rate, and some of them are dedicated to middle age women. However, there aren't works concerned with old age women and lesbianity. This article starts to fill this gap and takes into account old age lesbians and their perceptions about homosexuality and its place in their life trajectories.

  8. Reproductive health in Irish female renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.

  9. Ageing and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-03-22

    Female remating behaviour is a key mating system parameter that is predicted to evolve according to the net effect of remating on female fitness. In many taxa, females commonly resist male remating attempts because of the costs of mating. Here, we use replicated populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for either early or late life reproduction and show that 'Early' and 'Late' females evolved different age-specific rates of remating. Early females were more likely to remate with control males as they aged, while Late females were more resistant to remating later in life. Thus, female remating rate decreases with age when direct selection on late-life fitness is operating and increases when such selection is relaxed. Our findings not only demonstrate that female resistance to remating can evolve rapidly, but also that such evolution is in accordance with the genetic interests of females.

  10. Influence of flaxseed during lactation on the reproductive system of female Wistar rats Influencia de la linaza durante la lactancia sobre el sistema reproductivo de ratas Wistar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Leal Soares; L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo; A. Andrade Troina; C. De Fonte Ramos; M.ª A. Guzmán-Silva; G. Teles Boaventura

    2010-01-01

    Objetives: The goal of this article was to evaluate the association between flaxseed intake during lactation and its effects on the reproductive indexes in female offspring at infancy, puberty and adult age...

  11. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented.

  12. The forms and fitness cost of senescence: age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Rémi; Sheldon, Ben C; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence is (the difference between the observed reproductive value and the hypothetical reproductive value, if senescence would not occur). We analyzed age-specific survival in great tits Parus major and combined our results with analyses of reproductive senescence to address these issues. Recapture probability of breeding females declined with age, suggesting age-specific increases in skipped or failed breeding and highlighting an important bias that studies of senescence in wild populations should incorporate. Survival probability also declined with age and in parallel with recruit production. Reproductive value decreased 87% between age 1 and age 9 but at a fitness cost of only 4%; the proportion of the contribution of reproductive senescence versus survival senescence to this cost was 0.7. For 11 other species, we estimated fitness costs of senescence of 6%-63% (average: birds, 9%; mammals, 42%), with relative contributions of reproductive senescence of 0.0-0.7 (average: birds, 0.4; mammals, 0.3). We suggest that understanding when and why reproductive and survival senescence differ will help in the identification of proximate mechanisms underlying variation in rates of senescence and its evolution.

  13. International Spinal Cord Injury Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  14. 上海市流动人口中育龄妇女避孕知识及避孕状况调查%Analysis of contraceptive knowledge and practice among female migrants of reproductive age in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊青; 陶建国; 高尔生

    2001-01-01

    evaluate the effects of the integrated family-planning intervention on the improvement of contraceptive knowledge.   Methods: Two towns were selected for filed site, one was randomly identified as experiment group and another was control group. 4 679 female migrants living in the two towns at least 3 months were recruited. Respondents of experiment group received information, education, communication (IEC) program of family planning and the staffs of family planning clinic were trained.   Results: The female migrants had poor contraceptive knowledge and less awareness of reproductive health. They knew little about the common contraceptive methods. The integrated family-planning intervention could improve their contraceptive knowledge level.The contraceptive knowledge marks of the experimental group increased from 4.44±3.24 before the intervention to 5.53±3.52 after the intervention, and its elevated extent was higher than that of the control group whose marks decreased from 4.28±3.81 to 3.92±3.36. Some factors such as marriage status, educational level, family-planning publicity and so on had impacts on the contraceptive knowledge marks. The study also found out that 62% married female migrants adopted IUD, 19% had performed female sterilization and 9% did not take any contraception. After the intervention, more respondents, especially those in the experimental group, would like to choose short-term contraceptive methods, which implied the improvement in the ability of informed choice of female migrants.   Conclusion: It's necessary to strengthen the propaganda and education of family planning and provide more comprehensive information on family planning and reproductive health for the female migrants.

  15. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    Reproduction involves the integration of hormonal signals acting across multiple systems to generate a synchronised physiological output. A critical component of reproduction is the luteinising hormone (LH) surge, which is mediated by oestradiol (E2 ) and neuroprogesterone interacting to stimulate kisspeptin release in the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle in rats. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of both classical and membrane E2 and progesterone signalling in this pathway. A metabolite of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-(1-5), has been shown to stimulate GnRH expression and secretion, and has a role in the regulation of lordosis. Additionally, gonadotrophin release-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) projects to and influences the activity of GnRH neurones in birds. Stress-induced changes in GnIH have been shown to alter breeding behaviour in birds, demonstrating another mechanism for the molecular control of reproduction. Peripherally, paracrine and autocrine actions within the gonad have been suggested as therapeutic targets for infertility in both males and females. Dysfunction of testicular prostaglandin synthesis is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility. Indeed, local production of melatonin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone could influence spermatogenesis via immune pathways in the gonad. In females, vascular endothelial growth factor A has been implicated in an angiogenic process that mediates development of the corpus luteum and thus fertility via the Notch signalling pathway. Age-induced decreases in fertility involve ovarian kisspeptin and its regulation of ovarian sympathetic innervation. Finally, morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus influence female sexual receptivity in rats. The processes mediating these morphological changes have been shown to involve the rapid effects of E2 controlling synaptogenesis in this hypothalamic nucleus. In summary, this review highlights new

  16. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  17. Genome-wide association studies of female reproduction in tropically adapted beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, R J; Zhang, Y D; Fortes, M R S; Collis, E; Barris, W C; Corbet, N J; Williams, P J; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G; Walkley, J R W; Barendse, W; Johnston, D J; Prayaga, K C; Tier, B; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A

    2012-05-01

    The genetics of reproduction is poorly understood because the heritabilities of traits currently recorded are low. To elucidate the genetics underlying reproduction in beef cattle, we performed a genome-wide association study using the bovine SNP50 chip in 2 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds, Brahman and Tropical Composite. Here we present the results for 3 female reproduction traits: 1) age at puberty, defined as age in days at first observed corpus luteum (CL) after frequent ovarian ultrasound scans (AGECL); 2) the postpartum anestrous interval, measured as the number of days from calving to first ovulation postpartum (first rebreeding interval, PPAI); and 3) the occurrence of the first postpartum ovulation before weaning in the first rebreeding period (PW), defined from PPAI. In addition, correlated traits such as BW, height, serum IGF1 concentration, condition score, and fatness were also examined. In the Brahman and Tropical Composite cattle, 169 [false positive rate (FPR) = 0.262] and 84 (FPR = 0.581) SNP, respectively, were significant (P cattle, the largest concentration of markers for postpartum anestrus was located on BTA3 (14% for PPAI and PW) and BTA14 (17% PPAI). Very few of the significant markers for female reproduction traits for the Brahman and Tropical Composite breeds were located in the same chromosomal regions. However, fatness and BW traits as well as serum IGF1 concentration were found to be associated with similar genome regions within and between breeds. Clusters of SNP associated with multiple traits were located on BTA14 in Brahman and BTA5 in Tropical Composites.

  18. Sexual and reproductive health problems of female university students in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Fatemeh; Moghadam, Zahra B; Parvizi, Soror; Nayeri, Nahid D; Rezaei, Elham

    2015-01-14

    Youth is defined as the time of transition into adulthood and an important period in a person's life. During this period new behavior is learned easier than adulthood. Therefore, special attention has to be necessarily paid to this period in order to promote the health. Addressing adolescent reproductive health issues is also a critical factor This research was a qualitative study conducted from January 2014 to July 2014. Data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 25 female students and 10 key members of the university (including university authorities, consultants, reproductive health professionals and university officials) was collected and all interviews were recorded, formulated and classified. The mean age of participants was 22.43 years. A total of 8 students majored in geology, 5 majored in chemistry, 3 in statistics, 3 in mathematics, and 6 in biology. 17 had a bachelor's degree, 3 master's degree and 5 doctorate degree. Majority of students (82.4%) were never married and 23 of them lived in dormitories. The following three main themes were extracted from the interviews: Reproduction thought as pregnancy; the taboo of sex; and inappropriate relation between parents and children. Most participants stressed the need to provide reproductive health services for young girls.

  19. Characterization of sexual and reproductive behaviour in female high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Caridad López Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The need of love plays an important role in the lives of adolescents. The success they integrate their sexuality with, depends on a complex set of factors. Objective: To characterize sexual and reproductive behaviour of female high school students. Methods: A descriptive study of a sample comprising 180 female students from the 9th grade in the urban area of Cumanayagua, from September 2007 to June 2008. Variables that were analyzed: whether they kept relationships involving sex at the time of the study, age at onset of the relationships and primary motivations for its initiation, contraceptives use and most commonly used contraceptives and reproductive and obstetric history (abortions, menstrual regulation and delivery . Results: 56.1% kept relationships involving sex at the time of the study. The average age of onset of these relationships was between 13 (37.6% and 14 (43.6% years old. The main motivation was physical attraction in all age groups with 29.7%. A considerable group experienced unprotected sexual intercourse (57.4%, representing more than half of the total and only 42.6% protect themselves, mainly using condoms. Menstrual regulations were performed in 55.5% of the students as well as pregnancy interruptions through the uterine cavity curettage method in 22.2% of them. 5.6% had had an abortion. Conclusions: The studied adolescents are developing inappropriate sexual conducts.

  20. Reproductive Female Feeding Strategies in Spiny Forest-Dwelling Lemur catta in Southern and Southwestern Madagascar: How Do Females Meet the Challenges of Reproduction in this Harsh Habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Kelley, Elizabeth A; LaFleur, Marni

    2015-01-01

    The spiny forest ecoregion of southern and southwestern Madagascar is characterized by low annual rainfall, high temperatures, short-stature xeric vegetation and lack of canopy. Lemur catta is often the only diurnal primate persisting in this habitat. For reproductive females living in spiny forests, gestation and early-to-mid lactation periods occur during the dry season when food resources are limited. We conducted a between-site comparison of variables important to the feeding ecology of reproductive female L. catta inhabiting spiny forest at 3 sites: Berenty spiny forest (BSF), Cap Sainte-Marie (CSM) and Tsimanampesotse National Park (TNP). We hypothesize that the ability for pregnant and lactating females to adequately obtain plant foods high in protein, low in fiber and with a high water content is crucial to their survival and successful reproduction in spiny habitat. We found favorable or relatively equal protein-to-fiber ratios in plant foods most frequently consumed by reproductive females, and preferred foods contained high water content. Some overlap in preferred plant species at the 3 sites suggests important plant foods for reproductive females inhabiting spiny forests. We suggest that choosing foods high in protein, relatively low in fiber and with high water content are behavioral adaptations allowing female L. catta to reproduce and survive in this habitat. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

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    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  2. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

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    Guillaume J M Laugier

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  3. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.

  4. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  5. Hot and not-so-hot females: reproductive state and thermal preferences of female Arizona Bark Scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, M M; Gibbs, A G; Rodríguez-Robles, J A

    2015-02-01

    For ectotherms, environmental temperatures influence numerous life history characteristics, and the body temperatures (Tb ) selected by individuals can affect offspring fitness and parental survival. Reproductive trade-offs may therefore ensue for gravid females, because temperatures conducive to embryonic development may compromise females' body condition. We tested whether reproduction influenced thermoregulation in female Arizona Bark Scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus). We predicted that gravid females select higher Tb and thermoregulate more precisely than nonreproductive females. Gravid C. sculpturatus gain body mass throughout gestation, which exposes larger portions of their pleural membrane, possibly increasing their rates of transcuticular water loss in arid environments. Accordingly, we tested whether gravid C. sculpturatus lose water faster than nonreproductive females. We determined the preferred Tb of female scorpions in a thermal gradient and measured water loss rates using flow-through respirometry. Gravid females preferred significantly higher Tb than nonreproductive females, suggesting that gravid C. sculpturatus alter their thermoregulatory behaviour to promote offspring fitness. However, all scorpions thermoregulated with equal precision, perhaps because arid conditions create selective pressure on all females to thermoregulate effectively. Gravid females lost water faster than nonreproductive animals, indicating that greater exposure of the pleural membrane during gestation enhances the desiccation risk of reproductive females. Our findings suggest that gravid C. sculpturatus experience a trade-off, whereby selection of higher Tb and increased mass during gestation increase females' susceptibility to water loss, and thus their mortality risk. Elucidating the mechanisms that influence thermal preferences may reveal how reproductive trade-offs shape the life history of ectotherms in arid environments.

  6. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  7. EFFECT OF GLUTAMATE MANGANESE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND EMBRYOGENESIS OF FEMALE RATS

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    Shtapenko O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with increased nutritional needs due to the physiologic changes of the female and the metabolic demands of the embryo/fetus. The use of chelating compounds with high biological activity increased the fertility of female rats by stimulation metabolism and functional activity of the reproductive system. Manganese is an essential element utilized by antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and others metalloenzymes that take part in reduction reactions, in multiple physiological processes including reproductive system. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of subcutaneous injections of Mn glutamate in liposomal forms on the reproductive system and the process of embryogenesis of experimental female rat. The study was conducted on female rats aged 2.5-3 months with body weight of 180-200 g. Rats with dated gestation were divided into three groups: two experimental and control. Female rabbits of the 1th experimental group were subcutaneous injected of 2 mg/ml for Mn glutamate in liposomal form one week before fertilization and the animals of the 2th group were obtained the same preparation during fertilization. Rats were euthanized on the twentieth day, ovariens were singled out of fiber, visual inspection and counting the number of yellow bodies were performed, absolute and relative mass indexes were determined, Mn glutamate influence index was calculated. Experimental results showed that the administration of Mn glutamate 7 days before fertilization and during fertilization significant increased the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy (p<0,001, number of live fetuses (p<0,001 due to the decrease in general and pre-implantation embryonic mortality compared with the control group. The experimental results showed improvement in key indicators of embryonic development. We observed significant increase in the number of implanted embryos on 1 female at 10,7±0,26 and 11,3±0,21 (p<0,001 (9,4±0,16 vs

  8. EFFECT OF GLUTAMATE MANGANESE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND EMBRYOGENESIS OF FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shtapenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with increased nutritional needs due to the physiologic changes of the female and the metabolic demands of the embryo/fetus. The use of chelating compounds with high biological activity increased the fertility of female rats by stimulation metabolism and functional activity of the reproductive system. Manganese is an essential element utilized by antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and others metalloenzymes that take part in reduction reactions, in multiple physiological processes including reproductive system. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of subcutaneous injections of Mn glutamate in liposomal forms on the reproductive system and the process of embryogenesis of experimental female rat. The study was conducted on female rats aged 2.5-3 months with body weight of 180-200 g. Rats with dated gestation were divided into three groups: two experimental and control. Female rabbits of the 1th experimental group were subcutaneous injected of 2 mg/ml for Mn glutamate in liposomal form one week before fertilization and the animals of the 2th group were obtained the same preparation during fertilization. Rats were euthanized on the twentieth day, ovariens were singled out of fiber, visual inspection and counting the number of yellow bodies were performed, absolute and relative mass indexes were determined, Mn glutamate influence index was calculated. Experimental results showed that the administration of Mn glutamate 7 days before fertilization and during fertilization significant increased the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy (p<0,001, number of live fetuses (p<0,001 due to the decrease in general and pre-implantation embryonic mortality compared with the control group. The experimental results showed improvement in key indicators of embryonic development. We observed significant increase in the number of implanted embryos on 1 female at 10,7±0,26 and 11,3±0,21 (p<0,001 (9,4±0,16 vs

  9. Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Knowledge of Reproductive Healthcare among Female University Students in Bangladesh

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    Md. Nazrul Islam Mondal, PhD,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health (RH is a critical component of women’s health and overall well-being around the world, especially in developing countries. We examine the factors that determine knowledge of RH care among female university students in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on 300 female students were collected from Rajshahi University, Bangladesh through a structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique. The data were used for univariate analysis, to carry out the description of the variables; bivariate analysis was used to examine the associations between the variables; and finally, multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression model was used to examine and fit the model and interpret the parameter estimates, especially in terms of odds ratios. Results: The results revealed that more than one-third (34.3% respondents do not have sufficient knowledge of RH care. The X2 -test identified the significant (p < 0.05 associations between respondents’ knowledge of RH care with respondents’ age, education, family type, watching television; and knowledge about pregnancy, family planning, and contraceptive use. Finally, the binary logistic regression model identified respondents’ age, education, family type; and knowledge about family planning, and contraceptive use as the significant (p < 0.05 predictors of RH care. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Knowledge of RH care among female university students was found unsatisfactory. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on RH care especially for the female university students in Bangladesh.

  10. Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-12-07

    The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution.

  11. In-vitro Fertilization in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age

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    Margreiter M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postponement of family planning can be seen as a consequence of increased life expectancy and extended education in industrialized countries. The increasing number of prospective parents undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF due to advanced reproductive age, however, reflects the discrepancy between socio-cultural development and physical limits. Assisted reproduction is, therefore, challenged to create and adapt treatment regimens for women of advanced reproductive age to bridge between this wish for late parenthood and the age-related decline in fecundity. Consequently, the knowledge concerning age-related changes of reproductive functions gains in importance. While follicular depletion and impaired oocyte quality, frequently also called ‘diminished ovarian reserve’, are generally acknowledged as the underlying mechanisms for the decline in maternal fecundity, the way to correctly assess the status of ovarian reserve has remained controversial. Besides increasing attempts to achieve conception, deferring pregnancy and delivery into older age also implies medical risks and ethical considerations. The use of IVF in older women, therefore, raises the issue of the utilization of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in the assessment of embryonic aneuploidies, as well as in attempts to optimize pregnancy rates with IVF. Moreover, expected future concepts in assisted reproduction are warranted to allow for the establishment of viable singleton pregnancies in women of advanced reproductive age.

  12. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  13. Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae

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    Marianna V. P. Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. The male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 are described and illustrated for the first time. The male reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; "Y", "V" or T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like structured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28 ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.

  14. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  15. On-site comprehensive curriculum to teach reproductive health to female adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Margaret; Asgary, Ramin

    2014-04-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy are high in Kenya, and limited reproductive health education exists in schools. We designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum in Laikipia District, Kenya, in 2011, which included didactic sessions, educational games, and open discussions. We applied a mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate this curriculum including a comprehensive 35-item survey to assess pre- and post-training knowledge, attitudes, and practices of female teenagers regarding STIs/HIV and family planning using paired t-test as well as complementary focus groups (n=42) and individual interviews (n=20). Average age for 42 female teenagers was 16.5 (± 1.31) years. Pre-test questionnaires revealed lack of knowledge about different types of STIs, specifically chlamydia, but adequate knowledge of basic contraception including abstinence and condom use. By the conclusion of the study, we observed improvement in following educational domains: general knowledge of HIV/AIDS (85% ± 7.5% to 94% ± 5.6%) (p<0.001); general knowledge of teen pregnancy and STIs (57% ± 19% to 82% ± 13%) (p<0.001); and overall scores of knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy (81% ± 6.6% to 90% ± 5%) (p<0.001). Focus group discussions, however, revealed persistent misconceptions and knowledge gaps with themes regarding HIV transmission risk factors, perceived difficulty negotiating condom use, masturbation and its perceived consequences, and issues surrounding female circumcision. Important misconceptions and gaps in reproductive practices were identified and addressed using a mixed methods approach. Despite prior basic knowledge and positive attitudes on STI prevention and family planning, complementary teaching approaches were instrumental in improving overall knowledge of STIs other than HIV as well as family planning. The curriculum was feasible, well received, and achieved its educational goals.

  16. Age at first reproduction and economic change in the context of differing kinship ecologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C

    2009-01-01

    Kinship systems which tend to be based on ecologies of subsistence also assign differential power, privilege, and control to human connections that present pathways for manipulation of resource access and transfer. They can be used in this way to channel resource concentrations in women and hence their reproductive value. Thus, strategic female life course trade-offs and their timing are likely to be responsive to changing preferences for qualities in women as economic conditions change. Female life histories are studied in two ethnic groups with differing kinship systems in NE India where the competitive market economy is now being felt by most households. Patrilineal Bengali (599 women) practice patrilocal residence with village exogamy and matrilineal Khasi (656 women) follow matrilocal residence with village endogamy, both also normatively preferring three-generation extended households. These households have helpful senior women and significantly greater income. Age at first reproduction (AFR), achieved adult growth (height) and educational level (greater than 6 years or less) are examined in reproductive women, ages 16-50. In both groups, women residing normatively are older at AFR and taller than women residing nonnormatively. More education is also associated with senior women. Thus, normative residence may place a woman in the best reproductive location, and those with higher reproductive and productive potential are often chosen as households face competitive market conditions. In both groups residing in favorable reproductive locations is associated with a faster pace of fertility among women, as well as lower offspring mortality among Khasi, to compensate for a later start.

  17. For Whom the Clock Ticks: Reproductive Ageing and Egg Freezing in Dutch and British News Media

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    Lucy van de Wiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The last century saw struggles for women's reproductive choices both to avoid childbearing (i.e. abortion, contraception and to achieve it (i.e. IVF, artificial insemination. Now, after the turn of the millennium, these two approaches to regulate reproduction are combined in oocyte cryopreservation (OC, or egg freezing. With it, a new reproductive question has emerged as egg freezing simultaneously represents an active choice not to have children at present and a commitment to a future, possibly assisted, reproduction. Women's usage of OC to preserve fertility is itself an act of refusing current childbearing, thus calling into question an easy distinction between reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. In this article, I discuss the representation of this new choice by using a selection of Dutch and UK news media pieces, focusing specifically on the implications of egg freezing for conceptualisations of the female reproductive body as site of a gendered politics of ageing. Firstly, I address the rhetorical divisions between 'medical' and 'social' motivations for egg freezing and then I argue that the media narratives around these divisions create new subject positions related to reproductive identity through which medical authority becomes extended into new parts of social life. Secondly, I address the discursive construction of the decision to use egg freezing technology in relation to the notion of the 'biological clock' and the reconceptualisations of age-specific (non-reproductive bodies, which focus on the ovum as the locus of fertility. The news coverage of OC thus reveals a gendered politics of ageing, predicated on reproductive ability as the organising principle for the temporal structuring of life, which not only interpellates (potentially infertile women who desire to reproduce, but also has an impact on the wider public.

