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  1. Leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of female and male fructose-fed rats

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    Vojnović-Milutinović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leptin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of male and female rats subjected to a fructose-enriched diet were studied. The level of expression of the key components of the leptin signaling pathway (neuropeptide Y /NPY/ and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 /SOCS3/, and the glucocorticoid signaling pathway (glucocorticoid receptor /GR/, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 /11βHSD1/ and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase /H6PDH/ did not differ between fructose-fed rats and control animals of both genders. However, in females, a fructose-enriched diet provoked increases in the adiposity index, plasma leptin and triglyceride concentrations, and displayed a tendency to decrease the leptin receptor (ObRb protein and mRNA levels. In male rats, the fructose diet caused elevations in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as in both plasma and hypothalamic leptin concentrations. Our results suggest that a fructose-enriched diet can induce hyperleptinemia in both female and male rats, but with a more pronounced effect on hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in females, probably contributing to the observed development of visceral adiposity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41009

  2. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

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    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  3. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

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    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  4. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

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    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats.

  5. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset

  6. Effect of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol implantation on bone metabolism in female rats fed 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.; Sherman, S.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used in two experiments to test the effects of 17-B estradiol (E 2 ) via silastic tubing implants on 3 H-labelled tetracycline (TC) incorporation into bone. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was the dietary source of vitamin D in a low calcium (.2%) semipurified eggwhite diet. In experiment I, the Ovx + E 2 animals showed a significantly (p 3 H TC uptake in scapula during a 2-week labelling experiment. An increase in 3 H TC content resulted (p 2 was implanted in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 fed Ovx rats. However, the calcium content was not significantly different. The effect of dietary 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and E 2 implantation appears to be additive. Optimal action of the Vitamin D endocrine system may be dependent on presence of E 2

  7. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabar, I.; Kostial, K.

    1981-01-01

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115 sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

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    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  9. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

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    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  10. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

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    Guylaine Ferland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline. In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1 and menaquinone-4 (MK-4 vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions.

  11. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

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    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  12. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  13. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  14. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  15. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  16. Long-term Western diet fed apolipoprotein E-deficient rats exhibit only modest early atherosclerotic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoe tm1sage (Apoe -/-) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control...

  17. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  18. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  19. Consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood reverses the programming of food preferences in male, but not in female, offspring of 'junk food'-fed rat dams.

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    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the negative effects of maternal 'junk food' feeding on food preferences and gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system could be reversed by weaning the offspring onto a low-fat diet. Offspring of control (n = 11) and junk food-fed (JF, n = 12) dams were weaned onto a standard rodent chow until 6 weeks (juvenile) or 3 months (adult). They were then given free access to both chow and junk food for 3 weeks and food preferences determined. mRNA expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward system was determined by qRT-PCR at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months of age. In the juvenile group, both male and female JF offspring consumed more energy and carbohydrate during the junk food exposure at 6 weeks of age and had a higher body fat mass at 3 months (P junk food; however, female JF offspring had a higher body fat mass at 6 months (P junk food exposure on food preferences and fat mass can be reversed by consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood in males. Females, however, retain a higher propensity for diet-induced obesity even after consuming a low-fat diet for an extended period after weaning. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  1. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  2. Reproductive performance of female goats fed life-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct-fed-microbes (DFM) (life-enzyme) was prepared in a traditional setting using Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria from palm sap) to ferment sawdust. The result revealed an improvement in the nutrient content of the sawdust and its feed values (protein, fibre etc.), and the feed usage efficiency. The reproductive ...

  3. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdy, A.A.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Bayomi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  4. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

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    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  5. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  6. Nitrogen sparing by 2-ketoisocaproate in parenterally fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Matthews, D.E.; Walser, M.

    1990-01-01

    In rats receiving total parenteral nutrition with or without sodium 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC; 2.48 g.kg-1.day-1), L-[1- 13 C]leucine and [1- 14 C]KIC were constantly infused for 6 h. CO 2 production, 14 CO 2 production, 13 CO 2 enrichment, urinary urea nitrogen (N) plus ammonia N and total urinary N were measured. Whole body protein synthesis (S) was calculated in non-KIC-infused rats and also in unfed rats infused with [1- 14 C]leucine from fractional oxidation of labeled leucine (1-F), where F is fractional utilization for protein synthesis, and urea N plus ammonia N excretion (C) as S = C x F/(1-F). Addition of KIC caused a significant reduction in N excretion and a significant improvement in N balance. Fractional oxidation of labeled KIC increased, whereas fractional utilization of labeled KIC for protein synthesis decreased, but the extent of incorporation of infused KIC into newly synthesized protein (as leucine) amounted to at least 40% of the total rate of leucine incorporation into newly synthesized whole body protein. We conclude that addition of KIC spares N in parenterally fed rats and becomes a major source of leucine for protein synthesis

  7. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  8. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

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    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  9. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  10. Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Bekir; Sarı, Aysel; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ulu, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathological changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. The study comprised 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; group 2: fed an HFrD; group 3: fed normal rat chow and M. pruriens; group 4: fed an HFrD and M. pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid levels were measured in 1 cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between 2 independent groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than 2 independent groups. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed an HFrD. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  12. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  13. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  14. Prolonged decrease of adipocyte size after rosiglitazone treatment in high- and low-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julia A; Trasino, Steven E; Ferrante, Anthony W; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2007-11-01

    The anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) stimulate adipocyte differentiation and decrease mean adipocyte size. However, whether these smaller, more insulin-sensitive adipocytes maintain their size after TZD therapy is discontinued has not been studied. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (10% fat) diet or, to elevate body weight (BW), a high-fat (HF) diet (45% fat) for 6 weeks. Rats were initially randomized to groups (n = 12) fed either low-fat or HF diets, with or without the TZD rosiglitazone (ROSI; 5 mg/kg per day), for 6 weeks. ROSI was then discontinued, and all animals were fed HF for another 6 weeks before sacrifice. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue morphology was determined from tissue collected by serial biopsies before and after 6 weeks of ROSI treatment and at sacrifice. Measures of BW and adiposity did not differ among groups 6 weeks after stopping ROSI treatment. However, during treatment, ROSI in both diets significantly decreased RP adipocyte size and increased RP DNA content, and these effects continued to be observed after discontinuing treatment. ROSI administration also decreased circulating insulin, leptin, and triglycerides and increased circulating adiponectin levels; however, these effects were reversed on stopping treatment. These results demonstrated that TZD-induced effects on adipocyte size and number were maintained after discontinuing treatment, even with consumption of an obesigenic diet. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether TZD-treated animals eventually achieve an adipocyte size similar to that of untreated animals at the expense of a higher BW.

  15. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  16. Amiloride Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Vascular Stiffness in Female Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Martinez-Lemus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD, high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC. Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD. To this end, we fed female mice either a WD or control diet and treated them with or without a very-low-dose of the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride (1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 20 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. Mice consuming a WD were heavier and had greater percent body fat, proteinuria, and aortic stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave velocity than those fed control diet. Treatment with amiloride did not affect body weight, body composition, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, or insulin sensitivity, but significantly reduced the development of endothelial and aortic stiffness, aortic fibrosis, aortic oxidative stress, and mesenteric resistance artery EnNaC abundance and proteinuria in WD-fed mice. Amiloride also improved endothelial-dependent vasodilatory responses in the resistance arteries of WD-fed mice. These results indicate that a very-low-dose of amiloride, not affecting blood pressure, is sufficient to improve endothelial function and reduce aortic stiffness in female mice fed a WD, and suggest that EnNaC-inhibition may be sufficient to ameliorate the pathological vascular stiffening effects of WD-induced obesity in females.

  17. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  18. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Adekunbi

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd 21. Brains were collected on pnd 30 or 100 for qRT-PCR to determine Kiss1 mRNA levels. Maternal obesity increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the MePD of pre-pubertal male and female offspring, whereas Kiss1 expression was not affected in the ARC or AVPV at this age. Maternal obesity reduced Kiss1 expression in all three brain regions of 3 month old female offspring, but only in MePD of males. The role of MePD kisspeptin on puberty, estrous cyclicity and preovulatory LH surges was assessed directly in a separate group of post-weanling and young adult female rats exposed to a normal diet throughout their life course. Bilateral intra-MePD cannulae connected to osmotic mini-pumps for delivery of kisspeptin receptor antagonist (Peptide 234 for 14 days were chronically implanted on pnd 21 or 100. Antagonism of MePD kisspeptin delayed puberty onset, disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced the incidence of LH surges. These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring.

  19. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  20. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted 67 Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of 67 Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of 67 Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of 67 Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate

  1. [Pinealectomy and early castration in the female Wistar rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Scemama, A

    1976-05-17

    Pinealectomy does not significantly modify the level of pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in intact and in castrated female Rats from brith to 75 days of age. Only the weight of the thyroid gland is higher in pinealectomized rats.

  2. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  3. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  4. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with vehicle...

  5. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  6. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  7. Fed, but not Fasted, Adrenalectomized Rats Survive the Stress of Hemorrhage and Hypovolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Neves, Robert B.; Ha, Taryn; Chew, Gordon; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently shown that conscious adrenalectomized rats exhibit nearly normal recovery of arterial blood pressure during the 5 h after hemorrhage. In those experiments, it appeared that a previous reduction in food intake might have compromised the recovery of blood pressure and increased mortality. These experiments were designed to test in conscious sham-adrenalectomized (control) and adrenalectomized rats prepared with indwelling arterial and venous cannulae: 1. The effects of a 20- to 24-h fast (compared to rats fed ab libitum) on the mobilization of plasma substrates and recovery of arterial blood pressure after a 15 ml/kg - 5 min hemorrhage, and 2. Vascular responsivity to pressor agents in fed or fasted groups before or 2 h after hemorrhage. In all rats hemorrhage resulted in decreased arterial pressure and heart rate. Arterial pressure recovered to near normal in both fed and fasted control groups and in the led adrenalectomized rats, and all of these rats survived for 24 h after stress. By contrast, in the fasted adrenalectomized rats, arterial pressure recovered only during the first 1.5 - 2 h and then failed, resulting in 100% mortality by 3-5 h. Compared to the other three groups, in which substrate levels either increased or remained fairly stable, plasma glucose and beta-hydoxybutyrate concentrations fell steadily, from 1.5-2 h after hemorrhage until death occurred in the fasted adrenalectomized rats. Basal ACTH concentrations were elevated cormpared to control values in both adrenalectomized groups (fed and fasted). Hemorrhage caused increases in plasma ACTH in all groups; the magnitude of the responses did not differ among the groups. The dilution of Evans' blue dve after hemorrhage (used as an index of fluid movement into the vascular space) was not different in contol and adrenalectomized rats (either fed or fasted). There were no differences in pressor responses to phenylephrine, vasopressin, or angiotensin-II between the fed and fasted

  8. Functional adaptation in female rats: the role of estrogen signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah J Sample

    Full Text Available Sex steroids have direct effects on the skeleton. Estrogen acts on the skeleton via the classical genomic estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, a membrane ER, and the non-genomic G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER. GPER is distributed throughout the nervous system, but little is known about its effects on bone. In male rats, adaptation to loading is neuronally regulated, but this has not been studied in females.We used the rat ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in ovariectomized (OVX female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with a placebo, estrogen (17β-estradiol, or G-1, a GPER-specific agonist. Fourteen days after OVX, rats underwent unilateral cyclic loading of the right ulna; half of the rats in each group had brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA of the loaded limb before loading. Ten days after loading, serum estrogen concentrations, dorsal root ganglion (DRG gene expression of ERα, ERβ, GPER, CGRPα, TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and load-induced skeletal responses were quantified. We hypothesized that estrogen and G-1 treatment would influence skeletal responses to cyclic loading through a neuronal mechanism. We found that estrogen suppresses periosteal bone formation in female rats. This physiological effect is not GPER-mediated. We also found that absolute mechanosensitivity in female rats was decreased, when compared with male rats. Blocking of adaptive bone formation by BPA in Placebo OVX females was reduced.Estrogen acts to decrease periosteal bone formation in female rats in vivo. This effect is not GPER-mediated. Gender differences in absolute bone mechanosensitivity exist in young Sprague-Dawley rats with reduced mechanosensitivity in females, although underlying bone formation rate associated with growth likely influences this observation. In contrast to female and male rats, central neuronal signals had a diminished effect on adaptive bone formation in estrogen-deficient female rats.

  9. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr + (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential. (author)

  10. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr/sup +/ (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential.

  11. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  12. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  13. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  14. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  15. No long-term feeding toxicities on the health status in rats fed with cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Chang, Won-Kyong; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to undertake a risk assessment to identify the health status of rats fed with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat for 26 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 12 male (142.6 ± 5.23 g) and 12 female (113.7 ± 6.31 g) rats each. The animals were fed commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) of normal cattle meat, and diets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) of cloned cattle meat. The mortality; clinical signs; body weight; food consumption; urinary, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histopathological analyses; and absolute and relative organ weights were analyzed and compared. During the 26-week test period, health status-related factors of the rats fed on cloned Hanwoo meat were found to have no test substance-related toxicities. The only difference was the increased uterus weight in female C-10 rats as compared to their counterparts counterparts (p food consumption risks might arise from the long-term feeding of cloned cattle meat in rats.

  16. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  17. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  19. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

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    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  20. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males by dietary soy phytoestrogens

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    Setchell Kenneth DR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM, males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen. This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 levels were determined. Results Female rats receiving lifelong exposure to a high-phytoestrogen containing diet (Phyto-600 acquired the maze faster than females fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (Phyto-free; in males the opposite diet effect was identified. In a separate experiment, at 80 days-of-age, animals fed the Phyto-600 diet lifelong either remained on the Phyto-600 or were changed to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days-of-age. Following the diet change Phyto-600 females outperformed females switched to the Phyto-free diet, while in males the opposite diet effect was identified. Furthermore, males fed the Phyto-600 diet had significantly higher phytoestrogen concentrations in a number of brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala & cerebellum; in frontal cortex, expression of CALB (a neuroprotective calcium-binding protein decreased while COX-2 (an inducible inflammatory factor prevalent in Alzheimer's disease increased. Conclusions Results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens significantly sex-reversed the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, in tasks requiring the use of reference, but not working, memory, VSM was enhanced in females fed the Phyto-600 diet, whereas, in males VSM was inhibited by the same diet. These findings suggest that dietary soy derived phytoestrogens can influence learning and memory and alter the expression of proteins involved in neural protection and inflammation in rats.

  1. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  3. Effect of soy protein on obesity-linked renal and pancreatic disorders in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of soy protein based diet on renal and pancreatic disorders in female obese rats. Animals assigned into group I in which 30 rats fed on a balanced diet. Group II contained 30 rats fed on a diet containing 30% fats for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4 th week, one-half of each group was treated as group III which contain 15 rats (half of group I) fed on diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and represents soy protein group, and the other half served as control. Group IV contained 15 rats (half of group II) fed on a diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and served as obese + soy protein group, and the other half fed on a normal balanced diet for 3 weeks and represents the obese group. Body weights of rats were recorded every week during the experimental period. Renal and pancreatic functions were measured as urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance), ammonia, sodium and potassium ions, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, insulin and alpha-amylase activity. Feeding with soy protein led to a very high significant increase in urea while creatinine was significantly decreased and creatinine clearance was significantly increased in the groups fed on soy protein. Ammonia concentration was increased in all groups and there was non-significant alteration in sodium and potassium ion concentrations. In soy protein groups (groups III and IV), total protein, albumin and globulin levels were increased. Glucose level was increased in obese rats and significantly decreased in groups III and IV. In group IV, insulin level was decreased which implicated to insulin excess in obesity. Soy protein decreased alpha-amylase activity in groups III and IV as compared to control rats. From these results, soy protein have a direct and protective effect on glomerular disorders and pancreatic secretions. This may be due to isoflavone contents in soy which can modulate the disturbance in metabolism

  4. Offspring from mothers fed a ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, S A; Simbi, B H; Bertrand, J A; Stickland, N C

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation plays a role in predisposing offspring to obesity. Here we show that rat offspring born to mothers fed the same junk food diet rich in fat, sugar and salt develop exacerbated adiposity accompanied by raised circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride and/or cholesterol by the end of adolescence (10 weeks postpartum) compared with offspring also given free access to junk food from weaning but whose mothers were exclusively fed a balanced chow diet in pregnancy and lactation. Results also showed that offspring from mothers fed the junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation, and which were then switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, exhibited increased perirenal fat pad mass relative to body weight and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with offspring which were never exposed to the junk food diet. This study shows that the increased adiposity was more enhanced in female than male offspring and gene expression analyses showed raised insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Glut 1, Glut 3, but not Glut 4 mRNA expression in females fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with females never given access to junk food. Changes in gene expression were not as marked in male offspring with only IRS-1, VEGF-A, Glut 4 and LPL being up-regulated in those fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with males never given access to junk food. This study therefore shows that a maternal junk food diet promotes adiposity in offspring and the earlier onset of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperlipidemia. Male and female offspring also display a different metabolic, cellular and molecular response to junk-food-diet-induced adiposity. PMID:18467362

  5. Offspring from mothers fed a 'junk food' diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, S A; Simbi, B H; Bertrand, J A; Stickland, N C

    2008-07-01

    We have shown previously that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation plays a role in predisposing offspring to obesity. Here we show that rat offspring born to mothers fed the same junk food diet rich in fat, sugar and salt develop exacerbated adiposity accompanied by raised circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride and/or cholesterol by the end of adolescence (10 weeks postpartum) compared with offspring also given free access to junk food from weaning but whose mothers were exclusively fed a balanced chow diet in pregnancy and lactation. Results also showed that offspring from mothers fed the junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation, and which were then switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, exhibited increased perirenal fat pad mass relative to body weight and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with offspring which were never exposed to the junk food diet. This study shows that the increased adiposity was more enhanced in female than male offspring and gene expression analyses showed raised insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), Glut 1, Glut 3, but not Glut 4 mRNA expression in females fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with females never given access to junk food. Changes in gene expression were not as marked in male offspring with only IRS-1, VEGF-A, Glut 4 and LPL being up-regulated in those fed the junk food diet throughout the study compared with males never given access to junk food. This study therefore shows that a maternal junk food diet promotes adiposity in offspring and the earlier onset of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperlipidemia. Male and female offspring also display a different metabolic, cellular and molecular response to junk-food-diet-induced adiposity.

  6. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

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    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased

  7. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  10. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

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    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  11. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  12. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on cholesterogenesis in rats fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Iwami, Tamako

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic cholesterol contents in rats fed a 70% or 20% casein diet with or without pyridoxine was determined. In the case of the 70% casein group, pyridoxine-deficient rats showed a higher content than the control. The increment was mainly due to the accumulation of an ester form of the cholesterol. On the other hand, pyridoxine-deficient rats in the 20% casein group showed a slightly lower content. The cholesterol content in liver microsomal fractions was lower in the 20%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group and serum cholesterol level was lower in the 70%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group than those in respective control groups. Incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into cholesterol was studied using liver slices, and significant stimulation was observed in pyridoxine-deficient rat fed a 20% or 70% casein diet. There was no difference in intestinal cholesterogenesis between the control and the deficient groups. (auth.)

