WorldWideScience

Sample records for female non-nursing students

  1. [Knowledge, attitude, and behaviors related to sex among teenage girls: a comparison between nursing and non-nursing college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tesng, Li-Shu

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study was to explore differences in sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between teenage girls enrolled at a nursing school and those enrolled at a non-nursing school. A total of 792 students were recruited from one nursing school and one non-nursing school. Compared to non-nursing students, nursing students were more knowledgeable on sex-related issues, held more conservative attitudes toward sex, and had less sexual experience. We found also that the closer an intimate relationship was, the more liberal the sexual activities tended to be. Participants were prone to accept premarital sex, and cared less about the virginity of future spouses. Most perceived having a child before marriage unacceptable. About 23% (n = 179) of participants had intercourse experience, while only 30% of girls surveyed had used contraception every time they had sexual intercourse. Eleven students reported being pregnant, but none chose to take their pregnancy to term. The findings of this study show that nursing education may have a positive influence on teenage girl's sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to practicing safer sex. This study also suggests that a comprehensive sex-related curriculum, introducing safer sex practices and the health consequences of unprotected sex, should be reinforced in both non-nursing and nursing schools.

  2. Comparison of Mental Health Characteristics and Stress Between Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Non-Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michelle L; Taylor, Heidi; Nelson, J Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Nurses consistently report the highest levels of job stress among all health professionals. To best prepare students for such a high-stress profession, insights into the onset of stress is warranted, especially with the literature supporting that nursing students experience significant stress during their education. This study sought to explore the sources of stress among nursing students and to compare stress levels and selected mental health indicators between nursing students and the general student body using the paper-and-pencil version of the National College Health Assessment II. Nursing students were found to have significantly more stress, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and stress-related illnesses than the general student body. The findings highlight the importance of self-care and stress management skills education in nurse preparatory programs for use in both academic preparation and in future careers. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities: nursing students and non-nursing peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, ten Peter M.; Dannenberg, Jan-Willem; Taal, Erik; Burger, Gerard; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study of the attitudes of Dutch nursing students towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities. - Background: Attitudes of healthcare professionals are a major factor in the rehabilitation and self-acceptance of persons with disabilities. Consequently, i

  4. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  5. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    60% of students at Aarhus School of Architecture (AAA) are women. Yet there are far more male than female students who harbor a desire to become independent. Overall as much as 48% of all students at AAA want to start their own business. Significantly, however, the interest is greatest on second ......' entrepreneurs, where female students are underrepresented. This paper will show how enterprising elements......60% of students at Aarhus School of Architecture (AAA) are women. Yet there are far more male than female students who harbor a desire to become independent. Overall as much as 48% of all students at AAA want to start their own business. Significantly, however, the interest is greatest on second...... years (60%), while it drops to 35% on the 5th and last year. Among graduates from AAA, the gender distribution remains skewed, since more than twice as many men as women start their own architect or design firm.1 Q: Ark is a project which promotes entrepreneurship among female students at AAA. Q: Ark...

  6. Can polish university female students swim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the work: There are only few studies in Polish and foreign literature providing solid information on swimming skills of university students. The aim of the study carried out at the University of Warmia & Mazury in Olsztyn was to determine swimming skills of Polish university female students starting their studies. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2012 on 298 female students of the 1 st year course, at the age of 19 – 20. Anonymous questionnaire was used in the research. Results: It has been shown that almost 72% of the women could not swim at all, and 26% swam poorly. Within the group of women able to swim, the greatest percentage was set by women using classical style (49% and “their own” one (27% and only 13% of the students used crawl, 9% - back stroke and 2% - butterfly style. Of all the women declaring swimming abilities, the biggest percentage (16% could cover the distance of only 20 – 50 m; fewer students (6% covered the distance of 50 – 100 m; and 5% could swim only 20 m. Only a marginal number of students (2% could cover the distance from 100 to 1000 m; none could swim more than 1000 m. Conclusions: The study showed a very pessimistic picture of swimming skills of Polish university female students in respect of the number of women able to swim, their knowledge of swimming styles, and the length of the covered distance.

  7. In search of female IT-students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching...... methods and application of technology is needed as well as elimination of female hostile attitudes. The findings are based on a literature review supplemented with results from a work shop with students from a technical university....

  8. In search of female IT-students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette

    This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching...... methods and application of technology is needed as well as elimination of female hostile attitudes. The findings are based on a literature review supplemented with results from a work shop with students from a technical university....

  9. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others

    Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…

  10. Intimate Relationships of Female International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2008-01-01

    Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…

  11. The academically gifted female student in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula R.

    The protocol of this study was designed to investigate the factors three gifted, young women perceived as influencing their successful transition from an accelerated science high school program to three accelerated university science programs. The research design was a mixed methods study involving three gifted women as they maneuvered through a high school magnet program for science and matriculated into separate university honors programs for science majors. As high school graduates, these women also achieved honors and citations for academic excellence. During their initial years of college, these students maintained outstanding grades in rigorous programs for science majors. These criteria yielded three, gifted female students who proved to be resilient and committed to meeting the demands of an academic program of science. In an attempt to understand the influential factors in the academic lives of these students, a narrative inquiry as well as a quantitative component comprised of three inventories for descriptive data were selected. The impetus for this research resided in the need to better understand the factors contributing to the shaping of the self-identity of the gifted female student as she achieved academic success in the typically, male dominated science classrooms; subsequently, the guidance by parents and educators may prove influential in developing the achievement orientation within the self-identity of the young woman.

  12. Understanding Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.

  13. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.

  14. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  15. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  16. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  17. 某医科大学护理与非护理本科生职业价值取向调查分析%Orientation Survey of Professional Value Orientations of Nursing Students and Non-nursing Students of Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴立丽; 陈瑜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the differences of the professional value orientations by investigating the professional value orientations of nursing and non-nursing undergraduates in a medical university. Methods By convenience sampling,145 nursing undergraduate students and 158 non-nursing undergraduate students were surveyed using professional value orientation scale and a self-designed questionnaire of influence factors. Results Nursing undergraduates professional value orientation in each dimension scores are higher than the non-nursing undergraduate studentsi including economic orientation, labour protection stability orientation,personal development orientation,family orientation,individual interest orientation do significantly difference(P0. 05), nursing undergraduate each grade professional value orientation have differences(P<0. 05). Conclusion Undergraduate nursing students on career choices,career value requirements are higher than the non-nursing professional,but each grade differences in career values,and undergraduate nursing students pay more attention to apply their knowledge and career development.%目的 调查并分析某医科大学护理及非护理本科生的职业价值取向,了解这两类人群职业价值取向的差异.方法 按照便利抽样法选取某医科大学护理本科学生145名和非护理本科生158名,采用职业价值取向量表和自编影响因素问卷对进行调查.结果 护理本科生职业价值取向各维度的得分均高于非护理本科生,其中经济取向、劳保稳定取向、个人发展取向、家庭取向、个人兴趣取向维度的得分经比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);护理本科生与非护理本科生在工资收入高、福利好、有较高的社会地位、晋升机会多、交通便利、自主性大、学以致用、和家人在一起等8个条目的得分上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);非护理本科生各年级的职业价值取向差异无统计学意义(P>0

  18. Career identities of first-year female coloured students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    female coloured students' career identity, at a higher education institution in the Eastern Cape .... among first-year students, such as gender, race, ethnicity and socio-economic status. ...... White Paper on Integrated National Disability. Strategy.

  19. Cyberbullying Behaviors among Female College Students: Witnessing, Perpetration, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Moreno, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Cyberbullying is common among adolescents, and emerging studies also describe this phenomenon in college students. Less is known about specific cyberbullying behaviors and roles in cyberbullying incidents experienced by college females. Methods: 249 female students from 4 colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in 11…

  20. Cyberbullying Behaviors among Female College Students: Witnessing, Perpetration, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Moreno, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Cyberbullying is common among adolescents, and emerging studies also describe this phenomenon in college students. Less is known about specific cyberbullying behaviors and roles in cyberbullying incidents experienced by college females. Methods: 249 female students from 4 colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in 11…

  1. Choice of Specialization among Female Clinical Medical Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... Keywords: Choice of specialization; Female medical students; Kano; Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... future location and settling intention and lecturer's personality [12]. ... expected to attend to females in the health care delivery, there is the need ..... preference and attitude of medical students in Cairo within the.

  2. The Level of Stress in Male and Female School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zamirullah; Lanin, Abul Barkat; Ahmad, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the level of stress in male and female school students. For the purpose of the study the researcher randomly selected 64 school students aged between 14-18 years. To collect the data researcher used students stress scale (SSS) developed by Dr. Zaki Akhtar (2011). During collection of data researcher used means and method fit…

  3. The perception and constraints towards recreational activity among female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Ahmad Kamal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available More often than not, male students are seen to be more active in recreation activity than female students. To investigate this matter, a study was done on the female recreational activity participation. This study investigated the perception and constraints towards recreation activity among female students in a university in Malaysia. This study used a questionnaire regarding the recreation activity to collect the findings. Sixty respondents have been selected randomly as the subject for this study. All the information that is obtained from the questionnaire has been collected and analyzed using SPSS. It was found recreation is most often perceived as ‘extreme sports’ by female students. Moreover, most of the female students perceived themselves as participating regularly in recreational activity. The reasons for not participating in recreational activity are of lack of time, low energy level, lack of participants, lack of facilities and money. It was also found female students prefer outdoor activities such as camping, abseiling and wall climbing. Future studies should compare the perception of male and female students’ on recreational activity.

  4. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment.

  5. Knowledge and practice of university female students toward breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S Al-Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Students′ knowledge and practice toward breast cancer was inadequate. There is a need for national campaigns for the public and university female students to improve their knowledge regarding breast cancer and encourage them for practicing BSE.

  6. Perceptions of Female High School Students on Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madara, Diana Starovoytova; Namango, Sitati

    2016-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that females are underrepresented in engineering worldwide, and Kenya is not an exception. Recent study at School of Engineering (SOE), Moi University (MU) established that engineering parity ration was found to be 1.68 %, meaning that for every 59 students admitted to MU there was only one student admitted to SOE.…

  7. 290 A Relational Study of Male and Female Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    female students' academic performance in radio communication in technical colleges in Delta State. ... students performed better than their rural counterpart in the same .... Table 1 shows the institution, population of each technical college and their ... and rural technical colleges was the major instrument used at bringing out.

  8. Grief Experiences Among Female American and Arab Undergraduate College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Mary Alice; McClam, Tricia M; Hassane, Sofoh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of grief among American and Arab female undergraduate students, the effects of their grief, and risk of prolonged grief disorder. A total of 471 female undergraduate students, 308 (65.4%) from the United Arab Emirates and 163 (34.6%) from the United States, completed a survey about their grief experiences. Students experiencing a significant loss also completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire. Findings revealed that overall approximately 38.4% (n = 181) of all 471 students experienced the loss of a significant person in their lives within the past 24 months; a similar percentage was found in each sub group. Students reported various grief effects with American students experiencing more effects related to sleep, relationships, academics, physical well-being, religion/spirituality, and outlook on life than Arab students. Only a small number (10, 5.52%) of students met the criteria for prolonged grief disorder; however, most students were female Arab students. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Frequency of nutritional anemia among female medical students of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Shireen; Tariq, Sundus; Tariq, Saba; Kamal, Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is a common health problem worldwide. This problem is most commonly faced by 18 to 25 years of females. Medical students especially female hostelites poses high risk of anemia because of their poor eating habits, breakfast skipping, long schedule in college, burden of medical studies, clinical postings, and extra-curricular activities. Therefore the current study was designed to determine the hemoglobin status in young female medical students. We also elucidate its association with BMI. A cross sectional study was conducted at The University of Faisalabad during December 2015 to February 2016. A total of 221 female students were recruited by convenient sampling technique. All relevant information about participants was taking by administering structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized as hostelities and day scholars for comparison. Study subjects were also sub grouped on the bases of their BMI. Hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and MCHC were estimated at Madina Teaching Hospital Faisalabad. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 20. Mean age of the study subjects was 19.92 ±0.93. 33.4% of the students were found to be anemic. Significantly high number of hostelites (39.2%) were anemic as compared to day scholars (23.1%) (P value= 0.015*). On analyzing by BMI categories, greater number of underweight subjects was found to be anemic as compared to normal and overweight subjects. Anemia is more prevalent in hostelites as compared to day scholar female medical students which might also affect the efficiency of these students.

  10. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  11. Sexual Harassment: A Female Counseling Student's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…

  12. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  13. Motivations, interests and retention of female minority engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Naila

    In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.

  14. Sexual Function, Contraception, Relationship, and Lifestyle in Female Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwiener, Christian W; Wallwiener, Lisa-Maria; Seeger, Harald; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Mueck, Alfred O; Bitzer, Johannes; Zipfel, Stephan; Brucker, Sara Y; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Markus

    2017-02-01

    We undertook to study possible determinants of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in a large cohort of female medical students from German-speaking countries. We conducted an online questionnaire-based anonymous survey in a cohort of >2600 female medical students enrolled at German-speaking universities. The questionnaire comprised the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) plus additional questions regarding contraception, sexual activity, age, height, weight, lifestyle, activity at work, sexuality and emotional interaction with a steady partner, pregnancy history and plans, health problems, and self-acceptance. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses, and standard nonparametric tests. Of the 2612 respondents aged ≤30 years included in the analysis (mean age [standard deviation], 23.5 [2.5] years), 38.7% of the overall cohort and 33.5% of the sexually active subcohort (91.8% of all students) were at risk for FSD (FSFI score speaking female medical students are at risk for FSD. Contraception, smoking, alcohol, steady relationship, physical fitness, and self-acceptance are significantly associated with the FSFI total score. Being in a steady relationship, better physical fitness, higher activity at work, and subjectively positive self-acceptance, in particular, are associated with higher FSFI total scores, that is, with less risk for sexual dysfunction.

  15. Factors influencing the choice of a nursing or a non-nursing degree: a multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Graceffa, Giuseppina; Del Bello, Matteo; Rizzi, Lorena; Ianderca, Barbara; Battistella, Nadia; Bulfone, Teresa; Grando, Roberta; Zuliani, Stefania; Casetta, Anica; Palese, Alvisa

    2014-12-01

    Current literature has paid increasing attention to the factors influencing career decisions; nevertheless, few studies have compared candidates that have chosen a nursing versus a non-nursing degree. A multicenter, cross-sectional study design was performed to explore whether or not certain individual variables and having inaccurate data about nursing as a profession influenced the choice of a non-nursing degree. Six non-nursing and three nursing degree programs offered by two public Italian universities were involved. A total of 507 students who had just enrolled in non-nursing degree programs and 202 in nursing degree programs were invited to complete a questionnaire comprising 12 closed items. Overall, from 40.0% to 57.1% of the variation in choosing a degree other than nursing was explained by variables such as age, and having inaccurate data on the nursing profession. For each year over 19 years of age, the likelihood that the student would decide to enroll in a nursing degree program increases. For each wrong answer reported on the questionnaire evaluating knowledge on nursing profession, there was a reduction of approximately six times in the likelihood that the student would enroll in a nursing degree program. Information regarding the nursing profession should be offered in early stages of life; in addition, offering accurate data on the profession is a key factor in evaluating the congruence of the career with the individual's personal motivations, aspirations, and talents.

  16. The Significance of Student Voice: Female Students' Interpretations of Failure in Tanzanian Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna; Lehtomäki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the national examinations are used as the primary tools for selection and transition from lower to upper secondary education. Female students are more likely to fail in the national exams and to drop out from education. This article examines the perspectives of female students concerning their advancement in secondary education. Two…

  17. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  18. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  19. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  20. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  1. The Life Concept in Female College Students: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia-Finlay, Diane Ellen

    1978-01-01

    A two-part animism questionnaire was adminstered to 200 female undergraduates with extensive backgrounds in science. When students classified objects as "living" or "nonliving," 67 percent gave evidence of animistic thought. Yet when subjects identified statements which reflected their own definition of living, 66 percent…

  2. Breast Self Examination Practice among Female Students of Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbonifoh, Julia Adesua

    2016-01-01

    Against the background of the dangers posed by breast cancer world-wide, and the importance of its early detection and therefore breast self examination (BSE), this study investigated the practice of BSE among female students in tertiary institutions in Edo state. A sample of 723 participants selected through a combination of multi-stage,…

  3. Lecture on Female Masturbation Harassed Him, Male Student Says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    1995-01-01

    A male student in a California State University-Sacramento psychology lecture on female masturbation has filed a sexual harassment complaint, claiming the lecture violated institutional policy by creating an intimidating, hostile, and offensive learning environment. He felt the lecture was inappropriately graphic and political in intent. (MSE)

  4. Attachment, Entitlement, and the Impostor Phenomenon in Female Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Beverly, Gina; Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the utility of attachment and entitlement as predictors of the impostor phenomenon in female graduate students. Findings suggested that individuals with high levels of self-reliance/self-assurance entitlement are able to associate positive feedback with stable internal attributes. Those with anxious attachment and narcissistic…

  5. Examining Entrepreneurial Attributes of Latin American Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasana, Marcia; Alcaraz-Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of women engaging in entrepreneurship is expanding and becoming acknowledged as a valuable resource that must be institutionally and socially supported. Through entrepreneurship education, female students, as potential entrepreneurs, can develop and strengthen those skills and behaviours identified as characteristic of successful…

  6. Differential Teacher Grading Behavior toward Female Students of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if teachers discriminate against female learners of mathematics. More than 1000 secondary mathematics teachers were asked to grade four geometry proofs. Student sex and ability were the independent variables. Analysis yielded no significant F ratios for either of the main effects or their interaction. (Author/MK)

  7. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  8. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  9. Prevalence of Exercise Induced Asthma in Female School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Marefati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of exercise induced asthma (EIA in Iran is not known. In the present study the  prevalence of  EIA  among female students  of  guidance school  in the  city of Mashhad was evaluated.A total of 1690 female students aged 12-14 years in ten randomly selected schools in north east of Iran (Mashhad completed an asthma symptoms- specific questionnaire. One hundred forty four randomly selected students including 49 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic cases participated in a 6 minutes free run test (until reaching 70-75% of MHR (maximum heart rate for evaluating EIA. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were measured before (baseline, immediately, 5 minutes and 15 minutes after exercise.The prevalence of asthma symptoms among the studied students was 12.54%. There was not  significant difference in any of PFT  values between asymptomatic and symptomatic students. The results of exercise test showed that totally 61.22% of symptomatic students responded to exercise test (their post-exercise PFT values decline more than 15% while only 16.82% of asymptomatic students were responders to exercise (p<0.001. However, in both asymptomatic and symptomatic responder  students,  all PFT  values declined significantly after exercise compared  to  baseline values (p<0.05 to  p<0.001 and  there  was not  any significant difference between two groups.The results showed that although higher number of symptomatic students showed EIA, some asymptomatic students also sowed EIA.

  10. Interpersonal Violence and Health in Female University Students in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Baena, David; Talavera, Marta; Montero-Piñar, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Most studies address the health impact of violence by an intimate partner; therefore, violence exerted by someone other than a partner in university students and its health effects are less known. This study aims to analyze the effect of different forms of interpersonal violence on female university students' health. Women 18 to 25 years of age enrolled at two schools of the University of Valencia in the academic year 2013-2014 (N = 540) were selected, with a participation rate of 82%. Students were grouped as follows: no lifetime violence, violence by an intimate partner (IPV), other personal violence (OPV), and by both (IPV and OPV). Adjusted logistical regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of the different forms of violence on students' health. As many as 92 students (20.6%) experienced violence at least once in their lives: 46 (10.3%) by an intimate partner, 24 (5.4%) by someone other than a partner, and 22 (4.9%) by both. Abused students are more likely to suffer psychological distress and poor health perception, and more regularly used psychoactive drugs than nonabused students, although the use of medication is higher for those abused by a partner and others. Women who experienced only IPV are more likely to suffer psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.78, p students' health problems suggest that violence seriously compromises women's health. Prevention programs that promote harmonious social relationships among university students should be implemented. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. FEMALE STUDENTS IN ENGINEERING Geology, Mining, and Petroleum Engineering Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering professions genceraly went last decades through process of feminization, but not equaly. The article is focused on one of the most male dominant profession - mining, geology and petroleum engineering (MGPE. This study will examine the percentage of female students and graduates from mining college and their achievement on udergraduate level in eleven years period. Data show a significant differences in female students enrolment among geology (35% women and mining and petroleum engineering (14% women. The theoretical background in explanation why women are marginal group in MPE is based on two different approaches: technological determinism and social shaping of technology. The role of technology in altering of women position in society is significant. The social construction of technology thesis stresses social factors and interests of main actors which in this case include the reproduction of tradilional value system and occupational segregation.

  12. Factors Affecting Female Students' Academic Achievement at Bahir Dar University

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha, Yeshimebrat; Bishaw, Alemayehu; Tegegne, Firew

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the on-campus and off-campus factors responsible for female students' low academic performance and consequently high attrition. Based on review of the related literature, basic research questions were formulated. For data gathering, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. The quantitative data were obtained through questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted to validate the instrument using 30 second year university st...

  13. Professional Values Among Female Nursing Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.

  14. Fitness and nutritional status of female medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, K; Mészáros, Zs; Mavroudes, M; Szmodis, M B; Zsidegh, M; Ng, N; Mészáros, J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

  15. Saudi Female Students' Perceptions of Their Democratic Empowerment in the Classroom at King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlan, Sarah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to describe female graduate students' perceptions about their democratic empowerment in the classroom at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Their perceptions are compared based on female students' tracks. It also investigates the obstacles for democratic empowerment that female students face in the…

  16. HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.

  17. Motor Abilities in Dance Structure Performance in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pašavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonic...

  18. Drinking behavior among female high school students in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the drinking behavior and factors associated with drinking among female High School students in central Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6,176 female students from central Thailand, who were classified into 2 groups according to their alcohol drinking practices in the past year (yes = 612, no = 5,564). Information was collected by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: socio-demographic factors, and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Of all these respondents 9.91% admitted to drinking alcohol. Most of the students were 15 years old or younger (61.80%). Univariate analysis revealed that socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, grade point average (GPA), having a job for earning money, and having family members with alcohol or drug problems were significantly associated with the student alcohol drinking (p educational level (OR mathayomsuksa 5 = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.55-7.41; OR mathayomsuksa 3 = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.71-3.09), residence in a private dormitory (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.01-10.27) and family members with alcohol or drug problems (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.43-2.08), and a GPA greater than 3 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.86) (p educational level, residence within a private dormitory and family members with alcohol or drug problems. Continuous insistence regarding the disadvantages of alcohol to risk groups would reduce the proportion of new and current drinkers.

  19. Non-nurse college graduates: a new resource for future nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P L; Shoffner, D H

    1991-01-01

    Non-nurse college graduates are admitted to the master's of science in nursing (MSN) degree program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK). Over the years, a majority of these non-traditional students have chosen the family nurse practitioner clinical concentration. The purpose of this study was to compare non-traditional and traditional family nurse practitioner (FNP) graduates in terms of academic and career-development characteristics. The study population consisted of all 91 (48 non-traditional and 43 traditional) UTK FNP graduates from 1981 to 1986. Little difference was found between the two groups' academic success in the program, self-perceptions of clinical preparedness for practice, current participation in the workforce, and self-perceptions of acceptance from administrators, other nurses and physicians in current work settings. Several notable differences between the two groups were found. The non-traditional FNP graduates had higher Graduate Record Examination (GRE) mean scores. More non-traditional than traditional FNP graduates were employed initially as nurse practitioners. Similarly, more non-traditional FNP graduates were currently employed as nurse practitioners in primary health care settings. Fewer non-traditional FNP graduates expressed satisfaction with their initial or current nursing positions. In regard to career goals, however, more of the non-traditional FNP graduates stated their intent was to be functioning as nurse practitioners in the future. Non-nurse college graduates with an interest in health care are a rich resource from which to recruit practicing nurse practitioners for the future.

  20. Facial features and social attractiveness: preferences of Bosnian female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bosankić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at testing multiple fitness hypothesis of attraction, investigating relationship between male facial characteristic and female students' reported readiness to engage in various social relations. A total of 27 male photos were evaluated on five dimensions on a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from -3 to 3, by convenient sample of 90 female students of University of Sarajevo. The dimensions were: desirable to date – not desirable to date; desirable to marry – not desirable to marry; desirable to have sex with – not desirable to have sex with; desirable to be a friend – not desirable to be a friend; attractive - not attractive. Facial metric measurements of facial features such as distance between the eyes, smile width and height were performed using AutoCad. The results indicate that only smile width positively correlates with desirability of establishing friendship, whilst none of the other characteristics correlates with any of the other dimensions. This leads to the conclusion that motivation to establish various social relations cannot be reduced to mere physical appearance, mainly facial features, but many other variables yet to be investigated.

  1. Perceptions of Harmful Female Advertising Stereotypes and Eating-Disordered Thinking among Female College Students: A Q Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Robert L.; Thomsen, Steven R.; Popovich, Mark N.

    A study employed Q methodology, personal interviews, and a self-administered questionnaire to explore how female college students, a population segment with one of the highest incidences of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders, rank magazine advertisements that feature a variety of potentially harmful female stereotypes. Specifically, the…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Female Master of Divinity Students in a Conservative West Coast Evangelical Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Issues surrounding female participation in graduate theological education are complex and multifaceted. One important problem concerning female theological students is the lack of research exploring the experiences and unique challenges faced by conservative evangelical female Master of Divinity (M. Div.) students as they pursue academic and…

  3. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  4. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  5. Prevalence of voice complaints, risk factors and impact of voice problems in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kooijman, P.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done among 457 female student teachers and 144 females in the general population. The conclusions are based on the opinions of student teachers and the general population. The results of this study show that 39.6% of the student teachers and 32.6% of the ge

  6. Prevalence of voice complaints, risk factors and impact of voice problems in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kooijman, P.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done among 457 female student teachers and 144 females in the general population. The conclusions are based on the opinions of student teachers and the general population. The results of this study show that 39.6% of the student teachers and 32.6% of the

  7. [Female teenager students: what they know about induced abortion complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Divanise Suruagy; Monteiro, Vera Grácia Neumann; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the knowledge about induced abortion complications and its relation to age. This is a cross-sectional study performed in schools of Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil, with students 12 to 19 years old. The sample was calculated considering post-abortion curettage data. The Epi Info computer program was used for data analysis. From 2,592 female adolescents studied 65.64% didn't know about any complications of induced abortion. The most mentioned complications were death and sterility. Clinical manifestations of abortion were wrongly mentioned by them as complications. Signification was found between the knowledge of the complications sterility, hemorrhage, and age. Death was significant fo rgirls under 15 and sterility for the older ones. The conclusion is that female adolescents don't have a correct knowledge of induced abortion complications, which shows the risk suffered by the ones that induce it. Thus, there is a need to further clarify the issue and for sexual education.