  18. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

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    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  19. How the FMR1 gene became relevant to female fertility and reproductive medicine

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    Norbert eGleicher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the 6-year evolution of our center’s research into ovarian functions of the FMR1 gene, which led to the identification of a new normal CGGn range of 26-34. This new normal range, in turn, led to definitions of different alleles (haplotypes based on whether no, one or both alleles are within range. Specific alleles then were demonstrated to represent distinct ovarian aging patterns, suggesting an important FMR1 function in follicle recruitment and ovarian depletion of follicles. So called low alleles, characterized by CGGn34 alleles. Because low FMR1 alleles present in approximately 25% of all females, FMR1 testing at young ages may offer an opportunity for earlier diagnosis of OPOI than current practice allows. Earlier diagnosis of OPOI, in turn, would give young women the options of reassessing their reproductive schedules and/or pursue fertility preservation via oocyte cryopreservation when most effective.

  20. Mechanical Reproduction in an Age of High Art

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    Chris Barker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reopens the question of the place of high art in the period identified by Walter Benjamin as the age of mechanical reproduction. Walter Benjamin, Bruno Latour, and Adam Lowe are wrong to think that mechanical reproduction has transformed the concept of art, destroying the aura of art or transmitting that aura from original to copy. The concept of art cannot be redefined by the modern change in the capacity to reproduce art unless art was initially defined primarily by its uniqueness/nonreproducibility. Photographic reproduction has caused major changes in the visual arts and in the way we consume art, but reproductive techniques have a long, continuous history that includes the production and reproduction of exact, artistic copies.

  1. Anatomy and histology of the reproductive tract of the female Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehmer, B; Ogle, S; Signorella, A; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A

    2010-07-15

    The anatomy and histology of the female reproductive tract of the Indonesian wild pig Babyrousa celebensis was studied by means of reproductive tracts obtained from seven animals aged between two and 22 years of age. The ovary appeared to have the ability to ovulate up to four ova at one time. However, the combined ovarian output seemed to average 1.86 ova. Ovulation can take place at any time from puberty to old age (22 years). The opening to the uterine tube was indicated by a 'flower-like' array of tall, broad epithelial 'petals' arising from the luminal surface of the funnel. The mucosal surfaces of these structures were covered in a mixture of prominent ciliated cells and bulbous secretory cells. The uterine tube followed a tightly convoluted path to the tip of the uterine horn. The uterus was proportionately short. The anatomical construction of the uterus was similar to those of other suids in that the columnar endometrium was heavily folded, there was a rich supply of uterine glands in the lamina propria, and the uterus was provided with a good blood supply. The cervix was thick walled and had a spiral lumen.

  2. [Kolsky register of births as an instrument of epidemiologic studies of female reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaktstold, A; Talykova, L V; Chashchin, V P; Nieboer, E; Zotov, A M; Nikanov, A N; Romanova, N P; Udland, Iu Io

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate possible use of Monchegorsk retrospective birth database for demographic and epidemiologic studies of various female reproductive health parameters, newborn health parameters, as well as their connections with occupational and other environmental factors.

  3. Skipping breakfast is associated with reproductive dysfunction in post-adolescent female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the adverse effects of skipping breakfast on quality of life, there are very few reports concerning the relationship between skipping breakfast and reproductive function. Therefore, we examined this issue by conducting a questionnaire survey of female college students aged from 18 to 20 years old. The 5 annual surveys of questionnaire demonstrated that the severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher in the population that skipped breakfast. The incidence of irregular menses was also higher in the population that skipped breakfast, although there was no difference in the incidence of premenstrual symptoms. The group that skipped breakfast showed a tendency to suffer from constipation. In addition, despite no difference in body mass index, there was a significantly higher incidence of a self-perception of poor general health among the group that skipped breakfast. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is associated with menstrual disorders, and affects the physical condition of female college students who are undergoing post-adolescent maturation. Since these menstrual disorders may influence the quality of life of young women not only in the present but also in the future, skipping breakfast should be re-evaluated from the perspective of future reproductive function.

  4. Relationship Between Behavioral Frequency and Reproductive Potential of Female Alpine Musk Deer in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Between June 2005 and February 2006, focal sampling and all occurrence behavior recording were used to quantify the behavioral patterns of captive female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu Province, China. Copulation success was used to differentiate individuals into two groups (successful and unsuccessful) and to provide a basis for behavioral comparisons, throughout both mating (rut) and non mating seasons. The results indicated significant differences between the behavior patterns of successful and unsuccessful females; however, the reproductive season played an important environmental factor. Pooling results across reproductive seasons, successfully copulating females showed significantly higher frequencies of vigilance and lower frequency of feeding behavior as compared with unsuccessfully copulating females. In the non-mating season, unsuccessfully copulating females had higher frequency of self-directed behavior, environment sniffing, and were less aggressive than successful copulating females. Furthermore, females who were successful at copulating also demonstrated tail-pasting behavior; however, this only occurred during the rut season. The results of this study can improve management practices for musk deer farms through increasing mating success and reducing maintenance costs. Furthermore, variation in behavior may also be used as a predictor of copulation success and reproductive potential, whereby females can be grouped and separated according to their reproductive history and past reproduction success.

  5. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  6. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events : results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, D.; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerba

  8. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  9. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  10. Terminal investment: individual reproduction of ant queens increases with age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Heinze

    Full Text Available The pattern of age-specific fecundity is a key component of the life history of organisms and shapes their ecology and evolution. In numerous animals, including humans, reproductive performance decreases with age. Here, we demonstrate that some social insect queens exhibit the opposite pattern. Egg laying rates of Cardiocondyla obscurior ant queens increased with age until death, even when the number of workers caring for them was kept constant. Cardiocondyla, and probably also other ants, therefore resemble the few select organisms with similar age-specific reproductive investment, such as corals, sturgeons, or box turtles (e.g., [1], but they differ in being more short-lived and lacking individual, though not social, indeterminate growth. Furthermore, in contrast to most other organisms, in which average life span declines with increasing reproductive effort, queens with high egg laying rates survived as long as less fecund queens.

  11. Analysis on Menarche Age of Chinese Reproductive Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊青; 高尔生; 张子豹

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the age of menarche of Chinese reproductive women and some related factors.Material & Methods The data used in this paper was collected through “National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey” of China in 1997.Results The menarche age declined successively and dramatically, from 16. 45 years of the women born in 194 7~1949 to 13. 86 of those born in 1980~1982, decreasing by 0. 65 years per decade.Conclusions The results revealed that some factors such as residence, year of birth,nationality, education level and living region had effects on the menarche age.

  12. Analysis on Menarche Age of Chinese Reproductive Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the age of menarche of Chinese reproductive women and some related factors. Material & Methods The data used in this paper was collected through "National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey" of China in 1997. Results The menarche age declined successively and dramatically, from 16. 45 years of the women born in 1947~1949 to 13. 86 of those born in 1980~1982, decreasing by 0. 65 years per decade. Conclusions The results revealed that some factors such as residence, year of birth, nationality, education level and living region had effects on the menarche age.

  13. Appetite for reproduction: dietary restriction, aging and the mammalian gonad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L; Pletcher, Scott D; Matzuk, Martin M

    2008-01-01

    The major physiologic theory of aging, the disposable soma theory, links dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie or food restriction, to prolonged lifespan and makes specific predictions about the effects of aging and DR on reproduction. A recent study in BMC Biology profiling the effects of aging and DR on gonadal gene expression provides novel molecular evidence that has a significant impact on this theory of aging. PMID:18828876

  14. Inter- and intrasexual variation in aging patterns across reproductive traits in a wild red deer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussey, Daniel H; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Morris, Alison; Clements, Michelle N; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2009-09-01

    In polygynous species, adult mortality is generally higher in males than in females, and theory predicts that this should result in the evolution of faster rates of senescence in males. Detailed investigations of sex differences in patterns of aging across the many and varied phenotypic characteristics associated with successful reproduction in wild populations of polygynous vertebrates are currently lacking. Here, we use longitudinal data collected from a wild red deer population to compare aging patterns across a range of life-history, behavioral, and morphological traits in both sexes. While males showed more rapid age-related declines in annual breeding success than did females, there was evidence of variation in aging rates among traits within each sex. Traits associated with male breeding performance showed a rapid decline in old age, whereas the morphology and phenology of antlers, a key male secondary sexual characteristic, showed minimal senescence. Female reproductive traits associated with regulation of estrus and gestation showed delayed senescence relative to traits associated with investment in offspring growth during gestation and lactation. Our results suggest that either natural selection or physiological constraint has caused an uncoupling of senescence rates in different physiological systems and, thus, different reproductive traits in this wild vertebrate population.

  15. A comparison of reproductive parameters of female Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the wild and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Guo, Yurong; Stott, Philip; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-01-01

    A healthy population of captive Amur tigers might assist recovery of the wild population in Northeast China if individuals were properly prepared and considered suitable for release in the wild. We analyzed the breeding records of 68 female Amur tigers from 1995 to 2010 in the Hengdaohezi Felid Breeding Center of China and compared the reproductive parameters of this population to wild female Amur tigers. We found that the reproductive parameters of the captive population (the age of first parturition, length of gestation and litter survival rate) were not significantly different from those of wild Amur tigers. Differences in birth date and litter size between wild and captive populations may be caused by management protocols for the captive population or insufficient field data from the wild population. Reproductive parameters of females giving birth after losing a litter were similar to parameters of females that did not lose a litter, except for birth date. These results provide no indication of major problems in using captive females for a breeding program for release of cubs into the wild, but additional information is still needed to assess their suitability.

  16. Reproductive effects in F1 adult females exposed in utero to moderate to high doses of mono-2-ethylhexylphthalate (MEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Benjamin; Hixon, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in everyday products. Yet, studies on the effects of phthalates on female reproductive health are limited. In this study, pregnant C57/Bl6 mice were exposed via oral gavage to corn oil, 100, 500, or 1000mg/kg MEHP from gestational days 17-19. Reproductive lifespan was decreased by one month in the highest F1 exposure group (9.8±0.4 versus 11.1±0.6 months in control F1 females). F1 females exhibited delayed estrous onset at the two higher exposures and prolonged estrus was observed in all MEHP-exposed females. Serum FSH and estradiol were significantly elevated at the highest exposure and altered mRNA expression was found for the steroidogenic genes LHCGR, aromatase, and StAR. At one year of age, mammary gland hyperplasia was observed in high dose MEHP-exposed females. In summary, late gestational exposure to MEHP leads to multiple latent reproductive effects throughout murine life resulting in premature ovarian senescence and mammary hyperplasia.

  17. Influence of age of breeding laying quails in reproduction, egg quality and morphology of the genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cristina Carneiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sperm-egg interaction was investigated during their reproductive life, in laying quails mated with males of different ages (Coturnix coturnix sp.. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 4 x 4 (age of the females of age x male quail, 80,160,240 and 390 days, with 10 replicates and six birds each, in proportion to two females for a male. The results showed that there was a quadratic effect (P <0.05 the amount of sperm trapped in the vitelline membrane of the germinal disc, depending on the age of the females, with a reduction of this number over the old. The age of the females had no effect on egg weight, shell thickness, the percentage of shell and yolk and Haugh unit. As for the egg production was a quadratic effect. The incubation parameters evaluated chick weight, fertility, hatchability and mortality did not differ when analyzed in relation to age of males and females, as well as egg quality and performance of the of the resulting progenies. The chick weight, fertility, hatchability and mortality did not differ when analyzed in relation to age of males and females, as well as egg quality and performance of the of the resulting progenies. The morphology of the genital organs of males and females showed no difference in the age of the birds. Males and females of laying quails maintain reproductive ability up to 56 weeks. The age of the males had no effect on the reproductive performance and the use of younger males to older females did not result in improved reproductive health.

  18. The evolution of alternative cryptic female choice strategies in age-structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam G

    2002-12-01

    Cryptic female choice is a potentially important aspect of the sexual selection process. According to the theory of sexual dialectics, postcopulation manipulation of relative male fertilization success can provide an avenue by which females can circumvent attempts by males to control female reproduction. Here I use stochastic models to investigate the evolution of cryptic female choice in populations with and without age structure. In populations without age structure, cryptic female choice will evolve only when (1) precopulatory mate choice by females is inefficient, (2) variation in male fitness is correlated with a trait upon which a female can base her choice of mates, and (3) the cost of multiple mating is not too high. In populations with age structure, similar conditions apply. However, selection sometimes favors females that employ alternative strategies of female choice at different ages. These results help to define the types of biological systems in which we should expect to see the evolution of cryptic female choice. They also illustrate that the evolution of choice strategies in females may be complex and may mirror in some important respects the evolution of alternative mating tactics in males.

  19. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  20. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  1. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  2. Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis.

  3. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  4. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamane

    Full Text Available Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  5. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  6. Age-specific growth, reproductive values, and intrinsic r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific growth function of an observed population and the reproductive value function based on the population's current vital rates determine the intrinsic rate of growth implied by those vital rates through the simple relationship given in equation (1. That equation establishes the analytical significance of age-specific growth, and leads to relationships that quantify a population's approach to stability and that specify the extraordinarily close connection between reproductive values and population momentum.

  7. Reproduction and embryonic diapause in a marsupial: insights from captive female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus (Tarsipedidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, J E; Bradshaw, F J; Bradshaw, S D; Stead-Richardson, E J; Philippe, D L

    2007-02-01

    longer than in any other marsupial studied to date. An association of the age of the pouch young with the stage reached by the developing blastocyst does not support the conclusion that blastocysts, once formed, grow slowly during lactation or diapause. Contrary to previous reports, we have documented what appears to be a lactational inhibition on blastocysts in diapause and have estimated the length of the 'delayed' reproductive cycle in two females as less than 2 weeks. Reactivation of blastocysts in Tarsipes has been shown to be stimulated by shortening day lengths after the summer solstice, a response similar to the annual breeding period of macropodid marsupials. Results from studying Honey possums in captive conditions suggest that the control of diapause in Tarsipes appears to be three-fold; lactational, photoperiodic and an entrained rhythm.

  8. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.

  9. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  10. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  11. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ABEDI, Masoud; SHIVA, Amir Houshang; Mohammadi, Hamid; MALEKPOUR, Rokhsareh

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843, a native cyprinid fish species from the Armand stream in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari province, central Iran, were investigated by regular monthly collections throughout 1 year. A significant relationship between length and weight and the isometric growth pattern were observed in this fish. There were no significant differences in the total number of male and female specimens. The population of this cyprinid fish had a narrow age...

  12. Differences in female individual reproductive potential among three stocks of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Press, Yvonna K.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) and skipped spawning of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were compared among the three stocks in United States waters and between two spawning seasons. Winter flounder have group-synchronous oocyte development and determinate fecundity. These characteristics enable estimation of PAF just prior to spawning by enumeration of the late-vitellogenic cohort of oocytes, in this case employing the autodiametric method. There was a low level of down-regulation, which was limited to fish in the earlier stages of vitellogenesis. Estimates of PAF increased substantially with female size and age, ranging from 5 million eggs per female. Fecundity at size decreased with increasing latitude. On average, fish from the Southern New England (SNE) stock had the highest individual fecundities at length and Gulf of Maine (GOM) the lowest, but differences varied among the years. Fecundity at length of fish from Georges Bank (GB) was intermediate to these two stocks and displayed less variability at size; however, GB fish grow faster so they had the highest relative fecundity at age. Skipped spawning also exhibited geographic differences; it was infrequent (published estimates suggest fecundity is highly variable in this species. Overall, different rates of reproductive productivity exist among individuals of the three stocks.

  13. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    The overall aim of this PhD project was to study the prevalence and potential dietary risk factors and consequences of current low EA and oligomenorrhea/functionel hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) in a group of female elite endurance athletes. The results indicated that athletes with current low and......-reported screening tool to complement existing validated disordered eating screening instruments for the identification of female athletes at risk for the Triad....

  14. Disrupted reproduction, estrous cycle, and circadian rhythms in female mice deficient in vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, D H; Kuljis, D A; Azuma, L; Wu, Y; Truong, D; Wang, H B; Colwell, C S

    2014-10-01

    The female reproductive cycle is gated by the circadian timing system and may be vulnerable to disruptions in the circadian system. Prior work suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are one pathway by which the circadian clock can influence the estrous cycle, but the impact of the loss of this peptide on reproduction has not been assessed. In the present study, we first examine the impact of the genetic loss of the neuropeptide VIP on the reproductive success of female mice. Significantly, mutant females produce about half the offspring of their wild-type sisters even when mated to the same males. We also find that VIP-deficient females exhibit a disrupted estrous cycle; that is, ovulation occurs less frequently and results in the release of fewer oocytes compared with controls. Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity are disrupted in the female mutant mice, as is the spontaneous electrical activity of dorsal SCN neurons. On a molecular level, the VIP-deficient SCN tissue exhibits lower amplitude oscillations with altered phase relationships between the SCN and peripheral oscillators as measured by PER2-driven bioluminescence. The simplest explanation of our data is that the loss of VIP results in a weakened SCN oscillator, which reduces the synchronization of the female circadian system. These results clarify one of the mechanisms by which disruption of the circadian system reduces female reproductive success.

  15. Sexual size dimorphism and female reproduction in the white-striped grass lizard Takydromus wolteri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laigao LUO; Yilian WU; Zhuyuan ZHANG; Xuefeng XU

    2012-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) has long attracted the attention of biologists,and life-history variation is thought to play an important role in the evolution of SSD.Here we quantified SSD and female reproductive traits to identify potential associations between SSD and female reproduction in the white-striped grass lizard Takydromus wolteri.In a population from Chuzhou,China,the largest male and female were 53.0 mm and 57.5 mm in snout-vent length (SVL),respectively.Females were larger in SVL and abdomen length,whereas males were larger in head size and tail length.Females produced up to five clutches of eggs during the breeding season,with large females producing more clutches and more eggs per clutch than small ones.As a result,large females had a higher annual fecundity and reproductive output.Egg size was positively correlated with maternal SVL in the first clutch,but not in subsequent clutches.These results suggest that T.wolteri is a species with female-biased SSD,and that fecundity selection,in which large females have higher fecundity due to their higher capacity for laying eggs,is likely correlated with the evolution of SSD in this species [Current Zoology 58 (2):236-243,2012].

  16. Sensory cues involved in social facilitation of reproduction in Blattella germanica females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions--with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems--and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction.We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach.

  17. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  18. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp...

  19. An experimental test for age-related improvements in reproductive performance in a frog that cares for its young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B.; Moore, Michael P.; Wamelink, Caitlin N.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance often increases with age in long-lived iteroparous organisms, a pattern that can result from within-individual increases in effort and/or competence. In free-living populations, it is typically difficult to distinguish these mechanisms or to isolate particular features of reproduction-influencing outcomes. In captive Oophaga pumilio, a frog in which mothers provide extended offspring provisioning via trophic eggs, we experimentally manipulated the age at which females started breeding and then monitored them across repeated reproductive events. This experiment allowed us to decouple age and experience and isolate maternal care as the proximate source of any differences in performance. Younger first-time mothers produced larger broods than older first-time mothers, but did not rear more offspring to independence. Across repeated reproductive events, maternal age was unassociated with any metric of performance. At later reproductive events, however, mothers produced fewer metamorphs, and a lower proportion of individuals in their broods reached independence. These patterns suggest that performance does not improve with age or breeding experience in this frog, and that eventual declines in performance are driven by reproductive activity, not age per se. Broadly, age-specific patterns of reproductive performance may depend on the proximate mechanism by which parents influence offspring fitness and how sensitive these are to effort and competence.

  20. Understanding the Broader Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.

  1. Effects of prior contest experience and contest outcome on female reproductive decisions and offspring fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Halford, Cerian; Rácz, Rita; Smiseth, Per T.

    2016-01-01

    Winning or losing a prior contest can influence the outcome of future contests, but it might also alter subsequent reproductive decisions. For example, losers may increase their investment in the current breeding attempt if losing a contest indicates limited prospects for future breeding. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, we tested whether females adjust their pre-hatching and post-hatching reproductive effort after winning or losing a contest with a same-sex conspecific. Bur...

  2. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  3. Growth hormone and reproduction in the female rat: a central role for somatostatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes are closely related: Both underproduction and overproduction of growth hormone (GH) affect reproduction. During aging, the decline in GH release and reproductive function appear to occur concurrently. Data from the literature suggest that

  4. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  5. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L; Morehouse, Nathan I

    2015-05-15

    Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly.

  6. Natal conditions alter age-specific reproduction but not survival or senescence in a long-lived bird of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Little, Brian; Lambin, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    1. Natal conditions and senescence are two major factors shaping life-history traits of wild animals. However, such factors have rarely been investigated together, and it remains largely unknown whether they interact to affect age-specific performance. 2. We used 27 years of longitudinal data collected on tawny owls with estimates of prey density (field voles) from Kielder Forest (UK) to investigate how prey density at birth affects ageing patterns in reproduction and survival. 3. Natal conditions experienced by tawny owls, measured in terms of vole density, dramatically varied among cohorts and explained 87% of the deviance in first-year apparent survival (annual estimates ranging from 0·07 to 0·33). 4. We found evidence for senescence in survival for females as well as for males. Model-averaged estimates showed that adult survival probability declined linearly with age for females from age 1. In contrast, male survival probability, lower on average than for female, declined after a plateau at age 1-3. 5. We also found evidence for reproductive senescence (number of offspring). For females, reproductive performance increased until age 9 then declined. Males showed an earlier decline in reproductive performance with an onset of senescence at age 3. 6. Long-lasting effects of natal environmental conditions were sex specific. Female reproductive performance was substantially related to natal conditions (difference of 0·24 fledgling per breeding event between females born in the first or third quartile of vole density), whereas male performance was not. We found no evidence for tawny owls born in years with low prey density having accelerated rates of senescence. 7. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest the way natal environmental conditions affect senescence varies not only across species but also within species according to gender and the demographic trait considered.