  13. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

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    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  14. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  15. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism

  16. The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Jong Sam Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  17. Reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different digestible energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamira Maria Orlando

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets containing different levels of digestible energy (DE. The fish were housed in 15 fiberglass tanks (500 L in a recirculating system at an average temperature of 27.5 °C. The treatments consisted of five diets with increasing levels of DE (3,200; 3,400; 3,600; 3,800; and 4,000 kcal/kg. The levels of DE did not significantly influence the final weight or the hepatosomatic, gonadosomatic, and visceral fat indices. The absolute fecundity was influenced by the treatments, for which the highest values were observed from the 3,600 kcal/kg DE level and upward. The proximate composition of the fish also had a significant effect on the variables crude protein, ether extract, and ash; the fish fed diets with higher levels of DE exhibited the lowest body protein content, while the accumulation of ether extract exhibited the opposite response. A level of 3,600 kcal/kg of digestible energy should be used in diets with 380 g/kg crude protein and a starch/lipid ratio of 1.33 for female Nile tilapia.

  18. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  20. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with

  1. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity in fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrin, D.G.; Britton, R.A.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male rats (avg wt. = 320 g) were used to assess the effect of severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) on visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity as measured by in vitro incorporation of U- 14 -C-VALINE ( 14 C-VAL) into isolated hepatocytes. Organ weights expressed as a percent of empty body weight for fed vs. fasted rats were; liver (5.21 +/- .54 vs 3.82 +/- .46), kidney (.87 +/- 0.6 vs .89 +/- .05), stomach (.60 +/- .06 vs .61 +/- .06), intestines (3.70 +/- .44 vs 3.41 +/- .37). No differences were observed in in vitro oxygen consumption (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs 16.1 +/- 3.3, umole min -1 g -1 dry tissue) or 14 -C VAL incorporation (4.93 +/- 1.28 vs 4.31 +/- 1.48, dpm min -1 mg -1 dry tissue) for hepatocytes from fed vs. fasted rats. Analysis of perfused liver tissue indicated fed rats had higher protein (152.1 +/- 16.3 vs 136.6 +/- 29.6, mg/g tissue) and RNA (8.81 +/- 1.66 vs 5.97 +/- 1.87, mg/g tissue) with lower DNA (2.19 +/- .31 vs 3.19 +/- .54, mg/g tissue) compared to fasted rats. Protein-nucleic acid ratios suggest liver tissue from fed rats had a greater capacity for protein synthesis compared to fasted rats, however, this was not evident from in vitro hepatocyte 14 -C VAL incorporation estimates. These data indicate that severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) affects visceral organ mass largely by reduced liver and gut size as well as decreased hepatic protein synthetic capacity

  3. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  5. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  6. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N.; Harrington, G.W.; Hart, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b 5 . DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of [ 14 C]NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 μCi/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O 6 -methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of 14 CO 2 and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from [ 14 C]NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage

  7. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  8. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  9. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  10. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  11. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  12. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  13. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. P. Huot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P=0.03 and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P=0.03, compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P=0.01 and density (4%, P=0.002 of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P=0.01 and stiffness (P=0.002. However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

  14. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca- Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. Methods At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed ei...

  15. Increased Autolysis of μ-Calpain in Skeletal Muscles of Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsyna, Yulia V; Salmov, Nikolay N; Bobylev, Alexander G; Ulanova, Anna D; Kukushkin, Nikolay I; Podlubnaya, Zoya A; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan M

    2017-10-01

    Proteolysis can proceed via several distinct pathways such as the lysosomal, calcium-dependent, and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathways. Calpains are the main proteases that cleave a large variety of proteins, including the giant sarcomeric proteins, titin and nebulin. Chronic ethanol feeding for 6 weeks did not affect the activities of μ-calpain and m-calpain in the m. gastrocnemius. In our research, changes in μ-calpain activity were studied in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of chronically alcohol-fed rats after 6 months of alcohol intake. SDS-PAGE analysis was applied to detect changes in titin and nebulin contents. Titin phosphorylation analysis was performed using the fluorescent dye Pro-Q Diamond. Western blotting was used to determine μ-calpain autolysis as well as μ-calpain and calpastatin contents. The titin and nebulin mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. The amounts of the autolysed isoform (78 kDa) of full-length μ-calpain (80 kDa) increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of alcohol-fed rats. The calpastatin content increased in m. gastrocnemius. Decreased intact titin-1 (T1) and increased T2-proteolytic fragment contents were found in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus of the alcohol-fed rats. The nebulin content decreased in the rat gastrocnemius muscle of the alcohol-fed group. The phosphorylation levels of T1 and T2 were increased in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus, and decreased titin and nebulin mRNA levels were observed in the m. gastrocnemius. The nebulin mRNA level was increased in the soleus muscle of the alcohol-fed rats. In summary, our data suggest that prolonged chronic alcohol consumption for 6 months resulted in increased autolysis of μ-calpain in rat skeletal muscles. These changes were accompanied by reduced titin and nebulin contents, titin hyperphosphorylation, and development of hindlimb muscle atrophy in the alcohol-fed rats. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Systemic distribution and speciation of diphenylarsinic acid fed to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranmandura, Hua; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Takano, Juniti; McKnight-Whitford, Tony; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Le, X. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is an environmental degradation product of diphenylarsine chloride or diphenylarsine cyanide, which were chemical warfare agents produced by Japan during the World War II. DPAA is now considered a dangerous environmental pollutant in Kamisu, Japan, where it is suspected of inducing health effects that include articulation disorders (cerebellar ataxia of the extremities and trunk), involuntary movements (myoclonus and tremor), and sleep disorders. In order to elucidate the toxic mechanism of DPAA, we focused on the distribution and metabolism of DPAA in rats. Systemic distribution of DPAA was determined by administering DPAA orally to rats at a single dose of 5.0 mg As/kg body weight, followed by speciation analysis of selected organs and body fluids. Most of the total arsenic burden was recovered in the urine (23% of the dose) and feces (27%), with the distribution in most other organs/tissues being less than 1%. However, compared with the typical distribution of inorganic dietary arsenic, DPAA administration resulted in elevated levels in the brain, testes and pancreas. In contrast to urine, in which DPAA was found mostly in its unmodified form, the tissues and organs contained arsenic that was mostly bound to non-soluble and soluble high molecular weight proteins. These bound arsenic species could be converted back to DPAA after oxidation with H 2 O 2 , suggesting that the DPAA bound to proteins had been reduced within the body and was in a trivalent oxidation state. Furthermore, we also detected two unknown arsenic metabolites in rat urine, which were assumed to be hydroxylated arsenic metabolites.

  17. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  18. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  19. Effect of Ginger on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty six female albino rats arranged equally into six groups were used in the present study for one month to evaluate the role of ginger intake on radiation induced biochemical and histological changes and to assess the role of ginger as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet as well. These six groups are: control, ginger (2%.), irradiated (4.5 Gy), irradiated plus ginger, high fat diet and high fat diet plus ginger. Irradiation caused high significant decrease in T 4 and high significant increase in cholesterol, total protein, albumin, fasting blood sugar. A/G ratio with loss of lobular architecture of liver and lymphocytic aggregation in the lung, On the other hand high fat diet caused high significant decrease of T 4 and total globulins, significant increase of T 3 , blood sugar, A/G ratio and cholesterol with vacuolar degeneration changes of hepatic cells and moderate changes of peri bronchiolar area, ginger intake was able to bring most of irradiation induced biochemical and histological changes to non irradiated control level in female rats. It also had a hypocholesterolemic effect on animal fed high fat diet

  20. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  1. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  2. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  3. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  4. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  6. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  7. Factors for the bioavailability of heme iron preparation in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    村上, 亜由美; 岸本, 三香子; 川口, 真規子; 松浦, 寿喜; 市川, 富夫; Ayumi, Murakami; Mikako, Kishimoto; Makiko, Kawaguchi; Toshiki, Matsuura; Tomio, Ichikawa

    1998-01-01

    Factors for iron absorption in small intestine using heme iron preparation (HIP) and ferric citrate (FC) were investigated. We measured the solubility of iron of experimental diets (FC-normal, FC-overload, HIP-normal, HIP-overload) in water (adjusted pH6.8) and the diffusibility of dietary iron after digestion in vitro. The results did not show significantly differences between FC and HIP. Also, we measured microsomal heme oxygenase (HO) activity in intestinal mucosa of female rats fed experi...

  8. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  9. Hyperleptinemia in Neonatally Overfed Female Rats Does Not Dysregulate Feeding Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Ziko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake. Female rats that are overfed during the first weeks of their life experience similar changes in circulating leptin levels as well as in their body weight. However, it has not yet been studied whether these metabolic changes are associated with the same central effects as observed in males. Here, we hypothesized that hyperleptinemia associated with neonatal overfeeding would lead to changes in central feeding circuitry in females as it does in males. We assessed hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, and POMC gene expression and immunoreactivity at 7, 12, or 14 days of age, as well as neuronal activation in response to exogenous leptin in neonatally overfed and control female rats. Neonatally overfed female rats were hyperleptinemic and were heavier than controls. However, these metabolic changes were not mirrored centrally by changes in hypothalamic NPY, AGRP, and POMC fiber density. These findings are suggestive of sex differences in the effects of neonatal overfeeding and of differences in the ability of the female and male central systems to respond to changes in the early life nutritional environment.

  10. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  11. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  12. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  13. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  14. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  15. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Dietzel, L.; Horn, J.

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineralmixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K 3 in the water or K 1 parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat

  16. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N C; Dietzel, L; Horn, J [Freie Universitaet, Berlin(West). Fachbereich Veterinaermedizin

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineral mixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K/sub 3/ in the water or K/sub 1/ parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat.

  17. Search for phosphopeptides in the feces of axenic rats fed radioactive ovine casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, J.P.; Dubos, F.; Daburon, F.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive ovine casein was obtained by injecting 100 μCi of 14 C-Ser into the jugular vein of an ewe. The milk collected 17 and 24 h after this injection contained 12% of the radioactivity injected in protein form. The seryl residues were specificially labelled. This casein was used as the only protein source fed to axenic rats; 0.30% of the tracer ingested was found in the feces of those rats. Since phosphoserine represented 25% of the total casein seryl residues, the phosphopeptides may not be selectively unabsorbable [fr

  18. Very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride kinetics in acute and chronic carbohydrate-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Mamo, J.; Poapst, M.; Steiner, G.

    1988-01-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) kinetics were examined in rats maintained on either chow and water (control) or chow and a 10% carbohydrate drinking solution (fructose or glucose). The hexose solutions were available for an acute (16 h) or chronic (14 day) period. The acute fructose (AF), acute glucose (AG), and chronic fructose (CF) groups were hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) compared with control. Plasma TG concentration in chronic glucose (CG)-fed rats was similar to control. VLDL-TG was endogenously radiolabeled in donor rats with [2-3H]-glycerol. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was then determined by monitoring the clearance of plasma [3H]VLDL-TG in recipient animals. Donors and recipients were treated in an identical manner. AF and CF groups had an FCR significantly lower than rats given glucose for comparable periods. Both fructose groups and the AG group also had a lower FCR than control. In contrast, FCR in the CG group was significantly higher than controls. TG production rate (TGPR) in both AF and CF fed rats did not significantly differ from controls, suggesting that the HTG observed in these animals was solely from a catabolic defect. AG- and CG-treated glucose animals both had TGPR significantly higher than controls. Therefore, overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to the HTG associated with this carbohydrate

  19. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  20. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of ornithine on ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwacki, S.; Wiechetek, M.; Souffrant, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ornithine on the ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from fed male Wistar rats was investigated. On the basis of the 15 N tracer technique, it was found that ornithine stimulated urea synthesis with an increased utilization of the exogenously marked ammonia for urea, but deminished its utilization in other N-metabolic processes. The results also showed that the stimulation of urea synthesis due to ornithine resulted from the utilization of both exogenous and endogenous sources. (author)

  2. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on different diets

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Walkymário de Paulo; Ramalho,Francisco de Souza; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner) larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of mero...

  3. EFFECTS OF RESVERATROL ON LIVER FUNCTION OF OBESE FEMALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Araújo Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic, and antifibrotic properties, which may be useful in supplementation of obese patients and with liver problems. This study evaluated the effects of 6-week resveratrol supplementation on the lipid profile and liver function of female Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Sixty-four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16: the control group (C; the control obese group (CO; the resveratrol group (R; and the resveratrol obese group (RO. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent euthanasia for collection of liver biopsy. The parameters for body weight, liver weight, retroperitoneal fat weight, serum lipid and liver profiles and histopathological analysis were evaluated. The 6-week resveratrol administration did not induce weight loss nor did it reduce the lipid profile; however, it decreased the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reduced the incidence of steatosis (75.0% in group RO compared with group CO (81.2%. Thus, we concluded that resveratrol supplementation for the short period of six weeks had a beneficial effect on liver function by reducing hepatic steatosis and the liver enzymes AST and ALP in obese female rats. Keywords: liver function; obesity; rats; resveratrol.

  4. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  5. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later 125 I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. 125 I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia

  6. LHRH and LH in peripubertal female rats following prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.L.; Harms, P.G.; Petersen, H.D.; McArthur, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to ethanol (ETHO) on LHRH and LH were investigated. Pregnant and/or lactating dams were fed ETHOD during: (1) gestation, (2) lactation, or (3) gestation-lactation. Female offspring were decapitated at 30 or 40 days-of-age; trunk blood was collected for plasma LH RIA; and hypothalamic tissues were collected for LHRH RIA. Hypothalamic LHRH content of all ETOH-exposed groups was less than that of non-ETOH-fed controls at 30 and 40 days-of-age. Plasma LH concentrations of all ETOH-exposed groups were less than those of non-ETOD-fed controls at 30 and 40 days-of-age. Also, at 30 and 40 days-of-age, the plasma LH concentrations of the animals exposed to ETOH during lactation and gestation-lactation were less than those of the animals exposed to ETOH during gestation. These data suggest that ETOH exposure during gestation and/or lactation negatively affects hypothalamic LHRH content of femal rat offspring. Decreased hypothalamic LHRH content with corresponding lowered plasma LH concentration suggests that ETOH influences development or maturation of hypothalamic LHRH neurons by possibly decreasing their number or synthesizing capability

  7. Some biochemical and hematological changes in female rats under protein malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sherbiny, E.M.; El-Mahdy, A.A.; Bayoumi, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of low and high dietary protein on some biochemical and hematological parameters in blood of female albino rats. A total number of 75 albino female rats were equally divided into 3 groups, the first group was fed 20% protein diet and served as control and the second and third groups were fed 5% and 65% protein for 5 weeks and served as low and high protein dietary groups, respectively. The results showed high significant decreases in serum growth hormone, ferritin levels and iron concentration in group II and there was significant increase in unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) in group III, compared to control group. Studies of total protein and its fractions revealed high significant decreases in total protein, albumin, alpha-1-globulin, beta-globulin as well as gamma globulin in group II and significant increases in total protein, alpha-1- globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in group III, compared to normal control group. The hematological investigations in group II revealed significant decreases in hemoglobin value, total leukocyte count, platelets, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocytic count and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). On the other hand, there was significant increase in total leukocyte count in group III if compared to control group

  8. Maternal High Fat Feeding Does Not Have Long-Lasting Effects on Body Composition and Bone Health in Female and Male Wistar Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood

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    Paula M. Miotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  9. Metabolism of L-leucine-U-14C in young rats fed excess glycine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Tadauchi, Nobuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    As reported previously, while the growth-depressing effect of excess glycine was prevented by supplementing L-arginine and L-methionine, the degradation of glycine-U-(SUP 14)C into expired carbon dioxide was not accelerated by the supplement of both amino acids. However, it was found that the incorporation of the isotope into the lipids of livers and carcasses increased in the rats fed the excess glycine diet containing both amino acids. The lipid synthesis utilizing excess glycine may be accelerated by adding both amino acids to the 10% casein diet containing excess glycine. In the present experiment, the metabolic fate of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C was studied with the rats fed the excess glycine diet with or without L-arginine and L-methionine. 10% casein (10C), 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G), or 10C7G Supplemented with 1.4% L-arginine-HCL and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) was fed to each rat, and the diet suspension containing 4 sup(μ)Ci of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C per 100 g of body weight was fed forcibly after 12 hr fast. The radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide, TCA soluble fraction, protein, glycogen, lipids and urine, and the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma, livers and urine were measured. The body weight gain and food intake of the 10C7G group were much smaller than those of the other groups. The recovery of (SUP 14)C-radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide was much lower in the 10C7GArgMet group than that of the other groups. (Kako, I.)

  10. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

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    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  11. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, S.; Parker, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1)-induced γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  12. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  13. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  14. Pancreatic growth and cell turnover in the rat fed raw soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, P.S.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the pancreatic acinar cell was studied in rats fed raw soya flour (RSF) for up to a year. A second group of rats were fed a control diet. After 1 week of RSF feeding there was a 200% increase in tissue RNA and weight, indicating initial hypertrophy, which was maintained for the 1-year study period. By the second week and over the remainder of the period studied there was also a marked increase in total DNA, suggesting hyperplasia. Cell turnover, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA, was significantly higher in RSF-fed animals only from the second to fourth weeks; it then returned to control values. Autoradiography showed an 18-fold increase in duct cell labeling at the end of the first week and an 11-fold increase by the end of the second week. Acinar cell labeling doubled from the second to the twelfth week. These studies confirm previous reports that RSF produces pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. They furthermore show that there is initially marked stimulation of DNA synthesis in the duct cell compartment. The results suggest that cells with the morphologic characteristics of duct cells may be the precursors of acinar cells in hyperplastic pancreatic tissue

  15. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

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    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  16. Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats administered with Paracetamol & Paracetamol/Methionine. AA Iyanda, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. A number of therapeutic agents are known to alter serum trace element levels with dangerous consequences. An earlier study had demonstrated significant alteration in the ...

  17. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  19. Effects of harmane on growth and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaud, C

    1991-01-01

    The role of harmane, a beta-carboline formed during pyrolysis of tryptophan, on the metabolism of AFB1, growth and some parameters of the nutritional status was investigated in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing AFB1 (2 ppm), harmane (250 ppm) or both compounds, for 33 days after weaning. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the urinary and faecal excretion of parental compound and metabolites were assessed by HPLC analysis. Harmane did not modify appreciably the growth and the other nutritional parameters studied. Similar excretion patterns of AFB1 metabolites were observed in males and females. Harmane caused a limited increase in the excretion of AFM1 in faeces but not in urine, without altering the growth process in rats of either sex.

  20. Biological and physiological changes in rats fed some raw and irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakeil, F.A.; Farag, H.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Diaa Eldin, M.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suftered from poor growth due to the presence of some anti nutritional factors in these pulses. The processed soybeans, kidney beans, bread beans and lupines at 10 KGy could not correct the growth of rats kept on their diets for 8 weeks while irradiated chick beans at 10 KGy indicating some effect of the irradiation in this respect. When extracts of raw legumes were injected by intraperitoneal route, Ld 5 0 were found to be 125, 300, and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting the extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 300 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 KGy). Meanwhile, post irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans, and broad beans caused the Ld 5 0 to be 250,400, and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate, but significant, increase in liver weight only. However, rats which received both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupins in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic, liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The hematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either the raw or the irradiated legumes. 5 tabs

  1. Estrogen- and Satiety State-Dependent Metabolic Lateralization in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats.