  8. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the NMs only (P NMs compared with OMs.

  9. The Differences and Solutions of Male and Female Students' English Learning%The Differences and Solutions of Male and Female Students' English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊庆玲

    2012-01-01

    In China, female students always perform better than male students in English learning. This thesis seeks to tackle the differences between male and female students,aiming to uncover the causes of the differences and explore the solutions for male and female students’ English learning.

  10. Notes on the acceptability of the female condom: a study among female and male students in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghi Auguste Bahi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on in-depth interviews with students of the University of Cocody-Abidjan, this article examines the acceptability of the female condom, and tries to understand the students' reasons for accepting or  rejecting its use. I examine conceptions of sexuality and power that emerge from their answers. These issues constitute real hindrances to the adoption and to the use of the condom insofar as it gives the woman a margin of freedom. The acceptability of the female condom is more to do with the inherent relation of power between sexual partners than it is to do with its utilitarian or hedonistic value. 

  11. Notes on the acceptability of the female condom: a study among female and male students in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahi, Aghi Auguste

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on in-depth interviews with students of the University of Cocody-Abidjan, this article examines the acceptability of the female condom, and tries to understand the students' reasons for accepting or rejecting its use. I examine conceptions of sexuality and power that emerge from their answers. These issues constitute real hindrances to the adoption and to the use of the condom insofar as it gives the woman a margin of freedom. The acceptability of the female condom is more to do with the inherent relation of power between sexual partners than it is to do with its utilitarian or hedonistic value.

  12. Participation of rural Zimbabwean female students in mathematics: The influence of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gudyanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was premised on the influence of perceptions on the participation of Ordinary Level rural African Zimbabwean female students in mathematics. Qualitative research design grounded in the interpretive paradigm was employed. Eighteen Ordinary Level female students and six teachers purposively selected from three rural co-educational secondary schools participated in the study. Data were generated through lesson observations and semi-structured question type interview guide. Findings revealed that rural female students perceived mathematics as a difficult subject, masculine and irrelevant to their future aspirations. Participants outlined that their perceptions were rooted in the prevailing cultural belief that mathematics is a masculine subject and negative stereotypes about girls’ maths abilities. Further findings indicate that female students’ participation in mathematics was highly influenced by their perception towards the subject. These perceptions result in the development of a general negative attitude to the subject that caused fewer female students to participate in mathematics in large numbers. We recommended parents and teachers to work hard to eliminate the negative gender and cultural stereotypes in order to enhance female students’ confidence in mathematics abilities. Schools should employ female mathematics teachers and expose female students to female role models who have succeeded in life in order to encourage more participation of female students in mathematics. Schools are made responsible for smoothing out difficulties generated by the prevailing culture. There is a gap in knowledge base pertaining to the Zimbabwean rural girls’ participation in Mathematics.

  13. Exceptional Female Students of Color: Academic Resilience and Gender in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Erik E.

    2008-01-01

    In researching the exceptional academic performance of 31 female and 19 male low socioeconomic college students of color, three distinctly female approaches to exceptional achievement arose from the data. These included the inordinate degree of familial resistance faced by the females and their approaches to that resistance, the value and…

  14. Health technology usage in the course of physical training sessions of pedagogical universities female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Валериевна Фоменко

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the methodological approaches to the unconventional gym study (fitness aerobics, Pilates, shaping at physical training sessions with female students of the first and second courses of higher educational institutions. Sessions are analyzed from the perspective of interest increasing of female students to sport activity, development of physical abilities, enhance of physical fitness and health promotion in general.

  15. Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Female Adolescent College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…

  16. Empowerment of Female Students for Participation in the Representative Councils in Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Al-Jufout; Ziad, Abu-Hamatteh; Lama, Al-Qaisy

    2008-01-01

    The current article presents an analytical study of female students' participation in the representative councils in various Jordanian Universities. The data-base applied in the present investigation has indicated a clear weak representation of female students in general. The possible reasons, behind this weakness, have been tracked using a…

  17. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  18. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  19. Challenges to the Doctoral Journey: A Case of Female Doctoral Students from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireda, Asamenew Demessie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate some challenges female doctoral students experience in their doctoral journey. The study used a qualitative design and structured interviews. The theoretical framework that guided the study was that of Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecosystemic theory. A purposely selected sample of five female doctoral students from the…

  20. Bibliotherapeutic Influence on Nigerian Female University Students: Self-Report on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwilagwe, Oshiotse Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of self-prescribed literature on sex education of female students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The sample population consists of 303 married, engaged, those in love and those yet to fall in love female students. The analysis of data reveals that they read books specifically on friendship, love, marriage…

  1. The Performance of Female Medical Students in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M.; Smith, Imogene K.

    1982-01-01

    A study showed that although female medical students had slightly lower National Board examination scores on part one and lower grade point averages, they performed significantly better in the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. Possible factors include women students' interest in women's health care and female representation on the house staff.…

  2. Assessment of Sexual Violence against Female Students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tora, Abebayehu

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…

  3. Social Networking of Depressed and Non-Depressed Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interpersonal aspects of depression among female college students. A sample of 60 undergraduate female college students (50 pairs: 25 depressed and 25 non-depressed subjects along with their best friends) was drawn from Government Degree College for Women, Multan. Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al.,…

  4. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value

  5. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  6. Childhood discipline, perceptions of parents, and current functioning in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff; Klein, Jenny; Oliveros, Arazais

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related uniquely when examining responses for mothers and fathers. Further, regression analyses suggested that negative perceptions of mothers may mediate the relationship between maternal psychologically assaultive discipline and female college students' depression and self-esteem and mediate partially the relationship between maternal psychologically and physically assaultive discipline and female college students' anxiety. In contrast, fathers' use of psychologically assaultive discipline and female college students' positive and negative perceptions of their fathers predicted depression, whereas only their perceptions predicted anxiety and self-esteem. These results suggested the importance of examining discipline and perceptions of parents when examining the functioning of late adolescents and emerging adults.

  7. Hydro aerobics as means for physical state improvement of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamutova N.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of organization and conducting studies were considered by using system of hydro aerobics exercises for improving physical training of female students. Sixty female students took part in the experiment. All the tested girls were divided into two groups, 30 persons each. The tested group of female students made aerobic exercises on the dry land according to a plan. The female students of experimental group made hydro aerobics exercises according to the programme. Several methods were used: anthropometry, control methods of the functional parameters of the body, testing of the physical training indicators, methods of mathematical statistics. The reliable positive improvements of cardiovascular and respiratory systems were in the experimental group of the girls. The effect of the reliable decrease of fat mass of the tested female students was exposed among anthropometrical characteristics.

  8. A Comparison of Personality Types Among Female Student Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Buckley, Joanne Marengo

    1977-01-01

    Personality traits of women students in medicine, pharmacy, medical technology, physical therapy, dietetics, and occupational therapy were examined. Medical students were found to be guided more by thinking than feelings; pharmacy students prefer well-planned, routine work; occupational therapy students, changing situations and flexibility.…

  9. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    OpenAIRE

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questio...

  10. Deconstructing the Transfer Student Capital: Intersect between Cultural and Social Capital among Female Transfer Students in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Soko S.; Smith, Dimitra Jackson; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of female transfer students majoring in STEM areas at a midwestern university by highlighting the role of Transfer Student Capital in their academic and social adjustment. The authors further deconstructed the notion of Transfer Student Capital by looking at how cultural and social capital intersect…

  11. Views of Japanese medical students on the work-life balance of female physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keiko; Nin, Tomoni; Akano, Megumi; Hasuike, Yukiko; Iijima, Hiroko; Suzuki, Keiichirou

    2017-05-11

    To survey medical students on their ideas of future work-life balance and discuss topics for next-generation medical education. First-year (n=372, 34.9% female) and sixth-year medical students (n=311, 44.1% female) responded to a questionnaire on future self, marriage and childcare, and gender differences at the workplace. Responses were compared between academic years and gender. Responses were evaluated by gender and academic year using the Mann-Whitney U test.  Significance was set at pwork part-time. Also among first-year students, greater percentages of female students expected to work part-time or leave their jobs temporarily while raising their children. Compared with first-year male students, first-year female students expected to undertake larger portions of the childcare and housework burden than their partners. However, gender differences in work-life balance and childcare leave vanished in the sixth-year students. Female medical students accepted childcare and housework burdens as inevitable; the work environment they choose might affect their career development. While support from male partners and institutions must be increased, voluntary actions and change in mentality of female students need to be promoted through medical education to prevent them from waiting passively for the situation to change.

  12. Body Build Perceptions in Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roger C.; Hankins, Norman E.

    1979-01-01

    Results from scores on the Somatotype Rating Scale (SRS) indicated that, while there was close agreement between males and females on the measures, females exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body build and greater congruency between their self-concept and their same-sex stereotype than did males. (Author)

  13. Female Library Science Students and the Occupational Stereotype: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Hall, Janet E.

    1973-01-01

    Mass media stereotype the librarian pejoratively as compared with other professionals. In a personality comparison of a group of female library science students with a general college student norm, both groups ranked similarly. In some cases, the prospective librarians ranked more favorably than did college students. (6 references) (Authors)

  14. Experiences of International Female Students in U.S. Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Aguirre, Hilda Cecilia; Gonzalez Y Gonzalez, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    International students enrolled in American institutions of higher education have been increasing during the past decades. The current study addresses the experiences of international female graduate students in the United States, in terms of difficulties as students at a southern American university and temporal residents of the United States.…

  15. Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students' Attitudes towards CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehrak; Yadollahi, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students' attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled…

  16. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    .... The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia...

  17. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  18. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wang

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9% of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge.

  19. A Study of the Academic Performance of Male Students Compared To Female Students in Secondary Elective Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Delores

    The purpose of this study is to compare the academic performance of male and female students in high school elective science courses. The data for this study were drawn from the grade books of six teachers of elective science courses and consists of the grades earned by the males and females during one academic year. The number of students…

  20. A comparison of personality characteristics of male and female engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Erin Beth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between personality characteristics of female and male freshmen, engineering students. A secondary purpose was to ascertain whether personality characteristics of freshmen, engineering students were different from those of general collegiate students of the same sex. The Millon Index of Personality Styles (MIPS) was administered to a sample of 72 female and 86 male freshmen, engineering students at a private midwestern engineering institution. The MIPS college normative sample of 1,600 college students was used as a comparison group. A total of 24 personality characteristics were assessed in the domains of motivation aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Four hypotheses, which dealt with comparisons of the engineering samples, were tested by way of discriminant analyses. Two hypotheses, which compared the engineering samples to the collegiate samples of the same sex, were tested by way of t-tests. All six hypotheses yielded significant differences across various personality variables. It was concluded that engineering students of both sexes were more similar than different in personality characteristics. It was also concluded that there were greater personality differences between freshmen male engineering students and male college students than there are between freshmen female engineering students and female college students.

  1. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression...

  2. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyun Jeong Lim; Min Ju Kim; Kyung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB...

  3. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  4. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hosseini; Zeynab Karimi; Siamak Mohebi*; Gholamreza Sharifirad; Ahmad Rahbar; Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a ...

  5. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Methods Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All pa...

  6. Learning to Speak: Student Work. Female Studies X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelt, Deborah Silverton, Ed.

    The tenth volume in a series, this publication is a collection of papers produced by college students in women's studies classes around the country. The major purpose of the collection is to provide teachers and students in the field with access to the products of classes other than their own. Most of the writings come from the humanities or from…

  7. Examining Ageism: Do Male and Female College Students Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M.

    2001-01-01

    College students (n=200) expressed their preferences for the ages of 13 service providers such as doctors, pilots, and mechanics. The mean age preferred was below 40. Except for barbers/beauticians, no gender differences were found. However, scores on the Fraboni Scale of Ageism showed that male students had more ageist attitudes. (SK)

  8. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  9. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  10. A SWOT Analysis of Male and Female Students' Performance in Chemistry: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, Florence O.; Chiaha, Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka; Anazor, Lynda Chioma; Eze, Justina Uzoamaka; Omeke, Faith Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do a SWOT analysis and compare performances of male and female students in chemistry. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two boys', two girls' and two coeducational schools involving 1319 males and 1831 females, were selected by a stratified, deliberate sampling technique. A…

  11. The Importance of High School Physics Teachers for Female Students' Physics Identity and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hodapp, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Given the historic and continued underrepresentation of women in physics, it is important to understand the role that high school physics might play in attracting female students to physics careers. Drawing on data from over 900 female undergraduates in physics, we examine when these women became interested in physics careers and different sources…

  12. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  13. An Analysis of Retention Programs for Female Students in Engineering at the University of Toledo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a five-year study aimed at improving the retention rates of female students pursuing careers in engineering. The study analyzed a series of programs implemented at the University of Toledo. The programs involve hands-on design projects, research experiences, communication tools geared towards females,…

  14. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Italian female undergraduate students towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour. Do female medical students make good peer educators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna Coniglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.

    Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.

    Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.

    Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  15. The problems of female students at_J'irmna'_ I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, in which the university community (staff and students of both sexes) participated. ... In Malawi, only 3% of girls who attend primary ... initiative have been encouraging, with attrition ... response rate from the lecturing staff, with only.

  16. The Importance of High School Physics Teachers for Female Students' Physics Identity and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hodapp, Theodore

    2017-02-01

    Given the historic and continued underrepresentation of women in physics, it is important to understand the role that high school physics might play in attracting female students to physics careers. Drawing on data from over 900 female undergraduates in physics, we examine when these women became interested in physics careers and different sources of recognition (important for physics identity development) that may have affected their choices at certain time points. The results provide optimism since many of these female students, even those not previously intending science careers, began to intend physics careers in high school and recognition from high school physics teachers had a significant effect on predicting these intentions.

  17. Funding an accelerated baccalaureate nursing track for non-nursing college graduates: an academic/practice collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Gail P; Oberleitner, Melinda G

    2011-01-01

    To expand nursing programs to better meet workforce demands, nursing education must offer nontraditional students more educational opportunities that are flexible, streamlined, and low cost. Accelerated programs, particularly programs tailored to attract individuals with degrees in other fields and looking for career changes, are great examples. The cost factors related to a successful accelerated degree program designed for non-nursing college graduates are described. Based on the experiences with a previously implemented accelerated BSN program offered from 1987-1994 at one university, a revised accelerated option model was developed that included ongoing involvement with four community hospitals, shared budget responsibilities, student stipends, and a 3-year work commitment by graduates at a sponsoring hospital. The investment of approximately $1.6 million over 7 years resulted in the education and graduation of 75 new registered nursing professionals to meet the health care needs of the citizens of the community.

  18. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  19. The Effect of Blended Learning in Enhancing Female Students' Satisfaction in the Saudi Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al lHassan, Sarah; Shukri, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate the effect of utilizing Learning Management System (LMS), Blackboard® on enhancing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) female students' satisfaction in the Saudi context. It is found that the effectiveness of utilizing the supplementary materials on Blackboard® is leading up to EFL students' satisfaction.…

  20. Digital Literacy in the Marketing Curriculum: Are Female College Students Prepared for Digital Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Karen E.; Wilder, Kelly; Mishra, Aneil K.

    2017-01-01

    Employers seeking to capitalize on current marketing graduates' technological savvy may find a disappointing gap between their expectations and students' digital preparedness. This study examines these issues by investigating female students' attitudes and expectations with regard to using digital tools in marketing coursework and in a future…

  1. STEM Aspiration: The Influence of Social Capital and Chilly Climate on Female Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorstad, John; Starobin, Soko S.; Chen, Yu; Kollasch, Aurelia

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the predictive impact of a series of factors on female community college students' intention to transfer in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The STEM Student Success Literacy survey (SSSL) was utilized to collect data from a large, diverse community college located in Florida. After the…

  2. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  3. Anorexic Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy L.; Hughes, Honore M.; Katz, Barry; Searight, H. Russell

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in eating attitudes and behaviors in undergraduate college students (N=471). Anorexic symptomatology was found for 20% of the females and 10% of the males. In general, students without symptomatic attitudes and behaviors had a more positive self-concept and reported less psychological distress than did those with eating…

  4. Critical Multimodal Literacy: How Nigerian Female Students Critique Texts and Reconstruct Unequal Social Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three female Nigerian high school students were taught to deploy critical multimodal literacy to interrogate texts and reconstruct unequal social structures. A class of ninth-grade students in an all-women school was given instruction through the analysis of how multiple modes were used to represent meanings in…

  5. The Motivations and Experiences of Underage Female Students Who Choose to Abstain from Drinking in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    For decades, research has been conducted regarding alcohol consumption and behaviors, binge drinking, alcohol prevention, and education programs; however, there is limited research investigating a student's decision not to drink. In particular, there is minimal research on the experiences of underage female college students who have chosen to…

  6. International Female Students' Experiences of Navigating the Canadian Health Care System in a Small Town Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K.; McKenzie, W.; Fehr, F.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the international female (IF) students' (n = 17) lived experiences of health care accessibility while studying in a small town in Canada. Analysis guided by a phenomenological method resulted in three major themes--(1) after arriving to attend university, IF students experienced challenges in staying healthy, such as…

  7. (Un)Intended Consequences: The First-Year College Experience of Female Students with Dual Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Allen, Taryn Ozuna

    2016-01-01

    Using Merton's (1957) anticipatory socialization theory, this qualitative study explored how participation in dual credit in high school helped introduce 12 female students to the academic and social aspects of college to ease their first-year transitions. These students, who entered one Texas university with between 15 and 78 dual credits,…

  8. Patterns of Female and Male Students' Participation in Peer Interaction in Computer-Supported Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Palonen, Tuire

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study of fifth and sixth grade students that analyzed how intensively female and male students participated in discourse interaction within two computer-supported classrooms. Explains the use of the Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments and concludes that new technology should be subsumed under pedagogical goals to…

  9. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  10. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  11. Biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, L.F.P.; Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study in 755 student teachers using general questionnaires, the Voice Handicap Inventory (VHI), Type D

  12. The importance of physical activity and diet in the life of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pawłowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The lifestyle is known to be the most influential factor for maintaining a good health condition. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition are two factors that suport each other in a negative way and result in an increasing number of obese people. Irregular nutrition is often closely related to irregular academic life. Aim of the research: The objective of this research is to find out how female students perceive health – how they understand and define it. Another objective is to determine whether nurses-to-be and psychiatrists-to-be perceive health differently than other students and whether their health-esteem is backed with their free-time physical activity and regular nutrition. It is crucial to find out what factors, according to the research, have the biggest influence on people’s health. Material and methods: The research involved 180 female students of full-time courses at the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce: 98 female students of the Health Sciences Faculty and 82 female students of other faculties. The method of a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire were used in the research. Results : The female students perceived health as a quality, well-being, an absence of disease; and for female nursing students health was not only the absence of disease or disability but also biopsychosocial well-being. The most important factors that influence the health condition are physical activity and nutrition. A high evaluation does not correspond to taking care of one’s health. Fewer than 8% of the female students practised sport in their free time and ate regularly. More than a half neither did sport nor ate regularly (Pearson’s contingency coefficient C reaches a value of 0.1. Conclusions : The female nursing students, contrary to the female students of other faculties, perceive health in the same way as the World Health Organisation. Regardless of faculty, physical activity and regular nutrition are considered to be

  13. Weight patterns and perceptions among female university students of Karachi: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body weight and its perception play an important role in the physical and mental well-being of a person. Weight perception is found to be a better predictor of weight management behaviour as compared to actual weight. In Pakistan, studies have been done on the prevalence of weight status but weight perception is still unexplored. The study was done to examine relationships between body weight perception, actual weight status, and weight control behaviour among the female university students of Karachi. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out during Sep-Nov 2009 on female students in four universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Our final sample size included 338 female university students. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Results Based on measured BMI; the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight females was 27.2%, 51.5% and 21.3% respectively. As a whole, just over one third (33.73%) of the sample misclassified their weight status. Among underweight (n=92), 45.70% thought they were of normal weight. No one who was truly underweight perceived them self as overweight. Among the normal weight (n= 174), 9.8% thought they were underweight and 23.6% considered themselves overweight. Among the overweight (n=72); 18.3% considered themselves normal. Only one female student thought she was underweight despite being truly overweight. Conclusions Our study shows that among female university students in Karachi, the prevalence of being underweight is comparatively high. There is a significant misperception of weight, with one third of students misclassifying themselves. Underweight females are likely to perceive themselves as normal and be most satisfied with their weight. Health policy makers should implement these findings in future development of health interventions and prevention of depression, social anxiety and eating disorders associated with incorrect weight

  14. Association between Physical Activity and Insomnia among Saudi Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O.; Al-Mubarak, Huda A.; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A.

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] Afte...

  15. Survey on awareness of folic acid recognition and intake by female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takuya; Kagohashi, Yukiko; Senga, Yasuko; Fukuda, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keiko; Takemori, Kumiko; Otani, Hiroki; Kondo, Atsuo

    2017-09-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, studies have been conducted on female students of medical services, nutritional science, and nursery education that investigated the awareness of folic acid by using questionnaires. Many investigators have suggested the need to provide detailed information about the awareness of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid intake and neural tube defect risk reduction. The dietary habits of female students showed a positive correlation with their estimated folic acid intake, suggesting that improvements in dietary habits are associated with the consumption of folic acid. The importance of folic acid intake must be more aggressively promoted among female students. Thus, many learning opportunities should be provided for such students to help increase their folic acid intake. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female undergraduate students in Wuhan, China: the only-child versus students with siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyue Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. METHODS: Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. RESULTS: Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%. Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their "boyfriends" than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%. There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use between the only-child students and students with siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.

  17. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  18. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All participants completed the Polish adaptation of the 15-item questionnaire assessing orthorexia eating behaviours (the ORTHO-15) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (the MBSRQ). Relationships between scores on the ORTHO-15 and MBSRQ were explored in the 213 students who had high levels of preoccupation with a healthy food intake (68.55% women and 43.18% men, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the levels of orthorexia behaviours between females and males. In female students with orthorexia nervosa, preoccupation with consuming healthy food was significantly correlated with the MBSRQ subscale scores for overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation, fitness orientation, health orientation, body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation. Conversely, in male students with orthorexia nervosa there were no correlations between orthorexic behaviours and the MBSRQ subscales. In female students with orthorexia nervosa multivariable linear regression analysis found high body areas (parts) satisfaction, low fitness orientation, low overweight preoccupation and low appearance orientation were independent predictors of greater fixation on eating healthy food. In male students, we found that aspects of body image were not associated with preoccupation with healthy eating. A strong preoccupation with healthy and proper food was not associated with an unhealthy body-self relationship among Polish female student with orthorexia nervosa.

  19. Awareness of heart disease among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura R; Etnyre, Annette; Adams, Melinda; Herbers, Sharon; Witte, Amy; Horlen, Cheryl; Baynton, Sally; Estrada, Rosanna; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2010-12-01

    Awareness of heart disease as the leading cause of death in women has increased over the past 10 years, but little is known about the awareness level of college students. This study evaluated the level of awareness and knowledge of heart disease in women among college students. Using a cross-sectional design, a sample of 320 women from a private university was queried. A 13-item survey assessed demographic information and awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mean age was 23 years; the majority were single and of Hispanic ethnicity. Almost one third believed breast cancer was the greatest problem facing women. One half recognized CVD as the leading cause of death among women. Students aged 18-24 years were significantly less likely to identify heart disease/heart attack as the leading cause of death in women compared with students aged 25-34 years. Significant ethnic differences in perceptions of risk were found. Family history and obesity were seen as major contributors to CVD; less than a fourth ever discussed CVD with their healthcare provider. Information was gained primarily from television, magazines, and the Internet. Exercise and maintenance of healthy blood pressure were viewed as priorities in prevention of CVD. Results add to the body of research on CVD risk and the need for intervention to increase awareness and knowledge of heart disease risk among younger and ethnically diverse young women and raises questions about the role of colleges and universities in promotion of student health. Colleges and universities may provide the last opportunity to reach youth as a group to affect lifestyle changes.

  20. Frequency of tetanus toxoid immunization among college/university female students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Murad; Murad, Rafat; Mumtaz, Seema; Azmi, Abdul Azim; Rehman, Rehana; Omm-E-Hani; Aziz, Nasir

    2010-01-01

    Tetanus is a deadly infectious disease for which immunisation is available in EPI at both infant level and for females of reproductive age. More than 95% of patients who develop tetanus have not been previously immunised. Objectives of the study were to determine the frequency of tetanus vaccination and to access the awareness of immunisation among females studying in 11 girls' colleges of Karachi and University of Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1,407 females studying in colleges and University of Karachi from April to August 2007 using a prescribed questionnaire. Among 1,407 female students who were interviewed for the study, 232 (16.48%) were not aware about tetanus immunisation program for females of reproductive age. Only 560 students (39.80%) received at least 1 of 5 recommended doses. Only 41 female students (2.91%) received complete course of 5 doses. Coverage of tetanus immunisation among literate females in most populous city of the country is far behind satisfactory. There is need for awareness and crash programs of tetanus immunisation.

  1. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  2. Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-12-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

  3. Prevalence of sexual activity and outcome among female secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anochie, I C; Ikpeme, E E

    2001-08-01

    Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual intercourse before 11 years. The frequency of sexual exposure was high, with 34.3% of the students having intercourse more than once in a week. Pregnancy rate among sexually active females was 27.0%, with 24.8% rate of induced abortion. Early sexual health education starting from primary school would be helpful in influencing the reproductive decisions and sexual behaviour of the students, including contraceptive acceptance and usage, to avoid teenage pregnancy. Education of parents is also recommended in order to overcome the cultural barriers that discourage parents from providing sex education to their children at home.