  7. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Anuradhi; Barry, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality) or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality). Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  8. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradhi Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality. Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  9. Effects of forest fragmentation on male and female reproductive success in Cestrum parqui (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Galetto, Leonardo

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on male (pollen removal, pollen load, and pollen tubes) and female reproductive success (fruit- and seed-set) of Cestrum parqui, a self-incompatible, pollination-specialist plant species. We also measure focal individual conspecific density to account for possible density-related effects that could influence the response variables. We calculate an index which incorporates male and female fitness and gives an integrated assessment of overall reproductive success. Forest fragmentation strongly affected the amount of pollen grains on stigmas and number of pollen tubes as well as seed-set, decreasing from continuous forest to small forest fragments, whereas focal individual conspecific density failed to explain any of the variability for the studied variables. Declines in overall reproductive success (i.e. male and female) in small forest fragments are ascribed to decreases in both the quality and quantity of pollination. Self-incompatibility coupled with a specialist pollination system may be particularly important traits determining the negative fragmentation effects observed in C. parqui. Logarithmic regression models described the behaviour of the variables along the fragmentation size gradient, allowing us to detect a threshold below which the effects of fragmentation begin to negatively affect reproductive success in C. parqui. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating both components of the total plant fitness, as well as including simultaneously several aspects of pollination and reproduction processes when assessing the effects of forest fragmentation on plant reproductive success.

  10. Measuring stress responses in female Geoffroy's spider monkeys: Validation and the influence of reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle A; Wittwer, Dan; Kitchen, Dawn M

    2015-04-17

    Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are increasingly used to investigate physiological stress. However, it is crucial for researchers to simultaneously investigate the effects of reproductive state because estradiol and placental hormones can affect circulating glucocorticoid concentrations. Reports on the relationships between glucocorticoids and reproductive state are inconsistent among females. Unlike several primate species that have heightened glucocorticoid activity during lactation, humans experience reduced glucocorticoid activity during lactation. Rather than a taxonomic difference, we hypothesize that this is a result of different environmental stressors, particularly the threat of infanticide. Here, we expand the number of wild primate species tested by validating a glucocorticoid assay for female Geoffroy's spider monkeys. We investigate the effects of reproductive state on their glucocorticoid concentrations. Utilizing a routine veterinary exam on a captive population, we determined that fecal glucocorticoid metabolites increase in response to a stressor (anesthesia), and this rise is detected approximately 24 hr later. Additionally, we found that extracted hormone patterns in a wild population reflected basic reproductive biology-estradiol concentrations were higher in cycling than lactating females, and in lactating females with older offspring who were presumably resuming their cycle. However, we found that estradiol and glucocorticoid concentrations were significantly correlated in lactating but not cycling females. Similarly, we found that reproductive state and estradiol concentration, but not stage of lactation, predicted glucocorticoid concentrations. Unlike patterns in several other primate species that face a relatively strong threat of infanticide, lactating spider monkeys experience reduced glucocorticoid activity, possibly due to attenuating effects of oxytocin and lower male-initiated aggression than directed at cycling females. More

  11. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  12. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae.

  13. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  14. Reproductive pharmacology of LHRH and agonists in females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, A; Bex, F J

    1980-06-01

    This report reviews research supporting the anti-reproductive pharmacologic characteristics of LHRH (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and its agonist analogues, and their relevance to fertility regulation in the clinic. Approximately 1000 derivatives of LHRH have been synthesized since 1971. LHRH and agonistic derivatives have the ability to induce the release of pituitary LH and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), and ovulation in a variety of animal models. These agents have been shown to produce predictable postcoital contraceptive effects, such activity and potency having been related to its basic agonist properties. This class of peptides also have the ability to 1) retard puberty; 2) disrupt the estrous cycle (delay onset of estrus and mating); 3) induce premature ovulation; 4) induce luteolysis; 5) cause ovarian and uterine regression; 6) reduce fecundity in inseminated animals; and 7) inhibit ovarian/uterine stimulation which occurs with human chorionic gonadotropin. These effects are reversible because once treatment is withdrawn, normal breeding processes resume quickly. Several LHRH agonists are also being tapped for use as a potential luteal phase-inhibiting/menses-inducing approach to contraception. In the male, however, the agonists cannot function as contraceptives due to the inappropriate dissociation between testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The antireproductive mechanisms of LHRH agonists can be traced to the 1) hypersecretion of LH; 2) dysphasic FSH and distorted prolactin secretion; 3) decrease in gonadal LH, FSH and prolactin receptors; and 4) inhibition of steroidogenesis and eventual disruption of the reproductive continuum. They may also be useful as anti-tumor agents in steroid-dependent mammary gland and prostatic neoplasms. Toxicologic, pathologic and ancillary pharmacologic studies involving varied dosing regimens show encouraging potential of selected agonists as contraceptive agents with no related side effects.

  15. Sperm survival in the female reproductive tract in the fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G; Hellriegel, B; Heyland, A; Ward, P I.

    2002-02-01

    While sperm competition risk favours males transferring many sperm to secure fertilizations, females of a variety of species actively reduce sperm numbers reaching their reproductive tract, e.g. by extrusion or killing. Potential benefits of spermicide to females include nutritional gains, influence over sperm storage and paternity, and the elimination of sperm bearing somatic mutations that would lower zygote fitness.We investigated changes in sperm viability after in vivo and in vitro exposure to the female tract in the polyandrous fly, Scathophaga stercoraria. Sperm viability was significantly lower in the females' spermathecae immediately after mating than in the experimental males' testes. Males also varied significantly in the proportion of live sperm found in storage in vivo. However, the exact mechanism of sperm degradation remains to be clarified. In vitro exposure to extracts of the female reproductive tract, including female accessory glands, failed to significantly lower sperm viability compared to controls. These results are consistent either with postcopulatory sperm mortality in vivo depending entirely on the male (with individual differences in sperm viability, motility or longevity) or with postcopulatory sperm mortality being subtly affected by female effects which were not detected by the in vitro experimental conditions. Importantly, we found no evidence in support of the hypothesis that female accessory glands contribute to sexual conflict via spermicide. Therefore, female muscular control remains to date the only ascertained mechanism of female influence on sperm storage in this species.

  16. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  17. [Trematode distribution in Littorina saxatilis populations can support the reproductive potential of the host: "toilers" and "idlers" among female periwinkles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovich, A I; Iagunova, E B; Sokolova, I M

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolution between parasites and their hosts can involve adaptations on the individual and population levels likely to be especially prominent in the systems where parasites have a direct strong impact on the hosts fitness, as is the case with castrating trematodes and their gastropod hosts. We studied populations of the rough periwinkles Littorina saxatilis in the White Sea infested by castrating trematodes to determine whether spatial and temporal variations in the trematode prevalence affect the demographic structure of the host population. Sex, age, reproductive status and infestation of L. saxatilis from 19 populations with different trematode burdens (from < 1 % to 30-50%); in two of these 19 populations (RI and KLN) a long-term monitoring over the period of 15-20 years was also performed. These analyses showed that (1) the average age of gravid females did not correlate with the trematode prevalence of the population, (2) the ratio was skewed towards females, (3) the trematode prevalence in females tended to be higher than in males, (4) the proportion of the non-infested gravid females of the younger ages classes (2-4 years) did not correlate with trematode prevalence of the population. The proportion of young non-infested females that were not reproducing ("idlers") decreased significantly with increasing infestation prevalence when compared among different populations of L. saxatilis, but remained relatively stable within two heavily infested populations RI and KLN despite the year-to-year fluctuations of the infestation prevalence. Thus, a demographic mechanism to compensate for the parasite pressure in L. saxatilis populations may involve the maintenance of a relatively constant proportion of uninfected gravid female ("toilers") at the expense of uninfected, but not reproducing females of fertile age ("idlers"); the latter can be viewed a reproductive reserve of the population tapped into under the conditions of high infestation prevalence. This

  18. Genetic and environmental effects on age at menarche, and its relationship with reproductive health in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy S

    2013-04-01

    Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors. Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche. A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood. Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%). Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins. It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

  19. Neither male gonadal androgens nor female reproductive costs drive development of sexual size dimorphism in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates.

  20. Male-female genotype interactions maintain variation in traits important for sexual interactions and reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dean M; Delph, Lynda F

    2016-07-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation can evolve quickly when sexual selection drives divergence in traits important for sexual interactions between populations. It has been hypothesized that standing variation for male/female traits and preferences facilitates this rapid evolution and that variation in these traits is maintained by male-female genotype interactions in which specific female genotypes prefer specific male traits. This hypothesis can also explain patterns of speciation when ecological divergence is lacking, but this remains untested because it requires information about sexual interactions in ancestral lineages. Using a set of ancestral genotypes that previously had been identified as evolving reproductive isolation, we specifically asked whether there is segregating variation in female preference and whether segregating variation in sexual interactions is a product of male-female genotype interactions. Our results provide evidence for segregating variation in female preference and further that male-female genotype interactions are important for maintaining variation that selection can act on and that can lead to reproductive isolation.

  1. Transforming growth factor β receptor type 1 is essential for female reproductive tract integrity and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1, also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1-mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1-mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus.

  2. Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor Type 1 Is Essential for Female Reproductive Tract Integrity and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; Agno, Julio E.; Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Nagashima, Takashi; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1–mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO) of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR) that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1–mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus. PMID:22028666

  3. Mating behavior of Daphnia: impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geung-Hwan La

    Full Text Available High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating-related behavior involved male-female contact (mating as well as male-male contact (fighting. Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies.

  4. Mating Behavior of Daphnia: Impacts of Predation Risk, Food Quantity, and Reproductive Phase of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating–related behavior involved male–female contact (mating) as well as male–male contact (fighting). Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies. PMID:25111600

  5. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  6. Female adolescents' perspective about reproductive health education needs: a mixed methods study with explanatory sequential design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.

  7. Computer simulations for biological aging and sexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAUFFER DIETRICH

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexual version of the Penna model of biological aging, simulated since 1996, is compared here with alternative forms of reproduction as well as with models not involving aging. In particular we want to check how sexual forms of life could have evolved and won over earlier asexual forms hundreds of million years ago. This computer model is based on the mutation-accumulation theory of aging, using bits-strings to represent the genome. Its population dynamics is studied by Monte Carlo methods.

  8. Teasing apart socially-induced infertility in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C

    2011-12-01

    The Damaraland mole-rat is a subterranean mammal exhibiting extreme reproductive skew with a single reproductive female in each colony responsible for procreation. Non-reproductive female colony members are physiologically suppressed while in the colony, exhibiting reduced concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and a decreased response of the pituitary, as measured by the release of bioactive LH, to an exogenous dose of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Removal of the reproductive female from the colony results in an elevation of LH and an enhanced response of the pituitary to a GnRH challenge in non-reproductive females comparable to reproductive females, implying control of reproduction in these individuals by the reproductive female. The Damaraland mole-rat is an ideal model for investigating the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, we know less about the control of reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemistry of the GnRH system of both reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats has revealed no significant differences with respect to morphology, distribution or numbers of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya. We examined whether the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin was responsible for the inhibition of the release of the GnRH from the neurons indirectly by measuring LH concentrations in these non-reproductive females following single, hourly and 8 hourly injections of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The results imply that the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, is not responsible for the inhibition of GnRH release from the perikarya in non-reproductive females. Preliminary data examining the circulating levels of cortisol also do not support a role for circulating glucocorticoids. The possible role of kisspeptin is discussed.

  9. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex attraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle Guédot; David R.Horton; Peter J.Landolt

    2012-01-01

    The potato psyllid,Bactericera (=Paratrioza) cockerelli ((S)ulc) (Hemiptera:Triozidae),is a major pest of potato.Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction.Adult B.cockerelli reach reproductive maturity within 48 h post-eclosion,with females being mature on the day of eclosion and males at 1 day post-eclosion.Oviposition generally began 2 days after mating but was delayed when females mated within 2 days post-eclosion.In laboratory olfactometer assays,the age of females used as odor sources and the age of males assayed to these odors did not affect sex attraction,with both younger (1-4-day-old) and older (8-10-day-old) males being attracted to females,regardless of female age (1-4-day-old or 8-10-day-old).Males assayed to live females at different times during the photophase (between 8:00 and 20:00 hours) were attracted to females between 11:00 and 17:00 hours,showing a temporal periodicity in sex attraction with B.cockerelli at least during the photophase.

  10. Increase of Reproductive Life Span Delays Age of Onset of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Frentzel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One striking observation in Parkinson’s disease (PD is the remarkable gender difference in incidence and prevalence of the disease. Data on gender differences with regard to disease onset, motor and non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication are limited. Furthermore, whether estrogen status affects disease onset and progression of PD is controversially discussed. In this retrospective single center study, we extracted clinical data of 226 ambulatory PD patients and compared age of disease onset, disease stage, motor impairment, non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication between genders. We applied a matched-pairs design to adjust for age and disease duration. To determine the effect of estrogen-related reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and menopause on the age of onset, we applied a standardized questionnaire and performed a regression analysis. The male to female ratio in the present PD cohort was 1.9:1 (147 men vs. 79 women. Male patients showed increased motor impairment than female patients. The levodopa equivalent daily dose was increased by 18.9% in male patients compared to female patients. Matched-pairs analysis confirmed the increased dose of dopaminergic medication in male patients. No differences were observed in age of onset, type of medication, and non-motor symptoms between both groups. Female reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and age at menopause were positively associated with a delay of disease onset up to 30 months. The disease-modifying role of estrogen-related outcome measures warrants further clinical and experimental studies targeting gender differences, specifically hormone-dependent pathways in PD.

  11. Increase of Reproductive Life Span Delays Age of Onset of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzel, Dominik; Judanin, Grigorij; Borozdina, Olga; Klucken, Jochen; Winkler, Jürgen; Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.

    2017-01-01

    One striking observation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the remarkable gender difference in incidence and prevalence of the disease. Data on gender differences with regard to disease onset, motor and non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication are limited. Furthermore, whether estrogen status affects disease onset and progression of PD is controversially discussed. In this retrospective single center study, we extracted clinical data of 226 ambulatory PD patients and compared age of disease onset, disease stage, motor impairment, non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication between genders. We applied a matched-pairs design to adjust for age and disease duration. To determine the effect of estrogen-related reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and menopause on the age of onset, we applied a standardized questionnaire and performed a regression analysis. The male to female ratio in the present PD cohort was 1.9:1 (147 men vs. 79 women). Male patients showed increased motor impairment than female patients. The levodopa equivalent daily dose was increased by 18.9% in male patients compared to female patients. Matched-pairs analysis confirmed the increased dose of dopaminergic medication in male patients. No differences were observed in age of onset, type of medication, and non-motor symptoms between both groups. Female reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and age at menopause were positively associated with a delay of disease onset up to 30 months. The disease-modifying role of estrogen-related outcome measures warrants further clinical and experimental studies targeting gender differences, specifically hormone-dependent pathways in PD. PMID:28871235

  12. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  13. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Nemeth; Bart Kempenaers; Giuliano Matessi; Henrik Brumm

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also ...

  14. Female genital mutilation: A tragedy for women's reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rushwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girls and women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences, both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the past few decades. Medicalisation of the practice has added to its propagation, and this is not valid from ethical and professional standpoints. Further efforts need to be exerted to eliminate the practice and alleviate the sufferings that millions of girls and women worldwide are unnecessarily subjected to. This article reviews the problem and discusses the consequences to health for women and girls, and suggests ways to eradicate the practice.

  15. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  16. Parasite removal improves reproductive success of female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

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    Jesse E H Patterson

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate potential reproductive costs associated with parasitism, we experimentally removed ectoparasites from reproductive female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Body mass and overwinter survival of mothers, days to juvenile emergence, juvenile survival from birth to emergence, and body mass of juveniles at emergence were all compared to those of untreated (control animals. Ectoparasite removal did not affect the body mass of mothers throughout the lactation period and overwinter survival of mothers did not differ between treatments and controls. Likewise, there was no effect of treatment on the number of days to juvenile emergence. However, treated mothers raised offspring that were significantly heavier (11% than controls at emergence. Juveniles from treated mothers were also 24% more likely to survive from birth to emergence. Our results indicate that ectoparasites impose costs on the reproductive success of female red squirrels and that ectoparasites have the potential to influence red squirrel life-histories and population dynamics.

  17. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  18. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    , and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  19. Effects of Prior Contest Experience and Contest Outcome on Female Reproductive Decisions and Offspring Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Halford, Cerian; Rácz, Rita; Smiseth, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Winning or losing a prior contest can influence the outcome of future contests, but it might also alter subsequent reproductive decisions. For example, losers may increase their investment in the current breeding attempt if losing a contest indicates limited prospects for future breeding. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, we tested whether females adjust their prehatching and posthatching reproductive effort after winning or losing a contest with a same-sex conspecific. Burying beetles breed on carcasses of small vertebrates for which there is fierce intrasexual competition. We found no evidence that winning or losing a contest influenced reproductive investment decisions in this species. Instead, we show that a female's prior contest experience (regardless of its outcome) influenced the amount of posthatching care provided, with downstream consequences for the female's reproductive output; both winners and losers spent more time provisioning food to their offspring and produced larger broods than females with no contest experience. We discuss the wider implications of our findings and present a conceptual model linking contest-mediated adjustments in parental investment to population-level processes. We propose that the frequency of intraspecific contests could both influence and be influenced by population dynamics in species where contest experience influences the size and/or number of offspring produced.

  20. Laser correlation spectroscopy in the diagnosis of tumor diseases of the female reproductive system (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, A. A.; Sekerskaya, M. N.; Zhordaniya, K. I.; Sapezhinskiy, V. S.; Golubtsova, N. V.; Barmashov, A. E.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The study of blood serum of cancer patients by laser correlation spectroscopy to determine the possibility of differentiation of benign and malignant tumors of the female reproductive system. We analyzed the data and assessed the applicability of the method mentioned above target.

  1. Study on sexual and reproductive health behaviors of unmarried female migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Zhou, Y.; Ji, N.; Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Moyer, E.; Minkauskiene, M.; Pang, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to broadly assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried female migrants in China. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted and a self-administered questionnaire was desig

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  4. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo, and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Putman

    Full Text Available Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM, progestagen (FPM and glucocorticoid (FGM metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age. Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%, suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d. Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions.

  5. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions.

  6. Impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Bellingham, Michelle; Sinclair, Kevin D; Evans, Neil P; Pocar, Paola; Fischer, Bernd; Schaedlich, Kristina; Schmidt, Juliane-Susanne; Amezaga, Maria R; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Rhind, Stewart M; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2012-05-22

    Evidence is accumulating that environmental chemicals (ECs) including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can alter female reproductive development, fertility and onset of menopause. While not as clearly defined as in the male, this set of abnormalities may constitute an Ovarian Dysgenesis Syndrome with at least some origins of the syndrome arising during foetal development. ECs/EDCs have been shown to affect trophoblast and placental function, the female hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, onset of puberty and adult ovarian function. The effects of ECs/EDCs are complex, not least because it is emerging that low-level, 'real-life' mixtures of ECs/EDCs may carry significant biological potency. In addition, there is evidence that ECs/EDCs can alter the epigenome in a sexually dimorphic manner, which may lead to changes in the germ line and perhaps even to transgenerational effects. This review summarises the evidence for EC, including EDC, involvement in female reproductive dysfunction, it highlights potential mechanisms of EC action in the female and emphasises the need for further research into EC effects on female development and reproductive function.

  7. Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced reproductive age: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Advanced reproductive age (ARA) is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. Oocyte donation reverses the age-related decline in implantation and birth rates of women in their 40s and 50s and restores pregnancy potential beyond menopause. However, obstetrical complications in older patients remain high, particularly related to operative delivery and hypertensive and cardiovascular risks. Physicians should perform a thorough medical evaluation designed to assess the physical fitness of a patient for pregnancy before deciding to attempt transfer of embryos to any woman of advanced reproductive age (>45 years). Embryo transfer should be strongly discouraged or denied to women of ARA with underlying conditions that increase or exacerbate obstetrical risks. Because of concerns related to the high-risk nature of pregnancy, as well as longevity, treatment of women over the age of 55 should generally be discouraged. This statement replaces the earlier ASRM Ethics Committee document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:337-40). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual fertility assessment and counselling in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch

    2016-10-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to validate the new concept of the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Rigshospitalet. The intention was to: explore the prognostic value of fertility risk factors by a risk score and provide an estimate of female fecundity, to quantify the impact of oral contraception (OC) on ovarian reserve parameters defined as Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and ovarian volume, and to gain knowledge of attitudes and considerations toward family formation in women of advanced age. The thesis is based on the following four manuscripts:   Manuscript I describes the predictive value of individual fertility assessment and counselling in terms of subsequent time to pregnancy within two years after the initial consultation at the FAC Clinic. The follow up study comprised 519 women, of which 352 had tried to conceive. At the time of follow-up, 259/352 had achieved a pregnancy, 74/352 were still trying and 19/352 had given up. The remaining 167 women had no attempts to conceive. The risk assessment provided a score based on the appearance of fertility risk factors: green (low), yellow (low), orange (medium) and red (high). Two-thirds of the women with only low risk scores conceived spontaneously within 12 months (65%), while this figure was only 32% for women with at least one high risk score (n=82). Accordingly, presence of at least one high risk score reduced the odds of achieving a pregnancy within 12 months by 73% (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.13-0.57). The FAC Clinic concept seems as a usable tool for fertility experts to guide women on how to fulfil their reproductive life-plan, but longer follow-up studies are needed. Manuscript II describes the impact of OC on ovarian reserve parameters in 887 women at the FAC Clinic. Of the 887 women, 244 (27.5%) used OC.  The 244 users of OC were significantly younger than non-users with a mean age of 31.5 (SD 4.3) vs. 34.1 (SD 4.3) years (p counselling at the FAC Clinic. The

  9. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (pleptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  10. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  11. Naturalization and medicalization of the female body: social control through reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses, through bibliographic research, the recurrence of naturalization as basis for the medicalization of the female body, as a means of social control through biological reproduction, whereby behavioral standards, social class, ethnic and race differences are rearranged/redefined. Through this process, male patriarchal and class predominance is maintained and the rift of social and gender inequalities grow wider. It is important to identify the role of technological developments and their complexities - which do not allow lower-income classes to take decisions in regard to their own bodies and reproductive health - and schooling, specially through science and physical education classes whereby upper-class predominance is sustained.

  12. Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2015-03-01

    The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats.