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    Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus is the highest center and the main crossroad of numerous homeostatic regulatory pathways including reproduction and energy metabolism. Previous reports indicate that some of these functions may be driven by the synchronized but distinct functioning of the left and right hypothalamic sides. However, the nature of interplay between the hemispheres with regard to distinct hypothalamic functions is still unclear. Here we investigated the metabolic asymmetry between the left and right hypothalamic sides of ovariectomized female rats by measuring mitochondrial respiration rates, a parameter that reflects the intensity of cell and tissue metabolism. Ovariectomized (saline injected and ovariectomized+estrogen injected animals were fed ad libitum or fasted to determine 1 the contribution of estrogen to metabolic asymmetry of hypothalamus; and 2 whether the hypothalamic asymmetry is modulated by the satiety state. Results show that estrogen-priming significantly increased both the proportion of animals with detected hypothalamic lateralization and the degree of metabolic difference between the hypothalamic sides causing a right-sided dominance during state 3 mitochondrial respiration (St3 in ad libitum fed animals. After 24 hours of fasting, lateralization in St3 values was clearly maintained; however, instead of the observed right-sided dominance that was detected in ad libitum fed animals here appeared in form of either right- or left-sidedness. In conclusion, our results revealed estrogen- and satiety state-dependent metabolic differences between the two hypothalamic hemispheres in female rats showing that the hypothalamic hemispheres drive the reproductive and satiety state related functions in an asymmetric manner.

  2. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

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    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  3. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  4. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  5. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate, 17β-estradiol and casein

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    Martin J. Ronis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 μg/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with estradiol and also fed soy protein isolate. Complete raw data files were deposited in the gene Expression Omnibus (GEO at NCBI (http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.geo/ under the GEO accession number GEO: GSE69819. Data presented here incudes a summary of the differential expression analysis with top 30 genes up- and down-regulated by soy protein isolate (SPI, estradiol (E2 and SPI+E2. Additional functional annotation analysis of KEGG pathways is also presented for each treatment, together with networks of interaction between those pathways. Further interpretation and discussion of this data can be found in the article “Uterine responses to feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with 17β-estradiol differ in ovariectomized female rats” Ronis et al. (2016 [1].

  6. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  7. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on different diets

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    Walkymário de Paulo Lemos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of meroistic telotrophic type, with each individual ovariole divided in a terminal filament, a tropharium (trophic chamber, a vitellarium, and a pedicel. The prey type affected the development and morphometry of these structures. Females of P. nigrispinus fed with 3rd or 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (A. argillacea presented developed ovaries with ovarioles showing a great number of oocytes in advanced stages of development. Females fed with artificial diet presented atrophic ovaries and ovarioles practically without oocytes. Females fed with T. molitor or M. domestica showed ovaries in intermediary stage of development. The central ovariole was longer in females fed with 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm and shorter in those fed with artificial diet. Most developed oocytes were observed in ovaries of females fed with 5th or 3rd instar larvae of cotton leafworm, and the majority of atrophic oocytes were found in females fed with artificial diet.Este estudo apresenta a morfologia do sistema reprodutor feminino de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas alimentado com larvas de Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Musca domestica L. e de Tenebrio molitor L. ou dieta artificial. As gônadas internas desse predador apresentaram coloração amarelada e, independente da dieta, cada ovário apresentou sete ovaríolos unidos pelos filamentos terminais em uma estrutura em forma de cacho. A análise histológica revelou que o ovário de P. nigrispinus é do tipo meroístico telotr

  8. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats.

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    Shengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Urethral pressure profile (UPP and leak-point pressure (LPP measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS electromyography (EMG and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats.Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were analyzed.The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o'clock position and MUCP at the 12-o'clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings.UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  9. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

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    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  10. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

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    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  11. Effect of potato on acid-base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcy, Agnès; Robert, Laetitia; Mazur, Andrzej; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Excessive dietary NaCl in association with a paucity of plant foods, major sources of K alkaline salts, is a common feature in Western eating habits which may lead to acid-base disorders and to Ca and Mg wasting. In this context, to evaluate the effects of potato, rich in potassium citrate, on acid-base homeostasis and mineral retention, Wistar rats were fed wheat starch (WS) or cooked potato (CP) diets with a low (0.5 %) or a high (2 %) NaCl content during 3 weeks. The replacement of WS by CP in the diets resulted in a significant urinary alkalinisation (pH from 5.5 to 7.3) parallel to a rise in citrate and K excretion. Urinary Ca and Mg elimination represented respectively 17 and 62 % of the daily absorbed mineral in rats fed the high-salt WS diet compared with 5 and 28 % in rats fed the high-salt CP diet. The total SCFA concentration in the caecum was 3-fold higher in rats fed the CP diets compared with rats fed the WS diets, and it led to a significant rise in Ca and Mg intestinal absorption (Ca from 39 to 56 %; Mg from 37 to 60 %). The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that CP may be effective in alkalinising urine, enhancing citrate excretion and ameliorating Ca and Mg balance.

  12. Fructose-fed streptozotocin-injected rat: an alternative model for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel D; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60 g) were randomly divided into six groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Fructose-10 (FR10), Fructose-20 (FR20), Fructose-30 (FR30) and Fructose-40 (FR40) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum, respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose levels > 300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ injection, the animals in FR20, FR30 and FR40 groups were eliminated from the study due to the severity of diabetes and the FR10 group was selected for the remainder of the 11 weeks experimental period. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher fluid intake, blood glucose, serum lipids, liver glycogen, liver function enzymes and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight, oral glucose tolerance, number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic β-cell functions (HOMA-β) of FR10 group demonstrate that the 10% fructose-fed followed by 40 mg/kg of BWSTZ injected rat can be a new and alternative model for T2D.

  13. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  14. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  15. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  16. Factors influencing fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sarah; Heckard, Danyeal; Hassell, James; Uphouse, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, produces sexual side effects with low sexual desire being the most prevalent effect in females. In few studies have preclinical models for such antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction been fruitful. In the current manuscript, the effects of fluoxetine on multiple measures of female sexual motivation and sexual receptivity were examined. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 500 μg progesterone. Partner preference, active investigation of the male, and measures of sexual behavior were examined after injection with 15 mg/kg fluoxetine. Factors (pretesting for sexual behavior, size of the test arena, non-contact time with a male) that differ among experiments designed to study antidepressant-induced female rat sexual dysfunction were studied. The male preference ratio was not affected by fluoxetine treatment but active investigation of the male was reduced; lordosis behavior was inhibited and pretesting for sexual receptivity amplified fluoxetine's inhibition; size of the testing arena or non-contact experience with the male had no effect. Regardless of test condition, when given the opportunity to escape from the male, fluoxetine-treated females displayed escape behavior. Measures of male preference and active investigation, but not lordosis behavior, appeared to be affected by fluoxetine's impact on activity. The collective data provided a behavioral profile of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. These findings reinforce the value of multiple measures when attempting to model antidepressant-induced female sexual dysfunction. PMID:22835821

  17. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  18. Protein expression in the midgut of sugar-fed Aedes albopictus females

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    Saboia-Vahia Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus is a vector for several fatal arboviruses in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The midgut of the mosquito is the first barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection and represents one of the main immunologically active sites of the insect. Nevertheless, little is known about the proteins involved in the defense against pathogens, and even in the processing of food, and the detoxification of metabolites. The identification of proteins exclusively expressed in the midgut is the first step in understanding the complex physiology of this tissue and can provide insight into the mechanisms of pathogen-vector interaction. However, identification of the locally expressed proteins presents a challenge because the Ae. albopictus genome has not been sequenced. Methods In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE was combined with liquid chromatography in line with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and data mining to identify the major proteins in the midgut of sugar-fed Ae. albopictus females. Results Fifty-six proteins were identified by sequence similarity to entries from the Ae. aegypti genome. In addition, two hypothetical proteins were experimentally confirmed. According to the gene ontology analysis, the identified proteins were classified into 16 clusters of biological processes. Use of the STRING database to investigate protein functional associations revealed five functional networks among the identified proteins, including a network for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, a group associated with ATP production and a network of proteins that interact during detoxification of toxic free radicals, among others. This analysis allowed the assignment of a potential role for proteins with unknown function based on their functional association with other characterized proteins. Conclusion Our findings represent the first proteome map of the Ae. albopictus midgut and denotes the

  19. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

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    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  20. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  1. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  2. Disposition of perfluorodecanoic acid in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Heuvel, J.P.; Kuslikis, B.I.; Van Rafelghem, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The elimination, tissue distribution, and metabolism of [1-14C]PFDA were examined in male and female rats for 28 days after a single ip dose (9.4 mumol/kg, 5 mg/kg). A sex difference in the fecal elimination of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was observed with 51 and 24% of the administered 14C being recovered in the feces of male and female rats, respectively, by 28 days post-treatment. The cumulative excretion of PFDA-derived 14C in the urine in 28 days was less than 5% of the administered dose in both sexes. The sex-related difference in the rate of fecal elimination resulted in the observed difference in whole body elimination t1/2 of PFDA in males (t1/2 = 23 days) and females (t1/2 = 45 days). The liver contained the highest concentration of PFDA-derived 14C in both males and females, followed by the plasma and kidneys. The heart, fat pads, testes, and gastrocnemius muscle of males, and the ovaries of females contained much lower concentrations of PFDA. The reason for the high percentage of the ip dose of [1-14C]PFDA in the liver (53% males and 41% females, 2 hr post-treatment) was further examined using an in situ nonrecirculating liver perfusion technique. It was shown that approximately 25% of the [14C]PFDA in the perfusate was extracted by the liver in a single pass. The basis for the sex difference in fecal elimination of PFDA does not appear to be due to a sex difference in biliary excretion. In a 6-hr period, male and female rats with kidneys ligated eliminated essentially the same percentage dose of [14C]PFDA into bile. We had hypothesized that the persistence of PFDA in rats was due to formation of a PFDA-containing lipids. However, no evidence that PFDA is conjugated to form persistent hybrid lipids was obtained, nor were polar metabolites of PFDA detected in urine or bile

  3. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  5. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  6. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  7. Decaffeinated coffee consumption induces expression of tight junction proteins in high fat diet fed rats

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    Mazzone G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. An altered gut permeability induced by alterations of tight junction (TJ proteins allows the passage of bacteria and substances leading to liver inflammation, hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the influence of decaffeinated coffee on gut permeability in a rat model of fat liver damage induced by a high fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups. The first group received HFD for 5 months and drank water. The second group received HFD for 5 months and drank water added with 1.2mL decaffeinated coffee/day starting from the 4th month. The third group received standard diet (SD and drank water. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Toll-Like Receptor- 4 (TLR-4, Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 were assessed in rat intestines. Results: A significant reduction of Occludin and ZO-1 was observed in HFD fed rats (0.97±0.05 vs 0.15±0.08 p˂0.01, and 0.97±0.05 vs 0.57±0.14 p˂0.001 respectively. This reduction was reverted in HFD+COFFEE rats (0.15±0.08 vs 0.83±0.27 p˂0.01 and 0.57±0.14 vs 0.85±0.12 p˂0.01 respectively. The TLR-4 expression up-regulated by HFD was partially reduced by coffee administration. Conclusions: HFD impairs the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Coffee increases the expression of TJ proteins, reverting the altered gut permeability and reducing TLR-4 expression.

  8. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

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    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  9. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

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    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  10. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  11. Impact of Androgen and Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products on Female Rat Liver

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    Eleni Palioura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs have been related to a wide range of liver disorders including hyperandrogenic states such as the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential impact of dietary glycotoxins exposure and androgen excess on hepatic histology and biochemistry in an androgenized female rat model. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 female Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups, a group of prepubertal (Group A, n=30 and adult rats (Group B, n=20 that were androgenized via subcutaneous implantation of dihydrotestosterone-containing pellets as well as a group of adult non-androgenized rodents (Group C, n=30. All groups were randomly assigned either to a high-AGE or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Results: Rats fed with a high-AGE diet exhibited significantly elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT (p≤0.0002 and indices of AGE immunostaining in liver tissue (pper se constitutes an aggravating factor as demonstrated by the elevated γGT levels in adult androgenized animals compared to non-androgenized, independent of diet content (p=0.0002 and by the elevated AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels in low-AGE subgroups (adult androgenized vs. non-androgenized, p=0.0002 followed by increased immunohistochemical AGE deposition in hepatocytes of the latter categories (p=0.0007. Conclusion: The present study suggests that androgens and glycotoxins may contribute synergistically to distort hepatic physiology and function as observed in hyperandrogenic conditions.

  12. Impact of androgen and dietary advanced glycation end products on female rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Eleni; Palimeri, Sotiria; Piperi, Christina; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Kandaraki, Eleni; Sergentanis, Theodoros; Levidou, Georgia; Agrogiannis, George; Papalois, Apostolos; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been related to a wide range of liver disorders including hyperandrogenic states such as the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential impact of dietary glycotoxins exposure and androgen excess on hepatic histology and biochemistry in an androgenized female rat model. The study population consisted of 80 female Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups, a group of prepubertal (Group A, n=30) and adult rats (Group B, n=20) that were androgenized via subcutaneous implantation of dihydrotestosterone-containing pellets as well as a group of adult non-androgenized rodents (Group C, n=30). All groups were randomly assigned either to a high-AGE or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Rats fed with a high-AGE diet exhibited significantly elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (x03B3;GT) (p≤0.0002) and indices of AGE immunostaining in liver tissue (pandrogenized animals (p=0.0002). Androgenization per se constitutes an aggravating factor as demonstrated by the elevated x03B3;GT levels in adult androgenized animals compared to non-androgenized, independent of diet content (p=0.0002) and by the elevated AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in low-AGE subgroups (adult androgenized vs. non-androgenized, p=0.0002) followed by increased immunohistochemical AGE deposition in hepatocytes of the latter categories (p=0.0007). The present study suggests that androgens and glycotoxins may contribute synergistically to distort hepatic physiology and function as observed in hyperandrogenic conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Vitamin E decreases extra-hepatic menaquinone-4 concentrations in rats fed menadione or phylloquinone.

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    Farley, Sherry M; Leonard, Scott W; Labut, Edwin M; Raines, Hannah F; Card, David J; Harrington, Dominic J; Mustacich, Debbie J; Traber, Maret G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism for increased bleeding and decreased vitamin K status accompanying vitamin E supplementation is unknown. We hypothesized that elevated hepatic α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations may stimulate vitamin K metabolism and excretion. Furthermore, α-T may interfere with the side chain removal of phylloquinone (PK) to form menadione (MN) as an intermediate for synthesis of tissue-specific menaquinone-4 (MK-4). In order to investigate these hypotheses, rats were fed phylloquinone (PK) or menadione (MN) containing diets (2 μmol/kg) for 2.5 weeks. From day 10, rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of either α-T (100 mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 24 h after the seventh injection. Irrespective of diet, α-T injections decreased MK-4 concentrations in brain, lung, kidney, and heart; and PK in lung. These decreases were not accompanied by increased excretion of urinary 5C- or 7C-aglycone vitamin K metabolites, however, the urinary α-T metabolite (α-CEHC) increased ≥ 100-fold. Moreover, α-T increases were accompanied by downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and modified expression of tissue ATP-binding cassette transporters. Thus, in rats, high tissue α-T depleted tissue MK-4 without significantly increasing urinary vitamin K metabolite excretion. Changes in tissue MK-4 and PK levels may be a result of altered regulation of transporters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  15. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sarah E; Grissom, Nicola M; Herdt, Christopher T; Reyes, Teresa M

    2017-06-01

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life-particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function-we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation ( e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.-McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation alters

  16. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet–fed dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sarah E.; Grissom, Nicola M.; Herdt, Christopher T.; Reyes, Teresa M.

    2017-01-01

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)–fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life—particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function—we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation (e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.—McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation

  17. Identification of The First Limiting Amino Acid In Cooked Polished White Rice Fed To Weanling Holtzman Rats

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    Mellova Masrizal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male weanling rats (91 g were utilized to study the nutritional adequacy of cooked polished white rice. Rats were individually housed, and allowed ad libitum access to one of six treatment diets. Treatment diets were 1 polished white rice plus 10% casein and 0.18% methionine, CAS, 2 polished white rice, WHR, 3 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, LYS, 4 polished white rice plus0.40% methionine, MET, 5 polished white rice plus 0.30% threonine, THR, 6 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, 0.40% methionine, and 0.40% threonine, COM. Rice was cooked prior diet formulation using a 3 to 1 ratio of water to rice. Vitamins (AIN-76 and AIN minerals were added to all diets to meet NRC (1978 requirements. Rats fed CAS diets were significantly heavier on d 21 (P<0.05 than rats on COM, LYS, MET, THR, or WHR diets, (219.9 vs. 171.6, 153.2, 153.2, 148.3, or 155.4 g respectively. Supplementation of the most deficient essential amino acids, lysine (LYS or methionine (MET did not improve (P>0.05 rat performance over WHR fed rats, Average daily gain (ADG for CAS was 6.1 g/d and ADG for LYS and MET was 3.0 g/d. The addition of threonine (THR significantly (P<0.05 reduced ADG when compared to WHR diets (2.7 vs. 3.0 g/d. When rats were fed to COM diet significant (P<0.05 improvement in ADG was observed compared to WHR fed rats (4.8 vs. 3.0 g/d. The increased gains achieved with COM diet and the poor gains observed with the single amino acid diets (LYS, MET, or THR would suggest that polished white rice is limiting in more than one essential amino acid.

  18. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  19. Peripheral tumors alter neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyter, Leah M; El Mouatassim Bih, Sarah; Sattar, Husain; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-03-13

    Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis that peripheral tumors likewise induce neuroinflammatory sensitization or priming. Female rats with chemically-induced mammary carcinomas were injected with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250μg/kg; i.p.), and expression of mRNAs involved in the pathway linking inflammation and depression (interleukin-1beta [Il-1β], CD11b, IκBα, indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase [Ido]) was quantified by qPCR in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex, 4 or 24h post-treatment. In the absence of LPS, hippocampal Il-1β and CD11b mRNA expression were elevated in tumor-bearing rats, whereas Ido expression was reduced. Moreover, in saline-treated rats basal hypothalamic Il-1β and CD11b expression were positively correlated with tumor weight; heavier tumors, in turn, were characterized by more inflammatory, necrotic, and granulation tissue. Tumors exacerbated CNS proinflammatory gene expression in response to LPS: CD11b was greater in hippocampus and frontal cortex of tumor-bearing relative to tumor-free rats, IκBα was greater in hippocampus, and Ido was greater in hypothalamus. Greater neuroinflammatory responses in tumor-bearing rats were accompanied by attenuated body weight gain post-LPS. The data indicate that neuroinflammatory pathways are potentiated, or primed, in tumor-bearing rats, which may exacerbate future negative behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

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    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  1. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

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    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  2. Effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine on the liver of high fat diet fed rats

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    Marco Giammanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have highlighted that the administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipids induces a decrease of cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels and body weight (BW without inducing liver steatosis. On the basis of these observations we carried out some experimental in vivo studies to assess the effects of multiple high doses of T2 on the pituitary thyroid axis of rats fed diet rich in lipids. Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each. The first group (N group received standard diet, the second group was fed with a high fat diet (HFD group, while the third group (HFDT2 group was additionally given T2 intraperitoneally at a dose level of 70 µg/100 g of BW three times a week up to four weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood sample from each animal was collected, centrifuged and the serum was stored at -20°C. The serum concentrations of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were then determined. In addition, liver of rats was examined by histology in order to assess the presence and degree of steatosis. The administration of T2 to rats fed with a high fat diet suppressed TSH secretion (P=0.013 while no steatosis was observed in the liver of these animals. Our data show that multiple administrations of high doses of T2 to rats fed diets rich in lipid inhibit TSH secretion and prevent the onset of liver steatosis in these animals.