  4. Insufficient Knowledge of Breast Cancer Risk Factors Among Malaysian Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Ahmadian, Maryam; Latiff, Latiffah A

    2015-07-27

    Despite continuous argument about the efficacy of breast self-examination; it still could be a life-saving technique through inspiring and empowering women to take better control over their body/breast and health. This study investigated Malaysian female university students' knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms and assessed breast self-examination frequency among students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in nine public and private universities in the Klang Valley and Selangor. 842 female students were respondents for the self-administered survey technique. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. The uptake of breast self-examination (BSE) was less than 50% among the students. Most of students had insufficient knowledge on several breast cancer risk factors. Actions and efforts should be done to increase knowledge of breast cancer through the development of ethnically and traditionally sensitive educational training on BSE and breast cancer literacy.

  5. Discussing underrepresentation as a means to facilitating female students' physics identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science career were tested using multivariate matching methods. The only factor found to have a positive effect was the explicit discussion of the underrepresentation of women in physics. In order to explore this further, a case study of the classes of one teacher reported to discuss the underrepresentation of women was conducted. Two classroom underrepresentation discussions were recorded, students and teacher were interviewed, and relevant student work was collected. Analyzing the case study data using a figured worlds framework, we found that discussing the underrepresentation of women in science explicitly creates an opportunity for students' figured worlds of professional and school science to change, and facilitates challenging their own implicit assumptions about how the world functions. Subsequently, the norms in students' figured worlds may change or become less rigid allowing for a new openness to physics identity development amongst female students.

  6. Relationship Between Religiosity and Psychological Symptoms in Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar; Nadeem, Masood; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are among major psychiatric conditions being prevalent in contemporary youth. This study intended to examine the role of three religious orientations (Allport and Ross 1967) in students demonstrating these psychological symptoms. A sample comprising 502 Pakistani girls studying at university level was randomly selected. Age Universal I-E Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to collect data. Findings reveal an inverse relationship between extrinsic personal religious orientation and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results support the integration of religious orientations in mental health care of young adults in Pakistan.

  7. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5 using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01. Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05. ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  8. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  9. Perceptions of International Female Students toward E-Learning in Resolving High Education and Family Role Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibelloh, Mboni; Bao, Yukun

    2014-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for many mature female international students enrolled in high education overseas to experience strain from managing conflicting roles of student and family, and difficulties of cross-cultural adjustment. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and behavioral intentions of international female students toward…

  10. The Masterclass of particle physics and scientific careers from the point of view of male and female students

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    With this study we tried to investigate if male and female students have a different perception of scientific careers. At the end, we would like to be able to provide hints on how to intervene to correct the path that seems to naturally bring male students towards STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math) and reject female students from them.

  11. The Correlation between Academic Achievements, Self-Esteem and Motivation of Female Seventh Grade Students: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henman, Karen

    2010-01-01

    During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…

  12. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  13. Eating disorder symptoms among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shunichi

    2014-09-30

    To study transcultural differences in eating disorders, we examined eating disorder symptoms and point prevalence of eating disorders among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002. In 1982, 1992 and 2002, a total of 10,499 Japanese female students, aged 16-23 years, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnosis of an eating disorder was made on the basis of DSM-IV criteria. On almost all measures, there were significant increases of a disordered attitude about fear of gaining weight, body perception disturbance and problematic eating behaviors over time. The point prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified significantly increased over time. These results suggest that the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms and the point prevalence of eating disorders were increasing among Japanese female students in 2002. Changing socio-cultural factors in Japan may explain the dramatic increase of eating disorders over time.

  14. The effectiveness of education using the health belief model in preventing osteoporosis among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.

  15. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Alaine Souza Lima; Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; Ludmila Remígio de Almeida; Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F. de; Samara Barreto Cunha; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified acc...

  16. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  17. Social and dietary factors associated with obesity in university female students in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O; Radwan, H M

    1995-04-01

    A cross-sectional study on 215 university female students aged 18-30 years was undertaken in 1993 to examine some factors associated with obesity among this group of females. Based on Body Mass Index (BMI), (wt/ht2), 19% of females were overweight and 9.8% were obese. The proportion of obesity was the highest in females aged 18 years (31%) compared to those aged 19 and 20 years and above (23.8% and 27.6%, respectively). Although there was no significant association between obesity and social factors studied, the prevalence of obesity was higher in non-national, those with educated mothers, having no housemaid, and having a family history of obesity. Skipping meals and snacks had no significant association with obesity, however, obesity was more prevalent among females who did not skip lunch. In contrast, females who ate afternoon snacks and supper were more likely to be obese than females who skipped these events. Median BMI for university females was higher than that reported in USA for the same age group, while median values for weight and mid-arm circumference for females studied were similar to that reported in their counterparts in Western countries.

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  19. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  20. Menstrual health care behavior and associated factors among female elementary students in the Hualien region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure menstrual knowledge, assess menstrual health care behavior and investigate the factors associated with menstrual health care behavior among fifth and sixth grade female students. The subjects were 417 female students from 12 elementary schools in the Hualien region of Taiwan. The stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted. The questionnaire used in the study consisted of three sections: personal information, a menstrual knowledge questionnaire, and a menstrual health care behavior questionnaire. The results of this study show that the majority of the respondents felt that menstruation had an influence on their emotions (74.8%), daily life (73.1%), schoolwork (61.6%), and social interaction (50.1%). The total correct response rate for the menstrual knowledge questionnaire was 45.1%. There was a significant difference between aboriginal and non-aboriginal female students in terms of the correct answer rate for the menstrual knowledge questionnaire. The mean score for menstrual health care behavior was 2.66 (SD = 0.82). Elementary level female students who had better menarche preparation scored higher on the menstrual knowledge questionnaire, and those whose first period had already occurred felt more confident in their ability to execute proper menstrual health care behavior. The results prompted the recommendation to families and elementary schools to encourage students to improve their menstrual health care behavior during menses.

  1. Residental factors affecting nutrient intake and nutritional status of female pharmacy students in Bydgoszcz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate nutrient intake as well as nutritional status of female pharmacy students from Bydgoszcz, and to investigate relationship of these factors with type of usual residence place during academic year The 24-hour recall method was used to evaluate dietary intake of 47 subjects. Measured values of height, body mass and four skinfolds thickness were used for calculation of BM, FFM, %FM indices. An analysis of nutritional status of studied population showed lower body mass and BMI in the sub-group of female students residing outside of their family home. In comparison to the female students living without parents percentage of energy provided by total fat (29.9%) was significantly less and percentage of energy from carbohydrate was significantly higher (55.4%) than students who reside with their parents. Elevated intake of phosphorus and retinol accompanied by inadequate intake of riboflavin, calcium, iron and copper was exhibited in both residence-type related sub-groups of investigated female pharmacy students.

  2. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Facets of Identity Formation Considered to Be of Significance by Female Students in Relation to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study explored facets of identity formation considered to be of significance by Zimbabwean female adolescent students in physics. Four high schools that were offering physics at A' level in the Midlands Province, in Zimbabwe were targeted. Nine female adolescents doing mathematics and physics and only mathematics were chosen. Data generation…

  3. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Factors of Identity Formation Considered as Contributing to Developing an Orientation to Physics by Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…

  4. Associations of desire for change in sexual life amongst female medical students in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Shindel, AW; Breyer, BN; Smith, JF

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as 'sexually bothered'. The survey also asse...

  5. Dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University: Prevalence, Predictors and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; AlGhamdi, Manar Saleh; Al-Shaibani, Alanoud Nawaf; AlAmri, Fatima Ali; Alharbi, Huda Abdulrahman; Al-Jadani, Arwa Kheder; Alfaidi, Raghad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, predictors and outcome of dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 435 medical students at KAU, Jeddah selected through stratified random sample method. A pre-constructed, validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal and socio-demographic information. Data about menstrual history, stress, smoking were also collected...

  6. Towards a global virtual community of female engineering students and professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Aline; Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya

    2014-11-01

    ct- The need for strategies to empower Liberian women is exemplified in the recent study carried out by ActionAid International, which examined the state of Liberian undergraduate women in urban areas. The results show that these women often face sexual intimidation by faculty and instructors, women are often excluded from student organizations, there exists a lack of institutional support for female organizations at the universities, and that the women do not feel safe in the university due to low security standards. The situation is even direr for the female engineering students with less than 5% of the engineering student population being women, therefore they are quite isolated in their engineering studies with minimal role models and professional support as they persist. We have planned a leadership camp for female Liberian engineering undergraduate women. The ultimate goal is to empower the Liberian women engineers with the skills, support and inspiration necessary to becoming successful engineering professionals. The leadership camp is planned and facilitated collaboratively by the members of the University of Michigan Society of Women Engineers (UM-SWE) student chapter and the Liberia Society of Women Engineers (L-SWE) student organization. The 2 week-long leadership camp has a workshop-based format with two themes: (i) academic and professional skills, and (ii) student organization development. Funded by UM CRLT, IRWG, STEM Africa.

  7. African American eighth-grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Sharan R.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as

  8. Women and girls in science education: Female teachers' and students' perspectives on gender and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Ann

    Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and

  9. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  10. An Exploration of Mentoring Female Graduate Students in Southern Metropolitan Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Cindy Bagwell; Franklin, Kathy K.

    The purpose of this study was to explore female students perceptions about research while enrolled in a graduate program. In the Husserlian phenomenological tradition (E. Husserl, 1859-1938), a theoretical framework was developed from extent literature a priori to inform the parameters of the study. The phenomenologist used a computer-mediated…

  11. Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Knowledge of Reproductive Healthcare among Female University Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazrul Islam Mondal, PhD,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health (RH is a critical component of women’s health and overall well-being around the world, especially in developing countries. We examine the factors that determine knowledge of RH care among female university students in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on 300 female students were collected from Rajshahi University, Bangladesh through a structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique. The data were used for univariate analysis, to carry out the description of the variables; bivariate analysis was used to examine the associations between the variables; and finally, multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression model was used to examine and fit the model and interpret the parameter estimates, especially in terms of odds ratios. Results: The results revealed that more than one-third (34.3% respondents do not have sufficient knowledge of RH care. The X2 -test identified the significant (p < 0.05 associations between respondents’ knowledge of RH care with respondents’ age, education, family type, watching television; and knowledge about pregnancy, family planning, and contraceptive use. Finally, the binary logistic regression model identified respondents’ age, education, family type; and knowledge about family planning, and contraceptive use as the significant (p < 0.05 predictors of RH care. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Knowledge of RH care among female university students was found unsatisfactory. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on RH care especially for the female university students in Bangladesh.

  12. The Relationship of Problem Solving and Reframing to Stress and Depression in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Gregory; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of stress on depression in female commuter college students (n=106). Results indicate that problem-solving confidence was important moderating variable and suggest that perception of long-term stress directly affects current depression level. Positive long-term experiences seemed to moderate subsequent negative experiences that…

  13. Contesting "Culture": The Perspectives of Hmong American Female Students on Early Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the meaning of early marriage among Hmong American female college students. Interview and observation data attested to the complexity of the meaning of early marriage in the Hmong American community. Results refuted explanations of cultural difference as underlying early marriage and indicated that early marriage was an expression of…

  14. Nutritional Habits of Female University Students in Relation to Self-Perception of Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  16. Preliminary Study on the Skin Lightening Practice and Health Symptoms among Female Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmadi, Siti Zulaikha; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N = 63) of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (N = 35, 55.6%) and ingredients (N = 29, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N = 39, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N = 13, 12.5%) and acne (N = 9, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N = 56, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (N = 54, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching. PMID:26693230

  17. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  18. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  19. Fairness in Admission: Voices from Rural Chinese Female Students in Selective Universities in Chinese Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyi; Wang, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    As the Chinese mainland has transitioned from elite to mass higher education, the race to attend university has escalated to become a race to attend selective universities. This study focuses on rural female university students and explores how they make sense of their higher education admission experiences. We rationalize that the inquiry into…

  20. Attitudes and Correlates of Turkish College Students in Relation to Female Honour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice; Dadashzadeh, Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Honour is closely associated with such concepts as dignity, integrity, and morals, and also causes changes in people's attitudes and behaviours as well as in their cultural environment. The present study is intended to investigate attitudes and correlates of female honour in college students. A correlational study was conducted on 2924…

  1. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  2. Academic Performance of Male versus Female Accounting Undergraduate Students: Evidence from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinwuba Ambrose; Egbon, Osamuyimen

    2011-01-01

    Prior researches on the differences in classroom performance between male and female students show mixed results. While significant differences exist in some studies, others show no differences. Moreover, such studies were done in developed countries. This study aims to contribute to this gender discourse by using a developing country setting. It…

  3. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  4. Intellectual and Moral Development in College Student and Graduate Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Sherrill

    This study of seven female nurses who were presently students at or had graduated from John Abbott College was conducted to determine whether the moral and intellectual development of the participants followed parallel courses; whether the participants adopted a "justice" or a "care" approach to moral questions per Carol Gilligan's model; whether…

  5. Beauty and the Beast--Can Life Drawing Support Female Students in Challenging Gendered Media Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Clare

    2013-01-01

    How does life drawing impact on a group of 14-16-year-old female art and design students and their perception of body image? In contemporary Western society, we are bombarded with advertising, social media and celebrity culture on a daily basis, often with a focus on body image. This article questions whether, due to this visual assault, young…

  6. Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  8. How Social Networks Influence Female Students' Choices to Major in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinland, Kathryn Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The…

  9. The Relational Selves of Female Graduate Students during Academic Mentoring: From Dialogue to Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Hayes, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This study, framed by social constructionism, retrospectively examines how faculty mentoring influenced the transformations of 10 female graduate students' relational selves and their professional identities as qualitative researchers and scholars. Participants reported that effective mentorships often resulted in collaboration on research…

  10. Beauty and the Beast--Can Life Drawing Support Female Students in Challenging Gendered Media Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Clare

    2013-01-01

    How does life drawing impact on a group of 14-16-year-old female art and design students and their perception of body image? In contemporary Western society, we are bombarded with advertising, social media and celebrity culture on a daily basis, often with a focus on body image. This article questions whether, due to this visual assault, young…

  11. Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

  12. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  13. Effect of Peer and Self-Assessment on Male and Female Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Female Students' Self-Efficacy and Self-Autonomy in the Learning of Mathematics. ... were analyzed using descriptive, Z-test, chi-square and t-test statistics. ... It was discovered that while there is no significant relationship between sex and ...

  14. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  15. Prevalence and Factors Affecting Dysmenorrhea in Female University Students: Effect on General Comfort Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p students with dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea.

  16. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  17. Predictors of breast self-examination performance among Jordanian university female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sharour, L; Al-Ghabeesh, S; Suleiman, K; Salameh, A B; Jacoob, S; Al-Kalaldeh, M

    2016-12-27

    Breast cancer is considered one of the main types of cancer among female worldwide and in Jordan also. Early detection of it will improve the prognosis and decrease the mortality rate also. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of breast self-examination performance among Jordanian university female students. Across-sectional design was utilised in this study. A sample of 100 participants was completed the study survey (The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale). The main results or regression analysis showed that confidence (β = .71, p breast self-examination performance. In summary, other variables of Health belief model were found not be significant indicators of BSE performance in this study. However, the HBM is considered a valid framework to assess the predictors of breast self-examination knowledge, attitude, beliefs and barriers among Jordanian college female students.

  18. The Impact of Motor Abilities on Belly Dance Performance in Female High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Dodi; Jukić, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation of motor abilities and belly dance performance in female high school students, 1st to 4th graders aged 15–18 years. A battery of 19 motor tests were used and nine belly dance elements evaluated in the study sample that included 148 students aged 15–16 (1st and 2nd graders) and 123 students aged 17–18 (3rd and 4th graders). Factor analysis of the motor space isolated six factors in either study group: in 1st and 2nd graders, the fi...

  19. Breast Cancer Awareness, Attitudes and Practices among Female University Students: A Descriptive Study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaraireh, Arwa; Darawad, Muhammad W

    2017-08-29

    The researchers' aim of this study was to assess breast cancer (BC) knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast self-examination (BSE) among female university students. Data were collected from 236 participants using self-reported questionnaires. Participants reported inadequate knowledge (45.5%), fairly positive attitudes (56.3%), and low BSE practice (37.5%). Analysis revealed significant differences based on participants' demographics. Results are in congruence with international literature, and support worldwide efforts aiming at increasing awareness of BC. In conclusion, raising students' awareness regarding BC and BSE is important for early detection of this increasingly-alarming disease. Initiating BC educational programs among university students is highly recommended.

  20. Skin whitening among Cameroonian female university students: knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Adegbidi, Hugues; Zoa Mebara, Theophane Christel Joel; Ndjitoyap Ndam, Elie Claude

    2017-04-17

    Lack of data on skin whitening (SW) among Cameroonian female university students prompted us to undertake the present study which aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations of female university students vis-a-vis SW. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from January to April 2013 in 4 university campuses of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Any female student regularly registered in one of the study sites, who was present at the campus when the investigator visited and volunteered to participate in the study was enrolled. Overall, we recruited 620 female students, their ages ranging from 16 to 46 years with a mean of 21.3 ± 2.9 years. Only 87 participants (14%) found that SW was a good practice. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (27.3%) were currently practicing SW with no age difference when compared to their counterparts (p = 0.09). The desire to have a uniform body skin color was the prevailing reason motivating the practice of SW (39.1%), followed by the need to have a soft skin (29%). Assessment of levels of knowledge regarding advantages of the black skin and deleterious effects of SW showed excellent scores (≥75% of good answers) only in 6.1 and 0.5% of cases respectively, with no difference between those practicing SW or not (all p values > 0.05). The practice of SW is common among Cameroonian female university students who should therefore be educated on the advantages of the black skin and the harmful effects of SW.

  1. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  3. Effects of Aerobic Training on Eating Disorders in Non-athlete Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rohi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common mental disorders is eating disorders that have high comorbidity with psychological factors and is observed in the teenage and young girls more than others. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular aerobic training on eating disorders in non-athlete female students. Methods: In this experimental study, the eating attitudes questionnaire was completed by 458 female students of University of Guilan, and 38 students were diagnosed with eating disorders. From these 38 students, 25 ones took part in the study. Finally, subjects were assigned into two groups randomly: experimental (n=13 and control (n=12 group. Both groups were homogeneous in regard to standpoint age, weight, and marriage and didn’t show statistical significant differences. Experimental group trained for 8 weeks and 2 times per week. After training program, two groups recompleted EAT-26 questionnaire. Because of exclusion of 2 individual from experimental group for discontinuing training program, 23 subjects were analyzed. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t test and ANCOVA. Results: Findings showed that there were significant differences between experimental and control groups in regard to their eating attitudes (p<0.05. Conclusion: It could be concluded that regular exercise training such as aerobic training may reduce eating disorders in female students

  4. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a tourist province, Thailand.

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    Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have.

  5. Comparative Arabic and English Literacy: A Study of Female University Students' Practices in Saudi Arabia

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    Islam Ababneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and the students' practices of literacy in both languages. Data was gathered by distributing two types of questionnaires (Arabic and English to 200 students of English major at the department of linguistics and translation at the University of Tabuk, which is a government university in Saudi Arabia. Supporting data of cultural and religious influences on literacy was obtained through the researcher's own notes and observations. The purpose of the questionnaires was to investigate mainly: the students' literacy practices and frequency of using Arabic and English and the literacy infrastructure and literacy resources available to the students at their homes and at their school. The students' answers to the questionnaires indicated that most students interacted using mainly Arabic and very little English at their homes and they used some English at their school, which is related to reading their school academic books, doing homework assignments, and having rare English conversations with their classroom teachers.Keywords: Arabic literacy, English literacy, Saudi Arabia

  6. Health beliefs and breast self-examination among female university nursing students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Nulufer; Bolukbas, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the health beliefs and knowledge about breast self examination (BSE) and the actual BSE habits of female university nursing students. The study sample recruited 189 nursing students who agreed to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test, one way ANOVA test, t test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyse the data. 83.1% of nursing students had knowledge about breast cancer (BC) and BSE in the study. BSE was practiced by 70.4% of nursing students; 21.8% of them performed BSE regularly. A fear of developing BC was an incentive for 85% of nursing students to practice BSE. The confidence subscale scores in the third and fourth years of students' university education were higher, and the barrier subscale score in these same years was lower than their first years of study. Perception of benefit of nursing students experiencing breast-related discomfort exerted a positive effect. Nursing students with lower perception of barriesr performed BSE regularly. In conclusion, nursing students' years of university study, breast cancer knowledge, history of breast cancer in family, and BSE practice status were factors affecting their health beliefs. These study results indicate the importance of developing education and training programs which educate not only nursing students but all women about breast cancer, its symptoms, the importance of early diagnosis and of regular BSE.

  7. Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Reza; Saeidi, Somaye; Nazari, Zahra; Nematpour, Sorour

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that mood disorders and depressive status may be accompanied by lowered zinc status in the body, and adequate consumption of zinc increases a general perceived well-being. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentrations and dietary zinc intakes with depression scores in university female students. In the first phase, Beck's depression questionnaire was applied in a random sampling of 308 selected 20-25-year-old female students (one third of total students in Ahvaz Jondi-Shapour University of Medical Sciences Golestan dormitories) to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. Then, in the second phase, 23 students who identified as having moderate and severe depression were selected as the case group, and 23 healthy age matched were chosen as the controls. Each of them completed a 12-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire containing the main food sources of zinc in the usual dietary patterns and also a 24-h food recall questionnaire to assure the daily zinc intakes. Daily zinc intakes were obtained by multiplying each portion size by its zinc content using food tables. A 5-ml blood sample was taken for further serum zinc status using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Pearson's r was used to show the correlation between quantitative variables. Both daily zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations of MDD group were about two thirds of healthy index (p Depressed individuals used to eat lower servings of red meats and chicken as the main food sources of zinc in students' usual diets (p students (r = 0.55; p students(r = -0.65; p depressed female students, dietary zinc intake is correlated to its serum concentrations; however, the serum zinc levels are inversely correlated to depression scales. Consumption of the main dietary sources of zinc such as red meats and chicken should be encouraged in young depressed girls.

  8. Science self-efficacy in tenth grade Hispanic female high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maria Decanio

    Historical data have demonstrated an underrepresentation of females and minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. The purpose of the study considered the variables of gender and ethnicity collectively in relationship to tenth grade Hispanic females' perception of their self-efficacy in science. The correlation of science self-efficacy to science academic achievement was also studied. Possible interventions for use with female Hispanic minority populations might help increase participation in STEM field preparation during the high school career. A population of 272 students was chosen through convenience sampling methods, including 80 Hispanic females. Students were administered a 27-item questionnaire taken directly from the Smist (1993) Science Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ). Three science self-efficacy factors were successfully extracted and included Academic Engagement Self-efficacy (M=42.57), Laboratory Self-efficacy (M=25.44), and Biology Self-efficacy ( M=19.35). Each factor showed a significant positive correlation ( pself-efficacy perceptions. Asian/Pacific and Native American females had higher self-efficacy mean scores as compared to White, Black and Hispanic females on all three extracted science self-efficacy factors. Asian/Pacific females had the highest mean scores. No statistically significant correlations were found between science-self-efficacy and a measure of science achievement. Two high-ability and two low-ability Hispanic females were randomly chosen to participate in a brief structured interview. Three general themes emerged. Classroom Variables, Outside School Variables, and Personal Variables were subsequently divided into sub themes influenced by participants' views of science. It was concluded that Hispanic female science self-efficacy was among the subgroups which self-scored the lowest. Asian/Pacific and Native American females fared better than White, Black, and Hispanic female counterparts

  9. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, youths aged 15–24 years are at a higher risk of HIV infections than other age groups, and female youths are at a greater risk than their male counterparts. An essential step in controlling the pandemic of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs is to help adolescents to reduce or avoid unsafe sexual practices.Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students.Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study.Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038.Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  10. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, youths aged 15–24 years are at a higher risk of HIV infections than other age groups, and female youths are at a greater risk than their male counterparts. An essential step in controlling the pandemic of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs is to help adolescents to reduce or avoid unsafe sexual practices.Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students.Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study.Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038.Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  11. Risk factors and the prevalence of anorexia nervosa among female students in Serbia

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    Lazarević Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The widespread symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN in young women require to draw professional attention to this problem in Serbia. In previous research on AN, insecure attachment styles, perfectionism and concerns about body shape were identified as notable risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of AN among female students and assess the importance of these factors in its development. Methods. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied to a sample of 500 randomly selected female students of the University of Belgrade, the mean age of 22.44 years (min 18, max 35. In addition, Body Mass Index (BMI was also calculated. Results. Although 38 (7.6% female students displayed symptoms of AN (EAT > 30 and 13 (2.6% had BMI indicating anorexia nervosa syndrome (BMI ≤ 17.50 kg/m2, only 1 (0.2% student fulfilled both criteria. The majority of female students (60.4% had some type of insecure attachment style. There is a significant influence of attachment styles on symptoms of AN: female students with insecure attachment styles have a significantly higher mean score on the EAT compared to those with secure attachment style (F = 7.873; p < 0.01. There was a positive correlation between scores on the EAT and FMPS (r = 0.217; p < 0.01, and scores on the EAT and BSQ (r = 0.388; p < 0.01. Conclusions. The obtained results show the prevalence of AN of 0.2% among female students and indicate the importance of insecure attachment styles, perfectionism and concern about body shape as risk factors. Activities for the prevention of AN in this subpopulation should include internet-based therapy and special counseling services with specific programs focusing on emotion-regulation skills through mindfulness, acceptance and commitment techniques, as well as specific cognitive

  12. Female Romanian university students' attitudes and perceptions about contraception and motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blidaru, Iolanda Elena; Furau, Gheorghe; Socolov, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of female Romanian university students, as possible future opinion leaders, about contraception and motherhood, by assessing their level of contraceptive use, opinions and knowledge with regard to combined oral contraceptives (COCs). A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was conducted among 1105 female university students aged 19 to 30 years. The participants were recruited from six faculties at universities in Iasi and Arad, Romania. The study protocol was approved by the university ethics committees. Statistical analyses included percentages, χ(2) tests and Fisher's exact test. Two-thirds of respondents were in a relationship or married. Average age at first sexual intercourse was 18.6 years. Two out of three (69%) students identified themselves as sexually active. The same percentage showed a positive attitude towards contraception and stated that they used it. The most commonly used contraceptive methods were condoms, COCs and withdrawal. The students' perceptions of the benefits and adverse effects of COCs were analysed. Half of the students had heard about extended COC regimens, but only 24% showed interest in using them regularly. A large proportion of pharmacy and non-medical students appeared to have poor knowledge about contraception and reproductive health, which generated misperceptions and negative attitudes. Two-thirds of the participants considered 25 to 29 years to be the optimal age for starting a family, and 85.5% intended to have children in the future. Medical students, but not pharmacy students, showed higher levels of knowledge. Improvement of students' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards general contraceptive use, COCs and childbearing is needed. Evidence-based information is required to address poor knowledge about the physiology of reproduction, misconceptions relating to COCs, and the possibility of menstrual suppression using hormonal

  13. Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science, GEMS: A Science Outreach Program for Middle-School Female Students

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    Dubetz, Terry A.; Wilson, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science (GEMS) is a science and math outreach program for middle-school female students. The program was developed to encourage interest in math and science in female students at an early age. Increased scientific familiarity may encourage girls to consider careers in science and mathematics and will also help…

  14. Participation in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Perceptions of Female Saudi Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazy, Manal M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Saudi government started a new scholarship program that sent many female and male students to some Western countries including the United States of America. When Saudi female students enroll in universities in the United States and register for mixed-gender (face-to-face and online) classes, they have to participate in the classroom.…

  15. Evaluative Concerns and Personal Standards Perfectionism as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Asian and European American Female College Students

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    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Tina; Chang, Olivia D.; Jilani, Zunaira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined perfectionism (viz, evaluative concerns and personal standards) and ethnicity as predictors of body dissatisfaction in female college students. Participants: Participants were 298 female college students sampled by December of 2013. Methods: A self-report survey with measures of body dissatisfaction,…

  16. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  17. Exploring the Factors That Influence Female Students' Decision to (Not) Enrol in Elective Physical Education: A Private School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Jill; Robinson, Daniel Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results from a qualitative case study that examined the influencers upon a somewhat unique group of female students who opted out of elective physical education (PE). More specifically, this study focused upon female students attending an affluent private school, investigating why--when they transitioned from middle…

  18. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  19. Exploring the Factors That Influence Female Students' Decision to (Not) Enrol in Elective Physical Education: A Private School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Jill; Robinson, Daniel Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results from a qualitative case study that examined the influencers upon a somewhat unique group of female students who opted out of elective physical education (PE). More specifically, this study focused upon female students attending an affluent private school, investigating why--when they transitioned from middle…

  20. A cross-sectional study examining the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer

    2016-05-17

    Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.So what?: Public health and health promotion action is required to prevent female students from experiencing unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships, and to address the negative health and well being consequences.