  13. A pair of mouse KRAB zinc finger proteins modulates multiple indicators of female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher J; Robins, Diane M

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are the largest class of transcriptional regulators in mammals, yet few have been assigned biological roles. Cloning the genes underlying the regulator of sex-limitation (rsl) phenotype, in which the normally male-specific sex-limited protein (SLP) is expressed in female mice, identified two KRAB-ZFPs, Rsl1 and Rsl2, as influencing sexually dimorphic liver gene expression. Combined absence of both repressors in rsl mice leads to increased expression in female liver of major urinary proteins (MUPs) and certain enzymes of steroid metabolism, as well as SLP. We hypothesized that this altered gene expression might affect reproductive physiology in rsl females. Urinary MUP (uMUP) concentration varied with the estrous cycle in both wt and rsl females but was consistently higher in rsl urine. A behavioral odor test revealed that wild-type (wt) males preferred rsl to wt females, possibly due to elevated uMUPs providing greater pheromone presentation. To ascribe activity to Rsl1, Rsl2, or both, the genes were individually expressed as liver-specific transgenes. RSL2 overexpression accentuated uMUP fluctuations across the estrous cycle, whereas RSL1 overexpression did not. In addition, puberty onset, as indicated by vaginal opening (VO), occurred 2 days earlier in rsl females, and excess RSL2, but not RSL1, restored VO timing to wt. Hence, transcriptional repression by RSL in liver modifies female mouse reproduction via targets that likely impact both hormonal and pheromonal cues. The large and rapidly diversifying KRAB-ZFP family may modulate biological processes, including reproduction, to confer individual differences that may isolate populations and ultimately lead to speciation.

  14. Seasonal Dynamics of Male and Female Reproductive Systems in the Siberian Salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingii (Caudata, Hynobiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim V. YARTSEV; Valentina N. KURANOVA

    2015-01-01

    It is not well known how low temperatures, like a subarctic steppe–tundra climate, inlfuence reproductive traits of ectothermic vertebrates. To begin answering this question, we studied male and female reproductive systems of Salamandrella keyserlingii inhabiting a Tomsk population (southeast of Western Siberia), Russia, in ecological and physiological terms. In males, before spermiation, the testicular size and weight in late April–early May were greatest of all. Spermiation occurred during breeding immigration in spring when mean air temperature was above 10°С, and at the same time rain fell. After spermiation, the testicular size and weight decreased sharply, and the diameter of the vasa deferentia increased. “Spawning” (i.e., simultaneous extrusion of sperm and oviposition) occurred from late April to late May, and this duration lfuctuated in temperature and humidity. The testicular size and weight increased in summer. Sperm mass was detected in the testes by the smear method in April–September, except in June when single fragmented unrealized sperm was detected and in July when spermatids were detected. In females, ovarian weight was greatest in spring before ovulation. From late June, vitellogenesis began in ovarian follicles, in which mint green yolks accumulated. Melanin deposited in the surface of the ovary from July when oviducts were hypertrophying. In contrast, some large-sized females did not show any sexual maturity shortly before hibernation (although these females may be subadults). These results suggest that low temperatures in Siberia induce early timing of gamete maturation in females, but the females’ reproductive cycle might also be biennial. A reproductive cycle in males was annual with the completion of the gamete maturation process in August.

  15. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  16. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  17. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  18. Aging and reproduction in social insects--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jürgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Perennial social insects are characterized by the extraordinarily long lifespan of their reproductive females, which may be tens or hundreds of times larger than that of non-social insects of similar body size and also greatly surpasses that of conspecific non-reproductives. Evolutionary theories of aging explain this phenomenon from the low extrinsic mortality queens experience once they have successfully established their colony. The aim of our review is to summarize recent findings on the ultimate and proximate causes of increased queen longevity in social insects, in particular ants and honey bees. While progress is being made in elucidating the interrelations between the vitellogenin, juvenile hormone, fecundity, and senescence, we feel that the explanation for the comparatively short lifespan of queens in multi-queen societies is as yet not satisfactory and needs further attention, both concerning its proximate and ultimate basis.

  19. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Nemeth

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia. In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  20. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres, E-mail: paltesor@fq.edu.u, E-mail: mparcia@fq.edu.u, E-mail: crossini@fq.edu.u, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.u [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Quimica. Lab. de Ecologia Quimica; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G., E-mail: vanusa@quimica.ufpr.b, E-mail: pzarbin@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Semioquimicos

    2010-06-15

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  1. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  2. Wolf (Canis lupus Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures in the Superior National Forest (SNF, Minnesota (MN, during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  3. Biodemography of a long-lived tephritid: Reproduction and longevity in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedoc, Pablo; Muüller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Senturke, Damla; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Age of sexual maturity, daily and lifetime reproductive rates, and life span were recorded in a laboratory cohort of Mexican fruit flies consisting of over 1100 females maintained individually. The results revealed that, relative to the medfly, the Mexfly is slower maturing (14 vs 17 days), more fecund (1400 vs 650–1100 eggs/female), and longer lived (50 vs 35 days). The results reinforced the generality of several earlier findings on the medfly including the deceleration of mortality at older ages and the weakness of the correlation between the rate of egg laying at early ages and both subsequent reproduction and remaining longevity. Discussion includes perspectives on the role of artificial selection in shaping the demographic traits of the mass-reared strain of Mexfly used in this study, as well as the overall significance of large scale biodemographic studies in understanding aging and longevity. PMID:16154309

  4. Determination of age and its correlation with biometric variables and seasonal reproductive indices of Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the age and its correlation with biometric variables and reproductive indices of piapara Leporinus obtusidens caught at the Funil Reservoir. We caught 133 specimens between September 2006 and August 2007. Weight, total length, standard length, depth, height, head length and radius of the scales were measured. The sex was determined by macroscopic examination of gonads. The age of each fish was determined by analyzing the growth rings on the scales. Seasonal differences in biometric variables were tested using the NK test at 5%. The correlation of age and radius of the scales with the biometric variables and reproductive indices were analyzed using the SAEG software. Fish individuals ranging from 3 to 14 years of age were caught. In the spring and summer, smaller fish were captured compared to those caught during the fall and winter. Females tended to have higher weight and morphometric values when compared to males. Age and radius of the scales were correlated with biometric variables in L. obtusidens. It can be concluded that the biometric variables of this species can be used as an indicator of age.

  5. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P changes to the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. In conclusion, 8‐month‐old mice provide a useful model of reproductive ageing. The present study has identified potential causes of labour dysfunction amenable to investigation in older primigravid women. PMID:28083928

  6. Ovarian ultrasonographic features in reproductive age females with polycystic ovary syndrome and the establishment of ultrasonigraphic criteria%育龄期多囊卵巢综合征患者卵巢超声影像学特征及诊断初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢梦; 李昕; 周毓青; 赵耐青; 林金芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the ovarian ultrasound imaging features in the reproductive age females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods A total of 396 PCOS patients aged 18-35years were recruited from our gynaecology & endocrinology clinic,including obese (OB-PCOS group,n =153) and non-obese (NOB-PCOS group,n =241).And 635 reproductive period females with normal menstruation for the control group,including obese (OB-CON group,n =72) and non-obese (NOB-CON group,n =563).Questionnaire surveys were conducted on their menstrual history.Vagina or rectum ultrasound methods were employed to determine the values of ovarian follicle number (FN) and ovarian volume (OV).Also the clinical symptom scores and endocrine and metabolic indices were measured.Results (1) As compared to the control group,the values of ovarian FN and OV 95% site for physiological high limit were 10 and 9.5 ml respectively.(2) In PCOS patients,their ovarian volumes and the number of follicles were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01).(3) In 90.4% of these patients,their values were OV > 9.5 ml and/or FN ≥ 10.And in 66.9% PCOS patients of reproductive age,the polycystic ovarian changes of ultrasound imaging reached the Rotterdam consensus diagnostic criteria.Conclusion The features of ovarian ultrasound imaging in reproductive period PCOS patients are enlarged ovarian volume and increased follicles numbers.The preliminary Chinese ovarian ultrasonographic diagnostic cut-off points have been proposed for reproductive period PCOS patients.%目的 了解育龄期多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者的卵巢超声影像学特征.方法 PCOS患者为2004年6月至2009年1月在复旦大学附属妇产科医院门诊就诊者,年龄18 ~ 35岁,共396例,其中肥胖型(OB-PCOS组)153例、非肥胖型(NOB-PCOS组)241例.另选择635例月经正常的18~35岁育龄期女性为对照组,其中肥胖(OB-CON组)72例,非肥胖(NOB-CON组)563例.研究手段采

  7. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups.

  8. Prediction of reproductive outcomes according to different serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels in females undergoing intracystoplasmic sperm injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brugo Olmedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is a reliable marker of ovarian reserve, and it has been shown to be correlated with reproductive outcomes in grouped analyses. However, practical data is scarce for the physician and the patients to predict these outcomes in an individual couple according to serum AMH measured prior to assisted reproduction technology (ART procedures. STUDY DESIGN: To address this question, we performed an analytic observational study including 145 females undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in a single center. Results were analyzed according to serum AMH; subgroup analyses were performed by grouping patients according to patient's age and FSH levels. RESULTS: The risk of cycle cancellation decreased from 64% in patients with serum AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L (0.42 ng/mL to 21% with AMH ≥ 15 pmol/L (2.10 ng/mL. Cycle cancellation occurred in approximately two-thirds of the patients with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L irrespective of the FSH level. However, with higher AMH values the risk of cycle cancellation decreased more significantly in patients with normal FSH. The rate of good response increased from almost null in patients with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L to 61% in those with AMH ≥ 15 pmol/L. The positive correlation between good response and AMH was also significant, but with lower absolute rates, when patients were grouped according to their age or FSH levels. Pregnancy rate increased moderately, but significantly, from 31% with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L to 35% with AMH ≥ 15 pmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: We provide estimates of reproductive outcomes according to individualized values of serum AMH, in general and in subgroups according to patient's age or serum FSH, which are helpful for the clinician and the couple in their decision making about starting an assisted reproductive treatment.

  9. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing Potential Effect of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors in Cow Milk on Reproductive Index in Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; DAVAASAMBUU GANMAA; LI-QIANG QIN; AKIO SATO

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals in cow milk on female reproductive system. Methods A two-generation reproduction was conducted according to U. S. FDA standard. Milk was fed in special bottle to Wistar rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1) in the milk group while artificial milk was fed to rats in the control group. Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. Measurements were made according to this guideline. Results Reproductive parameters in the milk group such as fertility index, gestation index, weights of uterus and ovary, days of vaginal opening, estrous cycles, histological morphological changes were comparable to those in the control group. However, the means of body weight had some differences. The body weight gains increased significantly in the milk-treated group in F1 and F2 generation compared with those in the control group. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in blood in the milk group was comparable to that in the control group, but the standard deviation changed greatly in the milk-treated rats. Conclusion Endocrine disruptor chemicals in milk have no severe effects on the female reproductive system.

  11. The putative roles of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.

  12. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielhuis Gerhard A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but the hormonal function may be disrupted in many more ways through pesticide exposure. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function of the female reproductive system and in particular the ovarian cycle. Disruption can occur in all stages of hormonal regulation: 1. hormone synthesis; 2. hormone release and storage; 3. hormone transport and clearance; 4. hormone receptor recognition and binding; 5. hormone postreceptor activation; 6. the thyroid function; and 7. the central nervous system. These mechanisms are described for effects of pesticide exposure in vitro and on experimental animals in vivo. For the latter, potential effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides on the female reproductive system, i.e. modulation of hormone concentrations, ovarian cycle irregularities, and impaired fertility, are also reviewed. In epidemiological studies, exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects, which may or may not be due to disruption of the female hormonal function. Because pesticides comprise a large number of distinct substances with dissimilar structures and diverse toxicity, it is most likely that several of the above-mentioned mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological pathways explaining the role of pesticide exposure in ovarian cycle disturbances, ultimately leading to fertility problems and other reproductive effects. In future research, information on the ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function as

  13. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  14. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest.

  15. The volitional travel speed varies with reproductive state in mature female brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Dolby, Jes;

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reproduction on the volitional travel speed of mature female brown trout Salmo trutta L. The downstream travel speed in the pre-spawning state was 0·25 m s−1 (95% CI : 0·19, 0·34) while it increased significantly to 0·65 m s−1 (95% CI: 0·49, 0·87) in the post...

  16. An X chromosome effect responsible for asymmetric reproductive isolation between male Drosophila virilis and heterospecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Desirée; Civetta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is expressed through uncoordinated courtship, failed fertilization, and (or) postzygotic barriers. Behavioural components of mating often form an initial barrier to hybridization between species. In many animals, females are responsible for mating discrimination in both intra- and interspecific crosses; males of Drosophila virilis group represent an exception to this trend. Using overall productivity tests, we show that a lower proportion of D. virilis males sire progeny when paired with a heterospecific female (Drosophila novamexicana or Drosophila americana texana) for 2 weeks. This suggests male mate discrimination or some other kind of asymmetrical incompatibility in courtship and mating or early zygote mortality. We used males from D. virilis-D. novamexicana and from D. virilis-D. a. texana backcross populations to map chromosome effects responsible for male reproductive isolation. Results from the analysis of both backcross male populations indicate a major X chromosome effect. Further, we conduct a male behavioural analysis to show that D. virilis males significantly fail to continue courtship after the first step of courtship, when they tap heterospecific females. The combined results of a major X chromosome effect and the observation that D. virilis males walk away from females after tapping suggest that future studies should concentrate on the identification of X-linked genes affecting the ability of males to recognize conspecific females.

  17. Inhibition of the reproductive system by deslorelin in male and female pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne

    2014-06-01

    Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.

  18. Intraspecific variation in body size and the rate of reproduction in female insects - adaptive allometry or biophysical constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Friberg, Magne; Karlsson, Bengt; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl; Gilburn, Andre

    2012-11-01

    1. A high rate of reproduction may be costly if ecological factors limit immediate reproductive output as a fast metabolism compromises own future survival. Individuals with more reserves need more time and opportunity to realize their reproductive potential. Theory therefore predicts that the reproductive rate, defined as the investment in early reproduction in proportion to total potential, should decrease with body size within species. 2. However, metabolic constraints on body size- and temperature-dependent biological rates may impede biophysical adaptation. Furthermore, the sequential manner resources that are allocated to somatic vs. reproductive tissue during ontogeny may, when juveniles develop in unpredictable environments, further contribute to non-adaptive variation in adult reproductive rates. 3. With a model on female egg laying in insects, we demonstrate how variation in body reserves is predicted to affect reproductive rate under different ecological scenarios. Small females always have higher reproductive rates but shorter lifespans. However, incorporation of female host selectivity leads to more similar reproductive rates among female size classes, and oviposition behaviour is predicted to co-evolve with reproductive rate, resulting in small females being more selective in their choice and gaining relatively more from it. 4. We fed simulations with data on the butterfly Pararge aegeria to compare model predictions with reproductive rates of wild butterflies. However, simulated reproductive allometry was a poor predictor of that observed. Instead, reproductive rates were better explained as a product of metabolic constraints on rates of egg maturation, and an empirically derived positive allometry between reproductive potential and size. However, fitness is insensitive to moderate deviations in reproductive rate when oviposition behaviour is allowed to co-evolve in the simulations, suggesting that behavioural compensation may mitigate putative

  19. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  20. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Carly A; Schulte, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Maintaining a dominant position in a hierarchy requires energetically expensive aggressive displays and physical exertion. Lab based winner-loser studies, often conducted with individuals from non-social species, have shown that subordinates have higher stress hormone levels than dominant individuals. However, in wild studies on cooperative breeders, displays of aggression used to maintain dominance status are associated with elevated stress hormone levels. The effect of reproductive state on dominance and stress has not been addressed within either of these situations. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological stress levels in relation to dominance rank and reproductive state in a non-cooperative breeder and herbivore, the domestic horse. The social interactions and measured faecal glucocorticoids were recorded in pastured, female horses that were either lactating or non-lactating. While faecal glucocorticoid metabolite level did not differ between reproductive state and rank, activity behaviour demonstrated significant differences between reproductive states. Higher energetic requirements of lactation were reflected in significantly longer bouts of eating and significantly less time spent alert and socializing. As non-cooperative breeders, the social nature of horses does not limit their reproduction or resource acquisition based upon rank, and therefore does not fit with the dominance-stress hypothesis or subordinate-stress hypothesis and instead supports a rank-independent stress hypothesis.

  1. Voice and handgrip strength predict reproductive success in a group of indigenous African females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Atkinson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness. Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis.

  2. Male and female reproductive success in natural and anthropogenic populations of Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. (Orchidaceae

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    Jermakowicz Edyta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study, male and female reproductive success was analyzed in relation to the population size, floral display and pollinators’ availability in natural and anthropogenic populations of the orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. Our results indicated significant differences between all investigated populations in parameters of floral display, including heights and number of flowers per inflorescence, as well the number of flowering individuals and their spatial structure. Additionally, populations differed both in male (pollinia removal and female (fruit set reproductive success, but only the fruit set clearly differentiated anthropogenic and natural populations. Despite the average flower number per plant being significantly higher in two of the anthropogenic populations, it was not related to the fruits set, which was significantly lower there. Moreover, our preliminary study concerning the potential pollinators of M. monophyllos showed a higher contribution of flies in natural habitats than in anthropogenic ones. Thus, we can suspect that the main factors influencing the level of female reproductive success in M. monophyllos populations are abundance of effective pollinators, as well as flower visitors, which may have resulted in a different level of pollen discounting in populations. Therefore, further studies concerning breeding system and pollination as important forces that shape demographic processes in M. monophyllos populations are necessary. Our results also indicate that suitable conservation methods in M. monophyllos should always include the preservation of potential pollinators, especially in these new, secondary habitats.

  3. Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae

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    Marianna V. P. Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. The male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 are described and illustrated for the first time. The male reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; "Y", "V" or T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like structured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28 ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.Sistema reprodutivo masculino e feminino de Stolas conspersa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae. O sistema reprodutivo do macho e fêmea de Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824 são descritos pela primeira vez. Neste estudo, foi observado que o macho não diverge do padrão proposto para a subfamília, que é edeago tubular e bem desenvolvido; tégmen em forma de "Y", "V" ou "T"; pigídio reduzido; saco interno membranoso e tubular; flagellum geralmente bem desenvolvido, em forma de agulha e espículo gastral ausente. Por outro lado, o sistema reprodutor feminino diverge do padrão usual proposto para o gênero Stolas em dois aspectos: ovário com 28 ovaríolos e ampola reduzida com velum não distinto.

  4. Role of Euphorbia thymifolia L. ethanolic root extract in treating female reproductive dysfunction in rats

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    Siva Prasad Gudipudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating stress induced female reproductive dysfunctions. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in SOD, catalase and lipid peroxidation of uterus and ovary. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant antioxidant activity which is evident by increase in the levels of SOD and catalase, decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation confirming the antioxidant effect which was found to be dose dependent. The antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  5. Effects of Male on Reproductive Behavior of Markhoz Female Goats in Breeding Season

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    H. Daghigh Kia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of male on reproductive behavior of female goats, 88 Markhoz breed goats with initial body weight of 42±2kg, 3.5 year old, and 10 male goats were used for 6 weeks. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first experiment 48 female goats were allocated in three groups, each group included eight animals with 2 replicate on both sides of male goats, respectively, at intervals of 0-5, 10-15 and 25-30 meters. In the second experiment, 24 female goats having CIDR were used in an order similar to that of first group. However, the goats were located only in one side of the males. The third group was the control group which was treated in a separate saloon in two groups, each of them having eight animals in it. Results showed a significant effect of male animal in estrus synchronization, the earlier beginning of the reproductive cycle and fertility in the early reproductive season. The first group showed better results in creation and synchronization of estrus in comparison to CIDR received animals (respectively 116.7 vs. 91.6%.

  6. Reproductive biology of squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus using age-based techniques.

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    Rhodes, K L; Taylor, B M; Wichilmel, C B; Joseph, E; Hamilton, R J; Almany, G R

    2013-04-01

    The squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus was identified as a fast-growing, early maturing and relatively short-lived aggregation-spawning epinephelid. Examinations of sectioned otoliths found females and males first maturing at 2 and 3 years, respectively, suggesting protogynous hermaphroditism; however, no transitionals were observed in samples. Age distribution for the two sexes was similar and both were represented in the oldest age class; however, significant sex-specific differences in size-at-age were identified. Both sexes fully recruit into the fishery at age 4 years and reach 90% of asymptotic length by age 3 years. Underwater visual assessments, combined with the gonado-somatic indices, revealed a 5 month reproductive season, with interannual variability observed in the month of highest density within the spawning aggregation. Catch restrictions on adults during spawning times and at reproductive sites, combined with gear-based management and enhanced enforcement, are recommended to maintain spawning stocks. Based on the available evidence, the sexual pattern for this species is unresolved.

  7. Interpopulational differences in the female reproductive cycle of the southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae

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    Romina B. Ituarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, a semiterrestrial burrowing crab endemic to the southwestern Atlantic, was compared in two contrasting coastal habitats: San Antonio (SA, marine and Mar Chiquita (MC, estuarial. Mature females were collected monthly for 1.5 years and the ovarian cycle was described using a qualitative scale. Gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes were calculated. The highest GSI and HSI occurred early in the reproductive season in SA and during the non-reproductive season in MC. The beginning and duration of the reproductive season also differed between populations: it started later and was shorter in SA. In MC, secondary vitellogenesis continued when the reproductive season had finished, and the ovaries remained fully developed throughout the non-reproductive season (winter. Therefore, females of MC were ready to lay eggs as soon as spring environmental conditions appeared. However, SA females did not attain a fully developed ovary during winter. A limited food supply would restrict the available energy to complete secondary vitellogenesis at the end of the reproductive season in SA, after the last spawning. Thus, the vitellogenic cycle should be completed in the following spring, causing a delay in the beginning of the reproductive period. In addition, the higher temperature amplitude may cause the reproductive period in SA to end early.

  8. Age-Related Deficits in Spatial Memory and Hippocampal Spines in Virgin, Female Fischer 344 Rats

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    Victoria N. Luine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of aging on memory and brain morphology were examined in aged, 21-month-old, and young, 4-month-old, Fischer 344 female rats. Spatial memory was assessed using the object placement task, and dendritic spine density was determined on pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus following Golgi impregnation. Consistent with previous studies, aged females showed poorer object placement performance than young subjects. Young subjects significantly discriminated the location of objects with a 1.5-hour intertrial delay while aged subjects did not. Spine density of basal dendrites on CA1 pyramidal cells was 16% lower in the aged subjects as compared to the young subjects. No differences in spine density were found between young and aged subjects in basal dendrites of CA1 or in either dendritic field of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Thus, decreased hippocampal CA1 dendritic spine density in aged rats may contribute to poorer spatial memory as compared to young rats. The possibility that the neuroplastic changes observed in this study may pertain only to female subjects having had a specific set of life experiences is discussed. Different factors, such as reproductive status, diet, and handling may contribute to neuroplasticity of the brain during aging; however, this view requires further examination.