  3. Participation of locus coeruleus in breathing control in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Débora; Patrone, Luis Gustavo A; Marques, Danuzia A; Vicente, Mariane C; Szawka, Raphael E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Bícego, Kênia C; Gargaglioni, Luciane H

    2017-11-01

    Several evidences indicate that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in central chemoreception responding to CO 2 /pH and displaying a high percentage of chemosensitive neurons (>80%). However, there are no studies about the LC-mediated hypercapnic ventilation performed in females. Therefore, we assessed the role of noradrenergic LC neurons in non-ovariectomized (NOVX), ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) rats in respiratory response to hypercapnia, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesion model. A reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons (51-90% in 3 animals of NOVX group, 20-42% of lesion in 5 animals of NOVX females, 61.3% for OVX and 62.6% for OVX+E2 group) was observed seven days after microinjection of 6-OHDA in the LC. The chemical lesion of the LC resulted in decreased respiratory frequency under normocapnic conditions in OVX and OVX+E2 group. Hypercapnia increased ventilation in all groups as consequence of increases in respiratory frequency (fR) and tidal volume (V T ). Nevertheless, the hypercapnic ventilatory response was significantly decreased in 6-OHDA-NOVX>50% rats compared with SHAM-NOVX group and with females that had 20-42% of LC lesion. In OVX and OVX+E2 lesioned groups, no difference in CO 2 ventilatory response was observed when compared to SHAM-OVX and SHAM-OVX+E2 groups, respectively. Neither basal body temperature (Tb) nor Tb reduction in response to hypercapnia were affected by E2 treatment, ovariectomy or LC lesion. Thus, our data show that LC noradrenergic neurons seem to exert an excitatory role on the hypercapnic ventilatory response in female rats, as evidenced by the results in NOVX animals with LC lesioned more than 50%; however, this modulation is not observed in OVX and OVX+E2 rats. In addition, LC noradrenergic neurons of OVX females seem to provide a tonic excitatory drive to maintain breathing frequency in normocapnia, and this response may not to be

  4. Phyto chemical Protection against Diethylnitrosoamine Induced Hepato carcinogenesis by Trigonella foenum graecum in Female Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelgawad, M R; Mustafa, M M.M.; Kottb, M K.I. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Biological Applications Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-05-15

    Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is traditionally used to treat. Recent studies suggest that fenugreek and its active constituents may possess anti carcinogenic potential. The preventive efficacy of dietary fenugreek seed 2% and 4% (w/w feed) on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver carcinogenesis were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed when rats became very weak with unstable shelf live were chosen as an end point. Egypt is an Islamic country alcoholic prohibition so the possible use of ethanol extraction may be accepted with high restriction towards its applications in human, that it may affect the active constituents of fenugreek seeds. Whereby, fenugreek seeds contain >8% oil, many valuable phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, etc ... with different concentrations according to the extraction method. So, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of fenugreek powder on adult female rats fed experimental diets containing 2% or 4% (w/w) fenugreek seed powder (FSP) for 2 weeks and have phenobarbital in a dose of 200 mg/L ad lib. before and after a single injection with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 20 weeks after intra-peritoneal (i.p) diethylnitrosamine injection and their livers, spleens, kidneys and lungs were excised washed well with cold saline, weighted and processed through paraffin wax preparation, staining and pathological changes were examined. It was found that, by comparison with control, continuous feeding of FSP 2% and 4% suppressed hepatocarcinogensity up to 20% and 50%, respectively. In addition, on the basis of these findings, the invaluable and precious fenugreek constituents are diosgenin [(25 R)-5-spirosten-3h-ol] and [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6(hydroxymethyl) tetra- hydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)chroman-4-one] besides, others. Finally, fenugreek seeds seem to have potential role as a novel cancer preventive agent and that needs further investigations

  5. [Vitamin E and experimental caries in rats fed a cariogenic diet and zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Longo, A

    1981-01-01

    A cariogenic diet with zinc and vitamin E administered to rats for 90 days led to a reduction in caries of 21.87% by comparison with animals fed with the cariogenic diet only, and 3.12% by comparison with those that received the diet plus zinc. Although the details of the mechanism of action of vitamin E are not fully known, it is felt that its demonstrated cariostatic effect depends on its antioxidant activity and its protection of the sulphydryl groups of some enzyme system, together with its direct intervention in cell respiration. Since both vitamin E and zinc activate NAD-dependent LDH, their simultaneous administration enhances their individual cariostatic effects by bringing about a lower accumulation of lactic acid in the bacterial plaque.

  6. Prebiotic and synbiotic effects on rats fed malted barley with selected bacteria strains

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    Yadong Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyric acid, one of the key products formed when β-glucans are degraded by the microbiota in the colon, has been proposed to be important for colonic health. Glutamine bound to the fibre may have similar effects once it has been liberated from the fibre in the colon. Both β-glucans and glutamine are found in high amounts in malted barley. Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats. Objective: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt. Design: The experimental diets were fed for 12 days. The daily dose of the probiotic strain was 1×109 colony forming units and the intake of fibre 0.82 g/day. Results: The malt mostly contained insoluble fibre polymers (93%, consisting of glucose and xylose (38–41 g/kg and some arabinose (21 g/kg. The fibre polysaccharides were quite resistant to fermentation in the rats, regardless of whether or not probiotics were added (25–30% were fermented. Caecal and portal levels of acetic acid decreased in the rats after the addition of L. plantarum HEAL 9 and L. rhamnosus 271, and also the levels of butyric acid. Viable counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were unaffected, while the caecal composition of Lactobacilli was influenced by the type of strain administrated. Portal levels of glutamine were unchanged, but glycine levels increased with L. plantarum HEAL 9 and 19 and phenylalanine with L. rhamnosus 271. Conclusions: Although the probiotic strains survived and reached the caecum, except B. infantis CURE 21, there were no effects on viable counts or in the fermentation of different fibre components, but the formation of some bacterial metabolites decreased. This may be due to

  7. Enterohepatic circulation of nonconjugated bilirubin in rats fed with human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.M.; Whitington, P.F.; Whitington, S.H.; Rivard, W.A.; Given, G.

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin may contribute to prolonged nonconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in human milk-fed infants, we studied a cross-section of 36 healthy infants and mothers. Milk from mothers and serum from infants were collected at 16.3 +/- 2.4 days. Milk was studied for its effect on the absorption of bilirubin labeled with carbon 14 in rats and compared with buffer and iron-fortified infant formula (Similac With Iron). The percentage of a 1 mg bilirubin dose absorbed by the rat was 25.29 +/- 4.0% when it was administered into the duodenum with buffer, 4.67 +/- 2.4% with Similac formula, and 7.7 +/- 2.9% with human milk. Linear regression analysis, using the infant's serum nonconjugated bilirubin level as the dependent variable and the percentage of (14C)bilirubin absorbed by the rat with the corresponding mother's milk as the independent variable, revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.016). Inspection of the data suggested that absorptive permissiveness correlated closely with infant serum bilirubin values greater than 24 mumol/L (1.4 mg/dl) (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), whereas in those with bilirubin values less than or equal to 24 mumol/L, there was no apparent correlation. Milk was also analyzed for beta-glucuronidase, nonesterified fatty acids, and the ability to inhibit glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes in vitro, none of which correlated with the infant's serum bilirubin. These data support the theory that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin contributes to the jaundice associated with breast-feeding

  8. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

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    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  9. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  11. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  12. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  13. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  14. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  15. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  16. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  17. Effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial function in aged diabetic and high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, C M; Nunes, E; Louro, T; Proença, T; Fernandes, R; Boarder, M R; Seiça, R M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on endothelial function in diabetic and high-fat fed animal models and elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the benefits of α-LA. Experimental approach: Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), plasma and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed in non-diabetic controls (Wistar rats), untreated Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic and high-fat fed GK rats (fed with atherogenic diet only, treated with α-LA and treated with vehicle, for 3 months). Vascular eNOS, nitrotyrosine, carbonyl groups and superoxide anion were also assessed in the different groups. Key results: α-LA and soybean oil significantly reduced both total and non-HDL serum cholesterol and triglycerides induced by atherogenic diet. MDA, carbonyl groups, vascular superoxide and 8-OHdG levels were higher in GK and high-fat fed GK groups and fully reversed with α-LA treatment. High-fat fed GK diabetic rats showed significantly reduced endothelial function and increased UAE, effects ameliorated with α-LA. This endothelial dysfunction was associated with decreased NO production, decreased expression of eNOS and increased vascular superoxide production and nitrotyrosine expression. Conclusions and implications: α-LA restores endothelial function and significantly improves systemic and local oxidative stress in high-fat fed GK diabetic rats. Improved endothelial function due to α-LA was at least partially attributed to recoupling of eNOS and increased NO bioavailability and represents a pharmacological approach to prevent major complications associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17906683

  18. Enhancement of colon carcinogenesis by the combination of indole-3 carbinol and synbiotics in hemin-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; de Moraes, Leonardo N; Carvalho, Robson F; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2018-02-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) could be associated with red and processed meat intake. Experimental data supports that hemin iron, found abundantly in red meat, promotes CRC in mice and rats, while indole-3 carbinol (I3C) and synbiotics (syn) exert anti-carcinogenic activities in most studies of colon carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the modifying effects of I3C and syn (inulin + Bifidobacterium lactis), given separately or together, on dimethylhidrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in hemin-fed rats. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections and then, two weeks after carcinogen exposure, they began a basal diet containing hemin, hemin + I3C, hemin + syn, or hemin + I3C + syn for 23 weeks. The combination of I3C + syn significantly increased fecal water genotoxicity, tumor volume and invasiveness when compared to the hemin-fed control group. The groups fed I3C or syn alone had a significant reduction in the number of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions compared to the hemin-fed group. Dietary I3C also reduced fecal water genotoxicity. Gene expression analysis of colorectal tumors demonstrated that the combination of dietary I3C + syn increased transcript levels for Raf1 and decreased tumor progression and invasiveness related to the genes Cdh1 and Appl1. This analysis also revealed that the Tnf and Cdh1 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumors of rats that received I3C, in comparison with the hemin-fed group. These findings reveal that the joint administration of I3C and syn enhanced the development of colon tumors induced by DMH in hemin-fed rats, while they potentially reduced ACF development when given alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Virtual determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T.T. Trindidade et al

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of animals, composed by glucoseresidues forming a branched polymer. The liver glycogen metabolism and hepaticgluconeogenesis are important buffer systems of blood glucose in different physiological orpathological situations, such as, during a fast period. Fasting muscle glycogenolysis alsooccurs, however, the release of glucose into the bloodstream is negligible because themuscle doesn’t have the enzyme glucose-6-P phosphatase, which is present in the liver.Objectives: This panel presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulatesthe determination of liver and muscle glycogen obtained from fed rats and from 24-hourfasted rats Materials and Methods: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show themethodology procedures and biochemical fundamentals. The most representative imageswere selected, edited, organized in a scene menu and inserted into an animationdeveloped with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. The validation of this object wasperformed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the secondsemester of 2009 until the second semester of 2013. Results and Discussion: Theanalysis of students' answers revealed that 83% of them attributed the excellence rate tothe navigation program, to the display format and to the learning help. Conclusion:Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as wellas an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge ofBiochemistry. Support: SEAD-UFRGSAvailable at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/obtencaodosagemglicogenio/

  1. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  2. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  3. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, V G; Rajamohan, T

    2008-12-01

    The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (Pcholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (Pcholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (Pcholesterol enriched diet.

  5. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Liao, Chen-Chung; Liao, Yi-Chun; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Wu, Liang-Yi; Hsieh, Shu-Chen

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  7. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chu Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of umbelliferone in chronic alcohol-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Ok; Lee, Hae-In; Ham, Ju Ri; Seo, Kwon-Il; Kim, Myung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inflammation is associated with various types of acute and chronic alcohol liver diseases. In this study, we examined whether umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin, UF) ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory response and the antioxidant system. METHODS Rats were fed a Liber-Decarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol with or without UF (0.05 g/L) for 8 weeks, while normal rats received an isocaloric carbohydrate liquid diet. RESULTS Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 levels and decreased interleukin 10 level; however, UF supplementation reversed the cytokines related to liver damage. UF significantly suppressed hepatic lipopolysaccharide binding protein, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B, and TNF-α gene expression increases in response to chronic alcohol intake. Masson's trichrome staining revealed that UF improved mild hepatic fibrosis caused by alcohol, and UF also significantly increased the mRNA expressions and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, and thus, decreased lipid peroxide and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study indicate that UF protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway and activating the antioxidant system. PMID:26244074

  9. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Glucose Disposal in the Gastrocnemius Muscles of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-01-01

    Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP-exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed a control (20% protein) or an isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months, and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 minutes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months. LP females were smaller at birth but showed rapid catchup growth by 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test in LP offspring at 3 months showed elevated serum glucose levels (P insulin levels. In gastrocnemius muscles, LP rats showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 upon insulin stimulation due to the overexpression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but serine phosphorylation was unaffected. Furthermore, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)–3α, and GSK-3β was diminished in LP rats, and they displayed an increased basal phosphorylation (inactive form) of glycogen synthase. Our study shows that gestational protein restriction causes peripheral insulin resistance by a series of phosphorylation defects in skeletal muscle in a mechanism involving insulin receptor substrate 1, SHP-2, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase causing dysfunctional GSK-3 signaling and increased stored glycogen, leading to distorted glucose homeostasis. PMID:28324067

  10. Vagus nerve contributes to metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz F; Miranda, Rosiane A; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Alves, Vander S; Malta, Ananda; Ribeiro, Tatiane A S; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo C F; de Oliveira, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Different nerve contributes periods of life are known for their differential sensitivity to interventions, and increased parasympathetic activity affects the development and maintenance of obesity. Thus, we evaluated the involvement of the vagus nerve by performing a vagotomy in young or adult rats that were offered an obesogenic high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Although the accumulation of adipose tissue decreased in both younger and older groups, the younger rats showed a greater response to the effects of vagotomy in general. In addition to the important role of the parasympathetic activity, we suggest that the vagus nerve contributes to the condition of obesity. Obesity has become a global problem, and this condition develops primarily because of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The high complexity involved in the regulation of energy metabolism results from several factors besides endocrine factors. It has been suggested that obesity could be caused by an imbalance in the autonomous nervous system, which could lead to a condition of high parasympathetic activity in counterpart to low sympathetic tonus. High-fat (HF) diets have been used to induce obesity in experimental animals, and their use in animals leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and high parasympathetic activity, among other disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a vagotomy performed at the initiation of a HF diet at two different stages of life, weaning and adulthood. The vagotomy reduced parasympathetic activity (-32 and -51% in normal fat-fed rats and -43 and -55% in HF diet-fed rats; P fat depots (-17 and -33%, only in HF diet-fed rats; P fat diet-fed rats exhibited fasting hyperinsulinaemia (fivefold higher in young rats and threefold higher in older rats; P diet-fed groups was not altered in the vagotomized rats. We suggest that the vagus nerve, in addition to the

  11. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  12. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser 307 . Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  13. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

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    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  15. Tributyltin impairs the reproductive cycle in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Podratz, Priscila; Delgado Filho, Vicente Sathler; Lopes, Pedro Francisco Iguatemy; Cavati Sena, Gabriela; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro Miguel, Emilio; Silva, Ian Victor; Graceli, Jones Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Triorganotins are environmental contaminants, commonly used in antifouling agents for boats, that bioaccumulate and thus are found in mammals and humans due to ingestion of contaminated seafood diets. The importance of triorganotins as environmental endocrine disruptors and consequent reproductive toxicity in different animal models is well known; however, the adverse effects on reproductive cycle are less well understood. The potential reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) on regular reproductive cycling of female rats was examined. Wistar female rats (12 wk old, weighing approximately 230 g) were divided into two groups: control (vehicle, ethanol 0.4%) and tributyltin (100 ng/kg/d, 7 d/wk, for 16 d by gavage). Tributyltin significantly decreased the cycle regularity (%), duration of the reproductive cycle, the proestrus and diestrus phases, and number of epithelial cell in proestrus phase. TBT also increased the duration of metestrus and the number of cornified cells in this phase. Ovary weight and serum 17β-estradiol levels decreased markedly, accompanied by a significant increase in progesterone levels. Histological analysis showed apoptotic cells in corpus luteum and granulosa cells layer, with cystic follicles after TBT exposure. Tributyltin also elevated number of atretic follicles and corpoa lutea. The micronucleus (MN) test, using Chinese hamster ovary cells, demonstrated a concentration-dependent mutagenic effect of TBT, and at 2.0 × 10(-2)ng/ml most of the cells were nonviable. The toxic potential of TBT over the reproductive cycle may be attributed to changes found in the ovarian weight, unbalanced levels of sexual female hormones, and number of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

  16. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  17. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  18. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Andrie, Mohamad; Warditiani, Ni Kadek; Siswanto, Eka; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Lukitaningsih, Endang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by high-fructose-fat diet containing 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 gb.wt. 55 days. The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day. Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre– and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. Results: The purified extract and andrographolide significantly (PAndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. PMID:22701250

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Does Not Alter the Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Central Serotonin Turnover or Behavior in the Forced Swim Test in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids d...

  20. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  2. Selected Physiological Effects of a Garcinia Gummi-Gutta Extract in Rats Fed with Different Hypercaloric Diets

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    Carolina Guillén-Enríquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gummi-gutta (GGG rind extract is effective for reducing appetite, body weight and adiposity of obese rodents fed high-fat (HF, high-sugar (HS or high fat/sugar (HFS-based diets, but these effects have not been simultaneously evaluated. Thirty obese (~425 g male Wistar rats were fed for eleven weeks with six hypercaloric diets (4.1 kcal/g; five rats/diet non-supplemented (HF, HS, HFS, or supplemented (HF+, HS+, HFS+ with GGG extract (5.9%, while rats from the control group (375 g were fed a normocaloric diet (3.5 kcal/g. Body weight, dietary intake, body fat distribution, and histological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Compared to control rats, non-supplemented and supplemented groups consumed significantly less food (14.3% and 24.6% (−4.3 g/day, respectively (p < 0.05. Weight loss was greater in the HF+ group (35–52 g, which consumed 1.9 times less food than the HS+ or HFS+ fed groups. The HF and HFS groups showed 40% less plasma triacylglycerides and lower glucose levels compared to the HF+. GGG-supplemented diets were associated with lower ketonuria. The HF+ diet was associated with the best anti-adiposity effect (as measured with the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and Soxhlet methods. The severity of hepatocyte lipidosis was HF > control > HF+, and no signs of toxicity in the testes were observed. The results indicate that GGG is more effective when co-administered with HF diets in obese rats.

  3. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  4. Metabolism of strawberry mono- and dimeric ellagitannins in rats fed a diet containing fructo-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Fotschki, Bartosz; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Katarzyna; Markiewicz, Lidia

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with strawberry extracts rich in ETs and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota and the formation of bacterial metabolites in the distal intestine, as well as the absorption of ET metabolites and antioxidant status in rats. Rats were allocated into six groups of eight animals each and fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (group C), a control diet supplemented with FOS (group C + FOS) or modifications of these diets, in which a monomeric or dimeric ET-rich extract was added (groups ME and ME + FOS or DE and DE + FOS, respectively). The extract addition, the FOS addition and their interaction significantly affected the total and selected bacterial counts in the caecal digesta (all P bacterial count was the highest in group C + FOS, lower in group DE and the lowest in group ME + FOS (10.6, 10.3 and 8.52 log cells/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). The total caecal content of ET metabolites was higher in the ME and ME + FOS group than in the DE and DE + FOS group, respectively (67.8 and 89.5 vs. 13.0 and 18.0 µg/g, respectively; P < 0.001). The total plasma concentration of ET metabolites was higher in the ME + FOS and DE + FOS group than in the ME group (248 and 281 vs. 8.13 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). ETs of the monomeric ET-rich extract are more prone to intestinal breakdown than those of the dimeric ET-rich extract, and absorption of their metabolites can be increased by dietary FOS; however, together, they evoke strong antibacterial activity.