  1. Are female college students who are diagnosed with depression at greater risk of experiencing sexual violence on college campus?

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    Hossain, Mian B; Memiah, Peter; Adeyinka, Adeyemi

    2014-08-01

    We examined the association between depression and sexual violence among 18-24 year-old female college students using National College Health Assessment survey. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 10,541 female students on 33 college campuses. Results showed that female students who were reportedly ever diagnosed with depression were 1.56 times more likely than those who had never been diagnosed with depression to have experienced sexual violence. Female students who had one or more sexual partners currently were found 3.17 times more likely than those who had no sexual partner to have experienced sexual violence; similarly, female students who engaged in binge drinking in the previous two weeks were found about two times more likely than their counterparts to have experienced sexual violence. Depression is a public health issue and must be addressed sooner rather than later in order to reduce and prevent sexual violence on college campuses.

  2. Abortion in university and college female students of Arba Minch town, Ethiopia, 2011.

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    Animaw, Worku; Bogale, Binyam

    2014-03-01

    Globally, unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. One of the commonest problems facing university and college students is unwanted pregnancy followed by abortion. This study has aimed to assess abortion practice of university and college female students and to identify contributing factors. Cross-sectional study design was used in 2011. Female students from one university and three colleges of Arba Minch town were selected by proportional probability sampling method. Quantitative data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted. Eight hundred and thirteen study participants with median age 20 have been involved in the study. Among participants 173 (21.3%) had had sex, 54 (6.6%) had been pregnant, and out of the students who had been pregnant 23 (43.4%) had an induced abortion, 4 (17.3%) of which were done under unsafe conditions. Students' current living residence and knowledge of abortion law are the identified contributing factors to their abortion practices. A significant proportion of pregnancies in university and college students were terminated with induced abortion. Unsafe sex is the commonest cause of unplanned pregnancy that leads to abortion induction. Campus residents are more vulnerable to abortion induction. Knowledge of abortion law and abortion induction practices are statistically interrelated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.

  4. Awareness of breast cancer among female students at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Dina Nabih Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R

    2013-11-04

    The present study aimed to determine knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and early detection methods and to identify knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Ain Shams University female students. This is a descriptive cross sectional study.Most study participants had low level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The most widely known risk factors by the students were smoking 66.9%, followed by radiation to the chest 63.7% and genetic factors 63.7%. Most of the students (81.6%) identified breast lump as a symptom for breast cancer. However, non lump symptoms were less known and less than half were aware of other warning signs. Mass media such as TV and/or radio were identified as the main source of information on breast cancer by 89.1% of students followed by relatives 39.2%. Only 8.8% of students identified correctly the appropriate time to perform breast self examination and 1.3% reported performing it regularly every month. The most common reasons for not practicing BSE were" did not know how to perform it" (47.7%) and lack of interest (35%). The findings of this study showed that there is low level of knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs and BSE among female university students and that only few students practice BSE monthly. Health care workers should develop effective breast health programs targeting youth to help females to gain healthy habits starting very early during their formative years.

  5. Medical students' experience of performing female pelvic examinations: Opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Wearn, Andy; Vnuk, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Teaching and learning female pelvic examination within the undergraduate medical curriculum offers some potential challenges. One such is the extent to which students are provided practice opportunities with patients in the clinical setting. To quantify how many pelvic examinations, on real patients, have been performed by medical students at the point of graduation, and to explore opportunities and barriers to performing these examinations. A retrospective study using a self-completed, anonymous, electronic survey was developed as part of a multi-centre study. Data were collected in the immediate period after graduation from the medical programs at the University of Auckland and Flinders University in 2013. An ordinal set of range categories was used for recording numbers of examinations. The combined response rate for the survey was 42.9% (134/312). The median range category for the number of pelvic examinations performed in patients who were not in labour was 6-9 and in labour was 2-3. Thirty-three percent of medical students had never performed a pelvic examination in labour. Male medical students performed significantly fewer pelvic examinations compared with female students. Self-reported barriers to performing the pelvic exam include: gender of the student, 'gate-keeping' by other health professionals, lack of confidence and patient factors. The majority of medical students have performed several pelvic examinations on real patients at graduation. Male gender and access being limited by midwives were the main barriers to performing female pelvic examinations. Medical curricula need to address these issues in the learning environment. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Hormonal contraception: Habits and awareness female students of the University of Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia

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    Mijatović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite a large number of modern contraceptive methods available in the market today, numerous studies have shown insufficient awareness of young women about these forms for birth control. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of common use of contraceptives as well as the awareness of hormonal contraception among female students of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad. Materials and Methods. In the study which was conducted in 2012 240 female students of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Technical Sciences participated. The average age of students of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Technical Sciences was 24.06 ± 3.24 and 22.72 ± 0.90 years, respectively. They completed an anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of three parts. The first part comprised general questions, the second part included characteristics of the sexual life of students and their contraceptive habits, while in the third part students were asked to evaluate the accuracy of statements about hormonal contraception. The obtained data were statistically processed by using appropriate methods. Results. The average age when the students of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Technical Sciences had the first sexual intercourse was 18.74 ± 2.61 and 18.75 ± 2.59, respectively. One third of students from both faculties (30.91% from the Faculty of Medicine and 35% from the Faculty of Technical Sciences had only one sexual partner. Modern contraception was used by 83.64% of the medical students and by 80% of those from the Faculty of Technical Sciences. Contraception was used regularly by 54.54% of the medical students and 43% of those from the Faculty of Technical Sciences. The most frequently applied contraceptive method was condom (90% of the medical students and 93% of the Faculty of Technical Sciences students, respectively. Oral contraceptives were used by 24.54% of the medical

  7. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLES OF MOTHERS WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND OVERWEIGHT AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Benar; Ayoub Behrozi

    2012-01-01

    Objective - the purpose of the present study was to determine whether mothers parenting styles are associated with physical activity levels and Overweight in 14- to 17-years old female students lived city of Rasht. Study would focus on that mothers influence their children by what ways and which were the most effective. Methods - the target population consisted entirely of female students of Rasht City. Then, according to Odineski table 360 females, 80 ninth graders, 148 tenth graders 132 ele...

  8. [Female students in internships in Parisian hospitals (1871-1910). Exclusion and inclusion processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, María; Somavilla, Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the explicit and implicit exclusion mechanisms that limited the access of women to internships in Paris hospitals during the last decades of the 19th century through examination of the documentation generated in the admission process and the texts of female physicians who supported their access. In response to the applications of female medical students to register for the admission tests, the Conseil de Surveillance de l'Assistance Publique delayed their entry for some years until their registration was finally permitted. However, their inclusion in the institution did not produce integration because of the multiple dimensions of the exclusion mechanisms.

  9. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

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    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  10. Association between Physical Activity and Insomnia among Saudi Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O; Al-Mubarak, Huda A; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] After obtaining subject's informed consent all the subjects were assessed for insomnia using the insomnia severity index (ISI), They were then given pedometers to calculate the number of steps they took per day. A physical activity log was kept for three weeks. Pre- and post -intervention ISI scores were calculated and correlated with the 3-week physical activity log. [Results] 50% of the subjects had no clinically significant insomnia (NCSI), 42% had sub threshold (STI), and 8% had moderate clinical (MCI) insomnia. There was a moderate negative correlation between physical activity and ISI scores after the 3-week motivation program. [Conclusion] Prevalence of insomnia was common among female Saudi students and increase in physical activity appears to improve the sleep pattern.

  11. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  12. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

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    Wendwosen T. Nibabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives.Setting: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia.Methods: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students.Results: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3% of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3% of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9% of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective.Conclusion: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.

  13. THE COMPARISON OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES

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    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of shaping one's self-esteem and psychological sex is to a large extent determined by the immediate social environment. The major impact is exerted by family members as well as significant others, whose opinions and judgements are deemed to be of cardinal importance. Psychological sex and self-esteem directly affect the quality of relations with other people, which, in turn, results in the feeling of satisfaction or discontentment. The aim of the undertaken research was to determine and compare the level of self-esteem and the type of psychological sex of female students at different types of universities. The data were collected by means of A. Kuczynska's Psychological Sex Inventory and L. Niebrzydowski's Self-esteem Questionnaire. The research group consisted of 320 women studying at four university schools in Wroclaw. The research allows to conclude that there are significant differences in terms of a multitude of psychological sex types and the level of self-esteem among female students of different universities. It appears that the highest level of self-esteem was observed in students of University School of Physical Education. This group of subjects comprises also the largest amount of female students with male and androgynous psychological sex.

  14. Learning Style Preferences Among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

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    Munir Shuib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL. However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including pertaining to Malaysian students. To address this issue, this study sought to identify whether there are differences in learning style preferences between male and female students who undertook ESL courses in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. To achieve the study objective, Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM was selected to gather data on the respondents’ learning style preference due to its validity, widespread use and suitability to the scope of the study. The responses gathered from FSLSM were tallied and assessed for gender difference in LSP. Results indicated that, there is a strong representation of visual learners from both male and female respondents. On the other hand, the respondents, irrespective of the gender difference, are well-balanced in the dimensions of sensing/intuitive, active/reflective, and sequential/global. In addressing the gender difference, it was found in this study that there is no significant difference between male and female ESL students in their preferred learning styles on each of the FSLSM dimension. Thus, this study revealed that, gender does not help differentiate students’ learning preferences. The findings lend support to several past studies on LSP.

  15. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendwosen T. Nibabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives.Setting: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia.Methods: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students.Results: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3% of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3% of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9% of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective.Conclusion: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.

  16. "A good career choice for women": female medical students' mentoring experiences: a multi-institutional qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Mechaber, Hilit F; Reddy, Shalini T; Cayea, Danelle; Harrison, Rebecca A

    2013-04-01

    The career decisions, practice patterns, and approach to patient care of current female students, who make up close to 50% of medical school classes, will have a profound impact on the profession. This study explores the role gender plays in the mentoring experiences of female medical students. In 2011, the authors conducted focus groups with 48 third- and fourth-year female medical students at four U.S. medical schools. Using a template organizing style, they derived themes in an iterative process to explore female medical students' mentoring relationships and the impact of gender on those relationships. The authors identified four major themes: (1) Optimal mentoring relationships are highly relational. Students emphasized shared values, trust, and a personal connection in describing ideal mentoring relationships. (2) Relational mentoring is more important than gender concordance. Students identified a desire for access to female mentors but stated that when a mentor and mentee developed a personal connection, the gender of the mentor was less important. (3) Gender-based assumptions and stereotypes affect mentoring relationships. Students described gender-based assumptions and expectations for themselves and their mentors. (4) Gender-based power dynamics influence students' thinking about mentoring. Students stated that they were concerned about how their mentors might perceive their professional decisions because of their gender, which influenced what they disclosed to male mentors and mentors in positions of power. Gender appears to play a role in female medical students' expectations and experience with mentoring relationships and may influence their decision making around career planning.

  17. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Amha Admasie; Taye, Kalemelekot Nigussie; Mekonen, Tesfa

    2014-03-26

    Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15-44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate.

  18. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate

  19. Effect Of Breast Self Examination Education to the Knowledge and Attitudes of Female Students

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    Kerime Derya Tasci Beydag

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of education about breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE given to female students living in the dormitory on their knowledge and attitudes. Two hundred female students staying at the Denizli Province Credit and Dormitory Institution's dormitory were taken into the sample and data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire and "Survey about Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination." The research forms were completed twice between November 2005 and February 2006 after permission was obtained officially from the institution and verbally from the students. After the first time the forms were completed a BSE brochure, which answered the questions on the survey, was used to give education to the students. The data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal Wallis test, t test and t test in dependent groups. The mean age of the students was 20.1±1.6. Almost half (47.5% of the students were in the education faculty, 58% had not previously received information about BSE, 69.5% were not performing BSE, 21.5 were occasionally performing BSE. Half (50% of the students did not know how to perform BSE, 6.5% had a family member with breast cancer and 6% had discomfort in their breasts. There was a statistically significant difference determined between the pre and post-education mean scores in the students' BSE knowledge acquisition, source of knowledge acquired, BSE performance status and BSE performance frequency (p<0.05. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 106-111

  20. Effect Of Breast Self Examination Education to the Knowledge and Attitudes of Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerime Derya (Tasci Beydag

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of education about breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE given to female students living in the dormitory on their knowledge and attitudes. Two hundred female students staying at the Denizli Province Credit and Dormitory Institution's dormitory were taken into the sample and data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire and "Survey about Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination." The research forms were completed twice between November 2005 and February 2006 after permission was obtained officially from the institution and verbally from the students. After the first time the forms were completed a BSE brochure, which answered the questions on the survey, was used to give education to the students. The data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal Wallis test, t test and t test in dependent groups. The mean age of the students was 20.1±1.6. Almost half (47.5% of the students were in the education faculty, 58% had not previously received information about BSE, 69.5% were not performing BSE, 21.5 were occasionally performing BSE. Half (50% of the students did not know how to perform BSE, 6.5% had a family member with breast cancer and 6% had discomfort in their breasts. There was a statistically significant difference determined between the pre and post-education mean scores in the students' BSE knowledge acquisition, source of knowledge acquired, BSE performance status and BSE performance frequency (p<0.05. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 106-111

  1. Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among female dental students in Hyderabad city, India

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    Dolar Doshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.

  2. Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among female university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Shafie, Asrul A; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and methods of screening among female university students and their perception towards the disease treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2008 at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Two hundred participants from 10 randomly selected faculties were interviewed face to face by a trained pharmacist using a validated questionnaire. In addition to their demographic characteristics, participants were required to answer 22 questions concerning knowledge of breast cancer and five questions related to their perception of breast cancer management and treatment outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. The mean age of the respondents was 26.7 (SD=1.9) years. The results showed that the vast majority of the female university students had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The mean total knowledge score of the students was 60.7%. Indian students had significantly less knowledge of breast cancer compared to their Chinese and Malay counterparts (pstudents were aware of breast self examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) recommendations. Furthermore, the students had positive perceptions towards the treatment outcomes of breast cancer. This study has highlighted the need of a breast cancer awareness campaign, which should also stress the importance of early detection and reporting of breast cancer.

  3. Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Wyon, Matthew; Nevill, Alan M.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Maia, José; Teixeira, Eduardo; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    Background Professional dancers are at risk of developing low bone mineral density (BMD). However, whether low BMD phenotypes already exist in pre-vocational dance students is relatively unknown. Aim To cross-sectionally assess bone mass parameters in female dance students selected for professional dance training (first year vocational dance students) in relation to aged- and sex-matched controls. Methods 34 female selected for professional dance training (10.9yrs ±0.7) and 30 controls (11.1yrs ±0.5) were examined. Anthropometry, pubertal development (Tanner) and dietary data (3-day food diary) were recorded. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) at forearm, femur neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) were assessed using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Volumetric densities were estimated by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Results Dancers were mainly at Tanner pubertal stage I (vs. stage IV in controls, pdance students continued to display a significantly lower BMD and BMAD at the FN (pdance training, first year vocational dance students demonstrated inferior bone mass compared to controls. Longitudinal models are required to assess how bone health-status changes with time throughout professional training. PMID:28678833

  4. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  5. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (Pmedia had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (Pmedia, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls.

  6. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.

  7. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How social networks influence female students' choices to major in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinland, Kathryn Ann

    Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  9. The effect of group bibliotherapy on the self-esteem of female students living in dormitory

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Sepideh; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Papi, Ahmad; Samouei, Rahele; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bibliotherapy is a supplement, simple, inexpensive and readily available method to treat the diseases that is performed with cooperation of librarians and psychologists or doctors. The aim of this study is the investigation of group bibliotherapy's effect on the self-esteem of the female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Living in Dormitory in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present study is an interventional semi-experimental study with pre test and post test ...

  10. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  11. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

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    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  12. Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Hookups Among First-Semester Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    First-semester female college students (N = 118) completed (a) surveys to estimate the prevalence of sexual hookups and (b) event-level assessments to clarify the behavioral characteristics of their most recent hookup. Hookups involving oral, vaginal, or anal sex were reported by 51% prior to college, 36% during their first semester, and 60% by the end of their first semester. Event-level analyses revealed that hookups were more likely to involve friends (47%) or acquaintances (23%) rather th...

  13. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

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    Aishwarya Navalpakam

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%, were non-smokers (92.7%, and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%. The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%, the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%, and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%. Although two thirds (67% believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005. Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  14. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpakam, Aishwarya; Dany, Mohammed; Hajj Hussein, Inaya

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU) in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%), were non-smokers (92.7%), and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%). The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%), the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%), and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%). Although two thirds (67%) believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005). Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  15. The phenomenology of premenstrual syndrome in female medical students: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy Hassan Balaha; Mostafa Abd El Monem Amr; Mohammed Saleh Al Moghannum; Nouria Saab Al Muhaidab

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is particularly common in the younger age groups and, therefore represents a significant public health problem in young girls. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, severity, determinants of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its impact among the female medical students in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study was performed at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, from June through December 2009. It included 250 medi...

  16. The correlation between academic achievements, self-esteem and motivation of female seventh grade students: A mixed methods approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henman, Karen

    During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.

  17. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  18. Relationship between academic performance with physical, psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in female undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Maude Dubuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  19. Prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of DSM-IV axis I mental disorders among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando L; Torres, Ángela; Otero, Patricia; Díaz, Olga

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), axis I mental disorders among Spanish female students and investigated their psychiatric comorbidity and correlates. 1054 female students with a mean age of 22.2 years were randomly selected, with stratification by academic seniority and the type of academic discipline. The cases of mental disorder were identified by clinically trained interviewers with the aid of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version. The lifetime prevalence of the targeted psychiatric disorders was 50.8%, and its point prevalence was 37.3%. The commonest disorders were nicotine dependence, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. Nearly 37% of subjects with a psychiatric disorder had two or more diagnoses. Mental illness was associated with family income, financial independence, type of academic discipline, violence from men, social support, and self-esteem. Psychiatric disorders are common among female university students. Serious attention should be paid to preventive and therapeutic programs in this group.

  20. Knowledge Extraction for Discriminating Male and Female in Logical Reasoning from Student Model

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    A. E. E. ElAlfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The learning process is a process of communication and interaction between the teacher and his students on one side and between the students and each others on the other side. Interaction of the teacher with his students has a great importance in the process of learning and education. The pattern and style of this interaction is determined by the educational situation, trends and concerns, and educational characteristics. Classroom interaction has an importance and a big role in increasing the efficiency of the learning process and raising the achievement levels of students. Students need to learn skills and habits of study, especially at the university level. The effectiveness of learning is affected by several factors that include the prevailing patterns of interactive behavior in the classroom. These patterns are reflected in the activities of teacher and learners during the learning process. The effectiveness of learning is also influenced by the cognitive and non cognitive characteristics of teacher that help him to succeed, the characteristics of learners, teaching subject, and the teaching methods. This paper presents a machine learning algorithm for extracting knowledge from student model. The proposed algorithm utilizes the inherent characteristic of genetic algorithm and neural network for extracting comprehensible rules from the student database. The knowledge is used for discriminating male and female levels in logical reasoning as a part of an expert system course.

  1. Zinc Deficiency in First Year Female Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    Fedyeh Haghollahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Zinc deficiency is an important health problem in developing countries. The aim of this study was diagnosis of zinc deficiency among young female students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Materials and methods: This cross sectional study evaluated 420 medical and paramedical students of Tehran University in 2005. All of them were female and in the first year of their education. Serum concentrations of zinc were measured by enzymatic method students in whom had sufficient criteria to enroll in the study. Zinc concentration more than 85 µ/dl was considered as normal value.  Concentration less than 50 µ/dl was defined as severe zinc deficiency. Mild and moderate  deficiencies were described as zinc levels between 50 to 85 µ/dl. Analysis was performed by t-test, chi-square and ANOVA using SPSS software. Results: Zinc deficiency was found in 7.1% of the participants. In women with body weights between 50.1-60 kg, zinc deficiency was less than patients with body weight of ≤ 50 Kg (p=0.04. In zinc deficient group acne was observed more frequently (p=0.01. Also anemic participants (Hb<12 had lower zinc level than non anemic women (Hb≥12 (p=0.001.Conclusion: This study found severe and mild to moderate zinc deficiency in 1.4% and 5.7% of female students, respectively. Zinc deficiency is common in anemic students. Zinc supplementation is recommended in anemic patients and in cases of confirmed zinc deficiency.

  2. Mathematics: A Female, Male or Gender-Neutral Domain? A Study of Attitudes among Students at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Staberg, Else-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate whether Swedish secondary school students perceive mathematics as a female, male or gender-neutral domain. A sample of 1300 students in two age groups, 15- and 17- years, answered a questionnaire and about 50 students participated in interviews. The main part of the inquiry form consists of "Who and…

  3. Parent Support and Stress among First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Female Students during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…

  4. Parent Support and Stress among First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Female Students during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…

  5. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  6. Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Margaretha; Ponzer, Sari; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove; Timpka, Toomas; Faresjö, Tomas

    2011-04-21

    Interprofessional Education (IPE) is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n=670) participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors) for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the student's personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.

  7. Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timpka Toomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interprofessional Education (IPE is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Methods Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS. Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n = 670 participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Results Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. Conclusions The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the student's personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.

  8. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  9. Associations of desire for change in sexual life amongst female medical students in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as “sexually bothered”. The survey also assessed ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and depressive symptoms. Respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Index of Sex Life (ISL). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 661 non-virgin female subjects with data adequate for analysis. Whereas 281 (43%) of these met criteria for High Risk of Female Sexual Dysfunction (HRFSD) based on FSFI scoring, just 173 (26%) reported sexual bother. Among women with HRFSD, 126 (45%) reported sexual bother; in women without HRFSD, 362 (95%) were not sexually bothered. Interference in sexual life from tiredness and stress were associated with sexual bother. Progressively better scores on the FSFI-desire, orgasm, and satisfaction domains were significantly associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Few women in this cohort with FSFI score >26.55 reported sexual bother. Women with FSFI less than 26.55 had greater odds of sexual bother but this criterion alone was not pathognomonic for sexual concerns. Issues of sexual desire and orgasm appear to play a more important role than lubrication, arousal, and sexual pain issues in this population. PMID:22971616

  10. Interest in Rhinoplasty and Awareness about its Postoperative Complications Among Female high School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Eslami, Mobina; Khanjani, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is a popular cosmetic surgical procedure. Informal statistics show that Iran has one of the highest rates of rhinoplasty in the world. However, rhinoplasty like any other surgery can have complications. In this cross-sectional study, 320 female students were selected by multistage cluster-stratified sampling from high schools in Kerman, Iran and each completed a questionnaire. More than half of the students said they would like to undergo rhinoplasty. The main reasons for wanting rhinoplasty were beauty and because it is fashionable. However, more than half of the interested students did not know about the possible postoperative complications of rhinoplasty. There was no relation between interest in having rhinoplasty and parents' education, city of birth or economic status. Many teenagers are interested in having rhinoplasty in Iran. As the number of teenagers and young adults who choose to have cosmetic surgery increases, surgeons should consider their expectations, motivations and awareness of postoperative complications before surgery.