  9. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

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    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  10. Reproductive biology of female bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the western Pacific Ocean.

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    Sun, C L; Yeh, S Z; Chang, Y J; Chang, H Y; Chu, S L

    2013-08-01

    The reproductive biology of female bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus was assessed by examining 888 fish (ranging from 84·9 to 174·4 cm fork length, LF ) caught by Taiwanese offshore longliners in the western Pacific Ocean from November 1997 to November 1998 and November to December 1999 and 258 gonad samples from these fish. The overall sex ratio of the catch during the sampling differed significantly from 0·5, but males were predominant in sizes >140 cm LF . Reproductive activity (assessed by histology), a gonado-somatic index, and the size-frequency distributions of whole oocytes indicated that spawning occurred throughout the year and the major spawning season appeared to be from February to September. The estimated sizes at 50% maturity (LF50 ) of females was 102·85 cm (95% c.i.: 90·79-110·21 cm) and the smallest mature female was 99·7 cm LF . They are multiple spawners and oocytes develop asynchronously. The proportion of mature (0·63) and reproductively active (0·70) females with ovaries containing postovulatory follicles indicated that they spawn almost daily. Batch fecundity for 15 females with the most advanced oocytes (>730 µm) ranged from 0·84 to 8·56 million eggs (mean ± s.d. = 3·06 ± 2·09). The relationships between batch fecundity (FB , in millions of eggs) and LF (cm) and round mass (MR , kg) were FB=9·91×10-14LF6·38 (r(2)  = 0·84) and FB=8·89×10-4MR2·05 (r(2)  = 0·80), respectively. The parameters estimated in this study are key information for stock assessments of T. obesus in the western Pacific Ocean and will contribute to the conservation and sustainable yield of this species.

  11. Hormonal, biochemical, and hematological profiles in female camels (Camelus dromedarius) affected with reproductive disorders.

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    Ali, A; Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the blood profiles in female camels affected with common reproductive disorders. Estradiol-17beta (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), thyroxin (T(4)), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, hematocrite, and total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) were determined in blood of female camels affected with endometritis (n=15), vaginal adhesions (n=15), and ovarian cysts (n=15). Normal cyclic animals were used as controls (n=15). Diagnosis of reproductive disorders was based on transrectal palpation, ultrasonographic examination, and exploration of the vagina. Increased WBC counts (P=0.03) and a tendency for neutrophelia (P=0.05) were noted in female camels with vaginal adhesions. These animals were also characterized by having higher concentration of serum P(4) (P=0.0001), T(4) (P=0.001) and total protein (P=0.007), in comparison with female camels with endometritis, ovarian cysts, or controls. Animals having ovarian cysts with thin walls and homogenous hypoechogenic contents had greater serum E(2) (P=0.001) and P(4) (P=0.0001) than those having ovarian cysts with thick walls and non-homogenous echogenic contents. Animals with endometritis, vaginal adhesions, and ovarian cysts revealed lower serum Zn concentration than that of control group (P=0.003). Other blood parameters did not differ significantly compared to controls. In conclusion, this is the first report characterizing blood constituents in female camels with various reproductive disorders. These profiles may be valuable in clarifying the etio-pathogenesis of these disorders.

  12. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters

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    Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter’s home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  13. The correlated evolution of three-dimensional reproductive structures between male and female damselflies.

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    McPeek, Mark A; Shen, Li; Farid, Hany

    2009-01-01

    For many taxa, species are defined by the morphologies of reproductive structures. In many odonates, these structures are the cerci of males (used to hold females during mating) and the thoracic plates of females where the male cerci contact the females' bodies. A previous study showed that the shapes of cerci of Enallagma males (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae) are best explained by an evolutionary model of punctuated change at the time of speciation, with a homogeneous rate of change across the entire phylogeny of the genus. In the present study, we examine the evolution of shape change in the corresponding female plates. We found that, like male cerci, the shapes of Enallagma female thoracic plates could best be explained by an evolutionary model of punctuated change at the time of speciation, with a homogeneous rate of change across the clade. Moreover, the evolutionary contrasts quantifying the rates of change in male cerci and female thoracic plates were positively related across the history of the clade, demonstrating that these male and female structures evolve in a correlated fashion. This pattern of evolution suggests that these structures are primary signals of species identity during mating.

  14. 雌性小鼠下丘脑生殖功能相关基因mRNA表达水平的增龄性变化%Profiles of reproduction-related mRNA expressions in hypothalamus of female mice with advancing age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 杨璐萌; 潘晓东; 陈晓春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of aging on the levels of reproduction-related mRNA genes including Gnrh,KISS1/KISS1r,estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα),estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in hypothalamus.Methods Proestrus and metestrus in young (3-4 months) and middle-aged (10-11 months) female mice and diestrus in senile (18-19 months) female mice were observed.And the levels of related mRNA genes in preoptic area anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results In middle-aged mice on proestrus,the level of Gnrh mRNA in POA-AH (0.896 ± 0.049) was significantly lower than that in young mice (1.228 ±0.147,P =0.049).The level of ERα mRNA in POAAH decreased in young mice on proestrus whereas increased in middle-aged mice (0.432 ± 0.063 vs 0.603 ±0.018,P =0.016).The level of ERα mRNA of POA-AH,both in middle-aged mice (0.432 ± 0.063,P =0.014) and senile mice (0.403 ±0.145,P =0.020) on diestrus,were significantly lower than that in young mice.The PR mRNA expression in middle-aged mice on proestrus (1.037 ± 0.037) was markedly lower than that in young mice(1.251 ± 0.081,P =0.031).In senile mice,the levels of Gnrh mRNA (1.520 ± 0.146,P =0.004) and ERβ mRNA (1.572 ± 0.184,P =0.011) increased in POA-AH compared with that in young mice on metestrus.Aging had no effect upon KISS1 and KISS1r mRNA levels in POA-AH.In contrast,KISS1 mRNA level of MBH in middle-aged (1.663 ±0.398,P =0.037) and senile (2.622 ± 0.454,P =0.014) mice obviously increased compared with the young mice group.Conclusion Higher levels of ERα mRNA and decreases of PR and Gnrh mRNA in POA-AH in middle-aged mice on proestrus may play an important role in declining reproductive function.%目的 探讨增龄对下丘脑生殖功能相关基因-Gnrh、KISS1/KISS1r、ERα、ERβ及PRmRNA表达水平的影响.方法 以年轻、中年和老年的雌性小鼠为对象,依据动情周期

  15. Efficacy of Morus nigra L. on reproduction in female Wistar rats.

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    de Queiroz, Graziela Tonioni; Santos, Tatianne Rosa; Macedo, Renato; Peters, Vera Maria; Leite, Magda Narciso; de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; de Oliveira Guerra, Martha

    2012-03-01

    Morus nigra L. is a plant employed as a substitute for the conventional hormonal replacement therapy. This work analyzes the estrogenic effect of M. nigra on the reproductive system and embryonic development of Wistar rats. Female rats were orally treated with M. nigra hydroalcoholic extract (MnHE) at the dose levels of 25, 50, 75, 350 and 700 mg/kg of body weight over 15 days, and continued through mating until the 14th day of gestation. Vaginal smears were performed daily and the body weight of the females was recorded at 5 days intervals. On day 15 of gestation, the females were killed and their kidneys, liver, spleen and ovaries were removed and weighed. The number of implants, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses were evaluated. Histological sections of ovaries, measurement of the height of the uterine epithelium and vaginal smears were performed to assess the estrogenic activity. The results showed that the administration of MnHE did not significantly alter the analyzed variables. Therefore, considering the experimental model used in this study, the data obtained indicate that M. nigra did not exhibit any estrogenic activity nor did exert a toxic effect on the female reproductive system and on the embryonic development of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

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    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  17. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  18. Impact of health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria University students.

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    Mounir, Gehan M; Mahdy, Nehad H; Fatohy, Ibtsam M

    2003-01-01

    In Egypt, adolescents don't have enough and/or correct knowledge regarding reproductive health. Health education interventions are widely seen as the most appropriate strategy for promoting young people's sexual health. The aim of the present work was to assess the impact of a short-term health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria university students. Quasi-experimental study (pre-post testing control group) was carried out among 682 female university students living in the university hostels, 354 students represented the intervention group (Ezbet-Saad hostel) who received the program and 328 students constituted the control group (El-Shatby hostel). The study revealed that no one had satisfactory knowledge level while 61.7 % and 38.3% respectively had fair and poor levels. The low knowledge level was more evident regarding the questions about: the meaning of the term 'reproductive health' (only 5.1% gave correct complete answer), the benefits of premarital examination (only 37.9% reported complete answer), the investigations done for the pregnant woman (only 28.3% gave complete answer) the benefits of breast feeding (only 8.2% reported complete answer), methods of family planning (only 36.4% gave complete answer), side effects of female genital mutilation (only 4% reported complete answer), sexually transmitted diseases and methods of protection (only 11.9% and 3.9% reported complete answer). It was evident that 32.6% had an overall positive attitude level, 46.3% were in the neutral level and 21.1% had a negative level. It was also found that students of highly or moderately educated mothers and of high social class reported significantly higher knowledge score about premarital examination, age of marriage and breast-feeding than those of non-educated mothers and of low social class. After the intervention program there was a significant improvement in the majority of knowledge questions from pre to post test

  19. An Intervention Study of Reproductive Tract Infections among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-min JIANG; Yu-yan LI; Jun-qing WU; Wen-ying LI; Zeng-yu WEN; Er-sheng GAO; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Ben-cheng ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) intervention on RTIs-related knowledge, attitudes, practices and prevalence of married women at reproductive age.Methods Four sub-districts from Xuhui district, Shanghai were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and residence committees were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control one. RTIs intervention was implemented in intervention group, while routine family planning program was conducted in control group.Results Compared with control group, intervention group have improved the following targets: the increment of RTI knowledge score was higher than that in control group (OR=9.22, 95%CI: 7.01-12.14); the increment score of individual health behaviors (6.31)was higher than that in control group (4.50) (OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.21-2.10); the increase of condom use frequency in intervention group was higher than that in control group (4.12% vs 0.69%) (OR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.31 -2.57); the decreased RTIs rate was higher than that in control group (7.45% vs 0.96%) (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.95).Conclusion It is an effective way to conduct community-based intervention to increase women's RTIs knowledge, improve RTIs-related attitudes, promote good individual health behaviors, so as to decrease RTIs prevalence.

  20. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Salima; Alam, Nazmul; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practices among female sex workers (FSWs) including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the aim of developing recommendations for action. Methods A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations. Results About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%), ongoing pregnancy (9.0%), childbirth (8.3%) or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%). Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113), the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%), followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31%) and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%). About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61), 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants. Conclusion There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services. PMID:28369093

  1. Longitudinal study of reproductive performance of female cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Polejaeva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether or not reproductive performance in cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is significantly different from that of their genetic donors. To address this question, we directed two longitudinal studies using different embryo production procedures: (1 superovulation followed by artificial insemination (AI and embryo collection and (2 ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro fertilization (OPU-IVF. Collectively, these two studies represent the largest data set available for any species on the reproductive performance of female clones and their genetic donors as measured by their embryo production outcomes in commercial embryo production program. The large-scale study described herein was conducted over a six-year period of time and provides a unique comparison of 96 clones to the 40 corresponding genetic donors. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study on the reproductive performance of cattle clones using OPU-IVF. With nearly 2,000 reproductive procedures performed and more than 9,200 transferable embryos produced, our observations show that the reproductive performance of cattle produced by SCNT is not different compared to their genetic donors for the production of transferable embryos after either AI followed by embryo collection (P = 0.77 or OPU-IVF (P = 0.97. These data are in agreement with previous reports showing that the reproductive capabilities of cloned cattle are equal to that of conventionally produced cattle. In conclusion, results of this longitudinal study once again demonstrate that cloning technology, in combination with superovulation, AI and embryo collection or OPU-IVF, provides a valuable tool for faster dissemination of superior maternal genetics.

  2. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little

  4. Deletion of Dicer in Somatic Cells of the Female Reproductive Tract Causes Sterility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Franco, Heather L.; Ma, Lang; Chen, Ruihong; Han, Derek Y.; Zhu, Huifeng; Agno, Julio E.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Dicer is an evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease III that is necessary for microRNA (miRNA) processing and the synthesis of small interfering RNAs from long double-stranded RNA. Although it has been shown that Dicer plays important roles in the mammalian germline and early embryogenesis, the functions of Dicer-dependent pathways in the somatic cells of the female reproductive tract are unknown. Using a transgenic line in which Cre recombinase is driven by the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter, we conditionally inactivated Dicer1 in the mesenchyme of the developing Müllerian ducts and postnatally in ovarian granulosa cells and mesenchyme-derived cells of the oviducts and uterus. Deletion of Dicer in these cell types results in female sterility and multiple reproductive defects including decreased ovulation rates, compromised oocyte and embryo integrity, prominent bilateral paratubal (oviductal) cysts, and shorter uterine horns. The paratubal cysts act as a reservoir for spermatozoa and oocytes and prevent embryos from transiting the oviductal isthmus and passing the uterotubal junction to enter the uterus for implantation. Deep sequencing of small RNAs in oviduct revealed down-regulation of specific miRNAs in Dicer conditional knockout females compared with wild type. The majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to regulate genes important for Müllerian duct differentiation and mesenchyme-derived structures, and several of these putative target genes were significantly up-regulated upon conditional deletion of Dicer1. Thus, our findings reveal diverse and critical roles for Dicer and its miRNA products in the development and function of the female reproductive tract. PMID:18687735

  5. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bazarganipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran.The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students. A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms.The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims.The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness.

  6. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  7. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra.

  8. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Chalmey, Clementine; Jensen, Benjamin; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Koch, Holger Martin; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter; Jégou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2016-03-01

    Studies report that fetal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen by maternal consumption can interfere with male reproductive development. Moreover, recent biomonitoring data report widespread presence of paracetamol in German and Danish populations, suggesting exposure via secondary (nonpharmaceutical) sources, such as metabolic conversion from the ubiquitous industrial compound aniline. In this study, we investigated the extent to which paracetamol and aniline can interfere with female reproductive development. Intrauterine exposure to paracetamol by gavage of pregnant dams resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels commonly observed in pregnant women, as well as its precursor aniline, may block primordial germ cell proliferation, ultimately leading to reduced follicle reserves and compromised reproductive capacity later in life.

  9. Genetic Syndromes and Genes Involved in the Development of the Female Reproductive Tract: A Possible Role for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Mt; Owen, Cm; Segars, Jh

    2013-01-01

    Müllerian and vaginal anomalies are congenital malformations of the female reproductive tract resulting from alterations in the normal developmental pathway of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The most common of the Müllerian anomalies affect the uterus and may adversely impact reproductive outcomes highlighting the importance of gaining understanding of the genetic mechanisms that govern normal and abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. Modern molecular genetics with study of knock out animal models as well as several genetic syndromes featuring abnormalities of the female reproductive tract have identified candidate genes significant to this developmental pathway. Further emphasizing the importance of understanding female reproductive tract development, recent evidence has demonstrated expression of embryologically significant genes in the endometrium of adult mice and humans. This recent work suggests that these genes not only play a role in the proper structural development of the female reproductive tract but also may persist in adults to regulate proper function of the endometrium of the uterus. As endometrial function is critical for successful implantation and pregnancy maintenance, these recent data suggest a target for gene therapy. Future research will be needed to determine if gene therapy may improve reproductive outcomes for patients with demonstrated deficient endometrial expression related to abnormal gene expression.

  10. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli eStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  11. An androgenic agricultural contaminant impairs female reproductive behaviour in a freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Saaristo

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki. The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes.

  12. Polyandry increases reproductive performance but does not decrease survival in female Brontispa longissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, K; Sugeno, W; Mochizuki, A; Nakamura, S

    2017-04-01

    The costs and benefits of polyandry are still not well understood. We studied the effects of multiple mating on the reproductive performance of female Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), one of the most serious pests of the coconut palm, by using three experimental treatments: (1) singly-mated females (single treatment); (2) females that mated 10 times with the same male (repetition treatment); and (3) females that mated once with each of 10 different males (polyandry treatment). Both multiple mating treatments resulted in significantly greater total egg production and the proportion of eggs that successfully hatched (hatching success) than with the single mating treatment. Furthermore, the polyandry treatment resulted in greater total egg production and hatching success than with the repetition treatment. Thus, mate diversity may affect the direct and indirect benefits of multiple mating. Female longevity, the length of the preoviposition period, the length of the period from emergence to termination of oviposition, and the length of the ovipositing period did not differ among treatments. The pronounced fecundity and fertility benefits that females gain from multiple mating, coupled with a lack of longevity costs, apparently explain the extreme polyandry in B. longissima.

  13. Walter Benjamin in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Aura in Education--A Rereading of "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…

  14. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  15. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-04-29

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period.

  16. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  17. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  18. Role of male-female interaction in regulating reproduction in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden-Brown, S W; Martin, G B; Restall, B J

    1999-01-01

    The induction of synchronous ovulatory activity in anovulatory sheep and goats after the introduction of males, the 'male effect', has probably been used to advantage since these species were domesticated and the underlying physiological and behavioural mechanisms have been progressively elucidated over the past 50 years. Less well understood is the analogous effect of oestrous females on males. This review examines the nature and importance of these male-female interactions in sheep and goats, and describes the most important internal and external factors influencing the reproductive outcomes of such interactions. It is proposed that the male and female effects are both components of a self-reinforcing cycle of stimulation that, under ideal conditions, culminates in the synchronous very rapid onset (within days) of fertile reproductive activity. However, precisely because of the speed of this response, it is suggested that mechanisms have evolved to limit its efficacy, and thus prevent conception at inappropriate times. The complexity of these factors and the interactions between them are highlighted, and a broad conceptual framework for understanding them is proposed based upon an appreciation of variation in both the responsiveness of the target animal and the quality of the signal from the signalling animal.

  19. Chromatin dynamics during cellular differentiation in the female reproductive lineage of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroux, Célia; Autran, Daphné

    2015-07-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants offers a number of remarkable aspects to developmental biologists. First, the spore mother cells - precursors of the plant reproductive lineage - are specified late in development, as opposed to precocious germline isolation during embryogenesis in most animals. Second, unlike in most animals where meiosis directly produces gametes, plant meiosis entails the differentiation of a multicellular, haploid gametophyte, within which gametic as well as non-gametic accessory cells are formed. These observations raise the question of the factors inducing and modus operandi of cell fate transitions that originate in floral tissues and gametophytes, respectively. Cell fate transitions in the reproductive lineage imply cellular reprogramming operating at the physiological, cytological and transcriptome level, but also at the chromatin level. A number of observations point to large-scale chromatin reorganization events associated with cellular differentiation of the female spore mother cells and of the female gametes. These include a reorganization of the heterochromatin compartment, the genome-wide alteration of the histone modification landscape, and the remodeling of nucleosome composition. The dynamic expression of DNA methyltransferases and actors of small RNA pathways also suggest additional, global epigenetic alterations that remain to be characterized. Are these events a cause or a consequence of cellular differentiation, and how do they contribute to cell fate transition? Does chromatin dynamics induce competence for immediate cellular functions (meiosis, fertilization), or does it also contribute long-term effects in cellular identity and developmental competence of the reproductive lineage? This review attempts to review these fascinating questions. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coverage and factors associated with tetanus toxoid vaccination among married women of reproductive age: a cross sectional study in Peshawar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Mohammad; Khan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Islam; Abbas, Syed Hussain; Adil, Muhammad; Khan, Ayasha; Naz, Syeda Maria; Khan, Muhammad Usman

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, with widely prevalent maternal and neonatal tetanus. The purpose of this study was to estimate the coverage and determine the factors associated with tetanus toxoid vaccination status among females of reproductive age in Peshawar. A Cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan, from 9 June to 19 June 2010. A total of 304 females of reproductive age (17 45) years were selected from both urban and rural areas of Peshawar through random sampling. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to females. Questions about demographics, income, education of husband, occupation, accessibility to health centres and frequency of visits from health workers was inquired. Knowledge and views on immunization were also asked. Overall 55.6% were vaccinated. Urban population was 54.3% while rural population was 45.7%. Reasons for not vaccinating were: No awareness (38.4%), being busy (18.1%), centre too far (18.1%), misconceptions (10.86%), and fear of reactions (4.3%). Most of the females thought immunization was effective (89.5%). Husband education, females' knowledge and views on immunization, income, distance, frequency of health visits were the main factors associated with immunization status. Majority of females are not vaccinated. Effective media campaigns on maternal tetanus vaccination should be carried. Lady health workers should be mobilised effectively to increase the vaccination coverage.

  1. Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi; Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-04-18

    The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution.

  2. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    logistic regression. Results: The probability of death within 1 week adjusted for stroke severity, stroke type and risk factors was highly age-dependent in both men and women. Up to the age of 50 years, the 1-week female/male mortality rates paralleled being slightly (15%) but insignificantly better......Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...