  5. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  6. Incorporation in vivo of 1-14C-acetate into lipids of rats fed threonine imbalanced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideo; Sugano, Michihiro

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the fatty liver production in rats fed the thereonine imbalanced diet, time course of lipogenesis was followed after intraperitoneal injection of 1- 14 C-acetate into rats that had been reared on the imbalanced diet for 7 days. 1) The rate of the incorporation of 1- 14 C-acetate into hepatic triglyceride, estimated either on the base of unit weight of liver or of whole liver, in comparison with that of the control rats, did not increase by feeding the imbalanced diet under the condition where the extent of lipogenesis could be measured (30 min after the dose of the label). Also, the specific activity of triglyceride was by no means high at this point. The rate of disappearance of the radioactivity, between 60 min and 180 min after the label injection, from triglyceride was evidently slower in rats fed the imbalanced diet, thus the radioactivity of triglyceride in this animal being to some extent higher after 180 min. 2) The incorporation of radioactivity into phospholipid was not influenced by the imbalanced diet. 3) There was no difference in the incorporation of the radioactivity into kidney lipids between the control and imbalanced groups. 4) From the distribution of the radioactivity in the hepatic lipid fractions, it appeared that the relative incorporation into triglyceride tended to increase after feeding the imbalanced diet. 5) There were no demonstrable differences in the activity of plasma total lipids at any times after the injection of the label. The ratio of the label incorporation into whole plasma and liver total lipids tended to decrease in the imbalanced rat after 180 min. These results suggested that, although alternative explanations are possible, the decreased turnover in hepatic triglyceride, rather than the increased hepatic lipogenesis, would largely be responsible for the production of fatty liver in rats fed the threonine imbalanced diet. (auth.)

  7. Haloperidol and Rimonabant Increase Delay Discounting in Rats Fed High-Fat and Standard-Chow Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for three months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n = 9 standard chow; n = 10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately vs. three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered i.p. before some choice sessions in both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition demonstrated increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared to chow-fed controls: haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition,, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking D2 and CB1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task. PMID:25000488

  8. Toxicological parameters of albino rats fed with extruded snacks from Aerial yam (Dioscoria bulbifera) and African breadfruit seed (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, Kazeem K; Arueya, Gibson L

    2018-01-01

    In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana , underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p  ≤ .05 different among the treatment and controls. However there was an increase in monocytes, which is a reflection of immune boosting potential of the novel snack. No significant pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of rats fed with this snack. Rats showed no signs of toxicity within the study period. These findings suggest that product may be safe and useful as an Immune adjuvant.

  9. GLP-1 and GLP-2 act in concert to inhibit fasted, but not fed, small bowel motility in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Näslund, Erik; Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Small bowel motility was studied in rats at increasing (1-20 pmol/kg/min) intravenous doses of either glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alone, or in combination in the fasted and fed state. There was a dose-dependent inhibitory action of GLP-1 on the migrating myo...... demonstrates an additive effect of peripheral administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on fasted small bowel motility. In the fed state, GLP-1 and GLP-2 seem to display counter-balancing effects on motility of the small intestine....... myoelectric complex (MMC), where the dose of 5 pmol/kg/min induced an increased MMC cycle length. No effect was seen with GLP-2 alone, but the combination of GLP-1 and GLP-2 induced a more pronounced inhibitory effect, with significant increase of the MMC cycle length from a dose of 2 pmol/kg/min. During fed...

  10. The effect of fluorine and homeopathic medicines in rats fed cariogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N T; Dalmeida, V; Pustiglione, M

    2004-07-01

    Although some sectors of dentistry have benefited from technological advances, dental caries is still a major problem. Prevention and treatment of dental caries by fluorine is considered a major advance in public health. Nevertheless fluorosis, caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of fluorine during the period of teeth formation, is of great concern. In accordance with the homeopathic doctrine, minimum doses of fluorine and other substances could prevent and/or treat caries. In this experiment, we compared the preventive action of fluorine and evaluated the effect of homeopathic medicines on the teeth of rats fed a cariogenic diet. None of the groups included in this study developed caries. However, microscopy revealed the presence of precipitate and/or deposit in the groups treated with homeopathic medicines. This phenomenon might be due to deposit in the dental surface or precipitation of bacterial plaque or calcium salts. It was not possible to identify the composition of the deposit/precipitate due for technical reasons. In one of the groups treated with homeopathic medicines fur loss was observed in 40% of animals. These reactions might be caused due to the action of the homeopathic medicines.

  11. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rats Fed Detoxified Jojoba Meal Through Radiation Processing and Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present of toxic cyano glucosides makes the jojoba meal, rich in protein, unacceptable for animal's feed. Irradiation jojoba meal at 25, 50, and 75 kGy, heat, microwave, fermented raw and fermented irradiated jojoba meal at 75 kGy were investigated for inactivation of glucosinolates. Raw jojoba meal contains 0.702%. Proceeding jojoba meal by above mentioned methods reducing the activity of glucosinolates by 8.26, 13.96, 20.66, 11.97, 5.27, 10.26 and 24.79%, respectively. The present study has investigated the effect of supplementation of 38.5% of raw jojoba meal and processed meals in the food of growing male Albino rats for four weeks on mortality rate, body and organs weight evaluation as well as the effect on blood chemistry. The present work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of jojoba meal at 75 kGy and the fermentation process by using Fusarium moniliforme reduced the bioactive antinutrional factors, glucosinolate compounds, present naturally in the meal under investigation. Also, the results confirm that the glucosinolates content of jojoba meal after irradiation process at 75 kGy is still high and has considerable biological effects on the animals fed such meals, during the experimental period (four weeks). Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required to minimize glucosinolates in jojoba meal. (authors)

  13. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  14. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  15. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyianni, M.; Freedland, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution under various nutritional regimens of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis was estimated by measuring the glucose formation from 14C-labeled substrates. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 60 min in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 containing lactate, pyruvate and all the amino acids at concentrations similar to their physiological levels found in rat plasma, with one precursor labeled in each flask. In all conditions, lactate was the major glucose precursor, providing over 60% of the glucose formed. Glutamine and alanine were the major amino acid precursors of glucose, contributing 9.8% and 10.6% of the glucose formed, respectively, in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats. Serine, glycine and threonine also contributed to gluconeogenesis in the starved liver cells at 2.6, 2.1 and 3.8%, respectively, of the glucose formed. The rate of glucose formation from the isolated hepatocytes of the starved rats and those fed either high protein or high fat was higher than that from rats fed a nonpurified diet

  16. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  18. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  19. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  20. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  1. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  2. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  3. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α -glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC 50 values of 67.33 and 86.68  μ g/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05  μ g/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model ( P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  4. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Characterization of biliary conjugates of 4,4'-methylenedianiline in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Santa Cruz, Vicente; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [ 14 C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS and NMR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4'-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4-5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [ 14 C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased

  7. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  8. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  9. Body retention and tissue distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruden, Nevenka

    1980-01-01

    The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59 Fe and 54 Mn retention and selective tissue distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially fed for 7 hrs 0,45 ml of cow's milk or cow's milk enriched with either 52 or 103 μg of Fe /ml and marked with 59 Fe and 54 Mn. After 4 days there was no significant difference in whole body or carcass activity between the groups. Iron added to milk in large amounts did not influence body 59 Fe or 54 Mn retention in newborn rats, whereas it enhanced 59 Fe deposition in the liver and the intestinal wall and, to a lesser extent, 54 Mn deposition in the liver

  10. Rats Fed a Diet Rich in Fats and Sugars Are Impaired in the Use of Spatial Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dominic M D; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2015-12-01

    A diet rich in fats and sugars is associated with cognitive deficits in people, and rodent models have shown that such a diet produces deficits on tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. Spatial navigation is guided by two distinct types of information: geometrical, such as distance and direction, and featural, such as luminance and pattern. To clarify the nature of diet-induced spatial impairments, we provided rats with standard chow supplemented with sugar water and a range of energy-rich foods eaten by people, and then we assessed their place- and object-recognition memory. Rats exposed to this diet performed comparably with control rats fed only chow on object recognition but worse on place recognition. This impairment on the place-recognition task was present after only a few days on the diet and persisted across tests. Critically, this spatial impairment was specific to the processing of distance and direction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less 59 Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal

  12. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  13. Concomitant Effects of Caffeine and Gamma Irradiation in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y. A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective potential of caffeine as an antioxidant (80 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. injected 1 hr before exposure to a dose of (7 Gy) gamma irradiation in female rats. Alterations in serum lipids, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids as well as total proteins, urea and uric acid have been investigated 1, 3 and 7 days post irradiation and /or caffeine treatment. Histological and histochemical changes of the dorsal aorta have been studied 7 days post treatment. Results revealed elevated total lipids, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, beside distortion in fatty acids throughout the whole experimentation period by caffeine pre injection, irradiation application and by dual treatment. Protein and urea were elevated by caffeine or irradiation, while both treatments dropped their levels, whereas uric was decreased by all treatments. Histopathological changes and deposition of sudanophilic material in the dorsal aorta wall were detected by either one or both treatments, which point out a limitation in the protective potential of caffeine

  14. The effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    and garlic, group B was fed on high cholesterol diet only, group C was fed on normal diet. (controls) ... An international journal published by the. Nigerian .... Table 4: Statistical comparison of the different groups. A Vs B. A Vs C. A Vs D. B Vs C.

  15. Activity-based anorexia activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in distinct brain nuclei of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Lommel, Reinhard; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-12-15

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricted feeding (RF), activity (AC) and ad libitum fed (AL). After the 21-day experimental period and development of ABA, brains were processed for c-Fos/nesfatin-1 double labeling immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus and in the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract compared to AL and AC groups (p0.05). Moreover, we observed significantly more c-Fos and nesfatin-1 ir double-labeled cells in ABA rats compared to RF, AL and AC in the supraoptic nucleus (p<0.05) and compared to AL and AC in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and the rostral raphe pallidus (p<0.05). Since nesfatin-1 plays a role in the inhibition of food intake and the response to stress, we hypothesize that the observed changes of brain nesfatin-1 might play a role in the pathophysiology and symptomatology under conditions of ABA and potentially also in patients with AN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  17. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  18. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  19. The effects of Bifidobacteria on the lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats fed thermally oxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, there has been concern about the changes taking place in heated oils and the effects on individuals consuming them. The present study investigated the effects of a diet containing thermally oxidized soybean oil (TO) or TO supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacteria (TO+Pro) on the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats. The data showed several indicators of oil deterioration after thermal processing, including high levels of % free fatty acid (FFA; 15-fold), acid value (AV; 14-fold), peroxide value (8-fold), p-anisidine value (AnV; 39-fold), total oxidation value (TOTOX; 19-fold), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value (8.5-fold), and trans-FA (TFA) isomers (2.5-fold) compared to the control. The rats that were fed a diet containing TO showed a significant (p blood serum samples. High levels of TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were also detected in the livers, kidneys, testes, and brains of rats. Interestingly, a diet containing TO+Pro restored all biological parameters to their control values. The present data suggested that Bifidobacteria may ameliorate the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers that are generated in animals that are fed a TO diet.

  20. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  1. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pdevelopment of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  3. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  4. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  5. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  6. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  7. Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Russell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Objective Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Results Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Discussion Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia. PMID:18223610

  8. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  9. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  10. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  12. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  13. Excess androgen during puberty disrupts circadian organization in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellix, Michael T; Murphy, Zachary C; Menaker, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Circadian clocks have been described in each tissue of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Although a role for the clock in the timing of ovulation is indicated, the impact of diseases that disrupt fertility on clock function or the clocks' role in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be fully appreciated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating endocrinopathy, affecting approximately 10% of women at childbearing age. Common features of PCOS are a polycystic ovary, amenorrhea, and excess serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia. It has been suggested that excess androgen is a critical factor in the etiology of PCOS. We have examined the effects of androgen excess during puberty on the phase of circadian clocks in tissues of the metabolic and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axes. Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 weeks (long term). As expected, DHT-treated animals gained more weight than controls and had disrupted estrous cycles. At the end of treatment, tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, white adipose, cornea, pituitary, oviduct, and ovarian follicles, were cultured, and per1-luc expression in each was recorded. Analysis of per1-luc expression revealed that DHT exposure increased phase distribution of multiple oscillators, including ovarian follicles, liver, and adipose, and altered phase synchrony between animals. These data suggest that excess androgen during puberty, a common feature of PCOS, negatively affects internal circadian organization in both the reproductive and metabolic axes.

  14. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  15. Regional differences in the pituitary distribution of luteinizing hormone in the gonadectomized and proestrous female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous data have shown regional differences in the presence of anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) that generally correlate with comparable disparities in the distribution of gonadotropes throughout the gland. In female rats, the differences are apparent over the estro...

  16. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Isoflurane Anesthesia Interferes with the Expression of Cocaine-Induced Sensitization in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Nora; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration results in a progressive sensitization of behavior which typically occurs more readily in female rats than in males. Our recent studies of rats undergoing surgical procedures revealed that following anesthesia, females sensitized less than males receiving identical repeated cocaine injections. Since isoflurane acts primarily by increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reducing the effects of the excitatory amino ...

  18. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Kawakami, Sakura; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Hayakawa, Touru; Onoue, Hirotake; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    L-cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (pL-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.

  19. Utilization of [1-14C]carbon of glycine of high glycine diet fed young and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Medovar, B.Ya.; Pisarczuk, K.L.; Grigorov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from [1- 14 C]glycine was studied in various organ (serum, liver, muscle) fractions (acid soluble, proteins, lipids, liver glycogen) and carbon dioxide in rats fed with isonitrogenous isocaloric purfied diets. The diets contained 30% casein (control), gelatin (exchange of half of the 30% casein) or glycine (corresponding level of glycine in relation to the gelatin diet). The incorporation of radioactivity into proteins was reduced by feeding high glycine diets in young (20-weeks-old) and old (18-month-old) rats in relation to the control diet. The modifications of the results for old animals may be partially explained on the base of a reduced protein turnover rate and adaptation to a high gelatin (glycine) diet. (author)

  20. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...... weight, glomerular number or volume in OHF compared with OC, but renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were significantly reduced in OHF compared with controls. Programmed alterations to aortic structure and function are consistent with previous observations that exposure to maternal high fat diets produces...

  1. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  2. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  3. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  4. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in conditioned mate guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Bellevue, Shannon; Vosberg, Daniel; Wenzel, Kerstin; Roorda, Sieger; Pfaus, James G

    2015-05-15

    We have shown previously that female rats given their first copulatory experiences with the same male rat display mate guarding behavior in the presence of that male provided a female competitor is also present. Females given access to the familiar male show more Fos induction within regions of the brain that contain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) cell bodies, notably the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) relative to females given sexual experience with different males. The present experiments examined whether the Fos induction we previously observed within the SON and PVN occurred within OT and/or AVP neurons, and whether exogenous administration of OT or AVP prior to female rats first sexual experience could potentiate the acquisition of mate guarding behavior. Female rats that display conditioned mate guarding had significantly more double-labeled Fos/OT neurons in both SON and PVN, and significantly more Fos/AVP neurons in the PVN. Peripheral administration of OT or AVP prior to their first sexual experience with the familiar male facilitated different aspects of mate guarding: OT augmented affiliative behaviors and presenting responses whereas AVP augmented interference behavior. These results indicate that female rats' first experiences with sexual reward when paired with the same male induce changes to bonding networks in the brain. Moreover peripheral administration of OT or AVP during their first sexual experience can augment different aspects of mate guarding behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  6. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  7. Glycine-U-14C metabolism in young rats fed the 10% casein diets containing excess glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Wakatsuki, Tetsuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    Nine hours after rats fed ad libitum for 14 days a 10% casein diet (10C), a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G) and a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine with 1.4% L-arginine.HCl and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) were force-fed 10 ml of each diet suspension containing 5μCi of glycine-U- 14 C per 100 g of body weight, the radioactivity recoveries of 14 C in expired CO 2 , tissue components and urine were determined. The radioactivity recovery of 14 C in the expired CO 2 of the 10C7G group was generally higher than that of the 10C7GArgMet group. The recovery of 14 C in the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble fraction of muscle of the 10C7G and the 10C7GArgMet groups were greater than that of the 10C group. The recoveries of 14 C in the TCA soluble fraction and protein of plasma and liver, and the muscle protein were negligible in all the groups. The amount of glycine- 14 C incorporated into the carcass lipids of the 10C7GArgMet group was larger than that of other groups. The recoveries of 14 C in the liver and muscle glycogen, and liver lipids were remarkably small in all the groups. From the above results, it was suggested that the degradation of glycine- 14 C to expiratory CO 2 was not accelerated, but the rate of incorporation of the isotope into carcass lipids was increased by the supplementation of L-arginine and L-methionine to the 10C7G diet as compared with that of rats fed the 10C7G diet. (JPN)

  8. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  9. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  11. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  12. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L. M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory

  13. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  15. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.F.; Couto-Pereira, N.S.; Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M.; Nin, M.S.; Gomez, R.; Barros, H.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  16. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  17. High lipid levels in very low density lipoprotein and intermediate density lipoprotein may cause proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in aging female analbuminemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; vanGoor, H; vanderHorst, MLC; vanTol, A; Elema, JD; Koomans, HA

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Male rats are generally more prone to developing renal disease than female rats. However, female Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) are profoundly hyperlipidemic and develop proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis after uninephrectomy. Male NAR are less hyperlipidemic and are resistant to

  18. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat

  19. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin’s impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxyt...

  20. Toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcu, Doruk; Gebre, Rahiwa Z; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  2. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  3. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  4. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  5. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  6. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  7. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in sucrose-fed obese rats via two pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Kazusa; Takei, Yuichiro; Sato, Tadatoshi; Sawada, Naoki; Amo, Kikuko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Arai, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism by which replacement of some dietary carbohydrates with protein during weight loss favors lipid metabolism remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on lipid metabolism in obese rats. High-sucrose-induced obese rats were assigned randomly to one of two energy-restricted dietary interventions: a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) or a high-protein diet (HPD). Lean rats of the same age were assigned as normal control. There was significantly greater improvement in fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia with the HPD diet relative to the CD diet. Expression of genes regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and involved in liver lipolysis and lipid utilitization, such as lipase and acyl-CoA oxidase, increased in obese rats fed the HPD. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between levels of FGF21 gene expression (regulated by glucagon/insulin balance) and increased triglyceride concentrations in liver from obese rats. Expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), regulated primarily by the dietary carbohydrate, was also markedly reduced in the HPD group (similar to plasma triglyceride levels in fasting animals) relative to the CD group. In conclusion, a hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia effectively relative to a carbohydrate diet. The two cellular pathways at work behind these benefits include stimulation of hepatic lipolysis and lipid utilization mediated by FGF21 and reduction of hepatic VLDL-TG production by SCD1 regulation.