  11. Perception of premenstrual syndrome and attitude of evaluations of work performance among incoming university female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Shih, Chi-Chen; Chen, Kao Chin; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Yang, Yi-Ching; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition, and for 5% of women, the influence is so severe as to interfere with their mental health, interpersonal relationships, or studies. Severe PMS may result in decreased occupational productivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perception of PMS on evaluation of work performance. A total of 1971 incoming female university students were recruited in September 2009. A simulated clinical scenario was used, with a test battery including measurement of psychological symptoms and the Chinese Premenstrual Symptom Questionnaire. When evaluating employee performance in the simulated scenario, 1565 (79.4%) students neglected the impact of PMS, while 136 (6.9%) students considered it. Multivariate logistic regression showed that perception of daily function impairment due to PMS and frequency of measuring body weight were significantly associated with consideration of the influence of PMS on evaluation of work performance. It is important to increase the awareness of functional impairments related to severe PMS.

  12. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

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    Salar Faramarzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  13. Evaluating female nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Rekleiti, Maria; Lavdaniti, Maria; Psychogiou, Maria; Chaliou, Mikaella; Xenofontos, Maria; Savva, Marilena

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate female nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding breast self-examination (BSE). The sample consisted of 175 nursing students from a university in Cyprus. We collected data via a questionnaire that included the Greek version of the Champion Health Belief Model scale and questions regarding the participants' demographic characteristics. More than half of the participants (58.3%) said that they were knowledgeable about BSE and 29.1% of them had been taught about it during their studies. Nevertheless, 59.9% reported never having performed BSE, while 40.1% had performed it at least once. Only 10.9% of the students performed BSE every month for more than a year. Self-confidence had a positive and significant correlation (0.86) with BSE frequency. Also, we found quite a low level of BSE knowledge and practice levels, and this highlights the need for establishing breast cancer prevention programs.

  14. Overweight Perception: Associations with Weight Control Goals, Attempts, and Practices among Chinese Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Hilary C; Felicitas, Jamie Q; Li, Yawen; Tobias, Malaika; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim D; Anderson Johnson, C; Xie, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Concurrent with the dramatic cultural and economic shifts occurring as mainland China becomes increasingly "Westernized," the weight perceptions, ideal body weight, and weight management goals and practices of Chinese females have also undergone significant changes. To investigate relationships between overweight status, weight perception patterns, and weight management goals and practices in Chinese female college students. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with data from 902 female subjects aged 18 to 25 years participating in the China Seven Cities Study, a health promotion and smoking prevention study conducted in mainland China in 2003. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between overweight status, weight perception, specific weight management goals and practices, and current levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity and food consumption. Based on World Health Organization standards for Asian adults, 16.7% of college females were overweight or obese, although 50.8% considered themselves to be "too heavy." Among participants perceiving themselves as overweight (n=458), 69.2% (n=371) were inaccurate and did not meet criteria for overweight or obese. The percentage of participants attempting weight loss was 48.2%, and 33.1% wanted to maintain their current weight. Attempts to lose or maintain weight were related to actual and perceived weight status, but not to increased vigorous-intensity physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake, nor to decreased consumption of sweets, soda, Western fast foods, and fried foods. Only 21.5% of participants desiring weight loss or maintenance reported using a combination of vigorous-intensity physical activity and a reduced-fat and -calorie diet, whereas 20.2% tried extreme methods such as fasting, using diet pills, vomiting, or smoking. Our findings underscore the need to promote healthy weight management practices among Chinese female college students, with an emphasis on diet and

  15. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

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    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  16. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  17. Assessment of Breast Cancer Awareness among Female University Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S; Shaikh, Rizwana B; Mathew, Elsheba; Al-Biate, Mawahib A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess female university students' knowledge of breast cancer and its preventative measures and to identify their main misconceptions regarding breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2011 and June 2012 and included female students from three large universities in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Data were collected through a validated, pilot-tested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included 35 questions testing knowledge of risk factors, warning signs and methods for the early detection of breast cancer. Participants' opinions regarding breast cancer misconceptions were also sought. The participants (n = 392) were most frequently between 18 and 22 years old (63.5%), non-Emirati (90.1%) and never married (89%). A family history of breast cancer was reported by 36 (9.2%) of the students. The percentage of participants who had low/below average knowledge scores regarding risk factors, warning signs and methods for early detection of breast cancer was 40.6%, 45.9% and 86.5%, respectively. Significantly higher knowledge scores on risk factors were noticed among participants with a family history of breast cancer (P = 0.03). The misconception most frequently identified was that "treatment for breast cancer affects a woman's femininity" (62.5%). A profound lack of knowledge about breast cancer was noted among female university students in the three UAE universities studied. The most prominent gaps in knowledge identified were those concerning breast cancer screening methods.

  18. Unnecessary Dieting Intention and Behavior among Female Students in Naha City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Zay Yar; Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Nanishi, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna Chandra; Yasuoka, Junko; Miyagi, Masaya; Shinjo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data were collected from five junior high schools and three high schools in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture, in 2010, through self-administered questionnaires. The data of 756 female students were assessed. The independent variables included social factor variables (norms) and personal factor variables (attitude to dieting, perceived behavior control, body esteem, body-figure discrepancy and past dieting). The dependent variables were dieting intention and behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine three models: model 1 (age and obesity index), model 2 (social factor variables with age and obesity index) and model 3 (all variables). Although model 2 failed to explain a substantial proportion of the variance, model 3 explained approximately a half of the variance for intention (R(2) = 0.507) and more than one third of the variance for behavior (R(2) = 0.376). Past experience of dieting was the best predictor of both dieting intention and behavior. Body esteem was the second best predictor for dieting behavior. In conclusion, personal factors are more likely than social factors to drive the dieting decision. Diet education programs should consider targeting frequent dieters and those with poor body esteem.

  19. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  20. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female students in vocational schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, R; Imai, H; Tsukino, H; Jensen, J S; Osada, Y

    2008-08-01

    In Japan it was reported that about 9% of sexually active female teenagers had Chlamydia trachomatis. Most of them were asymptomatic, which may lead to continuing spread of the infection. Like C trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium is a pathogen in male non-gonococcal urethritis. However, few studies of the prevalence of M genitalium in the general population have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M genitalium infection among younger females and to determine risk factors for this infection. The study was conducted between October 2005 and January 2006 using first voided urine specimens and questionnaires from female students of three vocational schools in the Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. C trachomatis was detected with Amplicor PCR. M genitalium was detected with inhibitor controlled real-time TaqMan PCR detecting the MgPa adhesion gene and with a PCR detecting the 16S rRNA. Risk factors associated with infection of M genitalium or C trachomatis were analysed with Fisher's exact test. Among 298 female, 249 (84%) had had experience of sexual intercourse. The prevalence of M genitalium was 2.8% (95% CI 0.76% to 4.86%) and the prevalence of C trachomatis was 8.8% (95% CI 5.31% to 12.36%). The risk factors of infection with M genitalium were more than five lifetime sexual partners and co-infection with C trachomatis.

  1. The Association between Premenstrual Syndrome and Physical Activity and Aerobic Power in Female High School Students

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    Sabaei Yekta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS and physical activity, aerobic power, and anaerobic power in female high school students. Materials and Methods: A total of 367 female high school students were selected randomly from district 5 of Tehran. Among them, 40 students who had the highest PMS score and all the inclusion criteria of the study were selected as subjects. The level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire and PMS was assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Aerobic power was assessed using submaximal 1-mile track jog test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for analyzing the relationship between variables. Results: The results indicated a significant negative correlation between PMS and physical activity (r = -0.86 and P < 0.05 and aerobic power (r = -0.71 and P < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it seems that regular physical activity, especially aerobic activities, can be effective in reducing the symptoms of PMS.

  2. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  3. [Menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Gao, Qiang; Tian, Su; Chen, Yuexiao; Ma, Yuxia; Huang, Zhenwu

    2011-03-01

    To study menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students. Thirty female undergraduate students were selected by simple random sampling method, the general information were investigated by questionnaire. The menstrual blood was collected by weighing every pad before and after use, and the blood not collected in pads was estimated. Hemoglobin, serum free protoporphyrin and serum ferritin were measured by regular method. The relationship between menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status was analyzed by bivariate correlation statistics. The average menstrual period was (4.5 +/- 1.4) days. The average menstrual blood loss was (59.3 +/- 25.1) g, in a range of 24 g to 110 g. The average content of serum ferritin, free protoporphyrin and hemoglobin was (25.13 +/- 14.33) ng/ml, (0.06 +/- 0.01) microg/ml and (131.61 +/- 9.76) g/L respectively. There were 22.58% of subjects in iron reduction period (serum ferritin students was significantly different. No clinical anemia does not mean in a good iron nutritional status. Serum ferritin is a sensitive indicator for iron nutritional status.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence towards female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana, Joseph E; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adeoye, Ikeola A

    2014-12-08

    In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the IPV burden and experience among young women in courtship and dating relationships. This study assesses the prevalence and correlates of IPV in female undergraduate and postgraduate students in a tertiary institution. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select 1,100 undergraduate and 255 postgraduate female students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using a 43-item self-administered structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. The life-time prevalence of IPV was 42.3% (postgraduate: 34.5%, undergraduate: 44.1%; P alcohol (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.82- 3.06); and with history of interparental violence (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.88- 3.07) had a higher likelihood of experiencing violence than students who were not exposed to these behaviors. Adverse effects (such as the inability to concentrate) of IPV on academic performance were reported by 10.3% of victims. The prevalence of IPV was high. There is the urgent need for interventions that will reduce vulnerability by addressing modifiable risk factors like smoking and alcohol consumption. Interventions should also encourage seeking health care following violence to reduce its consequences.

  5. Characterization of sexual and reproductive behaviour in female high school students

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    Perla Caridad López Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The need of love plays an important role in the lives of adolescents. The success they integrate their sexuality with, depends on a complex set of factors. Objective: To characterize sexual and reproductive behaviour of female high school students. Methods: A descriptive study of a sample comprising 180 female students from the 9th grade in the urban area of Cumanayagua, from September 2007 to June 2008. Variables that were analyzed: whether they kept relationships involving sex at the time of the study, age at onset of the relationships and primary motivations for its initiation, contraceptives use and most commonly used contraceptives and reproductive and obstetric history (abortions, menstrual regulation and delivery . Results: 56.1% kept relationships involving sex at the time of the study. The average age of onset of these relationships was between 13 (37.6% and 14 (43.6% years old. The main motivation was physical attraction in all age groups with 29.7%. A considerable group experienced unprotected sexual intercourse (57.4%, representing more than half of the total and only 42.6% protect themselves, mainly using condoms. Menstrual regulations were performed in 55.5% of the students as well as pregnancy interruptions through the uterine cavity curettage method in 22.2% of them. 5.6% had had an abortion. Conclusions: The studied adolescents are developing inappropriate sexual conducts.

  6. Health behaviors of Korean female nursing students in relation to obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Da-In; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Han, Kihye

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that young adults' dietary habits and health behaviors have significant effects on obesity and bone health. However, there is a lack of thorough understanding of the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors and potential relationships to obesity and osteoporosis among young females. This cross-sectional study examined dietary habits, health behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and bone mineral density of 160 female nursing students. A relatively large number of students had vitamin D (n = 104, 65%) and calcium (n = 84, 52.5%) deficiencies but displayed excessive cholesterol (n = 86, 53.8%) and sodium (n = 137, 85.6%) intakes. Unhealthy dietary and health habits such as nighttime snacking, coffee drinking, low milk drinking, and lack of exercise were also noted. Despite their knowledge on health, a large portion of nursing students displayed unhealthy dietary habits and health. Tailored strategies and education to narrow the gap between health behavioral knowledge and practice are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, corresponding motivation to comply, and control beliefs. The subjects (n = 300) responded to the questionnaire by self-report, and data from 275 students were analyzed using t-test or χ2-test. RESULTS The results showed that 37.8% of subjects were nutrition label users. Three out of 15 behavioral beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. Nutrition label users agreed more strongly on the benefits of using nutrition labels including 'comparing and selecting better foods' (P nutrition label use. Twelve out of 15 control beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. These included beliefs regarding constraints of using nutrition labels (e.g., time, spending money for healthy foods) and lack of nutrition knowledge (P nutrition labels in food selection was also significantly related to nutrition label use (P nutrition label use. To promote nutrition label use, nutrition education might focus on increasing perceived control over constraints of using nutrition labels, acquiring skills for checking nutrition labels, as well as the benefits of using nutrition labels and receiving support from significant others for nutrition label use. PMID:25671070

  8. Substance use and sexual behaviour among female students in Nigerian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye-Adeniran, B A; Aina, O F; Gbadegesin, A; Ekanem, E E

    2014-01-01

    Substance use continues to constitute social and health problems, more so among adolescents and young adults. One consequence is risky sexual behavior, a major problem in sub-Saharan Africa already facing the synergistic problems of poverty and HIV/AIDS. This study of female students aged ≥ 18 years in two universities in Nigeria uses a multi-stage stratified random sampling method, and each subject that gave consent to the study was administered with a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers; 2,408 female students were studied (1,854 from the University of Ibadan and 554 from the Bayero University, Kano). The mean age of the respondents was 21.6 (SD = 2.9), and about two-thirds (65.7%) were aged between 20-24, with 2,204 (91.5%) being single and 4.3% married. In all, 23.4% of the subjects used one form of substance. Alcoholic drinks of palm wine, alcoholic wine, and beer were the most common of substances used (22.7%), followed by tobacco (2%) and cannabis (1%). Substance use was significantly associated with religious affiliation of the students (p students (11.7%) and highest among those who professed traditional religion (39.4%). Alcohol use was also positively associated with sexual activity (p students who used alcohol, 147 (26.9%) had sex in the 4 weeks prior to the survey, while among the 1,861 non-users, only 8.9% did so. The practice of unprotected sex was found not to be associated with substance use: a slightly lower proportion (29.5% vs. 36.6%) of substance users engaged in unprotected sex in their last encounter compared to non-users. There is need to scale up public health education on the dangers of substance use and its associated sexual risk behavior.

  9. Factors associated with future commitment and past history of human papilloma virus vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ping-Fen; Yeh, Ying-Tse; Sheu, Shuh-Jen; Wang, Tze-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan. Methods A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model. Results The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior we...

  10. Personality Disorders in Female and Male College Students With Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    A high rate of personality disorders (PDs) was found in individuals with Internet addiction (IA) in previous studies using clinical and limited sample sizes. The present study further made comparisons between sex and incorporated a control group to compare the frequencies of PD between individuals with IA and those without IA. Five hundred fifty-six college students (341 females) completed self-report surveys and were later given diagnostic interviews to assess for a PD diagnosis. Males with IA showed a higher frequency of narcissistic PD, whereas females with IA showed a higher frequency of borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, or dependent PD when compared with those without IA. The high rate of PD among Internet addicts may be associated with the core features of specific PD psychopathology. Sex differences in the PD frequencies among IA individuals provide indications for understanding the psychopathological characteristics of PDs in Internet addicts.

  11. The Influence of a Primary Prevention Program on Eating-Related Attitudes of Israeli Female Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laura; Bachar, Eytan; Gur, Eitan; Stein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of a primary prevention program on eating-related attitudes in 231 female 7th graders at baseline and following a six-session prevention program. Fifty-nine 7th grade control females received six unstructured lectures about adolescence. One hundred and three experimental students and 37 controls were…

  12. Similar but Different: Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Body Shape Dissatisfaction, and Weight Control Behaviors among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Lewis, Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Blunt, Heather; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although females have a higher incidence of eating disorders than males, there is evidence that among college students both males and females are vulnerable to risk factors associated with eating disorders. Purpose: To explore the relationship between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance (SCATA), body shape (dis)satisfaction…

  13. Breast Self-examination: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Female Dental Students in Hyderabad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (Pbreast cancer screening behavior.

  14. Parental education and exposure of female and male students to bulling in school environment

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    Polovina Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research exploring the correlation between exposure of elementary school students to various types of bulling at school (stealing of personal belongings, violence, coercion, mockery, shunning and their parents' educational level. Special emphasis was put on connections in mother-daughter and father-son dyads were explored. The research is a part TIMSS 2007 International Project covered a representative sample of 2447 8th Grade students (1161 boys and 1286 girls from 36 elementary schools in Serbia. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on assessment of school environment, as well as students' experience of peer victimization. Overall, 48.1% students (in male sub-sample 54.4%; in female sub-sample 42.7% reported being subjected to some kind of bullying in the preceding month. Much more frequently than girls, boys were subjected to theft of personal belongings, coercion and shunning. Correlation is found between educational level of mothers and bullying of their daughters at schools (especially violence, coercion and mockery. While students/daughters of highly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to coercion (forced to do something they did not want to do, daughters of poorly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to shunning. The sub-sample of boys did not indicate any correlation between educational level of fathers and peer victimization in school environment.

  15. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

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    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  16. Academic examination stress increases disordered eating symptomatology in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, V; Patsai, A

    2012-09-01

    It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.

  17. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Stegeren, Anda H; Joëls, Marian

    2011-05-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on long-term memory for neutral and emotional pictures and working memory in typical samples of male versus female students. In total, 77 subjects (54 women of which 39 used oral contraceptives) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition, and then engaged in a long-term memory task (emotionally arousing and neutral pictures; surprise recall after one week) and a working memory (n-back) task. During the experiment salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as subjective affect state were assessed. As expected, stress hormone concentrations as well as subjective negative affect states increased significantly in response to the stress task. Men reacted more to the stressor in terms of cortisol responses than women, probably due to oral contraceptive use of the latter. Results show that, in male as well as in female students, memory for emotional arousing information was better than for neutral information, in both the stress and control condition. Stress enhanced recognition memory for emotional versus neutral pictures only in male subjects. Moreover, stress enhanced working memory, particularly in males, during the first block of a 2-back task. The lack of stress effects on memory in women might be explained by oral contraceptive use, leading to blunted HPA-axis responses and secondary to reduced stress effects on memory. The results emphasize that stress affects both long-term and working memory differentially in male versus female students.

  18. Perception of female students of king saud university towards premarital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Awatif A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of King Saud University female students towards the implementation of premarital screening (PMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two consecutive surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) were conducted two and nine months after the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA in 1/1/1425H. The female students of King Saud University were given health education lectures before the survey. The first survey was done with a designed close-ended questionnaire distributed at pre and post stages of the health education lecture. However, the second one explored the participants' perception of the same items in open-ended questions summarized as a "consensus statement". In fulfillment of their demands, the signed statement was mailed to the legislative authorities. A total of 140 university female students attended the first lecture. The response rate for both pre and post lecture surveys were 132 (94.3%) and 128 (91.4%) respectively. A total of 112 out of 132 (84.8%) students in the pre test and 111 out of 128 (86.7%) in the post-test were single. Of the married students 7/20 (35.0%) and 7/17 (41.2%) in pre and post tests had previously had PMS screening. The attitude of the students towards PMS was generally positive. One hundred and eight (81.8%) in the pre test and 110 (85.9%) in the post test saw the importance of PMS in controlling the commonest hereditary diseases. However, a smaller percentage of students (69.7% and 75.0%) in pre and post lecture respectively were in favor of the compulsory application of PMS in KSA. In spite of the positive attitude of all the students in the pre and post tests, fears were expressed towards the confidentiality of PMS test results and it was felt that social and psychological problems would ensue from abnormal results. This, however, does not represent the feeling of the entire population in KSA since the participants of the study formed a select group. The second

  19. An electrophysiological correlate of Eating Attitudes Test scores in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J F; Mercer, J C

    1990-11-01

    Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores of forty female college students were compared to their electrodermal activity (EDA) responses when offered a plate of chocolate chip cookies. A significant positive correlation was detected between the EAT scores and the skin conductivity measures associated with the presentation of food. Women with the highest EAT scores also exhibited the greatest sympathetic nervous system responses to a plate of cookies. This finding supports the conclusion that the EAT is capable of identifying individuals who are preoccupied with food or anxious about eating.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual hookups among first-semester female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    First-semester female college students (N = 118) completed surveys to estimate the prevalence of sexual hookups and event-level assessments to clarify the behavioral characteristics of their most recent hookup. Hookups involving oral, vaginal, or anal sex were reported by 51% before college, 36% during their first semester, and 60% by the end of their first semester. Event-level analyses revealed that hookups were more likely to involve friends (47%) or acquaintances (23%) rather than strangers (14%); alcohol use (median = 3 drinks) preceded 64% of hookups. Condoms were used during 69% of vaginal sex hookups.

  1. Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awanish Kumar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\\muscle pain (77.5%. Lethargy (83% was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5% have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.

  2. Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Hardy, Sam A; Olthuis, Janine V; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-12-02

    Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (Mage = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood. Early expressions of altruistic behaviors predicted less marijuana use in later young adulthood. Expression of public prosocial behaviors early in young adulthood predicted higher levels of hazardous drinking in late young adulthood. These novel findings have important implications for links between prosocial development and substance use in women college athletes.

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccine stages of change among male and female university students: ready or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Grunzweig, Katherine A; Zochowski, Melissa K; Dempsey, Amanda F; Carlos, Ruth C; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine stages of change following the recommendations for permissive use of HPV vaccine in males. Students aged 18-26 attending a large, public, Midwest university in April 2010. Participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire. HPV vaccine stage of change was assessed according to core constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Logistic regression was used to identify associations of HPV-related beliefs and attitudes with stage of change. Although most (80.5%) of the 4,019 participants had at least contemplated HPV vaccination, more females had taken observable steps towards vaccination. Significant differences between genders in HPV-related beliefs and attitudes were observed, particularly perceived parental or perceived health care provider approval of HPV vaccination. University students generally agreed with the benefits of HPV vaccination, both for themselves and for society, and these attitudes were significantly associated with having at least contemplated vaccination.

  4. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  5. Correlation study of knowledge and behavior regarding breast care among female undergraduate students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Xue; Li, Jian; Geng, Yun-Long; Wang, Yan-Chun; Li, Jie; Chen, Yu-Juan; Ali, Gholam; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wen, Yu-Feng; Sun, Wen-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the relationship between knowledge level and behavior on breast care in Chinese students, so as to provide strategies for improving the health education of breast care and subsequently for aiding in breast cancer prevention. A self-designed questionnaire was used to evaluate breast care knowledge level and characterize related behavior. Correlation analysis was conducted for the knowledge level and behavior. The study was carried out using 597 female undergraduate students in medical and non-medical colleges in Wuhu, China. The average score of breast care knowledge was 5.32±1.68 (5.62±1.68 and 5.00±1.68 for medical and non-medical students, respectively), with a greater score value for sophomores (5.59±1.72) than freshmen (5.18±1.65). The average score of breast care behavior was 2.21±1.13, again with a greater value in sophomores (2.37±1.15) than freshmen (2.21±1.13). A significant positive correlation (r=0.231, pknowledge scores and behavior scores was observed. In addition, various factors, including paying attention to breast care information, receiving breast self-examination guidance, TV program and Internet, were found to influence breast care knowledge. In general, female undergraduate students lack of self-awareness of breast care with a low rate of breast self-examination. It is necessary to carry out health education to improve early detection of breast cancer.

  6. Trunk muscle endurance and low back pain in female dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Christopher; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is often cited as a common condition at all levels of dance. Evidence suggests that reduced endurance of the trunk muscles can predispose an individual to LBP. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in trunk muscle endurance in a sample of tertiary level dance students with and without LBP. Seventeen full-time female dance students were divided into two groups: dance students with LBP (N = 11), and without LBP (N = 6). All participants provided informed consent, and the study was approved by an institutional ethics review board. Participants performed four isometric tests that assess trunk muscle endurance: the right and left side plank, double straight leg raise (DSLR), and the Sorensen test. A modified version of the Osaka City University test was used to assess the presence of LBP. A significant difference (p well as the DSLR test, and students with LBP displayed lower levels of endurance compared to those without. No other significant differences were found. This study offers some evidence that reduced trunk muscle endurance is present among dancers with LBP and provides direction for future research into back health among dancers.

  7. The Effectiveness of Computerized Instructional Packages on Concept Acquisition and Improving Academic Achievement among Female Deaf Students in KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagabas, Hanan Ali

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of computerized instructional packages on concept acquisition and improving academic achievement among deaf students in Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of (16) third-grade female deaf students in prep stage for the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014, randomly selected from…

  8. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

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    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  9. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  10. The Experiences of School Counselors in Reducing Relational Aggression among Female Students K-12: A Generic Qualitative Study

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    Stringer, Tomeka C.