  3. Long-term label retaining cells localize to distinct regions within the female reproductive epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Amanda L; Pru, James K

    2013-09-01

    The uterus is an extremely plastic organ that undergoes cyclical remodeling including endometrial regeneration during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial remodeling and regeneration also occur during pregnancy and following parturition, particularly in hemochorial implanting species. The mechanisms of endometrial regeneration are not well understood. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells are proposed to contribute to endometrial regeneration in both humans and mice. BrdU label retention has been used to identify potential stem/progenitor cells in mouse endometrium. However, methods are not available to isolate BrdU label-retaining cells (LRC) for functional analyses. Therefore, we employed a transgenic mouse model to identify H2B-GFP LRCs throughout the female reproductive tract with particular interest on the endometrium. We hypothesized that the female reproductive tract contains a population of long-term LRCs that persist even following pregnancy and endometrial regeneration. Endometrial cells were labeled (pulsed) either transplacentally/translactationally or peripubertally. When mice were pulsed transplacentally/translactationally, the label was not retained in the uterus. However, LRCs were concentrated to the distal oviduct and endocervical transition zone (TZ) following natural (i.e., pregnancy/parturition induced) and mechanically induced endometrial regeneration. LRCs in the distal oviduct and endocervical TZ expressed stem cell markers and did not express ERα or PGR, implying the undifferentiated phenotype of these cells. Oviduct and endocervical TZ LRCs did not proliferate during endometrial re-epithelialization, suggesting that they do not contribute to the endometrium in a stem/progenitor cell capacity. In contrast, when mice were pulsed peripubertally long-term LRCs were identified in the endometrial glandular compartment in mice as far out as 9 months post-pulse. These findings suggest that epithelial tissue of the female reproductive tract contains 3

  4. Age, Growth and Reproduction of Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Maltese Waters, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GATT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Age, growth and reproduction of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 collected from the Central Mediterranean in the period 2004-2010 by the traditional Maltese fish aggregating devices (FAD and surface longline fisheries were studied. The a and b parameters of the length-weight relationship for fish 11-142 cm fork length (FL (n = 4042 were determined as a = 0.018 and 0.022 with b = 2.85 and 2.79, for males and females respectively. The counting of annual increments from dorsal spines of >65 cm FL dolphinfish at X25 magnification (n = 47 permitting an age reading resolution in years  , and the counting of daily increments from sagittal otoliths of <65 cm FL dolphinfish at X400 magnification (n = 583 permitting an age reading resolution in days, were estimated; the von Bertalanffy growth model applied to these fish gave the following parameters: L∞ = 107.8 cm FL and 120.2 cm FL, and K = 1.9 yr-1 and 1.56 yr-1, for males and females respectively. The maximum age observed was 2 years. Size at 50% maturity for fish 10-131 cm FL (n = 1376 was 58.9 cm FL and 62.5 cm FL for males and females, respectively. The sex ratio for the fish sampled from the FAD fishery (10.5-131 cm FL was 1:1.54 (M:F and for dolphinfish sampled from the surface longline fishery (91-130 cm FL was 1:0.76 (M:F.  Back-calculated hatch dates from age-0 dolphinfish (n = 518 suggested that spawning occurs from June to September with the highest levels in June. This study is the first to use dorsal spines to determine the age of adult dolphinfish.

  5. Genetic parameter estimates and principal component analysis of breeding values of reproduction and growth traits in female Canchim cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, M E; Savegnago, R P; Grossi, D A; Venturini, G C; Queiroz, S A; Silva, L O C; Júnior, R A A Torres; Munari, D P; Alencar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic data from female Canchim beef cattle were used to obtain estimates of genetic parameters for reproduction and growth traits using a linear animal mixed model. In addition, relationships among animal estimated breeding values (EBVs) for these traits were explored using principal component analysis. The traits studied in female Canchim cattle were age at first calving (AFC), age at second calving (ASC), calving interval (CI), and bodyweight at 420 days of age (BW420). The heritability estimates for AFC, ASC, CI and BW420 were 0.03±0.01, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.02, and 0.24±0.02, respectively. The genetic correlations for AFC with ASC, AFC with CI, AFC with BW420, ASC with CI, ASC with BW420, and CI with BW420 were 0.87±0.07, 0.23±0.02, -0.15±0.01, 0.67±0.13, -0.07±0.13, and 0.02±0.14, respectively. Standardised EBVs for AFC, ASC and CI exhibited a high association with the first principal component, whereas the standardised EBV for BW420 was closely associated with the second principal component. The heritability estimates for AFC, ASC and CI suggest that these traits would respond slowly to selection. However, selection response could be enhanced by constructing selection indices based on the principal components.

  6. MicroRNA in the ovary and female reproductive tract1

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, M.Z.; Christenson, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation plays a vital role in male and female germ cell function, but our understanding of this regulatory process in somatic cells and its impact on reproductive tissue development and function is not understood. In mammalian cells, microRNA (miRNA) are key post-transcriptional regulators and function by modulating translation or degradation of their target mRNA. Mature miRNA are synthesized through a multi-step process that concludes with the cleavage of stem-lo...

  7. Morphology and Histology of the Female Reproductive System of Abedus ovatus Stal (Belostomatidae: Hemiptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha TG

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Abedus ovatus Stal, the female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries leading to oviduct and opens out by genital aperture. Each ovary is composed of five telotrophic ovarioles, with four different regions, terminal filament, germarium, vitellarium and pedicel. Germarium and vitellarium are the germ tubes in which the development of oocyte occurs. In the germarium, the differentiation of trophocytes into young oocytes was observed in three zones, ZI, ZII and ZIII. Further development of oocytes in the vitellarium could be divided into seven stages, STI STVII. The developed eggs are lodged in the pedicel

  8. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  9. Mortalidade feminina em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1991-1995: causas básicas de óbito e mortalidade materna Female mortality in reproductive age in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1991-1995: underlying causes of death and maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Haddad

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a mortalidade materna no período reprodutivo (15 a 49 anos no Estado de São Paulo, de 1991 a 1995, segundo grupos etários e causas básicas de óbito. MÉTODOS: Foi fornecida pela Fundação Seade a listagem dos óbitos, com as causas básicas codificadas pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 9ª Revisão, utilizando-se o programa "Automated Classification of Medical Entities", as estimativas da população feminina segundo grupos etários e os números de nascidos vivos. Foram calculados coeficientes específicos por 100.000 mulheres, mortalidade materna por 100.000 nascidos vivos e percentagens de óbitos por subgrupos. Foram calculadas medianas dos coeficientes do quinquênio, para comparação das principais causas agrupadas nos capítulos. RESULTADOS: De 1991 a 1995 houve aumento da mortalidade por deficiência da imunidade celular a partir de 25 anos, parecendo traduzir um paralelismo com a curva ascendente da epidemia de AIDS em mulheres. Lesões e envenenamentos predominam nas mais jovens, porém a partir de 35 anos as doenças do aparelho circulatório e neoplasmas passaram a ser preponderantes. Doenças infecciosas e parasitárias ocupam a sétima ou oitava posição, em todas as idades. Acidentes e homicídios e suicídios foram elevados. A mortalidade materna variou de 43,7 a 49,6 por 100.000 nascidos vivos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve grande exposição das mulheres em idade fértil a fatores associados a causas externas, doenças crônicas e AIDS. A maioria das causas apontadas de mortalidade materna podem ser prevenidas e, portanto, revelam insuficiência de assistência pré-natal adequada e extensiva, bem como deficiências no atendimento ao parto e puerpério.OBJECTIVE: To describe female mortality in the reproductive age (15 to 49 years old in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1995, according to the age and underlying causes of death. METHODS: Underlying causes of death, according to the

  10. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

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    Marianne GABIROT, Pilar LÓPEZ, José MARTÍN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations, which may or may not be reproductively isolated. We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males’ chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P. hispanica from central Spain. We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population, versus areas marked by males of the other population. Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population. In contrast, females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males’ pheromones that did not differ between populations. Finally, to test for strong premating reproductive isolation, we staged intersexual encounters between males and females. The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations. We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment. However, females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males. Thus, male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations [Current Zoology 59 (2: 210 –220, 2013].

  11. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne GABIROT; Pilar L(O)PEZ; José MART(I)N

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations,which may or may not be reproductively isolated.We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males' chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P.hispanica from central Spain.We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population,versus areas marked by males of the other population.Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population.In contrast,females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males' pheromones that did not differ between populations.Finally,to test for strong premating reproductive isolation,we staged intersexual encounters between males and females.The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations.We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment.However,females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males.Thus,male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations.

  12. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of supplementation frequency on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Brahman-crossbred females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Araujo, D B; Lamb, G C; Ealy, A D

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare performance and metabolic responses of beef females consuming low-quality forages and offered an energy supplement based on fibrous byproducts daily (S7) or 3 times per week (S3) at similar weekly rates. In Exp. 1, BW gain, reproductive performance, mRNA expression of hepatic and skeletal muscle genes associated with nutritional metabolism and growth, and concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma glucose, insulin, and IGF-I were assessed in 56 Brahman x Angus heifers supplemented at a daily rate of 1.0% of BW. Mean BW gain was greater (P = 0.03) for S7 compared with S3 heifers. Treatment x sampling day interactions were detected (P Brahman x British mature cows received S3 or S7 for a 3-wk period at a daily rate of 0.5% of BW. Concentrations of BUN were greater for S7 compared with S3 cows (P Brahman-crossbred females, resulting in improved growth and reproductive performance of developing heifers.

  14. Seminal Fluid-Mediated Inflammation in Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio O. Adefuye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT, inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix.

  15. Effects of endocrine disruptors in the development of the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Hohl, Alexandre; Bachega, Tânia A S S

    2014-03-01

    Environmental agencies have identified a growing number of environmental contaminants that have endocrine disrupting activity, and these can become a major public health problem. It is suggested that endocrine disruptors could account for the higher-than-expected increase in the prevalence of some non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, thyroid diseases, and some cancers. Several endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), such as pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, can interact with the female reproductive system and lead to endocrine disruption. Initially, it was assumed that EDCs exert their effects by binding to hormone receptors and transcription factors, but it is currently known that they may also alter the expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis or catabolism of steroids. Biomonitoring studies have identified these compounds in adults, children, pregnant women, and fetuses. Among the diseases of the female reproductive tract associated with EDCs exposure are the following: precocious puberty, polycystic ovary syndrome, and premature ovarian failure. The different populations of the world are exposed to a great number of chemicals through different routes of infection; despite the various available studies, there is still much doubt regarding the additive effect of a mixture of EDCs with similar mechanisms of action.

  16. Brain Transcriptional Profiles of Male Alternative Reproductive Tactics and Females in Bluegill Sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Charlyn G.; MacManes, Matthew D.; Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are one of the classic systems for studying male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in teleost fishes. In this species, there are two distinct life histories: parental and cuckolder, encompassing three reproductive tactics, parental, satellite, and sneaker. The parental life history is fixed, whereas individuals who enter the cuckolder life history transition from sneaker to satellite tactic as they grow. For this study, we used RNAseq to characterize the brain transcriptome of the three male tactics and females during spawning to identify gene ontology (GO) categories and potential candidate genes associated with each tactic. We found that sneaker males had higher levels of gene expression differentiation compared to the other two male tactics. Sneaker males also had higher expression in ionotropic glutamate receptor genes, specifically AMPA receptors, compared to other males, which may be important for increased spatial working memory while attempting to cuckold parental males at their nests. Larger differences in gene expression also occurred among male tactics than between males and females. We found significant expression differences in several candidate genes that were previously identified in other species with ARTs and suggest a previously undescribed role for cAMP-responsive element modulator (crem) in influencing parental male behaviors during spawning. PMID:27907106

  17. Effects of diet-induced obesity on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Clark, Sherrie G; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-02-01

    This study characterizes the effect of an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs. Cycling sows were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-fructose diet (obese, n = 4) or a control diet (control, n = 5) for 13 mo. During the final 4 mo, ovarian ultrasonography was done, blood was collected, and weights and measures were taken. Pigs then underwent ovarian stimulation. Cycle length and androstenedione, total testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, fructosamine, lipid, and glucose levels were measured. In addition, adipose tissue aromatase gene expression was assessed. As compared with control pigs, obese pigs were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; had elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels, and demonstrated abdominal adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue of obese pigs, as compared with control pigs, showed increased aromatase gene expression. Obese pigs had longer estrous cycles, higher serum androstenedione, and higher luteal phase serum luteinizing hormone, compared with control pigs. During the luteal phase, obese pigs had more medium, ovulatory, and cystic ovarian follicles, whereas control pigs had more small ovarian follicles. When fed an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet, female Ossabaw minipigs develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and abnormal reproductive function. This animal model may be applicable to studies of the effects of obesity on fertility in women.

  18. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  19. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  20. No evidence for external genital morphology affecting cryptic female choice and reproductive isolation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur-Viens, Hélène; Polak, Michal; Moehring, Amanda J

    2015-07-01

    Genitalia are one of the most rapidly diverging morphological features in animals. The evolution of genital morphology is proposed to be driven by sexual selection via cryptic female choice, whereby a female selectively uptakes and uses a particular male's sperm on the basis of male genital morphology. The resulting shifts in genital morphology within a species can lead to divergence in genitalia between species, and consequently to reproductive isolation and speciation. Although this conceptual framework is supported by correlative data, there is little direct empirical evidence. Here, we used a microdissection laser to alter the morphology of the external male genitalia in Drosophila, a widely used genetic model for both genital shape and cryptic female choice. We evaluate the effect of precision alterations to lobe morphology on both interspecific and intraspecific mating, and demonstrate experimentally that the male genital lobes do not affect copulation duration or cryptic female choice, contrary to long-standing assumptions regarding the role of the lobes in this model system. Rather, we demonstrate that the lobes are essential for copulation to occur. Moreover, slight alterations to the lobes significantly reduced copulatory success only in competitive environments, identifying precopulatory sexual selection as a potential contributing force behind genital diversification.

  1. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  2. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badzinski, Shannon S., E-mail: sbadzinski@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada); Flint, Paul L., E-mail: pflint@usgs.go [U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gorman, Kristen B., E-mail: kgorman@alumni.sfu.c [Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Petrie, Scott A., E-mail: spetrie@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 mug g{sup -1} dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 mug g{sup -1} dw), and selenium (Se: >10 mug g{sup -1} dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. - Some female greater scaup initiate nesting with elevated hepatic concentrations of some trace elements, but adverse effects on condition and productivity are unlikely.

  3. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  4. Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Monika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan. Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages and Chi square test. Results: The prevalence of self reported morbidity related to reproductive tracts was 31.8% and reproductive tract infections (RTIs was 22.3%. Only 12.5% of symptomatic women consulted health personnel for their illness before this survey. Prevalence of RTIs was significantly associated with age, married life, gravida status, invasive contraceptives, gynaecological surgical interventions and type of family. Conclusion: There was a moderately high prevalence of self reported morbidity of reproductive tract, whereas, treatment seeking behavior was low. Many factors were found to be associated with RTIs.

  5. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  6. Artificial selection on male longevity influences age-dependent reproductive effort in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Spyrou, Nicolle; Brooks, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Although the trade-off between reproductive effort and longevity is central to both sexual selection and evolutionary theories of aging, there has been little synthesis between these fields. Here, we selected directly on adult longevity of male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus and measured the correlated responses of age-dependent male reproductive effort, female lifetime fecundity, and several other life-history traits. Male longevity responded significantly to five generations of divergent selection. Males from downward-selected lines commenced calling sooner and reached their peak calling effort at a younger age. They called more per night and, despite living less than half as long, called more overall than males selected for increased longevity. Females from the downward-selected lines lived significantly shorter lives than females from the upward-selected lines but still produced the same number of offspring. Nymph survival, development time, and body size and weight at eclosion did not show significant correlated response to selection on male longevity, despite evidence for substantial genetic variation in each of these traits. Collectively, our findings directly support the antagonistic pleiotropy model of aging and suggest an important role for sexual selection in the aging process.

  7. The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Web has become a major art medium. Investigates ways artists and appreciators of art are using the Web. Discusses the reproduction of art: from hand to mechanical to digital reproduction, focusing on the work of Walter Benjamin. Lists other sites where one can find art on the Web. (SR)

  8. Male takeovers are reproductively costly to females in hamadryas baboons: a test of the sexual coercion hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Polo

    Full Text Available During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female's current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females' inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male's aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females' immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male's aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female's mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons.

  9. Male takeovers are reproductively costly to females in hamadryas baboons: a test of the sexual coercion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female's current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females' inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male's aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females' immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male's aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female's mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons.

  10. Use of reproductive and sexual health services among female family planning clinic clients exposed to partner violence and reproductive coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Traci; McCauley, Heather L; Jones, Kelley; Borrero, Sonya; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Tancredi, Daniel; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    To examine the associations of recent intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) with frequency of use of reproductive and sexual health services, a cross-sectional survey was administered to 16-29 year old women seeking care in five family planning clinics (n = 1,262). We evaluated associations of recent experiences of IPV, RC, or both IPV and RC with recent care seeking for pregnancy testing, emergency contraception, and sexually transmitted infection testing using multinomial logistic regression. Sixteen percent of respondents reported IPV and 13.5 % reported RC in the past 3 months. Four percent of all respondents reported both IPV and RC. Recent RC without IPV was associated with increased odds of seeking one (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.3-2.9) or multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.5), multiple STI tests (AOR = 2.5, 95 % CI 1.5-4.1), or using emergency contraception once (AOR = 2.6, 95 % CI 1.2-5.8) or multiple times (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.7-2.7). Recent IPV without RC was associated with increased odds of seeking one (AOR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.7) or multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.2) and using emergency contraception once (AOR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3-2.0). The combined effect of recent IPV and RC increased the odds of seeking multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 3.6, 95 % CI 3.3-3.8), using emergency contraception multiple times (AOR = 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-4.1) and seeking STI testing once (AOR = 2.5, 95 % CI 1.6-3.9) or multiple times (AOR = 2.9, 95 % CI 1.02-8.5). Frequent requests for pregnancy and STI testing and emergency contraception among young females seeking care may be an indicator of greater risk for recent RC, alone and in combination with IPV.

  11. Innate and adaptive immune responses in male and female reproductive tracts in homeostasis and following HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-01-01

    The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24976268

  12. Female reproductive factors and risk of seizure or epilepsy: data from the Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworetzky, Barbara A; Townsend, Mary K; Pennell, Page B; Kang, Jae H

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive factors are associated with seizures in women with epilepsy. We prospectively examined the association between reproductive factors and the risk of adult-onset isolated seizure, epilepsy, or any unprovoked seizure (defined as single unprovoked seizure or epilepsy) among 114,847 Nurses' Health Study II participants followed from 1989 to 2005. Validated seizure questionnaires and medical records were used to confirm incident cases of isolated seizure (n = 95) or epilepsy (n = 151). Overall, there were no significant associations between any reproductive factor and risk of any unprovoked seizure (n = 196). However, menstrual irregularity at ages 18-22 years was specifically associated with an increased risk of epilepsy [relative risk (RR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.51]. Menstrual irregularity during follow-up (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.16-4.20) and early age at menarche (Oral contraceptive use and parity were not associated with isolated seizure or epilepsy. Therefore, menstrual factors were associated with risk of seizure and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of pituitary cells in wild and captive Salminus hilarii (Characiformes: Characidae) females during the annual reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.

  14. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Arsenic during the Second Half of Gestation on Reproductive End Points and Metabolic Parameters in Female CD-1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karina F.; Ungewitter, Erica K.; Crespo-Mejias, Yasmin; Liu, Chang; Nicol, Barbara; Kissling, Grace E.; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to high levels of arsenic in utero have increased susceptibility to tumors such as hepatic and pulmonary carcinomas when they reach adulthood. However, the effects of in utero arsenic exposure on general physiological functions such as reproduction and metabolism remain unclear. Objectives We evaluated the effects of in utero exposure to inorganic arsenic at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard (10 ppb) and at tumor-inducing levels (42.5 ppm) on reproductive end points and metabolic parameters when the exposed females reached adulthood. Methods Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to sodium arsenite [none (control), 10 ppb, or 42.5 ppm] in drinking water from gestational day 10 to birth, the window of organ formation. At birth, exposed offspring were fostered to unexposed dams. We examined reproductive end points (age at vaginal opening, reproductive hormone levels, estrous cyclicity, and fertility) and metabolic parameters (body weight changes, hormone levels, body fat content, and glucose tolerance) in the exposed females when they reached adulthood. Results Arsenic-exposed females (10 ppb and 42.5 ppm) exhibited early onset of vaginal opening. Fertility was not affected when females were exposed to the 10-ppb dose. However, the number of litters per female was decreased in females exposed to 42.5 ppm of arsenic in utero. In both 10-ppb and 42.5-ppm groups, arsenic-exposed females had significantly greater body weight gain, body fat content, and glucose intolerance. Conclusion Our findings revealed unexpected effects of in utero exposure to arsenic: exposure to both a human-relevant low dose and a tumor-inducing level led to early onset of vaginal opening and to obesity in female CD-1 mice. Citation Rodriguez KF, Ungewitter EK, Crespo-Mejias Y, Liu C, Nicol B, Kissling GE, Yao HH. 2016. Effects of in utero exposure to arsenic during the second half of gestation on reproductive end points and metabolic

  15. Impact of the pathogenetic type of postmenopause on the occurrence of tumors of the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included patients observed and treated in Russian scientific centre of roentgenradiology Ministry of Health Russian Federation in the period from 1999 to 2010 (n = 405: including 111 postmenopausal women who are without anamnestic data on the presence of cancer at any site, and the group of patients with gynecological cancer in postmenopause in including 60 patients with endometrial cancer, 67 patients with malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, 87 observations of cervical cancer and 80 patients with vulva cancer. The average age of the patients was 58.6 ± 0.4 years. The study of bone mineral density, body mass index and the level of estrogen receptor localization in different cancers of the reproductive system. Formed by 4 different types of menopause that best reflects a combination of hormone and hormone receptor status. This separation makes it possible to plan more differentiated the hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause. Along with this, there is reasonable prospects for prevention and early diagnosis of hormone-dependent tumors of the female reproductive system.

  16. Increasing doses of diminazene aceturate:adverse reproductive effects in femaleWistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OguejioforCF; OchioguIS; UmeoduaguCJ

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of comparatively high doses of diminazene aceturate on the reproductive performance of female rats in the early stage of pregnancy.Methods: After oestrus synchronisation and successful mating,20pregnant female rats were randomly divided into four groups (A-D). Group A rats served as the control and were given single intraperitoneal injection of0.5mL sterile water (vehicle only) while groupsB, CandD rats were given single intraperitoneal doses of7, 14and 21mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate respectively, on day 7 of pregnancy. The gestation length, litter size and weight at birth, and areas of foetal resorption in the uterus were determined post partum. The post-implantation survival index (%) and the gestation index (group %) were also evaluated for rats in all the groups.Results: There was a graded increase in the number of observed resorbed foetuses as the dose of diminazene aceturate was increased, although only groupsC(14 mg/kg) and D (21 mg/kg) revealed a significant decrease(P<0.01, ANOVA) in the post implantation survival index of rat embryos. There was also a significant decrease(P<0.05) in the litter weights of rats in groups C and D.Conclusions:Although the pregnant rats showed no overt signs of systemic toxicity even at the highest dose of 21mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate in this study, it was concluded that the use of high doses of diminazene aceturate in an effort to combat resistant trypanosomes could have adverse reproductive effects on female animals in the early period of pregnancy.