  8. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  9. Social transmission of Pavlovian fear: fear-conditioning by-proxy in related female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E; Riha, Penny D; Gore, Andrea C; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-05-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a foot-shock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone will elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). Individuals can also acquire fear from a social context, such as through observing the fear expression of a conspecific. In the current study, we examined the influence of kinship/familiarity on social transmission of fear in female rats. Rats were housed in triads with either sisters or non-related females. One rat from each cage was fear conditioned to a tone CS+ shock US. On day two, the conditioned rat was returned to the chamber accompanied by one of her cage mates. Both rats were allowed to behave freely, while the tone was played in the absence of the foot-shock. The previously untrained rat is referred to as the fear-conditioned by-proxy (FCbP) animal, as she would freeze based on observations of her cage-mate's response rather than due to direct personal experience with the foot-shock. The third rat served as a cage-mate control. The third day, long-term memory tests to the CS were performed. Consistent with our previous application of this paradigm in male rats (Bruchey et al. in Behav Brain Res 214(1):80-84, 2010), our results revealed that social interactions between the fear conditioned and FCbP rats on day two contribute to freezing displayed by the FCbP rats on day three. In this experiment, prosocial behavior occurring at the termination of the cue on day two was significantly greater between sisters than their non-sister counterparts, and this behavior resulted in increased freezing on day three. Our results suggest that familiarity and/or kinship influences the social transmission of fear in female rats.

  10. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using [2-3H]-glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154±1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 μCi [2- 3 H]-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion

  11. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  12. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  13. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  14. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  15. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  16. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  17. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  18. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to

  19. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  20. Hepatic fatty acid profile of rats fed a triheptanoin-based ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meloi, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Ataidei, Terezinha da Rocha; Oliveirai, Suzana Lima de; Bezerra Buenoi, Nassib; Freitasi, Johnnatan Duarte de; Sant'Anai, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. Methods: three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methy...

  1. 20neon ion- and x-ray-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Baum, J.W.; Holtzman, S.; Stone, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the proposed uses of heavy ion irradiation is to image lesions of the human female breast. The rat model system was chosen to assess the carcinogenic potential of heavy ion irradiation in the belief that data obtained from rat studies would have a qualitatively predictive value for the human female. Accordingly, female rats were exposed to 20 Ne ions at the BEVALAC and studied for the development of mammary neoplasia for 312 +- 2 days at Brookhaven along with rats exposed concurrently to x-irradiation or to no irradiation. As the dose of either type of radiation was increased the percent of rats with mammary adenocarcinomas, and the percent of rats with mammary fibroadenomas, tended to increase. At a prevalence of 20%, the RBE for 20 Neon ions for mammary adenocarcinomas was estimated to be larger than 5 and for mammary fibroadenomas the RBE was estimated to be less than 2. No conclusion was reached concerning whether or not the RBE might vary with dose. We suggest that 20 Ne ions do have a carcinogenic potential for rat mammary tissue and that this carcinogenic potential is likely to be greater than for x-irradiation. (DT)

  2. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1 higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (2 higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3 higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  3. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats. PMID:27845755

  4. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 μg), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 μg), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy

  6. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using 125 I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p < 0.05; heart, p < 0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.001; muscle, p < 0.001; heart, p < 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. (orig.)

  7. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose and lipid metabolism in rats supplemented with glycyrrhizic acid exposed to short- or long- term stress and fed on a high-calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw, Hui Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stress and consumption of high-calorie diet are well-recognized as the primary contributor to various metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active compound in the root extract of the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to improve hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in rats fed on a high- calorie diet. However, the effect of GA on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats under stress in combination with high- calorie diet has yet to be expl...

  9. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with 125I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Danièle; Halimi, Serge; Demongeot, Jacques; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state and it has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats with 125I-6-Deoxy-6-Iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Methods Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood were assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Results Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady-state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p<0.01; muscle, p<0.05; heart, p<0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p<0.001; muscle, p<0.001; heart, p<0.01) and whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. Conclusion This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. PMID:17171359

  10. Assessment of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats with {sup 125}I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose, a new tracer of glucose transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Pascale; Slimani, Lotfi; Briat, Arnaud; Villemain, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Ghezzi, Catherine [INSERM, E340, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Univ Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Halimi, Serge [CHRU Grenoble, Hopital Michallon, Service de Diabetologie, 38000 Grenoble, (France); Demongeot, Jacques [Univ Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble, (France); CNRS, UMR 5525, 38000 Grenoble, (France)

    2007-05-15

    Insulin resistance, characterised by an insulin-stimulated glucose transport defect, is an important feature of the pre-diabetic state that has been observed in numerous pathological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in glucose transport in rats using {sup 125}I-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG), a new tracer of glucose transport proposed as an imaging tool to assess insulin resistance in vivo. Two protocols were performed, a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a normoinsulinaemic-normoglycaemic protocol, in awake control and insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. The tracer was injected at steady state, and activity in 11 tissues and the blood was assessed ex vivo at several time points. A multicompartmental mathematical model was developed to obtain fractional transfer coefficients of 6DIG from the blood to the organs. Insulin sensitivity of fructose-fed rats, estimated by the glucose infusion rate, was reduced by 40% compared with control rats. At steady state, 6DIG uptake was significantly stimulated by insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues of control rats (basal versus insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.01; muscle, p < 0.05; heart, p < 0.001), whereas insulin did not stimulate 6DIG uptake in insulin-resistant fructose-fed rats. Moreover, in these tissues, the fractional transfer coefficients of entrance were significantly increased with insulin in control rats (basal vs insulin: diaphragm, p < 0.001; muscle, p < 0.001; heart, p < 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in fructose-fed rats. This study sets the stage for the future use of 6DIG as a non-invasive means for the evaluation of insulin resistance by nuclear imaging. (orig.)

  11. Hepatic malonyl-CoA levels of fed, fasted and diabetic rats as measured using a simple radioisotopic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.D.; Stark, M.J.; Foster, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    A simple radioisotopic assay for malonyl-CoA is described. The method is based on the malonyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of labeled acetyl-CoA into palmitic acid catalyzed by fatty acid synthetase in the presence of NADPH. Its main advantage over the more conventional spectrophotometric procedure is that it is extremely sensitive and allows the simultaneous determination of picomole quantities of malonyl-CoA in multiple tissue extracts. It should prove particularly suitable for studies on the regulation of lipid metabolism in isolated hepatocytes where the quantity of tissue available for analysis is frequently very small. Application of the method to the measurement of malonyl-CoA in livers from fed, fasted, and diabetic rats yielded values that were consistent with the recently postulated role of malonyl-CoA in the regulation of hepatic ketone body production

  12. Effect of dietary fiber from banana (Musa paradisiaca) on metabolism of carbohydrates in rats fed cholesterol free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, V; Vijayammal, P L; Kurup, P A

    1989-05-01

    Effect of feeding isolated dietary fiber from M. paradisiaca on the metabolism of carbohydrates in the liver has been studied. Fiber fed rats showed significantly lower levels of fasting blood glucose and higher concentration of liver glycogen. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-1-phosphate, uridyl transferase and glycogen synthase was significantly higher while phosphoglucomutase activity showed lower activity. Activity of some glycolytic enzymes, viz. hexokinase and pyruvic kinase was lower. Glucose-6-phosphatase showed higher activity while fructose 1-6 diphosphatase activity was not affected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on the other hand showed higher activity. The changes in these enzyme activities have been attributed due to the effect of higher concentration of bile acids produced in the liver as a result of feeding fiber. Evidence for this has been obtained by studying the in vitro effect of cholic acid and chenodeoxy cholic acid.

  13. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  14. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  15. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...

  16. Lactate production and absence of gluconeogenesis from placental transferred substrates in fetuses from fed and 48-H starved rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacin, M.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1987-07-01

    Fed and 48-h starved rats were infused on day 21.5 of gestation for 20 min through the left uterine artery with (U-/sup 14/C-)-D-glucose, (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol, or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine. The mother and fetuses from both uterine horns were processed separately for radioactivity measurements in plasma and liver. Differences in radioactivity values between fetuses from the left and the right sides are used as indexes of placental transference of the infused tracers prior to their distribution and transformation in the maternal circulation. After infusion of (U-/sup 14/C)-D-glucose, (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol, or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine, plasma radioactivity values and specific activities corresponding to the respective infused tracer appeared much higher in fetuses from the left than the right uterine side. Plasma /sup 14/C-lactate values also were higher in the left than the right fetuses indicating that fetoplacental structures produced lactate from those placentally transferred /sup 14/C-metabolites. No difference in plasma /sup 14/C-glucose between left and right uterine horn fetuses was observed after maternal infusion with either (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine, either in fed or 48-h starved rats. In the mother both (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol and (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine were efficiently converted to /sup 14/C-glucose, and this process was significantly enhanced with starvation. /sup 14/C-fatty acids present in fetal liver after maternal infusions with either (U-/sup 14/C)-D-glucose or (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol were decreased by starvation whereas no fatty acid synthesis from (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine was detected.

  17. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  18. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin receptors during brain embryogenesis favours stress resiliency in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Lavanco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Manipulations of the serotonin transmission during early development induce long-lasting changes in the serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. However, little is known on the developmental consequences in the female progeny. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the behavioural effects of pre- and postnatal stimulation of the serotonergic system by 5-methoxytryptamine in adolescent female rats on behavioural reactivity and anxiety- like phenotype. Our results show that perinatal 5- methoxythyptamine decreased total distance travelled and rearing frequency in the novel enviroment, and increased the preference for the centre of the arena in the open field test. Moreover, perinatal 5-methoxytryptamine increased the percentages of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, with respect to perinatally vehicle-exposed rats. Thus, perinatal stimulation of serotonin receptors does not impair the functional response to the emotional challenges in female rats, favouring the occurrence of a stress-resilient phenotype.

  19. [New data on olfactory control of estral receptivity of female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satli, M A; Aron, C

    1976-03-01

    Olfactory bulb deprivation increased sexual receptivity in 4-day cyclic female rats on the late afternoon of prooestrus (6-7, p.m.). The proportion of receptive females was higher in bulbectomized (B) than in sham operated (SH) animals. On the contrary the same proportion of B and SH females mated in the evening of prooestrus (10. 30-11. 30 p.m.). An increased lordosis quotient was observed in the B females at either of these two stages of the cycle.

  20. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M F; El-Tawill, G.A., E-mail: gkyrillos@hotmail.co [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  1. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diets containing purified genistein of genistein-rich soya protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gee, J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Polley, A.C.J.; Johnson, I.T.

    2000-01-01

    The isoflavonoid genistein inhibits mitosis and increases apoptosis in a variety of tumour cell lines in vitro, and may exert anticarcinogenic effects in vivo. To assess its effects on the colon, rats were fed a semi-synthetic control diet, or similar diets enriched with genistein (0.25 g/kg),

  2. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression.

  3. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  4. Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Yeon Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND, HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS, and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  5. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  6. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  7. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate

  8. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventilatory drive is enhanced in male and female rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, D; Skelly, J R; Bradford, A; O'Halloran, K D

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) due to recurrent apnoea. We have developed a rat model of CIH, which shows evidence of impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, we wished to characterize the ventilatory effects of CIH in conscious male and female animals. Adult male (n=14) and female (n=8) Wistar rats were used. Animals were placed in chambers daily for 8 h with free access to food and water. The gas supply to one half of the chambers alternated between air and nitrogen every 90 s, for 8 h per day, reducing ambient oxygen concentration in the chambers to 5% at the nadir (intermittent hypoxia; n=7 male, n=4 female). Air supplying the other chambers was switched every 90 s to air from a separate source, at the same flow rates, and animals in these chambers served as controls (n=7 male, n=4 female). Ventilatory measurements were made in conscious animals (typically sleeping) after 10 days using whole-body plethysmography. Normoxic ventilation was increased in both male and female CIH-treated rats compared to controls but this did not achieve statistical significance. However, ventilatory drive was increased in CIH-treated rats of both sexes as evidenced by significant increases in mean and peak inspiratory flow. Ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.10; 6 min) and hyperoxic hypercapnia (F(I)CO(2) = 0.05; 6 min) were unaffected by CIH treatment in male and female rats (P>0.05, ANOVA). We conclude that CIH increases respiratory drive in adult rats. We speculate that this represents a form of neural plasticity that may compensate for respiratory muscle impairment that occurs in this animal model.

  10. Impact of three endocrine disruptors, Bisphenol A, Genistein and Vinclozolin on female rat enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, K; Berdal, A; Babajko, A

    2016-06-28

    Concerns about the potential adverse effectsof endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been increasingover the last three decades. BisphenolA (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) arethree widely used EDs sharing similar effects.Since populations are exposed to many diverseEDs simultaneously, we demonstratedrecently their impact alone or combined onmale rat tooth enamel. The purpose of thisstudy was therefore to assess their effects onfemale rat tooth enamel in order to understandwhy they are differentially sensitive. Ratswere exposed daily in utero and after birth tolow doses of EDs during the critical fetal andsuckling periods when amelogenesis takesplace. Enamel of rats exposed to EDs presentedopaque areas of hypomineralization. Theproportion of affected rats was the highestin the groups of rats treated with BPA aloneand higher in males than in females (in all thegroups). Comparison of enamel key gene expressionlevels showed modulations of Klk4and Enamelin in males but no significant variationsin females. These findings show thatfemale rats are less affected than males bythe three EDs chosen in this study and suggestthat enamel hypomineralization may differbetween males and females.

  11. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb induced by paced mating in the female rat is opioid dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo

    Full Text Available The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NX could reduce the increase in neurogenesis in the AOB induced by paced mating. Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided in 5 different groups: 1 Control (not mated treated with saline, 2 control (not mated treated with naloxone, 3 females that mated without controlling the sexual interaction (no-pacing, 4 females injected with saline before pacing the sexual interaction and 5 females injected with NX before a paced mating session. We found, as previously described, that paced mating induced a higher number of new cells in the granular layer of the AOB. The administration of NX before paced mating, blocked the increase in the number of newborn cells and prevented these cells from differentiating into neurons. These data suggest that opioid peptides play a fundamental role in the neurogenesis induced by paced mating in female rats.

  12. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  13. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Feresin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD, recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4 vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Leprfa/fa Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Leprfa/+ that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx. BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P<0.001 decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P<0.001 were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th (P<0.005 than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats.

  14. Effect of long-term high-fat diet intake on peripheral insulin sensibility, blood pressure, and renal function in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi A. V. Roza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study determines whether -week high-fat diet (HFD consumption alters insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and blood pressure (BP in female rats when compared with standard rodent diet (ND intake in gender- and age-matched rats. Methods: The present study investigates, in female Wistar HanUnib rats, the effect of long-term high-fat fed group (HFD compared with standard chow on BP by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electrosphygmomanometer, insulin and glucose function, and kidney function by creatinine and lithium clearances. Results: The current study shows glucose tolerance impairment, as demonstrated by increased fasting blood glucose (ND: ±2.8 vs. HFD: 87±3.8 mg/dL associated with reduced insulin secretion (ND: 0.58±0.07 vs. HFD: 0.40±0.03 ng/mL in 8-week female HFD-treated rats. The incremental area under the curve (AUC, ND: 1,4558.0±536.0 vs. HFD: 1,6507.8±661.9, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, and the first-order rate constant for the disappearance of glucose (Kitt were significantly enhanced in 8-week HFD-treated rats compared with age-matched ND group (respectively, P=0.03, P=0.002, and P<0.0001. The current study also shows a significantly higher systolic BP measured in 5 and 8 weeks posttreatment in HFD (5-week HFD-treated: 155.25±10.54 mmHg and 8-week HFD-treated: 165±5.8 mmHg (P=0.0001, when compared to BP values in 5-week ND, 137±4.24 mmHg and 8-week ND, 131.75±5.8 mmHg age-matched group. Otherwise, the glomerular filtration rate and renal sodium handling evaluated by FENa, FEPNa and FEPPNa, were unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: We may conclude that 8-week female HFD-fed rats compared with ND group stimulate harmful effects, such as BP rise and peripheral glucose intolerance. The increased BP occurs through insulin resistance and supposedly decreased vasodilatation response without any change on renal function.

  15. Effect of long-term high-fat diet intake on peripheral insulin sensibility, blood pressure, and renal function in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Noemi A V; Possignolo, Luiz F; Palanch, Adrianne C; Gontijo, José A R

    2016-01-01

    This study determines whether 8-week high-fat diet (HFD) consumption alters insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and blood pressure (BP) in female rats when compared with standard rodent diet (ND) intake in gender- and age-matched rats. The present study investigates, in female Wistar HanUnib rats, the effect of long-term high-fat fed group (HFD) compared with standard chow on BP by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electrosphygmomanometer, insulin and glucose function, and kidney function by creatinine and lithium clearances. The current study shows glucose tolerance impairment, as demonstrated by increased fasting blood glucose (ND: 78±2.8 vs. HFD: 87±3.8 mg/dL) associated with reduced insulin secretion (ND: 0.58±0.07 vs. HFD: 0.40±0.03 ng/mL) in 8-week female HFD-treated rats. The incremental area under the curve (AUC, ND: 1,4558.0±536.0 vs. HFD: 1,6507.8±661.9), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and the first-order rate constant for the disappearance of glucose (Kitt) were significantly enhanced in 8-week HFD-treated rats compared with age-matched ND group (respectively, P=0.03, P=0.002, and P<0.0001). The current study also shows a significantly higher systolic BP measured in 5 and 8 weeks posttreatment in HFD (5-week HFD-treated: 155.25±10.54 mmHg and 8-week HFD-treated: 165±5.8 mmHg) (P=0.0001), when compared to BP values in 5-week ND, 137±4.24 mmHg and 8-week ND, 131.75±5.8 mmHg age-matched group. Otherwise, the glomerular filtration rate and renal sodium handling evaluated by FENa, FEPNa and FEPPNa, were unchanged in both groups. We may conclude that 8-week female HFD-fed rats compared with ND group stimulate harmful effects, such as BP rise and peripheral glucose intolerance. The increased BP occurs through insulin resistance and supposedly decreased vasodilatation response without any change on renal function.

  16. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  17. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of whole-grain highland hull-less barley in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuejuan; Li, Guannan; Song, Jiaxin; Zheng, Jiong; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-05-01

    Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats. The lipid regulation effect of WHLB, which was reconfirmed through hepatocyte morphologic observation, was accompanied by a large excretion of bile acids in the small intestinal contents and the faeces. Real-time PCR analyses, which were further reconfirmed through Western blot analyses, revealed that a high dose of WHLB significantly enhanced the hepatic expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, LDL receptor, liver X receptor, and PPARα and decreased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. It also enhanced the ileal expression of farnesoid X receptor and resulted in the decrease of expression of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. WHLB exhibited hypocholesterolaemic effects mainly by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol accumulation in peripheral tissue, and bile acid reabsorption and by stimulating bile acid synthesis.