    2014-01-01

    The current generic qualitative study investigated the experiences of eight K-12 school counselors working with female students and relational aggression. School counselors can be a resource in schools to help students that may have been involved with relational aggression incidents. They can collaborate with administrators, teachers, parents, and…

  11. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  12. [An investigation of career choice, plans and expectations and practice preferences of male and female dental students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002

  13. Lived Experiences of Female Undergraduate Students, at a Nursing College in Abu Dhabi, about Nursing as a Profession

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    Hantash, Dania Abu; Van Belkum, Corrien

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explore the lived experiences of female undergraduate nursing students about nursing as a profession and the circumstances that have influenced their experience. Introduction: Nursing as a profession is a relatively new practice, and thus in the developmental stage, in the UAE. The number of national students (Emirati) who enrol in the…

  14. Factors affecting the retention of first-year female science and engineering students at the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Juliet Webb

    Alarming to many academics is that while the numbers of female students (at the University of Michigan in particular) in SEM (Science, Engineering, and Mathematics) departments have shown increases in enrollment over the past decades, the number of female professionals in the field has decreased. The purpose of the study was to determine the environmental perceptions of female SEM students in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Program at the University of Michigan. The WISE-RP (Residence Program) is an existing living and learning education program at the university that was designed to facilitate the successful retention and graduation of undergraduate female SEM students in the capacity that the admissions statistics should logically imply. The objectives of the study included identification of the perceptions of female students that contribute to, and foster retention of students participating in the WISE-RP program. The knowledge obtained from this evaluation will guide the University of Michigan in formulating specific interventions and retention approaches, both in and out of the classroom. This was achieved by identifying (among other things) commonality of experiences, and female student's perceptions of acceptance, integration and interactivity. The data used in this secondary analysis was collected over a 2 year period (1999--2001). The primary instrument used for data collection was a structured interview protocol utilizing focus groups. The population and samples studied were comprised of: a research project consisting of 36 focus groups from WISE-RP, University Research Opportunity Program, and the University Research Opportunity in Residence Programs; the sample size of the initial project was 180 first year SEM male and female students. The research project consisted of working with a senior research team at the University of Michigan to develop a structured interview instrument, pilot the instrument, and select focus groups. Content

  15. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

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    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  16. Factors affecting interest in orthopedics among female medical students: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith; Namdari, Surena; Bowers, Andrea; Keenan, Mary Ann; Levin, L Scott; Ahn, Jaimo

    2011-12-06

    The field of orthopedics has a limited ability to recruit high-quality female applicants. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early exposure to the field affects a woman's decision to pursue orthopedics. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study between academic years 2005 and 2009 and compared interest in orthopedic surgery among female (n=271) and male (n=71) medical students at 2 urban teaching institutions. Elective lectures and orthopedic literature were distributed via e-mail to the study participants. These materials included articles published in the medical literature, materials produced and distributed by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and Web sites providing educational materials. The primary outcome was the likelihood of application for orthopedic residency. We studied the influence of demographics, exposure, and attitudes on interest in pursuing an orthopedic career. Men had a significantly higher baseline level of interest in orthopedic surgery than women (P=.005). Younger age (Porthopedics were significantly related to interest among women. At final follow-up, total personal exposures (P=.003) and total independent exposures (Porthopedic educational resources may be useful in generating female interest. Perceptions and attitudes regarding orthopedic surgery must to be changed to attract the best and brightest minds, regardless of sex. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

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    Einas Al-Eisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  18. Precollege Predictors of Incapacitated Rape Among Female Students in Their First Year of College.

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    Carey, Kate B; Durney, Sarah E; Shepardson, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The first year of college is an important transitional period for young adults; it is also a period associated with elevated risk of incapacitated rape (IR) for female students. The goal of this study was to identify prospective risk factors associated with experiencing attempted or completed IR during the first year of college. Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited 483 incoming first-year female students. Participants completed a baseline survey and three follow-up surveys over the next year. At baseline, we assessed precollege alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual behavior, and, for the subset of sexually experienced participants, sex-related alcohol expectancies. At the baseline and all follow-ups, we assessed sexual victimization. Approximately 1 in 6 women (18%) reported IR before entering college, and 15% reported IR during their first year of college. In bivariate analyses, precollege IR history, precollege heavy episodic drinking, number of precollege sexual partners, and sex-related alcohol expectancies (enhancement and disinhibition) predicted first-year IR. In multivariate analyses with the entire sample, only precollege IR (odds ratio = 4.98, p year. IR during the first year of college is independently associated with a history of IR and with expectancies about alcohol's enhancement of sexual experience. Alcohol expectancies are a modifiable risk factor that may be a promising target for prevention efforts.

  19. Information support in the assessment of female students as potential entrepreneurs

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    Siemieniak Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On world’s average, every third business is run by a woman. Typically, these businesses are small and limit their growth, they rarely employ staff, have shorter surviva[l rates, lower level of capitalization, and are financed with foreign capital to a lesser extent in comparison with businesses run by men. In addition, women are motivated to start their own business due to the phenomenon of a “glass ceiling”, problems finding a job after returning from parental leave, and the need to balance work and parental duties. Running their own business opens up many opportunities for women. It seems, therefore, appropriate to examine the factors that will help the next generation of women realize their entrepreneurial potential. The article presents the opinions of management students on the usefulness of different measures in supporting the initiation and conduct of business in the SME sector. The results were compared with assessments made by female entrepreneurs. This helped identify areas in which the expectations of students differed significantly from the reality. The authors of this article believe that such a discrepancy between the ideas and the realities of running your own business may be the cause of the lower survival rate of businesses run by women and their limited participation in the overall number of entrepreneurs. Based on these results, the authors propose directions for the education of potential female entrepreneurs.

  20. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM

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    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a standard questionnaire based on health belief model. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. ResultsKnowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.04, r=0.12 and P=0.004, r=0.18, respectively. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers had a negative and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.02, r=-0.14 and P

  1. Gender relations and sexual communication among female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Diamond, Pamela M; Markham, Christine; Ross, Michael W; Nguyen-Le, Thanh-An; Tran, Ly Hai Thi

    2010-08-01

    Young women's ability to pursue a safer-sex life in line with their wishes is crucial to their sexual health. Although some previous observations have suggested that young women's lack of ability to negotiate safer sex is due to gender power imbalances in the culture of Vietnam, studies that have tested this hypothesis explicitly and quantitatively are few and far between. The present study aimed to test the association between perceived gender relations and perceived self-efficacy in communicating sexual matters among undergraduate female students in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. The analysis involved secondary data from 260 subjects from a larger survey regarding gender equity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the study's hypothesis. Results showed that adherence to traditional gender roles and norms was significantly associated with female students' reduced self-efficacy to communicate on safer-sex matters, such as refusing unwanted sex or requesting condom use. This association remained invariant in the cross-validation process between partnered and unpartnered groups. Programmes that aim to promote safer-sex negotiation and practices for this population may need to address the influence of gender relations and power.

  2. Skipping breakfast is associated with reproductive dysfunction in post-adolescent female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the adverse effects of skipping breakfast on quality of life, there are very few reports concerning the relationship between skipping breakfast and reproductive function. Therefore, we examined this issue by conducting a questionnaire survey of female college students aged from 18 to 20 years old. The 5 annual surveys of questionnaire demonstrated that the severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher in the population that skipped breakfast. The incidence of irregular menses was also higher in the population that skipped breakfast, although there was no difference in the incidence of premenstrual symptoms. The group that skipped breakfast showed a tendency to suffer from constipation. In addition, despite no difference in body mass index, there was a significantly higher incidence of a self-perception of poor general health among the group that skipped breakfast. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is associated with menstrual disorders, and affects the physical condition of female college students who are undergoing post-adolescent maturation. Since these menstrual disorders may influence the quality of life of young women not only in the present but also in the future, skipping breakfast should be re-evaluated from the perspective of future reproductive function.

  3. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

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    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  4. A Comparison of HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sources of STI Information Between Female and Male College Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Cook, Daniel M; Lu, Minggen; Ding, Kele

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan withdrew from the United Nations in 1971, which led to missed opportunities for participating in global HIV/AIDS programs and made Taiwan more vulnerable to HIV. Employing a questionnaire of 996 college students in Taiwan, the authors assessed and compared female and male HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sources of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) information. Students reported moderate knowledge and attitudes. Females had more positive attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS than males. Most participants reported learning about HIV and STIs from traditional media, school teachers, and the Internet. We suggest evidence-based educational interventions for students should include targeted electronic and cultural awareness strategies.

  5. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K

    2010-03-01

    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  6. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

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    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  7. Constraints experienced by female students pursuing science and technology-based university programmes in their learning of science in Ghana

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    Kwaku Darko Amponsah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a larger study to investigate female students in science and technology-based university (STU programs in their motivation, perception and constraint in learning science at senior high school and consequently science and technology-based programs at the university level. The conceptual framework is rooted in Steele’s concept of stereotype threat, which is the experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group. The investigation was conducted among 328 final year female students pursuing engineering, medicine, pharmacy and computer science/ICT at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana. The study utilized cross-sectional descriptive survey design. 328 final year female students in the 2008/2009 academic year pursuing engineering, medicine, pharmacy and computer science/ICT formed the sample. A Self-Report Survey Questionnaire on constraints female students experience in their learning of science was designed and administered. This study indicated that female students have to grapple with some challenges such as lack of funding, and the unavailability or expensive nature of some textbooks. One-way between group analysis of variance (ANOVA and Hotchberg GT2 Post hoc analyses indicated that there were significant differences in constraints among some of the four groups of students. It was concluded that Government and other stakeholders should provide funding, scholarships or bursaries to female students in order to enhance their full participation. These challenges may account in part to the low participation of females in science and technology-based programs.

  8. Awareness and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination among female Jordanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-06-01

    Despite huge efforts to increase the level of breast cancer awareness, breast self-examination (BSE) is still poorly practiced across Jordan. This baseline study aimed to assess the awareness of female Jordanian students about breast cancer and their practice of BSE. Using a cross-sectional research design, a self-administered survey was used, via a pre-validated pre-piloted questionnaire was distributed to 900 female students aged between 18 and 37 years recruited from the University of Jordan in Amman. The questionnaire was divided into four domains: Socio-demographic characteristics; the respondent's knowledge of breast cancer and BSE; their attitude towards risk factors for breast cancer; their experience of breast cancer screening and BSE. Statistical analysis was performed using Epi-Info version 6.4 statistical Software. The overall response rate was 93.3%. Approximately half of the respondents 435 (51.8%) were aware of breast cancer. Of these, 99 (22.7%) believed that it was caused by a medical condition, followed by old age (71; 16.4%), lack of breastfeeding (58; 13.3%), heredity (56; 12.8%), late marriage (44; 10.3%), pregnancies in older women (33; 7.5%), the use of brassieres (18; 4.1%), excessive breastfeeding (17; 3.9%), being unmarried (14; 3.2%), and spirituality (11; 2.6%). Overall, 152 participants (34.9%) were aware of BSE, but only 93 (11%) had performed it. The current status of awareness of breast cancer in Jordanian students and their use of BSE are insufficient. Women need to be encouraged to self-monitor in order to detect abnormalities in their breasts. Appropriate educational interventions are urgently required to encourage women to engage in regular BSE.

  9. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.

  10. Interest in Rhinoplasty and Awareness about its Postoperative Complications Among Female high School Students

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    Aliasghar Arabi Mianroodi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoplasty is a popular cosmetic surgical procedure. Informal statistics show that Iran has one of the highest rates of rhinoplasty in the world. However, rhinoplasty like any other surgery can have complications.  Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 320 female students were selected by multistage cluster-stratified sampling from high schools in Kerman, Iran and each completed a questionnaire.  Results: More than half of the students said they would like to undergo rhinoplasty. The main reasons for wanting rhinoplasty were beauty and because it is fashionable. However, more than half of the interested students did not know about the possible postoperative complications of rhinoplasty. There was no relation between interest in having rhinoplasty and parents’ education, city of birth or economic status.  Conclusion: Many teenagers are interested in having rhinoplasty in Iran. As the number of teenagers and young adults who choose to have cosmetic surgery increases, surgeons should consider their expectations, motivations and awareness of postoperative complications before surgery.

  11. Sexual and reproductive health problems of female university students in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Fatemeh; Moghadam, Zahra B; Parvizi, Soror; Nayeri, Nahid D; Rezaei, Elham

    2015-01-14

    Youth is defined as the time of transition into adulthood and an important period in a person's life. During this period new behavior is learned easier than adulthood. Therefore, special attention has to be necessarily paid to this period in order to promote the health. Addressing adolescent reproductive health issues is also a critical factor This research was a qualitative study conducted from January 2014 to July 2014. Data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 25 female students and 10 key members of the university (including university authorities, consultants, reproductive health professionals and university officials) was collected and all interviews were recorded, formulated and classified. The mean age of participants was 22.43 years. A total of 8 students majored in geology, 5 majored in chemistry, 3 in statistics, 3 in mathematics, and 6 in biology. 17 had a bachelor's degree, 3 master's degree and 5 doctorate degree. Majority of students (82.4%) were never married and 23 of them lived in dormitories. The following three main themes were extracted from the interviews: Reproduction thought as pregnancy; the taboo of sex; and inappropriate relation between parents and children. Most participants stressed the need to provide reproductive health services for young girls.

  12. Barrier versus oral contraceptive use: a study of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A; Gall, M J

    1991-09-01

    Although they provide birth control and are easier to use, oral contraceptives (OCPs) are not the preferred approach to preventing sexually transmitted disease (STD). Do the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of oral contraceptive users place them at greater risk for STDs than those who employ barrier methods? This study examined differences between sexually active female college students (ie, those who reported ever having had vaginal intercourse) who used OCPs and those who employed barrier methods of contraception at the time of their most recent intercourse. The authors analyzed HIV- and other STD-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors from three consecutive annual health surveys of young women about to begin their first year of college. Findings showed barrier and OCP users to be comparable in knowledge about the effectiveness of various contraceptive methods in protecting them against STDs, perceived personal susceptibility to HIV, and experiences with alcohol before sexual intercourse. Oral contraceptive users, compared with those in the group who used barrier methods, reported a greater number of recent partners (p less than .03) and greater perceived vulnerability to STDs (p less than .03). Student healthcare providers must develop creative educational strategies to encourage simultaneous use of both oral contraceptives and barrier methods to protect students against STDs and pregnancy.

  13. Vilnius Gediminas Technical Universty and Mykolas Riomeris University Faculty of Public Security Female Student Physical Activity Evaluation 2010–2012

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    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of scientific researches show that female student physical and functional condition getting worst, which optimal function have big influence for human psychological and social health. Female student physical maturity makes up significant psychophysical foundation for the future professional activities. It is extremely important to pay more attention for women physical activity solution. 186 VGTU and 131 MRU FPS female students were analyzed during our research in 2010–2012. Evaluation of physical development (height, weight, vital lung capacity, body composition (body mass index, thickness of fat skinfold, waist and hip volume ration, percentage of fat mass indicators and other important components of fitness (balance, static stamina of arms and shoulders, core flexibility, and knee tendon stiffness, static power of palm, speed of arm movement, agility, power and stamina of core muscles supplementing up to date information about Lithuanian female student physical capacity. Analytical research results shows that 89% of researched female students had normal weight, 8% indicated as overweight, 3% were underweight. Collected data revealed that researched same age peers of higher education schools waist and hip volume ratio and body mass index were normal.

  14. Relationship between Female Pre University Students' Critical Thinking Skills and Their Mental Health

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    Y. Maroofi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Critical thinking is simply defined as ability for analysis and evaluation of information. Today, this skill is considered as an undeniable necessity for social life. So fostering critical thinking ability is one of the basic goals of different levels of education from primary school to higher education. Each conscious behavior is related to the theoretical and intellectual foundation and origin. Therefore, the quality and types of thought play an important role in human mental health. This research studies the relationship between female pre-university students' critical thinking skills and their mental health in the academic year 2009-2010 in Hamadan city. Materials & Methods: This study is a cross sectional research and our method is based on correlation. Using random multiple stages clustering method, we selected 331 students as statistical sample. The data gathering instruments are two standard questionnaires: California form b critical thinking questionnaire and 28-question Goldberg and Hilier general health questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic indexes such as frequency, percent, mean and standard deviation and inferential tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Results: Research findings show that the average point of students' critical thinking skills is (6.51 out of 34 and their average point of mental health is (31.52 .About 61 persons(18.4 percent have not any psychological disorder, about 270 person (81.6 percent seemed to have psychological disorder symptoms. There are negative and significant differences between critical thinking skills and disorder in mental health. Multiple regression analysis show that: there is negative and significant differences between critical analysis and deductive rational skills with psychological disorder symptoms, that is when students' critical thinking skills increases, the psychological disorder symptoms decrease

  15. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Students in the Allied Health and Medical Colleges: Psychometrics of the Measures and Personality Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Lyons, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a comprehensive assessment method of predicting academic and professional success among health professions' students, a set of 12 psychosocial measures were administered and their psychometric properties were examined. Participants were 141 female allied health and 71 female medical students. Alpha and test-retest reliabilities and construct and concurrent validities of the measures were studied, and most of the measures were found to have satisfactory psychometric properties. Comparisons were also made between medical and allied health sciences students using the 12 psychosocial measures. Allied health students scored higher on loneliness, anxiety, depression, and scored lower on perception of general health and perception of their fathers as compared to medical students. Implications of the findings for development of prediction models of academic and professional performance are discussed.

  16. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Katende; Agatha, Tukamuhebwa; Nankumbi, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess female university students' knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE) practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified. . We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a period of two months (1 April 2013 to 30 May 2013). . Our study revealed a high awareness of breast cancer (98.0%) and BSE practices (76.5%) among female students. Over half the students (61.3%) had an intermediate level of knowledge about risk factors related to breast cancer and the signs and symptoms of the disease. Skills related to BSE practices were found to be low (43.6%). The majority (56.9%) of students received information about breast cancer via mass media. . Pre- post-education intervention studies need to be conducted to evaluate the intervention outcomes related to breast cancer knowledge and BSE practices among female students in Uganda.

  17. The phenomenology of premenstrual syndrome in female medical students: a cross sectional study

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    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS is particularly common in the younger age groups and, therefore represents a significant public health problem in young girls. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, severity, determinants of premenstrual syndrome (PMS and its impact among the female medical students in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study was performed at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, from June through December 2009. It included 250 medical students. They filled different questionnaires covering American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG criteria to diagnose PMS, demographic and reproductive factors, physical activity and mental condition. Regression analysis was conducted for all the predictors. RESULTS: PMS was diagnosed in 35.6% of cases, distributed as 45% mild, 32.6% moderate and 22.4% severe. There were significant trends for older age, rural residence, family income and family history of PMS. The dominant limited activity was concentration in class (48.3%. Limitations of activities were significantly more frequent among severe cases. The preva lence of anxiety and depression was statistically more evident in the PMS group. Regression analysis revealed that, PMS was significantly associated with older age groups, rural residence, lower age at menarche, regularity of menses and family history. CONCLUSION: PMS is a common problem in young Saudi students in Al Ahsa. Severe PMS was associated with more impairment of daily activities and psychological distress symptoms. Older student age, rural residence, earlier age of menarche, regular cycles and positive family history are possible risk factors for PMS.

  18. Are hookups replacing romantic relationships? A longitudinal study of first-year female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of sexual hookups across the first year of college and to compare rates of hookups and romantic relationship sex. We surveyed 483 first-year female college students (mean age, 18.1 years; range, 18-21 years, 64% white) monthly over the first year of college about the frequency of sexual behavior in the context of hookups and romantic relationships. The prevalence of hookups involving oral or vaginal sex was 34% before college and 40% during the first year, compared with 58% and 56%, respectively, with romantic partners. Fewer than one in five participants (7%-18%) had a sexual hookup each month, whereas 25%-38% had sex in the context of relationships each month. Hooking up varies in frequency over the first year in college, but remains less common than sex in the context of relationships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acculturative Stress, Self-Esteem, and Eating Pathology in Latina and Asian American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students

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    P Bodiba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.

  1. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  2. Examination stress and its effect on ovulation of female undergraduate students

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    Nosakhare O. Osakue

    2015-10-01

    Results: The result showed significant elevation in pre-examination serum cortisol (15.3 +/- 5.9 and micro;g/dl but significant reduction in Progesterone (3.5+/- 1.5ng/ml when compared with post-examination mean serum concentrations of cortisol (10.5 +/- 5.1 and micro;g/dl and progesterone (4.2 +/- 2.6ng/ml (P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively. There was no significance difference in glucose level before examination (5.4 +/- 0.8mmol/L and after examination (5.3 +/- 0.7mmol/L P=0.282. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that examination triggers stress, which altered progesterone level in female students. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2618-2622

  3. The impact of the voice in relation to psychosomatic well-being after education in female student teachers: a longitudinal, descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, L.F.P.; Opstal, M.J. van; Claes, L.; Marres, H.A.M.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Voice handicap in relation to psychosomatic well-being after education in female student teachers. METHODS: A longitudinal survey among 90 female students using Voice Handicap Index and Symptom Check List-90 at the start and end of education. RESULTS: Student teachers in fourth grade show

  4. Disordered Eating Behavior, Body Image, and Energy Status of Female Student Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbeson, Justine G; Kruger, Herculina Salome; Wright, Hattie H

    2015-08-01

    Modern culture has stereotyped the female body as one that is continually getting thinner. Internalization of the 'thin' ideal is partly attributable to the inner ideal to be successful combined with the external pressure imposed by media and others. Many individuals attempt to achieve these ideals by behavior modification that imposes health risks. To investigate disordered eating (DE) behavior and energy status in female student dancers. Volunteer dancers (n = 26) aged 19.0 (18.0; 21.0) years, matched by controls (n = 26) aged 20.0 (19.0; 21.0) years were recruited. Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) subscales, Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Cognitive Dietary Restraint (CDR) subscale, and EDI-3 Referral Form behavioral questions assessed DE behavior. Energy status was assessed with a food record and Actiheart monitor. Dancers achieved significantly higher scores than controls in all questionnaires, namely: EDI-3 Drive for Thinness [12.0 (3.0; 19.0) vs. 4.5 (2.0; 9.0), p = .023], EDI-3 Body Dissatisfaction [16.0 (10.0; 25.0) vs. 6.5 (3.0; 14.0), p = .004], and TFEQ-CDR [9.0 (2.0; 15.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0; 7.0), p = .032]; dancers used excessive exercise to lose weight (19.2% vs. 0%, c2 = 5.53, p = .019), and had lower energy availability (24% vs. 8%, p Female dancers are at risk for DE behavior and many have suboptimal energy status which may be related to their quest to achieve a more desirable appearance; education on healthy weight management practices is needed.

  5. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Female Students in Secondary Guidance School in Yazd City

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    Shakiba Mehrdad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is essential for growth and vitamin D deficiency is important issue in adolescent girls as they have a limited rapid growth period .This cross sectional study was done on 167 female students in secondary guidance school in 2006. Growth Parameters, taking supplementary vitamin D, using sunscreen creams and the type of housing and their avoidance from exposure to sunlight was recorded. Symptoms such as weakness, muscle pain, cramp and early fatigability were asked. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was measured by RIA method, level less than 20ng /ml was considered as deficiency and less than 8ng/ml as sever deficiency. Study showed only 67 girl(40% have normal vitamin D level,60% suffered vitamin D deficiency (95% CI 52.3-67.5 and 21% out of them suffered sever deficiency (95% CI 14.8- 27.2.No correlation existed between vitamin D level and BMI in our students.There was a correlation between taking supplementary vitamin D and the serum level of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (P <0.05 . People living in the houses with yards had higher vitamin D (P <0.05. People who run away from the sun light exposure for any reason have lower vitamin D level significantly (P <0.0001.There is no correlation between symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, cramp and vitamin D level (P >0.05"nPresent study showed that despite the fact that Yazd is a sunny city most of the days even in winter; prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among growing female is concerning and requires preventive interference.

  6. Barriers to breast self examination practice among Malaysian female students: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Said, Salmiah Md; Latiff, Latiffah A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the second reason of cancer deaths among woman worldwide, including Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to assess the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) and identify the barriers of BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study conducted among 810 female undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia between April-Jun 2012. Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire which was developed and pre-tested for this study. The majority of respondents were Malay 709 (95.6 %) and single 719 (96.9 %) with a mean age of 21.7 (1.1). Only hundred eleven (15 %) of the participants had a family history of breast cancer. 70.5 % of the respondents do not practice breast self-examination, 70.5 % do not know how to do it, 64.7 and 61.5 % reported no symptoms of breast cancer and worries to detect breast cancer, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age, marital status and personal history of breast disease were statistically associated with the practice of breast self-examination. In this study, a high percentage of respondents were aware of breast cancer but do not perform breast self-examination. Knowledge, socio-cultural and environmental factors were identified as barriers; so it is recommended that knowledge among the public about breast cancer and promotion of public breast health awareness campaigns through the media should be carried out.

  7. Factors that affect self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea: a cluster sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Chuang, Mei-hua

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea. This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire-based survey to understand the self-care behaviour of female high school students dysmenorrhoeal, along with the factors that affect this behaviour. A cluster random sampling method was adopted and questionnaires were used for data collection. Study participants experienced a moderate level of discomfort from dysmenorrhoea, and perceived dysmenorrhoea as serious. This investigation finds that cues to action raised perceived susceptibility to dysmenorrhoea and the perceived effectiveness of self-care behaviour and, therefore, increased the adoption of self-care behaviour. Hence, school nurses should offer female high school students numerous resources to apply correct self-care behaviour.

  8. "Konkoor Giant", a narrative of high school female students from Gorgan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Sahar; Ziaei, Tayebe; Behnampour, Nasser; Khoori, Elham

    2017-08-01

    Background The university entrance exam or Konkoor is a determining event for the Iranian adolescents and their families. It is considered as the most important opportunity for adolescents for creating their ideal futures. Hence, regarding the importance of this exam and its accompanying pressures during the critical and stressful adolescence period, this study describes adolescents' perspective about what make them worried about the university entrance exam. Methods This study is based on responses of 500 high school female students to an open-ended question completed in their class. In total 482 adolescents wrote down their answers. Using quantitative content analysis, these statements were analyzed. Results The findings showed that three categories including "individual" category (87.90%) with three subcategories; Konkoor's outcome, readiness for Konkoor, self-blame, and "family" category (7.12%) with three subcategories; consequences of failure, family expectations, family conflicts, and "religious- socioeconomic" category (4.98%) with three subcategories; religion, financial status, educational policies as the main adolescents concern sources about the university entrance exam. Conclusion Considering the high concerns of female adolescents about the university entrance exam and the pressures that they receive from their families, society, and even themselves, modifying the educational policies, applying some measures to promote knowledge, and gaining required skills to deal with different aspects of such concerns are necessary for adolescents and their parents.

  9. Association between paraben exposure and menstrual cycle in female university students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihama, Yukiko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Iida, Ayaka; Konishi, Shoko; Imai, Hideki; Yoneyama, Miyuki; Nakajima, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Parabens have been known to have estrogenic activity in many in vivo and in vitro studies and biomonitoring data indicated ubiquitous exposure in general populations. However, there are few human studies on reproductive effects of parabens. In this study, menstrual cycle length and its intra-individual variation were investigated by bleeding record over the period of 5 months and urinary concentrations of parabens were measured for 128 female Japanese university students. We found significantly negative relationships between menstrual cycle length and urinary estrogen-equivalent total paraben (odds=0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96) and butyl paraben concentrations (odds=0.83, 0.70-0.99), which indicated shortened cycle length in women with high urinary paraben concentrations. This study indicated that paraben exposure at not excessive levels is associated with menstrual cycle length or its variability among general female subjects. These results suggest a possibility that parabens exposure is one of the environmental causes of human reproductive problem.