  17. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. on the ovarian histomorphology and the female reproductive hormones in mice

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    Ali Louei Monfared

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower is a member of the asteraceae family which had been classified as a fertility regulator in the traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate its possible effects on the ovarian histomorphology and the levels of female reproductive hormones in the mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult female Balb/C mice were selected and randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups (n= 15. The control group received only distilled water, while experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally C. tinctorius extract at doses of  0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 mg/kg/day for 49 consecutive days. In the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and the sera were analyzed for the levels of FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone. Ovarian tissue samples were also taken and histomorphological changes of the ovaries were examined using optical microscope. The quantitative results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: The present findings showed that treatment with different concentrations of C. tinctorius extract reduced the number of ovarian follicles but number of atretic follicles showed an increase. The number and size of the corpora lutea were not affected by extract administration. In addition, in the treated mice with C. tinctorius extract, the thickness of the tunica albuginea was increased but the relative and absolute weights of the ovaries decreased significantly. Furthermore, the blood levels of the FSH and estrogen were decreased in the three experimental groups compared with those of the control animals. Conclusion: The present findings indicated that treatment with C. tinctorius extract has detrimental effects on the ovarian histomorphology and female reproductive hormones therefore popular consumption of this plant should be reconsidered.

  18. Iloperidone-induced Galactorrhea in a Middle-aged Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iloperidone, a piperidinyl-benzisoxazole derivative, is structurally related to risperidone and approved for treatment in acute stage of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is usually considered as a prolactin sparing atypical antipsychotic thereby offering treatment advantage. We aim to present the first reported case of iloperidone-induced hyperprolactinemic galactorrhea in a middle-aged female. A middle-aged female with the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia was treated with iloperidone up to a dosage of 8 mg/day. Three months after starting the medicine, patient developed galactorrhea for which no other medical cause could be ascertained except for increased prolactin level. Iloperidone was stopped and aripiprazole was initiated with which galactorrhea subsided and prolactin level returned to normal. Index case report amply demonstrates that Iloperidone can cause hyperprolactinemic galactorrhea even at low dosage and after considerable period into the treatment.

  19. Iloperidone-induced Galactorrhea in a Middle-aged Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arghya; Barua, Supartha; Dan, Amitava; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Mandal, Manas

    2012-10-01

    Iloperidone, a piperidinyl-benzisoxazole derivative, is structurally related to risperidone and approved for treatment in acute stage of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is usually considered as a prolactin sparing atypical antipsychotic thereby offering treatment advantage. We aim to present the first reported case of iloperidone-induced hyperprolactinemic galactorrhea in a middle-aged female. A middle-aged female with the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia was treated with iloperidone up to a dosage of 8 mg/day. Three months after starting the medicine, patient developed galactorrhea for which no other medical cause could be ascertained except for increased prolactin level. Iloperidone was stopped and aripiprazole was initiated with which galactorrhea subsided and prolactin level returned to normal. Index case report amply demonstrates that Iloperidone can cause hyperprolactinemic galactorrhea even at low dosage and after considerable period into the treatment.

  20. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  1. Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) as a Biomarker of Tumor Deterioration in Female Reproductive Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengtong; Lin, Xiaomiao; He, Rongquan; Lin, Xinggu; Liang, Lu; Tang, Ruixue; Xiong, Dandan; Wei, Kanglai; Dang, Yiwu; Feng, Zhenbo; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND DcR3 (decoy receptor 3) has been proposed be involved in development and prognosis of female reproductive cancers, including cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the evidence for the correlation between DcR3 and the clinicopathological characteristics, as well as the overall survival time, in female reproductive cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Ovid, LILACS, Chinese CNKI, Chong Qing VIP, Wan Fang, and China Biology Medicine disc up to 30 September 2015. Data on the relationship between DcR3 expression and TNM stage, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, age, and overall survival time were extracted. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs (confidence intervals) were estimated by forest plot. RESULTS Twelve studies with 1127 patients met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Overexpression of DcR3 was significantly related to the risk of female reproductive cancers (OR=10.69, 95% CI: 6.33-18.05), TNM stage (OR=5.51, 95% CI: 2.83-10.71), differentiation (OR=4.16, 95% CI: 2.28-7.60), lymph node metastasis (OR=5.89, 95% CI: 3.16-10.9), age (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.51-1.44), and overall survival time (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 0.58-5.83). Subgroup analyses showed that overexpression of DcR3 in cervical, ovarian, and breast cancer all had similar relationships with these clinicopathological parameters. CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis suggests that overexpression of DcR3 may play vital roles in the tumorigenesis and deterioration of female reproductive cancers. However, the relationship between DcR3 expression and prognosis needs further investigation.

  2. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L; Paris, Stephen; Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Morfeld, Kari A; Carlstead, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8-55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles), irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal) or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout), and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml) or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml) prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05). For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive) and Enrichment Diversity (negative) as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive), Enrichment Diversity (negative), Alternate Feeding Methods (negative) and Social Group Contact (positive) as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly affects

  3. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L Brown

    Full Text Available As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus (8-55 years of age elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles, irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout, and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05. For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive and Enrichment Diversity (negative as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive, Enrichment Diversity (negative, Alternate Feeding Methods (negative and Social Group Contact (positive as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly

  4. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  5. Chitosan-Nanoconjugated Hormone Nanoparticles for Sustained Surge of Gonadotropins and Enhanced Reproductive Output in Female Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ashraf Rather; Rupam Sharma; Subodh Gupta; S Ferosekhan; V L Ramya; Jadhao, Sanjay B.

    2013-01-01

    A controlled release delivery system helps to overcome the problem of short life of the leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) in blood and avoids use of multiple injections to enhance reproductive efficacy. Chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates of salmon LHRH of desired size, dispersity and zeta potential were synthesized and evaluated at half the dose rate against full dose of bare LHRH for their reproductive efficacy in the female fish, Cyprinus carpio. Whereas injections of bot...

  6. Development of a microfluidics model for studying migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardón, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suárez, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Infertility is a significant issue, both for humans and dairy cattle. In order for fertilization to happen, sperm must migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg in the oviduct (fallopian tube). There is strong evidence that sperm interact with the female tract via both chemical and physical mechanisms. In this work, we focus on how the physical environment of the female tract influences the migration of bull sperm, which also serve as models for human sperm. In order for bull and human sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus, they must swim through the cervical canal, which is lined by microchannels. Then, sperm must swim through the uterotubal junction, which also contains microchannels, in order to reach the oviduct. In both passageways, sperm must swim against a fluid flow, which would be less in the microchannels than in the central passageways. We have developed a microfluidic model for studying the sperm migration effects of the geometry of the cervix and uterotubal junction and the fluid flow within. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  7. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  8. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  9. Good Health Status of Rural Women in the Reproductive Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Rhule

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are traditionally over represented among the poor and therefore in the long run, have less access to remuneration and health resources, including health insurance and social security services. Women are disadvantaged on some fundamental economic indicators such as unemployment and access to economic resources. In 2007 in Jamaica, for instance among the 124 500 unemployed persons in the labour force, 65.4% were women (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2008. Thus, women's health and the control that they can exercise over resources are key factors in achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability in health interventions. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the good health status of rural women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 49 years. Having extensively reviewed the literature, this paper is the first study of its kind in Jamaica and will provide pertinent information on this cohort for the purpose of public health planning. Method/Study Design: The current research extracted a sample of 3450 respondents who indicated that they were rural women ages 15 to 49 years. This sample was taken from a national cross-sectional survey from the 14 parishes in Jamaica. The survey used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the original 25 018 respondents. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7%. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample and logistic regression was used to establish a good health model. Results/Findings: Using logistic regression analyses, 6 variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health status of rural women (i.e. ages 15 to 49 years in Jamaica. These are social standing (two wealthiest quintile – OR=0.524, 95%CI: 0.350,0.785; marital status (separated, divorced or widowed – OR=0.382, 95%CI: 0.147, 0.991; health insurance (OR=0.041, 95%CI: 0.024, 0.069; negative affective psychological conditions (OR=0.951, 95

  10. Epidemiologic peculiarities of combined hyperproliph erative processes of female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov V.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 622 women of reproductive age with such hyperproliferative processes of the pelvic organs as uterine leiomyoma, endometrial hyperplasia and endometriosis. We studied main epidemiological factors inherent in these diseases. We have found that such diseases as uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis and endometrial hyperplasia have common risk factors: obesity, early menarche, increased frequency of PID, anemia, hypertension, surgical interventions for gynecological pathology. At the same time, specific features unique to the combination of uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia were found: increased frequency of PCOS and type 2 diabetes, as well as for endometriosis and uterine leiomyoma – reduction of menstrual cycle length, increase of infertility frequency.

  11. Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-04-01

    The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.

  12. Reproductive outcomes of female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase defi ciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD appears to be reduced, especially in women with the classic salt-wasting type. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this subfertility such as androgen excess, adrenal progesterone hypersecretion, consequences of genital reconstructive surgery, secondary polycystic ovaries syndrome, and psychosexual factors. In contrast to this subfertility, pregnancies are commonly normal and uneventful. Adequate glucocorticoid therapy and improvement of surgical and psychological management could contribute to optimize fertility in CAH female patients, even among women with the classic variant. This review provides current information regarding the reproductive outcomes of women with CAH due to 21-OHD and the fertility and pregnancy issues in this population.

  13. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in the Female Reproductive Tract: From Normal Functioning to Disease Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyk, Olena; Coatham, Mackenzie; Jewer, Michael; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis. We also summarize the current literature relating to EMT in the context of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, with a particular focus on how molecular mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment can govern cancer cell plasticity, therapy resistance, and metastasis. PMID:28725636

  14. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract of the captive female African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M; Schulman, Martin L; Hartman, Marthinus J

    2011-09-15

    The use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on features of female fetal reproductive system development in Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunbo; ZHANG Guixue; HU Pengfei; HUANG He; ZHENG Peng; LI Wanhua

    2007-01-01

    Some charaterasics of female fetal reproductive system were studied in different gestation phases of Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep. The results showed that reproductive system consisted of ovary, oviduct, uterus and genitalia. The fetal ovaries were granular in early phase and became elliptic in later phase. The functional formula of ovarian weight, length and volume was obtained.Primary oocyte was encapsulated by monolayer cells in 7-week fetal ovary cortex. Primordial follicles were formed in 8-week fetal ovary, the follicular cells were sporadically arranged and not always regular. Complete organization of primordial follicles appeared until 10-week gestation, most of them scattered in nests in the following weeks of gestation. Two types of follicular complexes were found in fetal. There were continuous and quick mitosis of oogonia in fetal ovaries, large complexes were formed by oogoniaes encapsulated by multilayer of follicular cells, then they differentiated into small complexes, one or more primary oocytes were formed by mitosis of oogonia, primordial follicles which were caused by follicular cell approaching into them developed.

  16. Nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms and their functions in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Kotwica, J

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), which is produced by the corpus luteum (CL), creates proper conditions for the embryo implantation, its development, and ensures proper conditions for the duration of pregnancy. Besides the non-genomic activity of P4 on target cells, its main physiological effect is caused through genomic action by the progesterone nuclear receptor (PGR). This nuclear progesterone receptor occurs in two specific isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. PGRA isoform acts as an inhibitor of transcriptional action of PGRB. The inactive receptor is connected with chaperone proteins and attachment of P4 causes disconnection of chaperones and unveiling of DNA binding domain (DBD). After receptor dimerization in the cells' nucleus and interaction with hormone response element (HRE), the receptor coactivators are connected and transcription is initiated. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and reflects the different levels of P4 effect on the reproductive system. Both isoforms, PGRA and PGRB, also show a different response to the P4 receptor antagonist activity. Connection of the antagonist to PGRA can block PGRB, but acting through the PGRB isoform, P4 receptor antagonist may undergo conversion to a strongly receptor agonist. A third isoform, PGRC, has also been revealed. This isoform is the shortest and does not have transcriptional activity. Alternative splicing and insertion of additional exons may lead to the formation of different PGR isoforms. This paper summarizes the available data on the progesterone receptor isoforms and its regulatory action within the female reproductive system.

  17. Dioxins and female reproductive dysfunction. Final report; Dioxine und Fortpflanzungsstoerungen bei der Frau. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W.; Zahradnik, H.P.

    2000-07-01

    Two problems were investigated: (a) Effects on pregnancy-associated tissues (retardation of fetal growth, placental insufficiency, lower weight at birth, premature birth); (b) effects on reproductive cells and tissues outside pregnancy (fertility problems). Test substances were TCDD, PCB 153 (which has the highest concentrations of all dioxins in human tissues), and the coplanar, dioxin-type substance PCB 126. The experiments were to provide information on which tissues in the female reproductive organs are the most sensitive to these organic chlorine compounds. Local mediators with autocrineous and paracrineous effects were investigated as end points (eicosanides, cytokines and the secretion of hormones like estriol and HPL). [German] Die Untersuchungen wurden auf zwei Fragestellungen konzentriert: (a) Effekte auf Schwangerschafts-assoziierte Gewebe (moegliche klinische Konsequenzen: fetale Wachstumsretardierungen, Plazentainsuffizienz, geringe Geburtsgewichte, Fruehgeburtlichkeit). (b) Effekte auf reproduktionsspezifische Zellen und Gewebe ausserhalb einer Schwangerschaft (moegliche klinische Konsequenzen: Stoerung der Fertilitaet). Als Testsubstanzen wurden TCDD, PCB 153 (das von allen Kongeneren in den hoechsten Konzentrationen in Humanproben gefunden wird), sowie das koplanare Dioxin-aehnliche PCB 126 eingesetzt. In den Experimenten sollte ermittelt werden, ob und ggf. welche Zielgewebe in den Fortpflanzungsorganen der Frau empfindlich auf diese Organochlorverbindungen reagieren. Als Endpunkte wurden autokrin und parakrin wirksame lokale Mediatoren (Eicosanoide und Cytokine, sowie die Sekretion von Hormonen z.B. Oestriol, HPL) untersucht. (orig.)

  18. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the regulation of female reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, Iwona; Kurzynska, Aleksandra; Bogacki, Marek; Chojnowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor family. In the past decade, numerous studies have revealed the presence and significance of PPARs in the reproductive system. PPARs are expressed at different levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. They are also present in the uterus as well as in the placenta and embryonic tissues of different species. PPARs significance has been reported during the estrous/menstrual cycle and pregnancy with the gamma isoform studied most frequently. Several studies indicate that PPARs regulate proliferation of ovarian cells, tissue remodeling and steroidogenesis. In the endometrium, PPARs are engaged in the regulation of prostaglandins, steroids and cytokines synthesis. The role of PPARs in the trophoblast differentiation, maturation and invasion as well as in the embryo development has also been demonstrated. In this review, we summarize current findings concerning the role of PPARs in the regulation of reproductive functions at different levels of the HPG axis during various physiological statuses of females. In addition, the role of PPARs in the modulation of uterine functions as well as the placenta and embryo development has also been discussed.

  20. Localization of transient receptor potential ion channels in primary and motile cilia of the female murine reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C.; Byskov, Anne Grete; Pedersen, Per Amstrup;

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the subcellular localization of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and the potential sensory role of cilia in murine female reproductive organs using confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis on ovary and oviduct tissue sections as well as on primary cultures...... intensity in proximal invaginations of the epithelial folds. These observations are the first to demonstrate ciliary localization of TRP ion channels and their possible receptor function in the female reproductive organs. We suggest that polycystins 1 and 2 play an important role in granulosa cell...

  1. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed on gestational days (GDs 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr, and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1 in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females.

  2. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Li, Chong; Zhang, Jiacai; Xiao, Zhuohui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females. PMID:28067781

  3. Reproductive analysis of male and female captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in a Colombian zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Gonzalez, Santiago; Howard, Jo Gayle; Brown, Janine; Grajales, Henry; Pinzón, Jorge; Monsalve, Haydy; Moreno, María Angélica; Jimenez Escobar, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    A reproductive analysis of a captive group of jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 6) at the Santacruz Zoological Foundation in Cundinamarca, Colombia, was conducted by performing a longitudinal, noninvasive, hormonal analysis of estradiol and progestogens in females and of androgens in males. During four seasons, female jaguars confined in solitary were evaluated for ovarian activity and spontaneous ovulation, male jaguars for testicular activity. A second hormonal follow-up was conducted in the females after administration of gonadotropins. Hormones were extracted from fecal samples of three females (n = 3) and two males (n = 2). Estradiol measurements were obtained by RIA and progestogens by enzyme immunoassay. The linear mixed-effect regression showed that there was a significant effect of seasons in the concentrations of estradiol (chi square = 15.97, degrees of freedom = 3, P jaguars, and the linear mixed-effect regression showed that there was also a significant effect of seasons (chi square = 28.56, degrees of freedom = 3, P jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 3) was also performed after electroejaculation under general anesthesia (male 1 and 2) and by a postmortem epididymal wash (male 3). The mean concentration of spermatozoids was 5.7 × 10(6) ± 1.1 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. The progressive motility + standard deviation averaged 80%. The percentage of normal spermatozoids obtained by electroejaculation was 80 ± 2.8%, and the abnormalities found more frequently were head defects (7 ± 1.4%). The seminal fluid obtained by epididymal flush contained 35 ± 1.4% normal spermatozoids, and the most frequent abnormalities found corresponded to distal cytoplasmic droplets (39 ± 11.3%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Administration of visfatin during superovulation improves developmental competency of oocytes and fertility potential in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Joo, Bo-Sun; Sun, Sheng-Ta; Park, Min-Jung; Son, Jung-Bin; Joo, Jong-Kil; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether visfatin administration during superovulation improves ovarian response, developmental competence of oocytes, and fertility in aged female mice. Controlled experimental study. University hospital. Two groups of differently aged C57BL female mice (6-11 and 26-31 weeks). Female mice were coinjected intraperitoneally with 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and visfatin of various doses (0-500 ng/mL), followed by 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection 48 hours later. Then the mice were immediately mated with an individual male. After 18 hours zygotes were cultured, and expression of ovarian visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined. Potential pregnancies of visfatin-administered aged female mice were monitored for delivery of offspring. Number of zygotes retrieved, embryo developmental competency, fertility potential, ovarian visfatin and VEGF expression. Ovarian visfatin expression was significantly decreased in the aged mice group compared with the young. Visfatin administration significantly increased embryo developmental rate and ovarian visfatin and VEGF expressions in the aged mice. Visfatin-administered aged mice delivered significantly higher numbers of offspring than controls. This study suggests that visfatin administration during superovulation plays an important role in regulating oocyte quality and can improve oocyte quality and fertility of aged female mice. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673

  6. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah Kim

    Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  8. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  9. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Witt, Pamela S; Simion, F Anthony; Takema, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included 85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45 degrees views were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group, and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females. The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females.

  10. Characteristics of spermatozoa and reproductive organs in relation to age and body weight in Swedish moose (Alces alces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Jonas; Söderquist, Lennart; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive biology of game species is vital for sustainable management. In moose (Alces alces), research in reproductive characteristics has focused on the female, whereas there are few studies in male moose. The aim of the present study was to investigate sperm morphology and chromatin integrity (SCSA), and their relationships with testicular and epididymal features, as well as temporal aspects with respect to the hunting season. In total, 143 male moose aged 1.5-11.5 years were sampled from 2008 to 2011. The proportion of normal spermatozoa (PNS) ranged from 1.5% to 82.0%, with a mean of 51%, and the %DFI (DNA fragmentation index) ranged from 2.5% to 36.7% (mean 9.5). PNS decreased temporally, and was positively associated with carcass and testes weight. Body weight and testes weight had positive effect on PNS regardless of age. No effect of any explanatory variables was observed on the DFI. The testis/body weight ratio of moose (0.033%) is among the lowest reported among mammals, indicating a less polygynous mating system than in roe deer and red deer. For reproduction success in moose, a high body weight in males is favorable, as is a balanced sex ratio. Thus, males should not be harvested prior to the time when the majority of females have passed their first oestrus of the season.

  11. Ameliorative potential of vitamin E on the impact of dietary fumonisin B1 on reproductive performance of female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ayodeji Gbore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1, a contaminant of agricultural products, particularly maize worldwide is known to be consumed by farm animals and has been documented to cause various physiological responses in animals. A 15-week trial on the ameliorative potential of vitamin E on the negative impacts of FB_1 on reproductive performance of rabbits was conducted. Forty-nine female rabbits aged 16 to 18 weeks weighing 1.65 to 2.0 kg body weight were assigned to seven experimental feeding groups: the control group received a diet without FB_1, three groups were fed diets containing different concentrations of FB_1 at 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg kg^(−1, and three further groups had diets containing FB_1 and vitamin E i.e., 2.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E, 5.0 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E, and 7.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E. Data obtained on reproductive parameters - gestation length, litter size, kit weight as well as the kit crown-rump length, were analysed using ANOVA. Serum reproductive hormones - luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin, prostaglanding F_2α (PGF_2α, and estradiol (E_2 levels in rabbits fed diets containing 7.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 were significantly lower than those for all other treatments. Rabbits fed diets containing >= 5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 had significantly (p=5.0 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 were significantly (p<0.05 lower than the weight gain observed in the other treatment groups. Does fed diets supplemented with vitamin E had significantly (p<0.05 higher milk yield compared with does on not supplemented diets, including the control. This study has shown that vitamin E supplementation of does counteracts the adverse impacts of FB 1 on reproductive hormones, gestation length, kit weight, and milk production in rabbits.

  12. Confidentiality Concerns and Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Among Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Survey of Family Growth •About 7% of persons aged 15-25 would not seek sexual or reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out about it. •For females aged 15-17 and 18-25, those who had confidentiality concerns were less likely to receive sexual and reproductive health services in the past year compared with those without these concerns. •Less than one-half of teenagers aged 15-17 (38.1%) spent some time alone in the past year during a visit with a doctor or other health care provider without a parent, relative, or guardian in the room. •Teenagers aged 15-17 who spent some time alone during a visit with a health care provider were more likely to have received sexual or reproductive health services in the past year compared with those who had not. Confidentiality concerns can impact adolescent and young adults' access to sexual and reproductive health services (1-4). Young people who are covered by their parents' private health insurance may be deterred from obtaining these services due to concerns that their parents might find out about it (2). Similarly, confidentiality concerns may arise because youth seeking such services may not have time alone during a visit with a health care provider (4). This report describes two measures related to confidentiality concerns and sexual and reproductive health care. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  13. Maternal Programming of Reproductive Function and Behavior in the Female Rat

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    Nicole M Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parental investment can be used as a forecast for the environmental conditions in which offspring will develop to adulthood. In the rat, maternal behavior is transmitted to the next generation through epigenetic modifications such as methylation and histone acetylation, resulting in variations in estrogen receptor alpha expression. Natural variations in maternal care also influence the sexual strategy adult females will adopt later in life. Lower levels of maternal care are associated with early onset of puberty as well as increased motivation to mate and greater receptivity toward males during mating. Lower levels of maternal care are also correlated with greater activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, responsible for the expression of these behaviors. Contrary to the transition of maternal care, sexual behavior cannot simply be explained by maternal attention, since adoption studies changed the sexual phenotypes of offspring born to low caring mothers but not those from high caring dams. Indeed, mothers showing higher levels of licking/grooming have embryos that are exposed to high testosterone levels during development, and adoption studies suggest that this androgen exposure may protect their offspring from lower levels of maternal care. We propose that in the rat, maternal care and the in utero environment interact to influence the reproductive strategy female offspring display in adulthood and that this favors the species by allowing it to thrive under different environmental conditions.