  18. Apple Polysaccharide inhibits microbial dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulates gut permeability in HFD-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Qian; Zang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Nan; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

    2017-06-01

    The saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been known for over 150 years, and numerous studies have shown that apple consumption is closely associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. It has been well accepted that dysbiosis is the reflection of various chronic diseases. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of apple polysaccharides (AP) on gut dysbiosis. High-fat diet (HFD) fed rats were treated for 14 weeks with AP. The microbiota composition, microbiota-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gut permeability and chronic inflammation were analyzed. AP treatment showed higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus while lower Firmicutes and Fusobacteium. AP significantly increased total SCFAs level that contributed by acetic acid and isobutyric acid. Moreover, AP dramatically alleviated dysbiosis-associated gut permeability and chronic inflammation with decreased plasma LBP, up-regulation of Occludin, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The potential mechanism is due to the fact that AP reduces gut permeability, which involves the induction of autophagy in goblet cells. Therefore, AP exerts health benefits through inhibiting gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulating gut permeability in HFD-induced dysbiosis rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. epsilon-fructoselysine in urine of rats fed 14C-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Bunpei; Kojima, Kazumi; Saito, Susumu

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive substances were identified in urine of rats fed on browned casein, which had been labeled with U- 14 C-L-lysine. When browned casein was ingested by growing rats, high radioactivity was found in urine taken for 24 hr after feeding. Urinary recovery of radioactivity and specific radioactivity were about 9-times as high as those of the control. The radioactive substances were separated by Sephadex gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography 75 - 83% of the total radioactivity was recovered in the first peak of Sephadex gel filtration. The material with radioactivity was separated into two fractions by ionexchange chromatography. The ratio of radioactivity of these peaks on the chromatogram was about 30 to 70. The main peak was identified as epsilon-fructoselysine with an amino acid autoanalyzer. Urinary epsilon-fructoselysine content of 24 hr after a single dose feeding of 600 mg browned labeled casein was 13 - 18 mg per head. The relationship between epsilon-fructoselysine content as an absorption delayed-material in the small intestinal lumen and the amount excreted in urine was explained in a scheme together with results from previous studies. (author)

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of irradiation and adrenal cortex disfunction on ovarial-hormonal status of mature female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Banetskaya, N.V.; Sechko, L.K.; Pavlenko, V.S.; Popov, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    It was shown that development of glucocorticoid disfunction in mature rats (made by series of 10 mg/kg body wt subcutaneous corticosterone injections, during I month) essentially increased radiosensitivity of female reproductive organs. Additionally in the experimental conditions after external g-irradiation (1.0 Gy) development of atrophic processes in follicular apparatus of ovary caused severe ovarial disorders (polycystosis, fibrosis). Simultaneously degree of hormonal misregulations and upsets for systems of hormone reception in female sex tissues is aggravating. (authors)

  2. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  3. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an

  4. Increase in skeletal muscle protein content by the ß-2 selective adrenergic agonist clenbuterol exacerbates hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Sawaya

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined how the nutritional status of rats fed a low-protein diet was affected when the animals were treated with the ß-2 selective agonist clenbuterol (CL. Males (4 weeks old from an inbred, specific-pathogen-free strain of hooded rats maintained at the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory were used in the experiments (N = 6 rats per group. CL treatment (Ventipulmin, Boehringer-Ingelheim Ltd., 3.2 mg/kg diet for 2 weeks caused an exacerbation of the symptoms associated with protein deficiency in rats. Plasma albumin concentrations, already low in rats fed a low-protein diet (group A, were further reduced in CL rats (A = 25.05 ± 0.31 vs CL = 23.64 ± 0.30 g/l, P<0.05. Total liver protein decreased below the level seen in either pair-fed animals (group P or animals with free access to the low-protein diet (A = 736.56 ± 26 vs CL = 535.41 ± 54 mg, P<0.05, whereas gastrocnemius muscle protein was higher than the values normally described for control (C animals (C = 210.88 ± 3.2 vs CL = 227.14 ± 1.7 mg/g, P<0.05. Clenbuterol-treated rats also showed a reduction in growth when compared to P rats (P = 3.2 ± 1.1 vs CL = -10.2 ± 1.9 g, P<0.05. This was associated with a marked decrease in fat stores (P = 5.35 ± 0.81 vs CL = 2.02 ± 0.16 g, P<0.05. Brown adipose tissue (BAT cytochrome oxidase activity, although slightly lower than in P rats (P = 469.96 ± 16.20 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05, was still much higher than in control rats (C = 159.55 ± 11.54 vs CL = 414.48 ± 11.32 U/BAT x kg body weight, P<0.05. The present findings support the hypothesis that an increased muscle protein content due to clenbuterol stimulation worsened amino acid availability to the liver and further reduced albumin synthesis causing exacerbation of hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet.

  5. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moran-Ramos

    Full Text Available Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6 and oxidative stress (ROS, modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA, and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  6. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  8. Islet inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis in intrauterine growth-restricted and high fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Madad, Leili; Chandra, Arin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Nolan, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal factors such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and high-fat (HF) diet contribute to type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to determine whether IUGR and HF diets interact in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, with particular attention focused on pancreatic islet morphology including assessment for inflammation. A surgical model of IUGR (bilateral uterine artery ligation) in Sprague-Dawley rats with sham controls was used. Pups were fed either HF or chow diets after weaning. Serial measures of body weight and glucose tolerance were performed. At 25 weeks of age, rat pancreases were harvested for histologic assessment. The birth weight of IUGR pups was 13% lower than that of sham pups. HF diet caused excess weight gain, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild glucose intolerance, however, this was not aggravated further by IUGR. Markedly abnormal islet morphology was evident in 0 of 6 sham-chow, 5 of 8 sham-HF, 4 of 8 IUGR-chow, and 8 of 9 IUGR-HF rats (chi-square, P = 0.007). Abnormal islets were characterized by larger size, irregular shape, inflammation with CD68-positive cells, marked fibrosis, and hemosiderosis. β-Cell mass was not altered by IUGR. In conclusion, HF and IUGR independently contribute to islet injury characterized by inflammation, hemosiderosis, and fibrosis. This suggests that both HF and IUGR can induce islet injury via converging pathways. The potential pathogenic or permissive role of iron in this process of islet inflammation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of berberine on the ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin to total adiponectin and adiponectin receptors expressions in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Yue; Zha, Ying; Liu, Jun; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jiong; Chen, Zao-Ping; Ding, He-Yuan; Sheng, Li; Han, Xiao-Jie

    2016-11-17

    To assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoR1/adipoR2) expressions in high-fat (HF) diet fed rats. Forty Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into a normal diet fed group and three HF diet (fat for 45% calories) fed groups (n=10 for each group). All rats underwent 12 weeks of feeding. After 4 weeks feeding, rats in the two of three HF diet fed groups were treated with 150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 BBR (HF+LBBR group) and 380 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 BBR (HF+HBBR group) by gavage once a day respectively for the next 8 weeks while the rats in other groups treated with vehicle (NF+Veh and HF+Veh). Body weight and food intake were observed and recorded on daily basis. At the end of 12 weeks, the blood, liver, epididymal fat tissues and quadriceps femoris muscles were collected. Fasting insulin, plasma fasting glucose, serum free fatty acid (FFA), total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to determine the insulinsensitizing. Meanwhile the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The expressions of adipoR1, adipoR2 and adenosine monophophate activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation level in skeletal muscle and liver tissue were detected by Western blot. Liver and kidney toxicity were evaluated during treatment. The body weight of rats in high- or low-dose BBR group reduced as well as HOMA-IR, FFA concentrations and fasting insulin levels decreased compared with HF+Veh group (Pinsulin resistance by increasing the expression of adiponectin receptors and the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin.

  11. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  12. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  13. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  14. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    protein component, casein, soy, or whey protein, potentiates the intestinal growth response to GLP-2 in rats with PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia. Rats received PN and continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (100 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Six EN groups received PN+GLP-2 for days 1-3 and partial PN+GLP-2...... plus EN for days 4-7. EN was provided by ad libitum intake of a semielemental liquid diet with different protein sources: casein, hydrolyzed soy, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and hydrolyzed WPC+casein. Controls received PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced significantly greater jejunal sucrase activity...... whey protein, and not casein or soy, potentiated the ability of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia and further increase ileal villus height, crypt depth, and mucosa cellularity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein to induce greater mucosal surface area...

  15. Humoral and cellular immune responses in gluten-treated suckling or hand-fed rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Štěpánková, Renata; Tučková, Ludmila; Šinkora, Marek; Jelínková, L.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2000), s. 665-672 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA306/99/1383; GA ČR GA303/00/1370; GA AV ČR IAA7020808; GA MZd IZ4150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : model of coeliac disease * rats * proliferation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2000

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  17. Role of Oestrogen α Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, E M S; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Spiteri, T; Musatov, S; Ogawa, S; Pfaff, D W; Ågmo, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of oestrogen receptor (ER)α in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), the preoptic area (POA), the medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in sociosexual behaviour in female rats. This was conducted in two sets of experiments, with the VMN and POA investigated in the first set, and the MePD and BNST in the second set. The VMN and POA received intense projections from the MePD and BNST. We used a short hairpin RNA encoded within an adeno-associated viral vector directed against the gene for ERα to reduce the number of ERα in the VMN or POA (first set of experiments) or in the BNST or MePD (second set of experiments) in female rats. The rats were housed in groups of four ovariectomised females and three males in a seminatural environment for 8 days. Compared with traditional test set-ups, the seminatural environment provides an arena in which the rats can express their full behavioural repertoire, which allowed us to investigate multiple aspects of social and sexual behaviour in groups of rats. Behavioural observation was performed after oestrogen and progesterone injections. A reduction of ERα expression in the VMN or POA diminished the display of paracopulatory behaviours and lordosis responses compared to controls, whereas the lordosis quotient remained unaffected. This suggests that ERα in the VMN and POA play an important role in intrinsic sexual motivation. The reduction in ERα did not affect the social behaviour of the females, although the males sniffed and pursued the females with reduced ERα less than the controls. This suggests that the ERα in the VMN and POA is involved in the regulation of sexual attractiveness of females. The ERα in the MePD and BNST, on the other hand, plays no role in sociosexual behaviour. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy of heart and liver tissues from rats fed with gums arabic and tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M; Ashby, P; Busuttil, A; Kempson, S A; Lawson, M E

    1984-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to examine the ultrastructure of rat hearts and livers after diet supplementation with (a) 0, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% (w/w) gum tragacanth (GT) for 91 days, (b) 0 and 1% GT for 5 days (c) 0, 1, 4 and 8% (w/w) gum arabic (GA) for 28 days. The preparation and scrutiny of the electron micrographs was undertaken by two independent teams of specialists. There were no detectable abnormalities in any of the organelles in the heart and liver specimens from any of the test animals and no inclusions nor other pathological changes were observed. All micrographs showed normal, healthy tissues; particular attention was given to the mitochondria in hepatocytes as they serve as sensitive indicators of the health and state of activity of cells. In addition, the data obtained from assays of the microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 content of the livers showed that GA and GT did not cause inductive effects. These results do not support earlier suggestions, based on in vitro assays, that GA and GT cause changes in the function of rat heart and liver mitochondria and liver microsomes; however, they confirm a report by Zbinden that the ingestion of GT does not produce abnormalities in the cardiac function of rats.

  19. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHIN, M.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q 1 -0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q 10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  20. Neurokinin B receptor antagonism decreases luteinising hormone pulse frequency and amplitude and delays puberty onset in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Y; Li, X F; Hu, M H; Shao, B; Poston, L; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling puberty onset remain enigmatic. Humans with loss of function mutations in TAC3 or TACR3, the genes encoding neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor, neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R), respectively, present with severe congenital gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal failure. Animal studies have shown ambiguous actions of NKB-NK3R signalling with respect to controlling puberty onset. The present study aimed to determine the role of endogenous NKB-NK3R signalling in the control of pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and the timing of puberty onset, and also whether precocious pubertal onset as a result of an obesogenic diet is similarly regulated by this neuropeptide system. Prepubertal female rats, chronically implanted with i.c.v. cannulae, were administered SB222200, a NK3R antagonist, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid via an osmotic mini-pump for 14 days. SB222200 significantly delayed the onset of vaginal opening and first oestrus (as markers of puberty) compared to controls in both normal and high-fat diet fed animals. Additionally, serial blood sampling, via chronic indwelling cardiac catheters, revealed that the increase in LH pulse frequency was delayed and that the LH pulse amplitude was reduced in response to NK3R antagonism, regardless of dietary status. These data suggest that endogenous NKB-NK3R signalling plays a role in controlling the timing of puberty and the associated acceleration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator frequency in the female rat. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  2. ABCG5 gene responses to treadmill running with or without administration of Pistachio atlantica in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: ABC transporters comprise a large family of transmembrane proteins that use the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis to translocate a variety of substrates across biological membranes. All members of the human ABCG subfamily, except for ABCG2, are cholesterol-transporter. The aim of this study was to determine the liver, the small intestine and kidney ABCG5 relative gene expression in response to treadmill-running training in female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old and 125-135 g weight were used. Animals were randomly assigned to saline-control (SC, saline-training (ST, and Baneh-control (BC, and Baneh-training (BT groups. Training groups did the exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade for 60 min/day for eight weeks (5 days/week. Rats were fed orally, with Baneh extraction and saline for six weeks. The two-way ANOVA was employed for statistical analysis.  ABCG5 relative gene expression was detected by Real-time PCR method. Results:The current findings indicate that the Baneh-treated tissues had significantly lower levels of ABCG5 gene expression in the liver, small intestine, and kidneys (P< 0.001, P< 0.003, P< 0.001, respectively, when compared with saline-treated tissues. However, a higher level of gene expression was observed in exercise groups. A lower level of HDL-c but not triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels were found in Baneh-treated animals at rest. Conclusion: Exercise training increases ABCG5 relative gene expression in the liver, small intestine and kidney tissues; therefore exercise training may adjust the reduction of ABCG5 relative gene expression in Baneh-training group.

  3. Are endogenous sex hormones related to DNA damage in paradoxically sleep-deprived female rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Silva, Andressa; Araujo, Paula; Zager, Adriano; Tenorio, Neuli M; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate overall DNA damage induced by experimental paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in estrous-cycling and ovariectomized female rats to examine possible hormonal involvement during DNA damage. Intact rats in different phases of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, and diestrus) or ovariectomized female Wistar rats were subjected to PSD by the single platform technique for 96 h or were maintained for the equivalent period as controls in home-cages. After this period, peripheral blood and tissues (brain, liver, and heart) were collected to evaluate genetic damage using the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that PSD caused extensive genotoxic effects in brain cells, as evident by increased DNA migration rates in rats exposed to PSD for 96 h when compared to negative control. This was observed for all phases of the estrous cycle indistinctly. In ovariectomized rats, PSD also led to DNA damage in brain cells. No significant statistically differences were detected in peripheral blood, the liver or heart for all groups analyzed. In conclusion, our data are consistent with the notion that genetic damage in the form of DNA breakage in brain cells induced by sleep deprivation overrides the effects related to endogenous female sex hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic estrogenic fluctuation influences synaptic transmission of the medial vestibular nuclei in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Vito E; Frondaroli, Adele; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2011-04-01

    The estrous cycle in female rats influences the basal synaptic responsiveness and plasticity of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons through different levels of circulating 17β-estradiol (cE(2)). The aim of this study was to verify, in the female rat, whether cyclic fluctuations of cE(2) influence long-term synaptic effects induced by high frequency afferent stimulation (HFS) in the MVN, since we found that HFS in the male rat induces fast long-term potentiation (fLTP), which depends on the neural synthesis of E(2) (nE(2)) from testosterone (T). We analyzed the field potential (FP) evoked in the MVN by vestibular afferent stimulation, under basal conditions, and after HFS, in brainstem slices of female rats during high levels (proestrus, PE) and low levels (diestrus, DE) of cE(2). Selective blocking agents of converting T enzymes were used. Unlike in the male rat, HFS induced three effects: fLTP through T conversion into E(2), and slow LTP (sLTP) and long-term depression (LTD), through T conversion into DHT. The occurrence of these effects depended on the estrous cycle phase: the frequency of fLTP was higher in DE, and those of sLTP and LTD were higher in PE. Conversely, the basal FP was also higher in PE than in DE.

  5. PROTEINURIA, LIPOPROTEINS AND RENAL APOLIPOPROTEIN DEPOSITS IN UNINEPHRECTOMIZED FEMALE ANALBUMINEMIC RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOLES, JA; VANGOOR, H; BRAAM, B; WILLEKESKOOLSCHIJN, N; JANSEN, EHJM; VANTOL, A; KOOMANS, HA

    To elucidate the pathogenetic role of hyperlipidemia per se in the development of glomerulosclerosis, severely hyperlipidemic female analbuminemic rats (NAR) and mildly hyperlipidemic male NAR were studied for a period of 37 weeks after uninephrectomy (UNX). Plasma cholesterol increased from 6.3 +/-

  6. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  7. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid aggravates nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysepar, Elham; Soltani, Nepton; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for treatment of solid tumors. CP-induced nephrotoxicity may be gender-related. This is while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that has renoprotective impacts on acute renal injury. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of GABA against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats. Sixty Wistar male and female rats were used in eight experimental groups. Both genders received GABA (50 μg/kg/day; i. p.) for 14 days and CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; i. p.) was added from day 8 to the end of the study, and they were compared with the control groups. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA), and magnesium (Mg) were measured. The kidney tissue damage was also determined via staining. CP significantly increased the serum levels of Cr and BUN, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score in both genders (PGABA did not attenuate these markers in males; even these biomarkers were intensified in females. Serum level of Mg, and testis and uterus weights did not alter in the groups. However, the groups were significantly different in terms of nitrite and MDA levels. It seems that GABA did not improve nephrotoxicity induced by CP-treated rats, and it exacerbated renal damage in female rats.

  9. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  10. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  11. 17ß-Estradiol Is Necessary for Extinction of Cocaine Seeking in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Robert C.; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Doncheck, Elizabeth M.; Frick, Karyn M.; Mueller, Devin

    2013-01-01

    Human and preclinical models of addiction demonstrate that gonadal hormones modulate acquisition of drug seeking. Little is known, however, about the effects of these hormones on extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we investigated how 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) affects expression and extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats. Using a…

  12. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  13. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  14. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-05-21

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  15. Subacute toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotaminetartrate. 1 General toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Krajnc-Franken MAM; van Leeuwen FXR; Danse LHJC; Loeber JG; Elvers LH; Hoejenbos-Spithout HHM; Janssen GB

    1992-01-01

    In this study reduced food intake, food efficiency and growth were noticed at dose levels of 100 mg EAT/kg diet and higher. Slight changes in the red blood parameters were seen in the 100 and 500 mg EAT/kg diet dose groups. Urea concentration was increased in the females of the highest dose group.

  16. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A radiochemical method for carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I: application to rats fed a hyperproteic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià, 1946-

    2012-01-01

    A method for the measurement of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I activity in animal tissues has been developed using the livers of rats under normal and hyperproteic diets. The method is based on the incorporation of 14C-ammonium bicarbonate to carbamoyl-phosphate in the presence of ATP-Mg and N-acetyl-glutamate. The reaction is stopped by chilling, lowering the pH and adding ethanol. Excess bicarbonate is flushed out under a gentle stream of cold CO2. The only label remaining in the medium w...

  18. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life.

  19. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  20. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  1. The effect of micronized corn fiber on body weight, glycemia, and lipid metabolism in rats fed cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barbosa de Moraes THOMPSON

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During corn industrial dry milling, a residue rich in dietary fibers is generated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micronized corn fiber (MCF as part of a cafeteria diet in the macronutrient metabolism and body weight. Wistar male rats, with initial body weight of 249 ± 14 g (n = 13, received AIN-93M diet (Group 1 or cafeteria diet (Groups 2, 3 and 4, composed of commercial ration, cookies, fried potato sticks, milk chocolate, bacon and chicken liver pâté. Groups 3 and 4 received MCF to replace 100 and 50% of the cellulose from the AIN-93M diet, respectively. After 35 days, blood, tissues and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p < 0.10. The weight gain of the animals increased by 25.9%, 20.8% and 22.0%, when fed cafeteria diet or 100 and 50% of MCF respectively, compared to the control group, although food consumption did not differ between them. Body weight and food efficiency ratio did not differ between the groups fed cafeteria diet with or without MCF. The addition of MCF to the cafeteria diet did not alter the animal lipid profile and glycemia, however, the accumulation of lipids in their livers was similar to the control group. The intake of 100% MCF resulted in higher fecal weight and fecal excretion of lipids, and lower fecal nitrogen, lipid absorption and lipid deposition in the liver than the cafeteria diet. In conclusion, MCF has a potential to improve intestinal transit and lipid excretion, but showed no benefit on blood lipid and glucose levels.