  10. Influence of carrying a backpack on pelvic tilt, rotation, and obliquity in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara; Ashton, Kelly M; Bohl, Danielle; Clark, Richard C; Metheny, J Brooke; Klassen, Stephanie

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of different methods of backpack carriage on pelvic tilt, obliquity and rotation of college-age females. Thirty subjects (mean age 22.4 years) participated in three conditions: walking without a backpack, carrying a backpack unilaterally, and carrying a backpack over both shoulders. The backpack was loaded with material that comprised 15% of the subject's body weight. Gait was analyzed using the Oxford Metrics VICON Clinical Manager system while the subject walked with no backpack, with a backpack unilaterally and bilaterally. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences in angular motion and range of motion in pelvic tilt, rotation, and obliquity in three complete trials during the three walking conditions. Angular pelvic tilt was greatest with bilateral backpack carriage compared to unilateral carriage or walking without a backpack. Angles of pelvic obliquity and rotation were not changed across the three walking conditions. Range of motion for pelvic obliquity and rotation was significantly decreased when walking with a backpack. These results suggest that backpack carriage could cause permanent posture deviations in young female college students. More study is required to evaluate compressive forces during various walking conditions.

  11. Lower serum leptin levels in female students of the nutritional sciences with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Joachim; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Elis, Stefanie A; Duncker, Simone; Rose, Frederike; Blum, Werner F; Remschmidt, Helmut; Geller, Frank; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2003-06-01

    Evidence has accumulated that in both acutely ill and recovered patients with either anorexia or bulimia nervosa circulating leptin levels (LL) are lower than in controls matched for body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). It is unknown if these lower leptin levels represent a state or trait marker. We aimed to confirm the lowered leptin levels in eating disordered females and to identify underlying mechanisms. We screened 181 female students of the nutritional sciences for eating disorders with the respective module of the M-Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Cognitive Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. The physical assessment included determinations of BMI, body composition and LL. Each case fulfilling lifetime DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder was BMI matched to two controls. We used a multivariate mixed regression model to evaluate if the observed difference in lg(10)-leptin level between cases and controls is actually due to the influence of restrained eating and/or previous weight loss after adjustment for BMI and percent body fat. In accordance with our hypothesis the 32 (17.7 %) cases had a lower serum lg(10)-leptin level than the 64 BMI matched controls (one-sided p nutritional sciences.

  12. Relationship between Female University Students' Knowledge on Menstruation and Their Menstrual Hygiene Practices: A Study in Tamale, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Evans Paul Kwame Ameade; Helene Akpene Garti

    2016-01-01

    Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found ...

  13. Differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake and body weight status between male and female Malaysian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W Y; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zalilah, M S; Hazizi, A S

    2011-08-01

    University students are potentially important targets for the promotion of healthy lifestyles as this may reduce the risks of lifestyle-related disorders later in life. This cross-sectional study examined differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake, weight status, and body composition between male and female university students. A total of 584 students (59.4% females and 40.6% males) aged 20.6 +/- 1.4 years from four Malaysian universities in the Klang Valley participated in this study. Participants completed the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and two-day 24-hour dietary recall. Body weight, height, waist circumference and percentage of body fat were measured. About 14.3% of males and 22.4% of females were underweight, while 14.0% of males and 12.3% of females were overweight and obese. A majority of the participants (73.8% males and 74.6% females) skipped at least one meal daily in the past seven days. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal. Both males and females frequently snacked during morning tea time. Fruits and biscuits were the most frequently consumed snack items. More than half of the participants did not meet the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for energy, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron (females only), and calcium. Significantly more males than females achieved the RNI levels for energy, protein and iron intakes. This study highlights the presence of unhealthy eating behaviours, inadequate nutrient intake, and a high prevalence of underweight among university students. Energy and nutrient intakes differed between the sexes. Therefore, promoting healthy eating among young adults is crucial to achieve a healthy nutritional status.

  14. The Comparison of Relationship between Family Communication Patterns and Self Concept with Coping Styles in Male and Female Students

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    R Taheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Since people have different coping styles, the purpose of the present research was to compare the relationship between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students of Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlation study conducted in 2011 at Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz, 229 participants (91 males &119 females were selected by simple random sampling method. Data was collected by using the revised version of family communication patterns questionnaire (RFCP, Koerner & Fitz patrik (2002, Beck's Self-concept Test (CST (1990 and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS Endler & Parker (1990. Data was analyzed using correlation matrix & independent t-test analysis. Results: According to the result, there was significant correlation between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students. In the female group, task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. In male group avoidance orientation coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. Also, related to self concept variable, results showed female students task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable, but the male students avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable(P<0/05. Also, the result showed significant difference between two male and female students, in emotion oriented coping, so the female group, emotion oriented coping with (51/48 was more than the orientation within the male group with (48/18, (p<0.05. Conclusion: Family communication patterns and the concept are effective on coping styles. Therefore

  15. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  16. The Iranian female high school students' attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study

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    Shoja Mohammadali M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS has become an important public health hazard in Iran. It is believed that AIDS-related knowledge does not necessarily translate into behavior modification. Hence, it has been suggested that culturally appropriate educational campaigns should be implemented to obtain satisfactory outcomes. Here, we evaluated the female high school students' attitude towards HIV/AIDS in Tabriz, Iran to assess the cultural needs for the related educational programs and to discover sources of information about AIDS. Results Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were filled by the young female students. Among 300 students, 91% agreed that being an HIV carrier should not be an obstacle to obtaining education and employment. Moreover, 72.5% of the students declared that the community should be informed of HIV-positive people. In addition, one-tenth declared that they would feel extremely uncomfortable towards their HIV infected classmate. In addition, only 16% of the students stated that they would continue to shop at HIV infected grocer's store. The mass media and the experts were the major source and the most reliable source of information about AIDS, respectively. Conclusion Tabrizian female students have overall negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS related educational campaigns should target the students, society and the families with emphasizing the leading roles of health staff.

  17. Awareness and practice of dual contraception among female tertiary institution students in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Bello OO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oluwasomidoyin Olukemi Bello,1 Timothy AO Oluwasola,1,2 Folasade Adenike Bello1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Purpose: To determine the knowledge, awareness, and factors associated with the practice of dual contraception among female undergraduates in Ibadan, Nigeria.Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured ­self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge and practice of dual contraception among female undergraduates in the University of Ibadan and The Polytechnic, Ibadan. A total of 1,200 undergraduate students were interviewed, and data obtained were analyzed with SPSS Version 18.0.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 22.57±3.43 years. Among the respondents, 900 (84.6% were unmarried, 871 (77.9% have been sexually exposed, 793 (70.9% had heard of dual contraception, and 659 (58.9% had knowledge of dual contraception. Majority (66.8% of the participants used effective contraception, of whom 423 (56.3% used condom, while others used other short- or long-term reversible contraception. More than two-thirds (79.2% of the sexually exposed respondents were aware of dual contraception, but only 465 (41.6% had practiced it. The main sources of information about dual contraception were from friends and radio (45.3% and 36.1%, respectively. Those who had multiple sexual partners and early coitarche were more likely to use dual contraception (P<0.05. History of previous sexually transmitted infection (odds ratio =3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.03–4.62 and unwanted pregnancy (odds ratio =3.53, 95% CI =2.62–4.74 were strongly associated with the use of dual contraception.Conclusion: Uptake of dual contraception among the students was low. Efforts need to be concentrated on determining and addressing the challenges that are responsible for the lower uptake of

  18. Obesity and weight control measures: Findings from female college students of Agra

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    H K Thakkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obesity has negative health impacts. Obese people have higher risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Overweight and obesity during young adulthood can track into later adulthood along with its higher risk for NCDs. Aims: To identify the weight control intention and dietary practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females and to know the reasons for discontinuation among ever tried subjects. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study conducted in urban and rural colleges of Agra. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 400 female college students. Height and weight were measured to assess body composition according to BMI (Body Mass Index criteria (WHO 2002. Study included a semi-structured and semi-open-ended instrument to assess practices related to weight control. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted. Statistical analysis used: Frequency. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 18.5% and 4.5%, respectively, according to BMI (WHO 2002. One third of the subjects were recording their weight monthly. Slightly less than half of the subjects (46% were trying to maintain optimum weight. Almost one third of these subjects (33.5% were presently trying to lose weight. About one fifth of total 400 subjects (20.5% were not concerned about their weight status. Majority of the subjects (85% irrespective of their obesity status did not take any professional advice. More than half (52.7% were resorting to physical activity to lose weight. Taking more fruits/vegetables (44.7% was found to be the most common healthy dieting practices and most unhealthy was fasting (15.3%. More than one fourth (28.8% of the subjects abandoned weight control practices because of shortage of time followed by 22.4% due to physical weakness. Conclusions: Collectively, results indicate female college students, regardless of weight status, would benefit from open discussions

  19. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle.

  20. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its correlating lifestyle factors in Japanese female junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.

  1. Attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and efforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

  2. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices Among Female University Students in Kampala, Uganda: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katende Godfrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess female university students’ knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and identify breast self-examination (BSE practices. Using this information we aimed to design an education intervention tailored to address any knowledge and practice gaps identified.  Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 204 female Makerere University students. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire over a period of two months (1 April 2013 to 30 May 2013.  Results: Our study revealed a high awareness of breast cancer (98.0% and BSE practices (76.5% among female students. Over half the students (61.3% had an intermediate level of knowledge about risk factors related to breast cancer and the signs and symptoms of the disease. Skills related to BSE practices were found to be low (43.6%. The majority (56.9% of students received information about breast cancer via mass media.  Conclusion: Pre- post-education intervention studies need to be conducted to evaluate the intervention outcomes related to breast cancer knowledge and BSE practices among female students in Uganda.

  3. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  4. Contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweya, Mussa N; Msuya, Sia E; Mahande, Michael J; Manongi, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for factors associated with modern contraceptive use was computed using multiple logistic regression models. A P-value of 18 years of age. Hence, advocacy for adolescent reproductive health education to promote the use of the available contraceptive services among university students is needed.

  5. Impact of motor abilities on belly dance performance in female high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Dodi; Jukić, Josefina

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation of motor abilities and belly dance performance in female high school students, 1st to 4th graders aged 15-18 years. A battery of 19 motor tests were used and nine belly dance elements evaluated in the study sample that included 148 students aged 15-16 (1st and 2nd graders) and 123 students aged 17-18 (3rd and 4th graders). Factor analysis of the motor space isolated six factors in either study group: in 1st and 2nd graders, the first factor integrated coordination, trunk strength, aerobic and muscle endurance, and speed of lower extremity movements; second factor defined explosive strength; third factor defined flexibility; fourth factor defined rhythm coordination; fifth factor defined equilibrium; and sixth factor defined back musculature strength; in 3rd and 4th graders, the first factor integrated coordination and lower extremity explosive strength; second factor defined flexibility; third factor integrated trunk strength and aerobic-muscular endurance; fourth factor defined equilibrium; fifth factor defined rhythm coordination; and sixth factor defined lower extremity strength. Factor analysis of the scores allocated to particular belly dance elements isolated only one factor as a factor of the general specific ability for belly dance performance. Regression analysis in the latent space indicated the factor of flexibility, which is responsible for muscle tone regulation, to be the best predictor of belly dance performance in 1st and 2nd graders. In 3rd and 4th graders, the factor of rhythm coordination was found to be superior in predicting belly dance performance, followed by the factor of trunk strength and aerobic-muscular endurance, the factor integrating coordination and lower extremity strength, and factor of equilibrium.

  6. Determination of knowledge levels, attitude and behaviors of female university students concerning cervical cancer, human papiloma virus and its vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Selda; Açıkgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of the study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine of female students studying at a university in a health related department and explore variables affecting taking the vaccine. The research group consists of female students attending a health related department in Balıkesir University. The data of this cross-sectional research was collected via surveys. The average total knowledge score of the students concerning risks, symptoms and screening methods of cervical cancer and HPV vaccines was 14.15 ± 6.7. The HPV knowledge score of the students attending the faculty of medicine was higher compared to the students attending other departments and their HPV vaccine knowledge score was higher compared to the students attending nursing and paramedics students. The HPV vaccine knowledge score of the students attending the department of midwifery was significantly higher compared to other students. Only 0.9 % of the students took the vaccine. One third of the students who did not take the vaccine did not know that the vaccine was available in our country. In terms of the department that they attended, the students with a higher total knowledge score compared to the average (OR:1.5) and students with history of cancer in their families (OR:1.6) were more likely to consider taking the vaccine. Research group's knowledge on risk factors of cervical cancer, Pap smear test, symptoms and prevention ways of cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine was low.

  7. Effect of nutrition education during puberty on nutritional knowledge and behavior of secondary School female students in Birjand in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Vafaee-Najar; Mahdieh Sepahi Baghan; Hossein Ebrahimipour; Mohammad Reza Miri; Habibollah Esmaily; Elahe Lael-Monfared; Nasim Mirzae

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Growth spurt during adolescence, particularly the occurrence of menstruation in girls, increases their nutritional needs. The present study aimed at determining the effect of nutrition education on nutritional knowledge and Behavior of secondary school female students in the city of Birjand. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 second grade secondary students in Birjand in 2012 were selected through two-stage cluster sampling method and were rand...

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Female Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, Nahla; AL-KHARBOUSH, Dania; EL-KHATIB, Lamis; AL-HABIB, Ahd; ASALI, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010–2011. A stratified random sample method was used to sel...

  9. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-05-30

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effects of immersive multimedia learning with peer support on speaking skill among male and female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Asnawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of immersive multimedia language learning technique on performance in English in terms of oral production skills in reading and speaking that involved six measures, namely, pausing, phrasing, stress, intonation, rate, and integration without the mediation of the first language of the students amongst both males and females. A quasi-experimental design was employed for the study. Eighty first-year university students enrolled in English as a Foreign Language (EFL course were selected for this study and the teaching treatment was followed for eight sessions with one session per week. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that following the immersive multimedia learning, male students in the immersive multimedia group with peer support performed significantly better in four of the six measures of reading skills, namely, phrasing, stress, intonation, and integration as compared to their counterparts in the non-peer supported groups and there were no significant differences for pausing and rate. On the other hand, female students in the immersive multimedia learning with peer support group performed significantly better in all six measures of oral production for reading and speaking than their counterparts in the groups without peer support.  These findings showed that the immersive multimedia technique with peer support reduced the use of code-switching strategies by the students and enabled them to develop oral production skills in English approaching the patterns of native speakers especially amongst the female students.  

  11. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Improving Body Image of Female Students with Bulimia Nervosa

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    Moslem Abbasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Patients with bulimia nervosa may have impaired mental image of their body and fear of weight gain. The aim of current research is study the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving body image of female students with bulimia nervosa.   Methods: The design of current study is as quasi-experiment research with pre-test and post-test with control group . Statistical population consists all 12-16 years old female students with bulimia nervosa of Ardabil city in the 2013-13 academic years. In order to select the sample, at first 400 students were selected by multi stage cluster sampling method. Then between the students with bulimia nervosa, 40 subjects were selected randomly and were put in two experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment based training. Thecontrol group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.   Results: The results show that acceptance and commitment therapy improved body image and reduced the symptoms of bulimia nervosa subjects of experimental group in comparison with the control group in the post-test (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results indicated that acceptance and commitment therapy by therapeutic strategies, improved body image of female students with bulimia nervosa. Thus, interventions based on this approach in schools for students lead to decreasing the psychological problems

  12. Variations in physical activity of male and female students from the Ukraine in health-promoting life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction. [/b]A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The extended version of the IPAQ, supplemented with 3 original questions by the authors, was applied to a 2,125-strong student group from 12 majors of the University of Luck, Ukraine. [b]Results. [/b]Students from Ukraine portrayed a positive picture of physical activity with significantly higher values in male students of both total activity and its fields, i.e. sports activity and work (studying). The male students performed better in their fitness (condition) self-assessment and the amount of time spent sitting, whereas the female students had better BMI results. Both genders differed considerably in their choice of sport-recreational activities. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.

  13. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

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    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  14. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  15. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Kraus, Caroline L; McKenzie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  16. Higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to higher levels of class performance for male but not female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N; Lujan, Heidi L; Blumberg, Amanda J; Cox, Julie H; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2013-09-01

    Our students are naturally curious, with powerful intrinsic motives to understand their world. Accordingly, we, as teachers, must capitalize on this inherently active and curious nature so that learning becomes a lifelong activity where students take initiative for learning, are skilled in learning, and want to learn new things. Achieving this goal requires an understanding of student attitudes, beliefs, characteristics, and motivations. To achieve this goal, we administered the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI) to assess our students' interest and enjoyment, perceived choice, and perceived competence while taking our undergraduate exercise physiology class (46 students; 20 female students and 26 male students). The interest and enjoyment subscale is considered the self-reported measure of intrinsic motivation. The perceived choice and perceived competence concepts are theorized to be positive predictors of both self-reported and behavioral measures of intrinsic motivation. Our results documented a significant increase in course grade with an increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI when female and male students were combined. Specifically, each increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI was associated with a significant (P classroom practice and educational reform policies.

  17. Practices of Breast Self-Examination and Associated Factors among Female Debre Berhan University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhane, Kalayu; Alemayehu, Miskir; Anawte, Belayneh; Gebremariyam, Gebru; Daniel, Ruth; Addis, Semeneh; Worke, Teshome; Mohammed, Abdurrahman; Negash, Wassie

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in Ethiopia of all female cancers. It is considered to be a progressive disease with a poor prognosis if detected late. Breast self-examination is an important prevention method of breast cancer. This study was aimed at assessing practice and associated factors of breast self-examination (BSE) among female Debre Berhan University students in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 420 using self-administrated questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done. Majority of the study participants, 338 (84.5%), were between 20 and 24 years old with the mean age of 21.1 ± 1.65. Only 14 (3.5%) had family history of breast cancer. Two hundred fifty-six (64%) of the participants had heard about BSE and 30.25% had good knowledge about BSE. Mass media were the most common source of information about breast cancer. Few of the participants (28.3%) had performed BSE. Lack of knowledge on how to perform BSE was cited as the main reason for not practicing BSE. Knowing how to perform, when to perform, and position to perform BSE and having a perception that BSE is important and useful to detect breast cancer were significant predictors of practices of BSE. This study revealed that most of the participants had low knowledge and practice of BSE. Therefore, it important to develop health educational programs in the university to raise awareness about BSE and breast cancer so as to practice self-breast examination.

  18. Preliminary Outcomes from a Week-Long Environmental Engineering Summer Camp for High School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for environment engineers and sustainability managers to address global environmental, energy and health challenges. Environmental literacy programs at K-12 level provide a unique opportunity in motivating young minds in joining STEM and also provide additional value in learning about "saving planet earth". The Women in Engineering at the University of Illinois organize an annual week long camp, for female high school students with tracks corresponding to different fields of Engineering. The Environmental Engineering and Sustainability (EES) track is organized by faculty and graduate students of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department and introduces students to concepts in sustainability and systems thinking in connection with air and water quality, climate change and renewable energy. This study is a preliminary assessment of the relevance of the EES outreach track conducted in July 2014 in student learning. Specific goals include assessing (a) demographics of participants and their motivation to join this camp, (b) educational and enjoyability quotients of the modules and (c) learning and motivational outcomes using the Likert scale. A pre-camp survey indicated keen interest in learning about environmental engineering (4.56/5.0) and expected this camp to be a venue to learn about related career choices (4.9/5.0). Five days of instruction were divided thematically and included a mix of lectures, activity based learning, demonstrations and field visits. Overall modules were rated as educational (4.4/5.0) and enjoyable (4.5/5.0). Modules with hands-on learning were best received (4.67/5.0) and rated unique (4.7/5.0). Post camp, participants acknowledged the important contribution of environmental engineers to society (4.8/5.0) and could relate the different modules to the role engineer's play (4.06/5.0) for sustainability. On an average, the participants evinced interest in engineering as a career choice (4.0/5.0) but there was a broader

  19. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly

  20. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ertl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. It was investigated to which degree individual stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects

  1. Menstrual discomfort and its influence on daily academic activities and psychosocial relationship among undergraduate female students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titilayo, A; Agunbiade, O M; Banjo, O; Lawani, A

    2009-10-01

    Menstrual disorder is a common health problem among females in their reproductive years. It has psychosocial effects on the sufferer and her interactions with others during such periods. In Nigeria, menstrual disorder has received little research attention especially in the public health agenda. This study combines quantitative and qualitative approaches in investigating the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia and their psychosocial effects by focusing on the daily activities of female undergraduates at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 415 female undergraduates at the University. A snowball sampling technique was used in selecting 37 informants for the in-depth interviews. Results showed a high prevalence of dysmenorrhoea (64%) among respondents within 3 months prior to this study. Dysmenorrhoea was significant among female students who reported dizziness, headache, depression and irritation; and those whose menstrual disorder ever called for medical attention (P medical attention or even surgical intervention (Ppsychosocial relationship of the female students (P relationship with colleagues. Menstrual disorders prevalence is high among young undergraduates and appropriate enlightenment and treatment should be made available to young females.

  2. Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.

  3. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  4. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  5. The Effect of Classroom Web Applications on Teaching, Learning and Academic Performance among College of Education Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljraiwi, Seham Salman

    2017-01-01

    The current study proposes web applications-based learning environment to promote teaching and learning activities in the classrooms. It also helps teachers facilitate learners' contributions in the process of learning and improving their motivation and performance. The case study illustrated that female students were more interested in learning…

  6. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Acculturation Challenges Faced by Saudi Female Students in the United States

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    Hakami, Samah Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the major acculturation challenges faced by Saudi female students who study in the U.S. and to develop a scale to measure potential acculturation challenges. The construction of the scale was based on a table of specification that included nine domains of possible acculturation challenges: (a)…

  7. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  8. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  9. A Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 : An investigation with female university students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a), an instrument for assessing key components of positive body image. Dutch-speaking female university students (N=310, Mage=21.31, SD=3.04) completed the Dutch BAS-2. To asse

  10. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  11. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Alaettin; Ayranci, Unal; Tozun, Mustafa; Arslan, Gul; Calik, Elif

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and determine its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among a group of female university students. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 March and 15 April 2009 at Dumlupinar University, Kutahya, Health High School, Western Turkey. The study group included 623 female students. The severity of dysmenorrhea was determined with a 10-point visual analog scale. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) form was used to determinate HRQoL. Chi-square test, Student's t test, and logistic regression and variance analyses (ANOVA) were used for statistical analyses. The average age of the study group was 20.8 +/- 1.8 years (range 17-30). Prevalence of dysmenorrhea was found to be 72.7% and was significantly higher in coffee consumers, females with menstrual bleeding duration > or =7 days, and those who had a positive family history of dysmenorrhea when compared to the others (P coffee consumption (OR 2.084), menstrual bleeding duration > or =7 days (OR 1.590), and positive family history of dysmenorrhea (OR 3.043) were important risk factors for dysmenorrhea. Except for social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health domains, the SF-36 points received from the other domains were higher in females with dysmenorrhea (for each one P students.

  12. Exploring Representations of "Super" Women in Popular Culture: Shaping Critical Discussions with Female College Students with Learning Exceptionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera; Munn, Caitlin; Lane, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how our analysis of several popular culture artifacts featuring "super" women characters (superheroes and supernatural) provided the foundation for a media discussion group for female college students with learning exceptionalities. We explore the use of popular culture in discussion groups as well as discuss…

  13. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  14. Walking a Gender Tightrope: A Qualitative Study of Female Student Veterans' Experiences within Military and Campus Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Seher, Christin L.; DiRamio, David; Jarvis, Kathryn; Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of the experiences of female student veterans in the military and in college. Twelve women were interviewed from two public research universities. Findings revealed individuals "betwixt and between" the complex intersection of identities: in the military, grappling with a sense of…

  15. Relationship between Female University Students' Knowledge on Menstruation and Their Menstrual Hygiene Practices: A Study in Tamale, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche, most of them experienced fear and panic when it occurred. Mothers were the first to be informed when menstruation occurred, although teachers first provided them knowledge on menstruation. Respondents' knowledge on menstruation was average (57.3%) but their menstrual hygiene practice was good (80.2%). Age (p = 0.005) and course of study (p = 0.0008) significantly influenced respondents' knowledge on menstruation with older students as well as the medical and midwifery students being most knowledgeable. Muslim rather than Christian female students practiced better menstrual hygiene (p = 0.0001). Average knowledge score on menstruation indicated a deficit of knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. Increasing knowledge on menstruation had a positive and significant effect on practice of good menstrual hygiene.

  16. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  17. Physical Activity Promotion on Campus: Using Empirical Evidence to Recommend Strategic Approaches to Target Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Sidman, Cara Lynn; Venezia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Problem: A large number of American adults do not meet national physical activity (PA) guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthening. Similarly, many American college students, specifically females do not engage in regular PA. Self Determination Theory can provide a basis for investigating motivational processes of PA. The purpose of this…

  18. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  19. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

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    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  20. Preparing for God Knows What: The Importance of Gender-Sensitive Mentoring for Female Students on Christian Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangenberg, Katy

    2013-01-01

    Integrating prior research focused on gender climate and expectations in Christian higher education, this article describes mentoring models and strategies sensitive to dual family and career goals frequently expressed by female students. Discussion includes a review of literature relevant to women's mentoring on Christian campuses, exploration of…

  1. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  2. Foreign Language Anxiety in Saudi Classroom: A Case Study of Saudi Tertiary Female Students in Prince Sattam University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Asjad Ahmed Saeed

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the level of anxiety due to learning English as a foreign language. It tries to answer these questions: (1) Is anxiety a factor in hindering English proficiency? (2) Does anxiety lead to fear of communication? (3) Which type of anxiety is high among tertiary level female Saudi students? The Foreign Language Anxiety…

  3. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  4. Dialogic Exchanges and the Negotiation of Differences: Female Graduate Students' Experiences of Obstacles Related to Academic Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2011-01-01

    This study, framed by social constructionism, investigated the dialogic exchanges and co-construction of knowledge among female graduate students, who met to discuss the ways in which the differences between mentors and mentees might be negotiated in order to develop and maintain mentoring relationships that benefit both partners. Ten female…

  5. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  6. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  7. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  8. Retention and Recruitment Programs for Female Undergraduate Students in Engineering at The University of Toledo, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew; Ravn, Tina; Kuntz, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a five year study aimed at improving both recruitment and retention of female students pursuing careers in engineering. The study analyzed a series of five programs implemented at the College of Engineering at The University of Toledo in Ohio, USA. The effectiveness of the programs over time is measured from…

  9. Undergraduate African American females in the sciences: A qualitative study of student experiences affecting academic success and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien-Wood, Idara R.