  14. Measuring sperm movement within the female reproductive tract using Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, Philip R; Macartney, Erin L; Whan, Renee M; Crean, Angela J

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive significance of variation in sperm phenotype is still largely unknown, in part due to the difficulties of observing and measuring sperm movement in its natural, selective environment (i.e., within the female reproductive tract). Computer-assisted sperm analysis systems allow objective and accurate measurement of sperm velocity, but rely on being able to track individual sperm, and are therefore unable to measure sperm movement in species where sperm move in trains or bundles. Here we describe a newly developed computational method for measuring sperm movement using Fourier analysis to estimate sperm tail beat frequency. High-speed time-lapse videos of sperm movement within the female tract of the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis were recorded, and a map of beat frequencies generated by converting the periodic signal of an intensity versus time trace at each pixel to the frequency domain using the Fourier transform. We were able to detect small decreases in sperm tail beat frequency over time, indicating the method is sensitive enough to identify consistent differences in sperm movement. Fourier analysis can be applied to a wide range of species and contexts, and should therefore facilitate novel exploration of the causes and consequences of variation in sperm movement.

  15. Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on onset and development of female reproductive disorders and hormone-related cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scsukova, Sona; Rollerova, Eva; Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Alzbeta

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemical substances designated as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to disturb endocrine (hormonal) activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction. The presence of EDCs has already been associated with reproductive malfunction in wildlife species, but it remains difficult to prove causal relationships between the presence of EDCs and specific reproductive problems in vivo, especially in females. On the other hand, the increasing number of experiments with laboratory animals and in vitro research indicate the ability of different EDCs to influence the normal function of female reproductive system, and even their association with cancer development or progression. Research shows that EDCs may pose the greatest risk during prenatal and early postnatal development when organ and neural systems are forming. In this review article, we aim to point out a possible contribution of EDCs to the onset and development of female reproductive disorders and endocrine-related cancers with regard to the period of exposure to EDCs and affected endpoints (organs or processes).

  16. Association between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of reproductive function in 1066 Chinese men of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yitao; Jing, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-12-30

    Phthalates are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals that impair male reproductive function in animal and epidemiological studies. We investigated associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and acrosin activity, along with that between insulin like-factor 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell function marker, in Chinese adult men and assessed the association between the metabolites and male reproductive function. Serum levels of INSL3 and other hormones, semen parameters, and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites in 1066 men were measured. The unadjusted concentrations of phthalates were included as independent variables and urinary creatinine as a separate covariate. INSL3 was negatively associated with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and %MEHP [percentage of MEHP to all di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites]. Acrosin activity was negatively associated with mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP and %MEHP. MBP and MiBP were also negatively associated with total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sperm morphology and positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI). A negative association between %MEHP and sperm motility was observed. Several other metabolites were also associated with reproductive function. This is the first report on the inverse associations of phthalate metabolites with acrosin activity and INSL3. Phthalates may cause multiple adverse results on reproductive function at environmental levels.

  17. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; IUI Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles; Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006

  18. Evaluation of Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women of Reproductive Age in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Parizad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is rare in women of reproductive age; however with increase in risk factors of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD in this age group, the possibility of ACS in young women is expected to rise and become a significant problem in future. It seems that pattern of risk factors and disease course may be different in this group. This study was conducted to determine the status of ACS in women of reproductive age. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study of women aged between 15-45 years who were admitted with ACS during the past five years from 21 March 2008 until 20 March 2013. The definition of ACS was designed to be compatible with current guidelines. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 17.0. Results: Women of reproductive age who were admitted with ACS diagnosis were 1.16% of all ACS cases. Significant number of patients (22 patients who are 42% of all patients had atypical chest pain and 17 (32% had unusual symptoms. Unstable Angina (UA was the most common type of ACS. Most of the patients had one or more CAD risk factors. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG was performed in 25(42% of the female patients with documented ACS. In recent years, the prevalence of CAD has increased considerably in in this specific group. Conclusion: ACS is rare in women of reproductive age but may occur. The clinical presentation of the women of this study is compatible to other similar investigations.

  19. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

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    Kristen L Zuloaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (15-18 month old and young (3-4 month old female sEH knockout (sEHKO mice and wild type (WT mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24hrs thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography. Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice.

  20. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  1. The frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome in young reproductive females in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif E; Rahman S; Zia Y; Rizk NM

    2016-01-01

    Elham Sharif,1 Sumaya Rahman,1 Yumna Zia,1 Nasser M Rizk1,2 1Biomedical Sciences Department, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Physiology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 126 female students between the ages of 18 and 30 years were evaluated for the frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through clinical interview, questionnaire, and anthrop...

  2. Using RNA sequencing to characterize female reproductive genes between Z and E Strains of European Corn Borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Lewis, Sara M; Dopman, Erik B

    2014-03-12

    Reproductive proteins often evolve rapidly and are thought to be subject to strong sexual selection, and thus may play a key role in reproductive isolation and species divergence. However, our knowledge of reproductive proteins has been largely limited to males and model organisms with sequenced genomes. With advances in sequencing technology, Lepidoptera are emerging models for studies of sexual selection and speciation. By profiling the transcriptomes of the bursa copulatrix and bursal gland from females of two incipient species of moth, we characterize reproductive genes expressed in the primary reproductive tissues of female Lepidoptera and identify candidate genes contributing to a one-way gametic incompatibility between Z and E strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Using RNA sequencing we identified transcripts from ~37,000 and ~36,000 loci that were expressed in the bursa copulatrix or the bursal gland respectively. Of bursa copulatrix genes, 8% were significantly differentially expressed compared to the female thorax, and those that were up-regulated or specific to the bursa copulatrix showed functional biases toward muscle activity and/or organization. In the bursal gland, 9% of genes were differentially expressed compared to the thorax, with many showing reproduction or gamete production functions. Of up-regulated bursal gland genes, 46% contained a transmembrane region and 16% possessed secretion signal peptides. Divergently expressed genes in the bursa copulatrix were exclusively biased toward protease-like functions and 51 proteases or protease inhibitors were divergently expressed overall. This is the first comprehensive characterization of female reproductive genes in any lepidopteran system. The transcriptome of the bursa copulatrix supports its role as a muscular sac that is the primary site for disruption of the male ejaculate. We find that the bursal gland acts as a reproductive secretory body that might also interact with male

  3. Uncovering and responding to needs for sexual and reproductive health care among poor urban female adolescents in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of

  4. Uncovering and responding to needs for sexual and reproductive health care among poor urban female adolescents in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of ser

  5. Reproductive strategies in female polar and deep-sea bobtail squid genera Rossia and Neorossia (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Nigmatullin, Ch. M.; Hoving, H. J. T.; Onsoy, B.; Salman, A.; Zumholz, K.; Shevtsov, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Female reproductive features have been investigated in five polar and deep-sea bobtail squid genera Rossia and Neorossia (R. macrosoma, R. moelleri, R. pacifica, N.c. caroli and N.c. jeannae). These species are characterized by asynchronous ovary maturation, very large eggs (> 10% ML), fecundity of

  6. Correlation between male age, WHO sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, chromatin packaging and outcome in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, M; De Jonge, C; Cox, A; Janssen, M; Bosmans, E; Ombelet, W

    2011-06-01

    In the human, male ageing results in reproductive hormonal and cellular changes that can influence semen quality (volume, motility, concentration and morphology) and ultimately result in a reduced fertilising capacity and a longer 'time to pregnancy' for ageing men as well as an increased risk for miscarriage. This prospective cohort study of 278 patients undergoing a first in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment was undertaken to examine whether patient's age was reflected in sperm motility, concentration, morphology as well as in DNA fragmentation (DFI) and immature chromatin (unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin) as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay. This study also investigated the possible influence of male age (after correcting for female age) on their fertilising capacity, on obtaining a pregnancy and a healthy baby at home. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any male age-related influences on sperm parameters like concentration, motility or morphology. No significant male age-related increase in DFI or immature chromatin was demonstrable for these patients. Elevated male age, after correcting for female age, was not related to lower fertilisation rates or significant decreases in the chance for a healthy baby at home.

  7. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide reduces fertility in female Siberian hamsters when treated during their reproductively active and quiescent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Kristen A; Mukai, Motoko; Place, Ned J

    2015-01-01

    The industrial compound 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian follicles and reduces fertility in rodents, but to date VCD has not been tested in species that experience seasonal anestrus. To determine if VCD destroys follicles when administered during reproductive quiescence, Siberian hamsters were treated with VCD (240mg/kg i.p. daily for 10 days) during short days, and outcomes were compared with reproductively active females that were maintained and treated in long days. Primordial follicle numbers were significantly reduced by VCD under both day lengths, and reproductive quiescence in short days did not appear to render the ovaries less susceptible to VCD-induced follicle depletion. Independent of day length and reproductive state, VCD-treated hamsters weaned substantially fewer offspring than controls. These results suggest that time of year may not be an important consideration for optimizing use of VCD in the field when the target pest species is a seasonally breeding rodent.

  8. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

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    Paul M Forlano

    Full Text Available In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic

  9. Sexual and reproductive health outcomes among female sex workers in Johannesburg and Pretoria, South Africa: Recommendations for public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Mariette; Venter, Francois; Gay, Cynthia; Roelofsen, Corine; Lalla-Edward, Samanta; Rees, Helen

    2017-07-04

    The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status of female sex workers is influenced by a wide range of demographic, behavioural and structural factors. These factors vary considerably across and even within settings. Adopting an overly standardised approach to sex worker programmes may compromise its impact on some sub-groups in local areas. Records of female sex workers attending clinic-, community-, or hotel-based health services in Johannesburg (n = 1422 women) and Pretoria (n = 408 women), South Africa were analysed. We describe the population's characteristics and identified factors associated with sexual and reproductive health outcomes, namely HIV status; previous symptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI); modern contraceptive use and number of child dependents. The women in Johannesburg were less likely than those in Pretoria to have HIV (42.2% vs 52.9%), or previous symptomatic STIs (44.3% vs. 8.3%), and were 1.4 fold less likely to have child dependents (20.1% vs. 15.3%). About 43% of women in Johannesburg were Zimbabwean and 40% in Pretoria. Of concern, only about 15% of women in both sites were using modern contraceptives. Johannesburg women were also more likely to access health services at a hotel (85.0% vs. 80.6%) or clinic (5.7% vs. 0.5%), to have completed secondary education (57.1% vs. 36.0%), and moved house more than twice during the past year (19.6 vs. 2.0%). In both cities, risk of HIV rose rapidly with age (23.8%-58.2% vs. 22.0%-64.8%). Of interest, HIV prevalence was considerably higher in those with consistent condom use with one's main partner than inconsistent users. Sex worker populations are heterogeneous. Local health programmes must prioritise services that reflect the variety and complexity of sex worker needs and behaviours, and should be designed in consultation with sex workers. Segmenting sex worker populations according to age, country of origin and place of service delivery, and training healthcare providers

  10. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  11. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs.

  12. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hong Lim

    Full Text Available The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  13. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  14. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Aye Egbe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and Methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  15. Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Omoregie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48% and out-patients (47.02%, although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01. Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out

  16. Why Age Matters: Aged Gender in the Identity Work of Female Youth Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hendley, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Functioning as our “social skin in social space,” clothing enables both the expression of pre-existing identities and the construction of new ones (Pomerantz 2008:18). Age and gender are important components of identity, and their intersection contributes to the varied nature of femininity. Through my research on female youth soccer players, I examine the relationship of sports clothing to the girls’ identity work, specifically in regards to their experience as aged and gendered subjects. ...

  17. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slow, yet no other field in medicine has integrated new knowledge ... Many countries have introduced tight ethical regulation ... and research, such as human reproductive cloning." Howover ... human pregnancy and birth after embryo donation.

  18. Pollen flow and effects of population structure on selfing rates and female and male reproductive success in fragmented Magnolia stellata populations

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuko, Suzuki; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmentation of plant populations may affect mating patterns and female and male reproductive success. To improve understanding of fragmentation effects on plant reproduction, we investigated the pollen flow patterns in six adjacent local populations of Magnolia stellata, an insect-pollinated, threatened tree species in Japan, and assessed effects of maternal plant (genet) size, local genet density, population size and neighboring population size on female reproductive success (se...

  19. Male-Female Interactions and the Evolution of Postmating Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation among Species of the Virilis Subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Sagga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation reduces breeding between species. Traditionally, prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to reproduction have been broadly studied, but in recent years, attention has been brought to the existence of barriers that act after copulation but before fertilization. Here, we show that when D. virilis females from different geographic locations mate with D. novamexicana males, egg laying is normal, but fertilization rates are severely reduced, despite normal rates of sperm transfer. This reduction in fertilization is probably due to lower retention of heterospecific sperm in female storage organs one-to-two days after copulation. An inspection of egg hatchability in crosses between females and males from other virilis subgroup species reveals that isolation due to poor egg hatchability likely evolved during the diversification of D. virilis/D. lummei from species of the novamexicana-americana clade. Interestingly, the number of eggs laid by D. virilis females in heterospecific crosses was not different from the numbers of eggs laid in conspecific crosses, suggesting that females exert some form of cryptic control over the heterospecific ejaculate and that future studies should focus on how female and female-sperm interactions contribute to the loss or active exclusion of heterospecific sperm from storage.

  20. Male-Female Interactions and the Evolution of Postmating Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation among Species of the Virilis Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagga, Nada; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive isolation reduces breeding between species. Traditionally, prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to reproduction have been broadly studied, but in recent years, attention has been brought to the existence of barriers that act after copulation but before fertilization. Here, we show that when D. virilis females from different geographic locations mate with D. novamexicana males, egg laying is normal, but fertilization rates are severely reduced, despite normal rates of sperm transfer. This reduction in fertilization is probably due to lower retention of heterospecific sperm in female storage organs one-to-two days after copulation. An inspection of egg hatchability in crosses between females and males from other virilis subgroup species reveals that isolation due to poor egg hatchability likely evolved during the diversification of D. virilis/D. lummei from species of the novamexicana-americana clade. Interestingly, the number of eggs laid by D. virilis females in heterospecific crosses was not different from the numbers of eggs laid in conspecific crosses, suggesting that females exert some form of cryptic control over the heterospecific ejaculate and that future studies should focus on how female and female-sperm interactions contribute to the loss or active exclusion of heterospecific sperm from storage.

  1. Labial fusion: A rare cause of urinary retention in reproductive age woman and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğdu, Emre; Demirel, Cem; Tahaoğlu, Ali Emre; Özdemir, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Labial fusion usually affects prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women, it may rarely occurs in reproductive years in the absence of predisposing factors such as vulvar infections, dermatitis, trauma, female circumcision and lichen sclerosis. Should be considered in differential diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of urinary retention even if the patient doesn’t have history of sexual intercourse. PMID:28270959

  2. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  3. Mesquite pod extract modifies the reproductive physiology and behavior of the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Aguirre, F García; Alcántara, M; García-Díaz, E; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Arteaga-Silva, M; López, G; Romero, C; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2012-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are non steroidal compounds that can bind to estrogen receptors, mimicking some effects of estradiol (E(2)). These compounds are widespread among legumes, which are used as pasture, and their importance in animal agriculture has increased. Mesquite (Prosopis sp) is a widespread legume, widely used to feed several livestock species in Mexico. The main product of mesquite is the pod, which is considered high quality food. As a legume, it could be assumed that mesquite contains some amounts of phytoestrogens which might induce potential estrogenic effects. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the possible estrogenic activity of this legume either in livestock or in animal models such as the rat. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the potential estrogenic effects of mesquite pod extract on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the female rat. The effects of the extract were compared with those of E(2) and two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; E(2); GEN; DAI. Compared to vehicle groups, mesquite pod extract, DAI, GEN, and E(2) increased uterine weight and induced growth in vaginal and uterine epithelia. In intact rats, mesquite pod extract, GEN and DAI altered estrous cyclicity, decreased lordotic quotient and intensity of lordosis. In OVX rats, mesquite pod extract, DAI and GEN induced vaginal estrus, increased vaginal epithelium height, and induced lordosis, although its intensity was reduced, compared with intact rats in estrus and E2-treated rats. These results suggest that mesquite pod extract could have estrogenic activity. However, the presence of phytoestrogens in this legume remains to be confirmed.

  4. Heterosis in age-specific selected populations of a seed beetle: sex differences in longevity and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Biljana; Đorđević, Mirko; Janković, Jelena; Savković, Uroš; Tucić, Nikola

    2015-04-01

    We tested mutation accumulation hypothesis for the evolution of senescence using short-lived and long-lived populations of the seed-feeding beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), obtained by selection on early- and late-life for many generations. The expected consequence of the mutation accumulation hypothesis is that in short-lived populations, where the force of natural selection is the strongest early in life, the late-life fitness traits should decline due to genetic drift which increases the frequency of mutations with deleterious effects in later adult stages. Since it is unlikely that identical deleterious mutations will increase in several independent populations, hybrid vigor for late-life fitness is expected in offspring obtained in crosses among populations selected for early-life fitness traits. We tested longevity of both sexes, female fecundity and male reproductive behavior for hybrid vigor by comparing hybrid and nonhybrid short-lived populations. Hybrid vigor was confirmed for male virility, mating speed and copulation duration, and longevity of both sexes at late ages. In contrast to males, the results on female fecundity in short-lived populations did not support mutation accumulation as a genetic mechanism for the evolution of this trait. Contrary to the prediction of this hypothesis, male mating ability indices and female fecundity in long-lived populations exhibited hybrid vigor at all assayed age classes. We demonstrate that nonhybrid long-lived populations diverged randomly regarding female and male reproductive fitness, indicating that sexually antagonistic selection, when accompanied with genetic drift for female fecundity and male virility, might be responsible for overriding natural selection in the independently evolving long-lived populations.

  5. Inappropriate use of combined hormonal contraceptives for birth control among women of reproductive age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingbo; Hu, X Henry

    2013-07-01

    To describe the extent of inappropriate use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) according to the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (U.S. MEC). We analyzed Kantar Health's 2010 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey data, which is an annual population-based survey of 75,000 U.S. adults via internet. A stratified random sampling framework was used to construct a sample that reflects the U.S. census by age, gender, and ethnicity. The analysis included nonpregnant females aged 18-44 years who used CHC, including oral, patch, or vaginal rings in the past 6 months. Women classified into category 3 (theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages of using the method) or 4 (unacceptable health risk) according to the U.S. MEC were defined as having high-risk conditions, or inappropriate CHC use. The proportions of women who had inappropriate CHC use were then projected to the U.S. population by diseases/conditions and demographic characteristics incorporating sampling weights. We identified 2963 adult females of reproductive age (mean 29.3±6.0) (i.e., 20.4% of all adult females of reproductive age in the database) as being CHC users. Among them, 23.7% (95% CI: 22.8%-24.5%) had at least one high-risk condition and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.2%-9.4%) had at least one condition of unacceptable risk. The three most common high-risk conditions were migraine (12.7%), multiple risk factors for arterial cardiovascular disease (9.3%), and hypertension (6.1%). Women with relatively higher proportions of inappropriate CHC use were age ≥35, not finished college, and Medicaid recipients. A large portion of women used CHC inappropriately. Hormone-free and progestin-only contraceptives are available options with potentially less risk for them.

  6. [Multimedia and didactics++. Application to the normal echographic anatomy of the female reproductive system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, G; Benza, I; Sparacia, G; Lagalla, R

    1993-05-01

    It is widely known that US results strictly depends on operators and that each operator follows individual pathways. Therefore the authors have tried to develop high-interactivity tools, allowing the "customization" of learning to the user's demands. Progress linked to microprocessors' technology allowed a wide spread of cost-effective electronic processors with high graphic performances, capable of supporting sophisticated softwares which are useful to develop multimedial programs. Our experiment is aimed at integrating a multimedial management system for US studies, with the training activity of the medical staff US-expert. The system is structured on a hardware platform based on the Motorola microprocessor, class 68040, an application software developed by Apple. The environment for multimedial applications development uses the "Hypercard" interface of graphic presentation, by Apple. The software allows the realization of a multimedial environment of learning, where US images are associated with graphics, drawing and text references. The application allows a multimedial environment of learning for normal eidodiagnostic anatomy of the female reproductive system, where different courses can be followed autonomously. On the basis of a check performed on a group of students, although in a preliminary stage, the combination of conventional didactic material with either a paper or television support, with devices allowing the connection of texts, graphics and images in a dynamic way, proved to be very useful and to allow personal courses of learning, which can be always modified in an interactive way.

  7. Clocks underneath: the role of peripheral clocks in the timing of female reproductive physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Sellix

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is a critical component of the neuroendocrine circuit controlling gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. The SCN conveys photic information to hypothalamic targets including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. Many of these target cells are also cell autonomous clocks. It has been suggested that, rather then being singularly driven by the SCN, the timing of gonadotropin secretion depends on the activity of multiple hypothalamic oscillators. While this view provides a novel twist to an old story, it does little to diminish the central role of rhythmic hypothalamic output in this system. It is now clear that the pituitary, ovary, uterus and oviduct have functional molecular clocks. Evidence supports the notion that the clocks in these tissues contribute to the timing of events in reproductive physiology. The goal of this review is to highlight the current evidence for molecular clock function in the peripheral components of the female hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis as it relates to the timing of gonadotropin secretion, ovulation and parturition.

  8. Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA Response in Female Reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis is involved in a mechanism for female reproduction in mice