  2. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Keywords

  3. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin's impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin's attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin's effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [1-14C]linoleic acid in rats fed different levels of essential fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rats from an inbred Sprague-Dawley strain were fed semisynthetic diets with a low [0.3 energy percent (en %)], normal (3 en %) or high (10 en %) content of essential fatty acids (EFA) for at least three generations. Twenty-nine- to 33-day-old male rats were given a single intragastric dose of [1-14C]linoleic acid in olive oil, and the respiratory CO2, urine and feces were collected for 46 hours (expt 1) or 20 hours (expt 2). The 14C activity in respiratory CO2, feces, urine and the carcass was determined in both experiments. In experiment 2 it was also measured in samples of the brown fat, liver, adrenals, white fat, skeletal muscles and brain. In both experiments the rats fed the low EFA diet retained significantly more 14C activity than the rats fed the normal or high EFA diets. In all groups the concentration of label was highest in the brown fat and the adrenals, but the above differences among the groups with respect to 14C retention were mainly observed in the liver, skeletal muscles and brain

  6. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Padilla, Iliana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Alvarez-Fuentes, Gregorio; De la Cruz-Martínez, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, José; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; González-Chávez, Marco; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtemoc; Prell, Florian; Czermak, Peter; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave (Agave salmiana). Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. salmiana when added in the diet of Wistar rats. Results showed favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the feces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria (CFU g -1 ) (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), even these changes were enhanced with the synbiotic diet (fructans plus B. animalis subsp. lactis). Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences (P < 0.05). Histological analysis of colon sections showed that synbiotic diet promoted colon cells growth suggesting that fructans from A. salmiana confer beneficial health effects through gut microbiota modulation. Our data underline the advantage of targeting the gut microbiota by colonic nutrients like specific structure of fructans from A. salmiana, with their beneficial effects. More studies are necessary to define the role of fructans to develop more solid therapeutic solutions in humans. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  9. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  10. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...

  11. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency does not alter the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on central serotonin turnover or behavior in the forced swim test in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W

    2013-12-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group was administered FLX (10mg/kg/day) for 30days (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  13. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  14. Maternal Fructose Intake Induces Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Male, but Not Female, Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10% wt/vol throughout gestation produces an impaired fetal leptin signalling. Therefore, we have investigated whether maternal fructose intake produces subsequent changes in their progeny. Methods. Blood samples from fed and 24 h fasted female and male 90-day-old rats born from fructose-fed, glucose-fed, or control mothers were used. Results. After fasting, HOMA-IR and ISI (estimates of insulin sensitivity were worse in male descendents from fructose-fed mothers in comparison to the other two groups, and these findings were also accompanied by a higher leptinemia. Interestingly, plasma AOPP and uricemia (oxidative stress markers were augmented in male rats from fructose-fed mothers compared to the animals from control or glucose-fed mothers. In contrast, female rats did not show any differences in leptinemia between the three groups. Further, insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. In addition, plasma AOPP levels tended to be diminished in female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. Conclusion. Maternal fructose intake induces insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and plasma oxidative stress in male, but not female, progeny.

  15. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Chronic scream sound exposure alters memory and monoamine levels in female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Zhao, Xiaoge; Yang, Juan; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Yang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-10-01

    Chronic scream sound alters the cognitive performance of male rats and their brain monoamine levels, these stress-induced alterations are sexually dimorphic. To determine the effects of sound stress on female rats, we examined their serum corticosterone levels and their adrenal, splenic, and thymic weights, their cognitive performance and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with and without exposure to scream sound (4h/day for 21 day) were tested for spatial learning and memory using a Morris water maze. Stress decreased serum corticosterone levels, as well as splenic and adrenal weight. It also impaired spatial memory but did not affect the learning ability. Monoamines and metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) levels in the PFC decreased but the homovanillic acid/DA ratio increased. The decreased DA and the increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were observed in the striatum. Only the 5-HIAA level increased in the hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, stress did not affect the levels of monoamines and metabolites. The results suggest that scream sound stress influences most physiologic parameters, memory, and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter and their metabolites in female rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-05

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of pharmacological responses to anti-diabetic drugs in female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats, a new nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriniwa, Yasufumi; Saito, Tomoyuki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Ishii, Yukihito; Uno, Kinuko; Maekawa, Tatsuya; Matsui, Tohru; Kume, Shinichi; Yamada, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi

    2018-04-10

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive liver disease, and some patients develop hepatic cirrhosis/carcinoma. Animal models play key roles in the development of new therapies for NASH. In this study, the pharmacological effects of metformin and pioglitazone were investigated in female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats to verify the utility of this model. The anti-diabetic drugs were administered to SDT fatty rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet from 4 to 25 weeks, and changes in food intake, body weight, and blood chemistry parameters were evaluated every 4 weeks. The hepatic lipid content, mRNA expression in relation to lipid synthesis, inflammation, and fibrosis, and histopathological analyses were performed at 25 weeks. Pioglitazone improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and abnormalities in hepatic parameters. The insulin levels were lower than those in the control rats before 16 weeks. Plasma glucose levels in the metformin-treated rats were lower than those in the control rats, and plasma triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase levels temporarily decreased. The lipid content and some mRNA expression in relation to fibrosis in the liver decreased with pioglitazone treatment, and the mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein increased. Hepatic fibrosis observed in the SDT fatty rats improved with pioglitazone treatment; however, the effect with metformin treatment was partial. These results in both drugs are in line with results in the human study, suggesting that the SDT fatty rat is useful for developing new anti-NASH drugs that show potential to regulate glucose/lipid metabolism.

  19. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  20. Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats. Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1 ) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg (control); 2 ) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3 ) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO 2 /kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism

  2. Analysis of gene expression changes in relation to toxicity and tumorigenesis in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats fed comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Leming; Sun, Yongming Andrew; Fung, Chris; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2006-09-06

    Comfrey is consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea, and has been used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, is hepatotoxic in livestock and humans and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Our previous study suggested that comfrey induces liver tumors by a genotoxic mechanism and that the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant are responsible for mutation induction and tumor initiation in rat liver. In this study, we identified comfrey-induced gene expression profile in the livers of rats. Groups of 6 male transgenic Big Blue rats were fed a basal diet and a diet containing 8% comfrey roots, a dose that resulted in liver tumors in a previous carcinogenicity bioassay. The animals were treated for 12 weeks and sacrificed one day after the final treatment. We used a rat microarray containing 26,857 genes to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. Dietary comfrey resulted in marked changes in liver gene expression, as well as in significant decreases in the body weight and increases in liver mutant frequency. When a two-fold cutoff value and a P-value less than 0.01 were selected, 2,726 genes were identified as differentially expressed in comfrey-fed rats compared to control animals. Among these genes, there were 1,617 genes associated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis with particular functions, and the differentially expressed genes in comfrey-fed rat livers were involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, and liver injury and abnormalities, including liver fibrosis and cancer development. The gene expression profile provides us a better understanding of underlying mechanisms for comfrey-induced hepatic toxicity. Integration of gene expression changes with known pathological changes can be used to formulate a mechanistic scheme for comfrey-induced liver toxicity and tumorigenesis.

  3. [Hindlimb antigravity muscles' reaction in male and female rats to the deficit of functional loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric comparison of the antigravity muscles of rats of both sexes was performed following 30-d unloading of their hind limbs by head-down suspension. It was shown that growth rate of control males was higher as compared to control females. This is attributed to the synergic effects of somatotropin and testosterone on metabolism and growth of males and only somatotropin in females. Load deprivation of the hind limbs inhibited body mass gain in all animals; however, this inhibition was twice as great in males. Increase of the soleus and gastrocnemius in the control males in this experiment was slightly ahead of the muscle mass gain in the females. The histomorphometric investigation of the cross-section area of myofibers did not reveal differences between males and females either in the control or suspension. No difference was found in percent of various types of fibers in the control males and females. In the soleus of the suspended rats, a part of slow fibers had transformed into fast ones without any sex-related particularities. The conclusion was made that despite the significant difference in the hormonal profile, the reaction of males and females to insufficient weight loading of the antigravity muscles was alike.

  4. Estrogen hormone level of prepubertal female rat treated with Calliandra calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Wiratmini, N. I.; Narayani, I.

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the phytoestrogen potential of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract in prepubertal female rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sixty weaned female rats (21 days old) were divided into five groups i.e. control (K), negative control which was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension (KN) and treatment groups which were given with C. calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract doses 25 mg/kg bw (P1), 50 mg/kg bw (P2) and 75 mg/kg bw (P3). The treatment suspension was administered 0.5 mL/rat/day by gavage for 28 days, started at the age of 21st days old. The rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected from 4 rats / group at the age of 28th, 42nd and 56th days old, each. The concentration of estrogen hormone levels were measured from blood serum by ELISA kit and were read at 450 nm wavelength with an ELISA Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed statistically by General Linear Model with 95% of confidence. The result showed that rat’s body weight decreased significantly with the higher doses and the longer the treatment of C. calothyrsus leaf extract due to the anti-nutritive activity of calliandra tannins. The estrogen hormone level was significantly increased at the highest dose. The highest estrogen levels were found in the group of female rats which were given the exctract of 75 mg/kg bw until the age of 42nd days. This results showed that there was a phytoestrogen potential in the C. calothyrsus leaf extract.

  5. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Activity-based anorexia activates CRF immunoreactive neurons in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Friedrich, Tiemo; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a well-established animal model mimicking the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Since the pathophysiology of AN is yet poorly understood and specific drug treatments are lacking so far, animal models might be useful to further understand this disease. ABA consists of time-restricted access to food for 1.5 h/day and the possibility to exercise in a running wheel for 24 h/day. This combination leads to robust body weight loss as observed in AN. Here, we investigated the activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, a transmitter involved in the response to stress, emotional processes and also food intake. After development of ABA, rat brains were processed for c-Fos and CRF double immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of c-Fos/CRF double labeled neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) compared to the ad libitum (AL, ad libitum fed, no running wheel) and activity (AC, ad libitum fed, running wheel, p  0.05) group. Also the number of CRF neurons was increased in the DMH of ABA rats compared to AL and AC (p  0.05). Taken together, brain CRF activated under conditions of ABA might play a role in the development and maintenance of this animal model and possibly also in human AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of fluoride on caries progression and dentin apposition in rats fed on a cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, S; Larmas, M

    1993-02-01

    The effect of fluoride in drinking water on the progression of dentinal caries and dentin apposition was studied in Wistar rats. The initiation of enamel caries lesions was first induced for 2 wk with S. sobrinus and a 43% sucrose diet after weaning. Thereafter the animals were fed on either a cariogenic or a non-cariogenic diet and distilled water supplemented with 0, 1, 7 or 19 ppm fluoride. The areas of dentinal caries and dentin apposition were quantified after tetracycline staining. Fluoride reduced dentinal caries progression after the initiation of lesions in the presence of a cariogenic diet at a concentration of 19 ppm F, and without sucrose at 1 ppm F. The effect of fluoride in reducing dentin apposition with a cariogenic diet was dose-dependent, whereas fluoride in non-cariogenic groups had practically no effect on dentin formation. These results suggest that fluoride together with a high concentration of sucrose in the diet might have an odontoblast-mediated effect on the regulation of the progression of dentinal caries.

  8. Metabolism of leucine and alanine in growing rats fed the diets with various protein to energy ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Michio; Kametaka, Masao

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the nutritional significance of metabolism of the carbon skeleton of individual amino acids, the metabolic fates of L-leucine-U- 14 C and L-alanine-U- 14 C were investigated in growing rats fed the diets with various protein calories percents (PC%) at 410 kcal of metabolizable energy. The incorporation of 14 C into body protein in 12 hr after the injection of leucine- 14 C was about 73% of the dose in the 0 and 5 PC% groups, though it decreased with increasing the levels of dietary protein from 10 to 30 PC%. The value of 14 C recovery in body protein almost agreed with the net protein utilization (NPU) determined for the whole egg protein in a similar experimental condition. The 14 C recovery in expired CO 2 and body lipid suggested that the carbon skeleton of leucine is well utilized as an energy source when the dietary carbohydrate is extensively replaced by protein. While, the incorporation of 14 C into body protein from alanine- 14 C was less than about 11% of the dose in all the dietary groups, and the majority of 14 C was recovered in expired CO 2 and body lipid in a remarked contrast to leucine. A similar pattern in urinary excretion of 14 C was obtained for these amino acids, and the refracted rise of 14 C from 10 PC% may give an indication for minimum protein requirements. (auth.)

  9. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2010-11-01

    Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transfer of proteins from the small to the large intestine, there is little information on the consequences of the use of such diets on the composition of large intestine content and on epithelial cell morphology and metabolism. Rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein), and absorptive colonocytes were observed by electron microscopy or isolated for enzyme activity studies. The colonic luminal content was recovered for biochemical analysis. Absorbing colonocytes were characterized by a 1.7-fold reduction in the height of the brush-border membranes (P = 0.0001) after HP diet consumption when compared with NP. This coincided in the whole colon content of HP animals with a 1.8-fold higher mass content (P = 0.0020), a 2.2-fold higher water content (P = 0.0240), a 5.2-fold higher protease activity (P = 0.0104), a 5.5-fold higher ammonia content (P = 0.0008), and a more than twofold higher propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate content (P hyperproteic diet ingestion causes marked changes both in the luminal environment of colonocytes and in the characteristics of these cells, demonstrating that hyperproteic diet interferes with colonocyte metabolism and morphology. Possible causal relationships between energy metabolism, reduced height of colonocyte brush-border membranes, and reduced water absorption are discussed.

  10. Cinnamaldehyde Attenuates Cataractogenesis via Restoration of Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have revealed that systemic hypertension is strongly associated with cataractogenesis. However, the pathophysiology and treatment is often unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cataractogenic effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA, a natural organic compound, in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Methods: The rats were divided into six groups. For six weeks, the normal group received a suspension of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (10 mL/kg/day, p.o. while five other groups received a 10% (w/v fructose solution in their drinking water to induce hypertension. By the end of the third week hypertension had been induced in all the animals receiving fructose. From the beginning of the fourth week to the end of the sixth week, one of those five groups (control continued to receive only 10% (w/v fructose solution, one group (standard received ramipril (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. plus 10% (w/v fructose solution, and three groups (experimental received CA at doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day p.o., plus 10% (w/v fructose solution. Blood pressure was measured weekly using a non-invasive blood pressure apparatus. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the anti-cataractogenic effects on the eye lenses were evaluated. Results: Administration of fructose elevated both the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures, which were significantly reduced by CA at all dose levels. In the control group, a significant increase in the malonaldehyde (MDA level and decreases in the total protein, Ca2+adenosine triphosphate (ATPase activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels, as compared to the normal group, were observed. Administration of CA at all doses significantly restored the enzymatic, non-enzymatic, antioxidants, total protein, and Ca2+ATPase levels, but decreased the MDA level, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study revealed that CA modulated the antioxidant

  11. Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Satheesh Kumar; Arumugam, Kottai Muthu

    2012-10-02

    The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100 mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10 mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (ppruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (ppruriens).

  12. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  13. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  14. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  15. Nongenomic Actions of 17-β Estradiol Restore Respiratory Neuroplasticity in Young Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Brendan J.; Kopp, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal steroids modulate CNS plasticity, including phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory neuroplasticity resulting in increased phrenic nerve motor output following exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (aIH; three 5 min episodes, 10.5% O2). Despite the importance of respiratory system neuroplasticity, and its dependence on estrogen in males, little is known about pLTF expression or mechanisms of estrogen signaling in females. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) pLTF expression in young, gonadally intact female rats would be expressed during estrous cycle stages in which 17β-estradiol (E2) is naturally high (e.g., proestrus vs estrus), (2) pLTF would be absent in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in physiological conditions in which serum progesterone, but not E2, is elevated (e.g., lactating rats, 3–10 d postpartum), and (3) acute E2 administration would be sufficient to restore pLTF in OVX rats. Recordings of phrenic nerve activity in female Sprague Dawley rats (3–4 months) revealed a direct correlation between serum E2 levels and pLTF expression in cycling female rats. pLTF was abolished with OVX, but was re-established by acute E2 replacement (3 h, intraperitoneal). To identify underlying E2 signaling mechanisms, we intrathecally applied BSA-conjugated E2 over the spinal phrenic motor nucleus and found that pLTF expression was restored within 15 min, suggesting nongenomic E2 effects at membrane estrogen receptors. These data are the first to investigate the role of ovarian E2 in young cycling females, and to identify a role for nongenomic estrogen signaling in any form of respiratory system neuroplasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity that improves breathing in models of spinal cord injury. Although pathways leading to pLTF are well studied in males and estradiol (E2) is known to be required, it has

  16. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  17. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  18. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  19. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  20. The effect of sibutramine on platelet morphology of Spraque-Dawley rats fed a high energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sibutramine on platelet ultrastructure and discuss the morphological observations in relation to known physiological effects of the compound. Six-week-old, female Spraque-Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals were placed on a high energy diet after which sibutramine administration followed. Blood was drawn on the day of termination and platelet rich plasma was obtained to prepare plasma smears for analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the ultrastructure of the platelets. Platelets of the Sibutramine-treated animals showed smooth surface with limited pseudopodia formation when compared with that of the control animals. Higher magnification of the platelet surface showed membrane tears and swelling, typically seen in necrotic cells. It can therefore be concluded from these results that Sibutramine alters the membrane morphology of platelets to that typical of necrotic cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able......Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified...

  2. Influence of ovarian hormones on development of ingestive responding to alterations in fatty acid oxidation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; McCurley, Melissa; Hamilton, Erica; Doerflinger, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Adult male rats have been demonstrated to increase food intake in response to administration of drugs that interfere with oxidation of fatty acids (e.g. methyl palmoxirate and mercaptoacetate [MA]), effects that are larger in animals maintained on a high-fat diet. In contrast, while administration of MA has been reported to stimulate food intake in pre-pubertal female rats, food intake is not stimulated by MA in adult female rats. Instead, administration of MA to adult females results in changes in reproductive behavior and physiology. The present experiments were designed to examine the effects of administration of MA on food intake in adult female rats. The results demonstrated that, as previously reported, food intake was stimulated by MA in adult male rats on low-fat and high-fat diets, but food intake in was not stimulated by MA in gonadally-intact adult female rats on either low-fat or high-fat diet. Further, MA did not stimulate food intake in female rats ovariectomized as adults. However, when females were ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty (postnatal day 25 – 28), food intake was stimulated by administration of MA in adulthood. Finally, cyclic injections of 17-β-estradiol benzoate given to females ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty abolished the stimulatory effects of MA on food intake in adult females. Taken together, the data suggest that exposure to estrogens during the time of puberty in female rats can persistently alter adult ingestive responding to signals related to changes in energy utilization. PMID:18586247

  3. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuli M. Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  4. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Neuli M; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina C; Carlin, Viviane; Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group). The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female