    Given the lack of literature on Undergraduate African American females in the sciences (UAAFS), this study sought to explicate their experiences at one large, predominantly White, Research I institution in the southwestern United States. In particular, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the academic success and persistence of Black females in the natural and physical sciences. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Black female science majors. Findings from this study identified several supportive mechanisms for academic success: family, religion, teaching assistants and friends. Also identified were seven barriers to academic success: employment, lack of diversity, cultural dissonance, unwelcoming Research I environment, faculty, advisors, classmates, and lab groups. Further, an analysis of students' responses revealed numerous instances of racial and gender micro-aggressions. Recommendations are provided to address factors identified as affecting student academic success and persistence as well as a culture of micro-aggressive behavior.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Apprehension and Loneliness for Elderly Nursing Home and Non-Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Valerie C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Utilizes the socio-environmental perspective to compare feelings of communication apprehension and perceived loneliness between nursing home and non-nursing home residents. Finds that communication apprehension consistently and significantly predicts perceived loneliness for non-nursing home residents, but fails to predict perceived loneliness for…

  11. Emotional intelligence and big-five personality factors in female student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Stoimenova-Canevska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to figure out possible connectedness between emotional intelligence and five big personality factors in female students selected from social sciences faculties. The evaluated sample comprised 66 healthy students, of Macedonian nationality, mean age 18.9 ± 0.63 years. As psychometric instruments, we used the EI-test and NEO-PI-R, both with eligible metric characteristic and already used in the Republic of Macedonia. Statistical analysis was performed using Sta17, both descriptive and inferential statistics including medians, standard deviations, and two-tailed Pearson's correlation. The obtained results for emotional intelligence showed an average anxiety level (M = 77.35), extraversion (M = 50.91) and a realistic outlook on life (M = 81.64), high self-confidence (M = 44.44) and generally satisfactory empathy (M = 85.39). Personality characteristics obtained with NEO-PI-R showed high extroversion (M = 123. 70), low agreeableness (M = 105.82) and consciousness (M = 104.67), as well as mild neuroticism (M = 91.33) and openness (M = 117.45). The results confirmed a high positive correlation between anxiety, optimism, and empathy; and between self-confidence and empathy within the EI test. Within NEO-PR-R there was a positive correlation between factors Extroversion and Openness to Experience and a negative correlation between the factors Extroversion and Agreeableness. However, just one negative correlation is noted, between Extroversion from EI and Openness to experience from NEO-PR-R (-0,25; p < 0.05). We concluded that similar facets measured with different psychometric instruments have different basic concepts. The obtained results, although they figure out some support from other research, also differ from other studies. It is important for us to follow the obtained results and to provoke further research on a bigger and more diverse sample.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour about Sexually Transmitted Infections: a survey among Italian university female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Improvements have been made in terms of STIs mortality, but young women still have a lack of attention to the STIs prevention.We investigated the knowledge and attitudes about STIs and their prevention among a sample of Italian university female students.Methods: We designed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes toward STIs, Papanicolau test (Pap test and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and had it filled out by 285 young women. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and a multivariable analysis were performed in order to identify associated factors.  Results: Knowledge about STIs seems weak, oppositely to knowledge about preventive measures. In line with the results of the univariate analyses, the multivariable one confirmed a higher probability to answer rightly for women who knew the effective behaviours for preventing STIs, women who took information about STIs from Internet, books and TV and those using natural methods (OR 2.77 - 95%CI 1.47-5.23, OR 2.99 - 95%CI 1.62-5.53 and OR 2.55 - 95%CI 1.05-6.18, respectively and a lower one for students from Cassino and those who knew is possible to recover from STIs (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.17-0.87 and 0.42, 95%CI 0.20-0.88, respectively. Furthermore, about Pap test it also confirmed the role of a medium-high STIs level of knowledge (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.02-4.37 and a lower probability to know about it for women from Cassino (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.73.Conclusions: Young women are not completely aware of STIs risks and preventive measures. Informational and educational campaigns should be implemented to reach this target group and lighten the current and future burden of STIs.

  13. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Emergency Contraceptive Pills among Female College Students in Udaipur, Rajasthan

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    Arun Kumar, Keerti, Chandra P Sharma, Chetan K Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. Material and methods: Study was conducted among 600 college going female students (arts, science and commerce faculty of two randomly selected girls colleges of Sukhadia University Udaipur. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and test of significance (Chi square test and Mann Whitney U test using SPSS ver.16. Results: Students included in study were of 16-29 years age group (mean age 18.6±3.2 years, 225 (37.5% had adequate knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among students who got knowledge from literary sources and health personnel (p<0.05. Majority of the science stream students (50% were having adequate knowledge followed by commerce and arts stream students respectively but statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among all faculty students(p<0.05. Majority of students (78% know about the correct timing of EC pills administration. Among all the students only 201 (33.5% students shown positive attitude regarding EC pills. No significant association seen between adequate knowledge and positive attitude (p>0.05.Only 3% students had already used EC pills. Conclusion: Awareness of EC pills is low and there is a gap between knowledge and attitude. Appropriate awareness programme needed.

  14. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  15. Educators' Perspectives on Female Students' Enrollment in Computer Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Wendy

    The purpose of this case study was to inquire into educators' perspectives on female students' enrollment in computer science and engineering (CSE) courses. At a high school in New England, girls are significantly underrepresented in CSE courses, a problem that is reflected in schools throughout the United States. As a result, these careers are lacking in input from women, even as the number of CSE professions is increasing. Research questions in this study addressed what teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors think about this growing problem and what changes, if any, they are willing to make to help close this gender gap. Individual interviews and a focus group were used to gather data from 7 participants. The theoretical framework was based on brain research and social theories. Data were then analyzed and coded for themes based on the framework. The results indicated that educators are cognizant of the underrepresentation within their school and have tried individually, but unsuccessfully, to make changes to increase the numbers of girls in CSE courses. In response to these findings, a professional development project was developed that outlines ways for educators to communicate and collaborate to increase girls' representation in CSE courses. Girls, schools, and industry can benefit from the results of this study. If educators can encourage more girls to take CSE courses and provide support for them to be confident and successful, then more girls will go on to major in CSE, which will then lead to an increase in the number of women working in these fields.

  16. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed.

  17. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image.

  18. Breast self examination practice and breast cancer risk perception among female university students in Ajman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbatti, Shatha Saed; Shaikh, Rizwana Burhanuddin; Mathew, Elsheba; Salman Al-Biate, Mawahib Abd

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the top cancer in women worldwide and its incidence is increasing, particularly in developing countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many cases are first diagnosed in later stages and at younger age compared to those seen in developed countries. Early detection in order to improve breast cancer outcome and survival remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control. Performance of breast self examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast disease at an early stage, by the woman herself. No information has hitherto been available about the frequency of this practice among female university students in UAE or about their breast cancer risk perception and therefore the present study was conducted in Ajman. It was found that 22.7% of the participants practiced BSE but only 3% of them practiced BSE monthly. Marital status but not age as significantly associated with age likelihood. The most frequent reported barriers for BSE were lack of knowledge, considering oneself not at risk and the absence of doctor advice. These factors need to be taken into account in intervention efforts.

  19. Comparison ginger and resistance training on primary dysmenorrhea in female students of Shiraz university

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    Nafiseh Saadat nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some remedies have been suggested for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, some free of side effects treatment methods such as herbal drugs and exercise are especially important .The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ginger and resistance training on physical and psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: 60 nonathletic female collegiate students of Shiraz university participated in this study voluntarily and were divided randomly to 4 groups including 15 persons ( exercise +placebo, exercise + ginger, ginger, and placebo. Ginger groups were prescribed 250 mg of ginger, four times a day for 3 days from beginning of menstruation and placebo groups were recommended the same prescription with 250 mg of placebo drug. Exercise with ginger or placebo groups participated in 2 months of progressive resistance training (3 times a week besides consuming Ginger or placebo drugs. Menstrual symptoms were recorded with using validated questionnaire, before intervention and during two consecutive periods of menstruation. The analysis was performed with using Covariate analysis of variance with repeated measures by SPSS version 16 . Results: A significant reduction was found in physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea in groups of Ginger but no significant statistically changes were found within other groups. Comparison of four groups indicated more significant reduction of physical symptoms in ginger groups compared with other groups. There were no significant difference in psychologic symptoms within and between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Ginger is recommended for treatment of physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

  20. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA in female students of Zahedan

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    Saeeb M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available 325 female students of Zahedan at the average age of 16.2 years old (16-22 were randomly selected to study the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia. Hb, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC, iron, TIBC and ferritin were measured. Results showed that in the population studied 3.4%, 27.7%, 4.3%, 11.7%, 25.5%, 11.4% had their Hb, MCV, serum iron, tranferrin saturation, ferritin respectively below the WHO standards. The correlation coefficient between Hb, MCV and hematocrit, serum iron was r=0.54, P<0.00001, r=0.38, P<0.00001 respectively. Also the correlation coefficient between transferring saturation, serum iron and ferrin was r=0.94, P<0.00001, r=0.31, P<0.00001 respectively. Our study shows that hematological and biochemical markers of iron status of the young Zahedan girls at puberty are lower than WHO standards and these girls might be at risk of iron deficiency anemia.

  1. Enhancing dissemination in selective eating disorders prevention: an investigation of voluntary participation among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2013-12-01

    Maximising dissemination of efficacious psychological interventions is an important undertaking, particularly in prevention work where the target population may not be seeking help. Consequently, the current study investigated voluntary participation in a selective eating disorder prevention programme by examining predictors of, and evaluating a motivational enhancement approach to, increased participation. Female students studying first-year psychology (N = 124, M(age) = 19.30, SD = 1.55) completed baseline measures, were randomised to a motivational or control condition, then presented with a flyer for an eating disorders prevention trial and assessed regarding potential participation. Results showed that interest and likelihood of participation were low overall and lack of time the most commonly endorsed reason. Participants high on weight concerns were more likely to cite the group format of the intervention as a deterrent. A greater belief in the helpfulness of body image programmes and higher personal ineffectiveness were significant predictors of interest in participation. There was no significant difference between those who did and did not undergo the motivational enhancement with respect to interest and likelihood of participation. These findings suggest important avenues for consideration when designing eating disorder prevention efforts relying on voluntary participation, and highlight the importance of evaluating programmes cross-culturally.

  2. DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Intimate Partner Violence Among Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgwillo, Emily A; Ménard, Kim S; Krueger, Robert F; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between pathological personality traits identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5) Section III alternative model of personality disorder (using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5) and intimate partner violence (IPV; using the Conflict Tactics Scale [CTS]) in a sample of male (N = 1,106) and female (N = 1,338) college students. In this sample, self and partner perpetration of CTS Relationship Violence and CTS Negotiation tactics loaded onto 2 separate factors. The PID-5 facets and domains were differentially associated with these factors for both men and women. Facets and domains explained 10.1%-16.1% and 5.8%-10.6% of the variance in CTS Relationship Violence tactics, respectively. For both genders, detachment was positively associated with relationship violence. Antagonism was uniquely associated with relationship violence for women, whereas disinhibition was uniquely associated with relationship violence for men. Associations with lower level pathological personality facets were also examined. Overall, results indicate that DSM-5 pathological personality traits are associated with IPV reported by both men and women.

  3. Is there an Asian idiom of distress? Somatic symptoms in female Japanese and Korean students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Kim, Oksoo

    2008-02-01

    The term 'idiom of distress' is used to describe culturally specific experiences of suffering. Most of these studies have been conducted with small groups, making comparison of symptom profiles difficult. Female undergraduate and graduate students in Japan (n = 50) and Korea (n = 61) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 7-day daily reports of their experiences of 46 somatic symptoms. Between-culture comparisons revealed that BDI scores did not differ; however, the Korean women had significantly higher somatic distress means than the Japanese women. Despite the higher Korean distress mean, regression analysis showed that somatic distress explained 30% of the variance of BDI score for the Japanese but only 22% of the variance for the Koreans. Within-culture comparisons showed that both high-BDI Japanese and Koreans had 19 somatic distress symptoms with significantly higher means than their low-BDI counterparts; 11 somatic symptoms were shared by the two groups. Multidimensional scaling matrices were used to compare symptom proximities and revealed cultural differences. The problems with using broad racial categories in clinical research, the clinical significance of these findings, and the implications for psychiatric nursing assessment and practice are discussed.

  4. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Qasim Jamshed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%. The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262. The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%. It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%. Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7% were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%. The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1% reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia.

  5. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A "pretested" questionnaire was used as a study instrument. A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  7. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia. PMID:27413350

  8. Being the Same Isn't Enough: Impact of Male and Female Mentors on Computer Self-Efficacy of College Students in IT-Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Ogan, Christine; Ahuja, Manju; Herring, Susan C.; Robinson, Jean C.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between computer self-efficacy, mentoring, and the gender of mentors and students. The decline of women in IT-related programs of U.S. universities has led scholars to suggest that making more female faculty mentors available could raise female students' computer self-efficacy. This could address women's…

  9. The Relationship between Cognitive Dissonance and Decision-Making Styles in a Sample of Female Students at the University of Umm Al Qura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyani, Mariam Hameed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of cognitive dissonance present in a sample of female students at Umm Al Qura University, and clarifying the relationship between the cognitive dissonance and decision-making styles. It also aimed to identify differences between female students with high cognitive dissonance and those with low…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Critical Thinking Skills among the Students of Accounting and Software in the Female Technical and Vocational University in the City of Borojerd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mahdi; Nowrozi, Reza Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the critical thinking skills among the students of accounting and software in the female technical and vocational university in the city of Borojerd. This study is a descriptive-comparative research. The statistical population of this study includes the female students of accounting and software in the…

  11. Portraits of Success: A Mixed-Method Study of the Enrollment, Persistence, and Success Experiences of Female Graduate Engineering Students at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Covarrubias, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study addresses the underrepresentation of female graduate engineering students. Specifically, its purpose was to gain insight on how enrollment, persistence, and success factors are experienced by female graduate engineering students at a Hispanic Serving Institution located on the U.S.-Mexico border. The topic of underrepresentation…

  12. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  13. A case study of undergraduate female students majoring in math, science and engineering: An analysis of persistence and success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Michelle Smoot

    This dissertation provides information concerning the educational experience of females studying in undergraduate fields of math, engineering and science at a large research institution in the West. The majority of the participants were Project Access students, chosen because of their high achievements in science and mathematics during their secondary education. The study identifies and attempts to understand critical factors within the academic environment of science that contribute to female persistence in math, engineering and science (MES) disciplines. The study postulates that universities can make a difference in the education of women by providing programs that assure quality education and the fostering of female interest in science domains. The study recommends the incorporation of collaborative learning processes and teaching methods, cohort involvement and the fostering of study groups, encouragement of professorial associations with students, and internship and lab programs in an attempt to provide a more holistic and less fragmented education, thus benefiting women seeking MES degrees. Also, the research presented in this paper determined that the formation of positive associations and support networks was crucial to college female population studied. The interpretive study's aim is to enhance persistence rates among undergraduate students studying in math, engineering and science fields.

  14. Exploring the experiences of female students in introductory project-based engineering courses at two- and four-year institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Amy K.

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiential and contextual factors that shaped female students' pathways into introductory project-based engineering classes at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as female students' experiences within and outside of these classes. The study was framed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1996) and Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory. Findings were based on analyses of data gathered through multiple methods: observations; individual interviews with female students; focus group interviews with project teams; and document collection. The findings of this study revealed that while positive experiences with math or science were a likely pre-cursor to engineering interest, experiential learning appeared to be a more powerful force in fostering students' engineering interest. Specifically, participants developed an interest in engineering through academic, professional, and extracurricular engineering- and design-related activities that familiarized them with the tasks and skills involved in engineering work and helped them develop a sense of selfefficacy with regard to this work. Interest and self-efficacy, in turn, played a role in students' postsecondary educational decision-making processes, as did contextual factors including families and finances. This study's findings also showed that participants' project teams were a critically important microsystem within participants' ecological environments. Within this sometimes "chilly" microsystem, female students negotiated intrateam processes, which were in some cases affected by gender norms. Intrateam processes that influenced female students' project-based learning experiences included: interpersonal dynamics; leadership; and division of labor. This study also identified several ways in which the lived experiences of participants at the community colleges were different from, or similar to, those of participants

  15. Instructional and Career Guidance in STEM: An Improvement Initiative to Create Opportunities for Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Aaron Heath

    The purpose of this disquisition is to disseminate an improvement initiative in a public high school that addressed female Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) disparity in STEM classes. In this high school current instructional and career guidance practices were inadequate in providing female STEM students opportunities to experience relevant instruction in STEM through the application of real world practices. The improvement initiative identified four interventions using qualitative research that addressed the question, how do instructional and career guidance practices that emphasize the real world application of STEM impact the academic choices and career aspirations of female STEM students? The interventions include (1) instructional feedback (2) instructional resources, (3) career coaching, and (4) community college partnership. These interventions were chosen as a result of insider research methods that followed a scan, focus, summarize framework for understanding the problem. The aim of the improvement initiative was to develop structured protocols that impact STEM classroom and career guidance practices. An intervention team intended to identify opportunities for female STEM students to experience the real world application of STEM. First, the research context is explained. Then, a review of the literature explains foundation knowledge that led to the conceptual and leadership framework. Next, the research methodology is outlined including design and participants, survey instruments, procedures, timeline, and measures. The research methodology is followed by an analysis of data for instructional and career guidance practice efficacy. Finally, a discussion of the initiative and its outcome are illustrated through the stories of three female STEM students. As a result of these stories, the intervention team developed STEM classroom observation protocols. These protocols can be used by school leaders as a structure for STEM instruction and career

  16. Knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self examination among female senior secondary school students in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Ojedokun, C I

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem that is increasing throughout the world especially in developing countries. The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self examination (BSE) among female senior secondary school students in the municipal council area of Abuja, Nigeria. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among female senior secondary school students from selected schools in the municipal area council of Abuja. The tool for data collection was a structured self administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Two hundred and eighty-seven students participated in the study. Their mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.4 years. A greater proportion of respondents 163 (56.8%) had poor knowledge of breast cancer while 217 (75.6%) had poor knowledge of BSE. Only 114 (39.7%) of the respondents knew that being a female was a risk factor for breast cancer and the least known risk factors were obesity and aging. The major source of information for breast cancer and BSE among the respondents was the mass media. Only 29 (10.1%) of respondents had practiced BSE. Knowledge of BSE was significantly associated with BSE practice. This study revealed that female secondary school students have poor knowledge of breast cancer. A good proportion of them knew that BSE could be used as a screening method for breast cancer but only few had practiced BSE. There is need for adequate health education on breast cancer and BSE among adolescent females in Nigeria.

  17. The investigation on somatotype of female college students of Han nationality in Cangzhou by heath-carter method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Sui Yuelin; Yin Shuai; Ding Wenfeng; Mu Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:In order to obtain the data for diet and physical exercise, we analyzed the rules and characteristics of somatotype distribution of college students in Cangzhou by Heath-carter method. Methods:332 college students (172 males and 160 females) of Han nationality aged 19 to 24 were somatotyped by Health-carter anthropometry. Every index was measured 3 times and average values were adopted, and compared to that of other regions. Results:①The mean somatotype for female was 4. 3-3. 6-2. 9. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 42. 9, 2. 0, 20. 6 and 19. 7%, respectively. The mean somatotype for male was 3. 8-4. 3-3. 3. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 43. 5, 2. 4, 21. 5 and 17. 7%, respectively. The significant sexual difference was found in somatotype of Han nationality college students (P<0. 01). ②The weight, height, perimeter of the upper arm, calf girth, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus and biepicondylar breadth of the femur of male samples were greater than the female samples, the skinfold of the male samples were thinner than the male samples ( P<0 . 05 ) . ③The somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were closer to the Han nationali-ty in Shandong province, but the gap was larger with Manchu and Mongolian nationality. ④Compared with foreign female college students, except Czechoslovakia and Canada, the somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were similar to other countries. Conclusions:①The characteristics of male showed less body fat, stronger skeletal mus-cles, while that of female showed more body fat. ②Compared with other groups, it showed that somatotypes may be related to innate genetic, geographical climate, lifestyle, eating habits and other factors.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vellinga Akke; O'Donovan Diarmuid; Glacken Marita; Cormican Martin; Brennan Wendy; O'Connell Emer; Cahill Niall; Lysaght Fionnguala; O'Donnell Joan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting duri...

  19. Effects of a training program about breast cancer and breast self-examination among female students at Taif University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Dalia E; Taha, Azza A

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Saudi women. It is spreading three times faster in the Kingdom than in other countries. One-third of breast cancers are preventable through healthy life styles. This study aimed to assess the impact of a training program on breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) among female students at Taif University. This study was carried out using a pre-post test design on a sample of female university students from seven colleges in Taif University (Faculty of Science, Faculty of Economics and Management, Faculty of Art, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, and the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences) in the academic year 2012-2013. None of the participants had ever practiced BSE before training, and only 16% of them believed that BSE is necessary, whereas 8.7% were willing to teach others BSE. There was limited knowledge of breast cancer. After the training program, a significant improvement was observed in all knowledge items, and 83.6% of the students practiced BSE compared with 0% practice before training. This study showed the effectiveness of the intervention program in improving students' knowledge of breast cancer and their practice of BSE. Thus, campaigns focusing on females in this age group should be carried out in the Saudi society.

  20. Practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Park, Hyo Jung; Kim, Mijung

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants were 2186 female university students in Korea. The Breast Cancer and Heredity Knowledge Scale was used. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Twenty-seven percent of students reported engaging in breast self-examination. The participants displayed a medium-level score (total score: 5.33 ± 2.70, range: 0-11) on knowledge about breast cancer. Predictors for breast self-examination were age (odds ratio = 1.15, P breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.16, P breast self-examination, related factors, and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students, as a representative sample of young Korean women. The results are valuable in developing educational programs that can increase knowledge related to breast cancer, as well as the practice of breast self-examination, to support health promotion among young women.

  1. The prevalence of obesity and wasting and their correlation with food intake in female junior school students in Zahedan, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazery Fard

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering important role of nutrition in children and teenagers’ health, their nutritional status are determined as obesity and wasting using weight and height. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and wasting and their relationship to food intake in female students of junior schools in Zahedan. Methods: In a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, 687 female students from junior schools were selected by multiple stage sampling method. After recording the participants’ demographic data, their weight and height were measured for body mass index (BMI calculation according to standard method. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS and National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES II data and a 48-hour recall questionnaire were used. Results: Of the surveyed girls, 16.9%, 31.7% and 13.2% were wasted, under weight and stunted, respectively 8.7% and 1.7% were over weight and obese, respectively. The mean of energy intake was 1502.1±415.7 kcal/d in the students which is less than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA and there were no balances in daily intake of protein, carbohydrate and lipids. In respect to energy and protein intake, 94.1% and 26.6% of students had deficiency, respectively. On the other hand, findings showed iron (72.1%, calcium (99.8%, phosphorus (83.6%, zinc (84.3%, vitamin A (63.8% and B12 (66.5% intake deficiencies. Conclusion: The female students of junior schools of Zahedan do not have a proper nutritional status according to physical state, energy, protein, and micronutrients intakes and they are at the risk of wasting and underweight. Therefore, we suggest implementation of programs for nutritional support and designing of proper patterns of food consumption to improve female junior students’ nutritional status.

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccination: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of college female students in Lebanon, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H

    2015-02-18

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7% ± 1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47 ± 0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24 ± 0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98 ± 0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to

  3. Effects of airsickness in male and female student pilots: adaptation rates and 4-year outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Marco; Lugli, Vittoria; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea

    2008-07-01

    Airsickness (AS) often affects aircrew members, especially at the beginning of their flight careers. In this study the AS incidence in 376 Italian Air Force student pilots (336 men and 40 women) was investigated during their initial flight activity. The study was separated into two parts. In part 1, the AS incidence was analyzed in the whole sample to determine the overall characteristics of AS and the hypothetical differences between men and women during the first flight certification (Basic). Part 2 analyzed a subpopulation of 102 individuals (86 men, 16 women) over 4 subsequent years throughout the first 4 flight certifications (for a total of about 60 flight hours). In all cases, AS was evaluated according to the number of flight missions affected by vomiting episodes. The overall AS incidence during Basic was 34.8%, without significant gender differences. However, within AS individuals, a significantly higher percentage of women were slow adaptors (12.5% of the whole female sample vs. 3.3% in men). AS overall affected the likelihood of reaching Basic certification, but this was not significantly related to the number of AS episodes. The 1-yr interval between two subsequent flight certifications caused a loss of adaptation to the flight environment in most cases. The absolute incidence of AS in our study resulted within the expected range, without significant differences between men and women. In a minor number of individuals (11 out of 336 men and 5 out of 40 women) a slow capability of adaptation to AS was observed. Such a finding was statistically more prevalent in women. In contrast to previous literature data, when prolonged interruptions from flight activity are planned, the retention of adaptation in our study did not play a significant role in avoiding future episodes of AS.

  4. The effect of Iron Folic Acid Supplementation and Dietary Iron Intake in High Schools Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Iron deficiency is one of the major public health problems imposing significant effect on the body and mind which has negative impacts on humans’ capability of. Increasing demand of the body, inadequate intake and decrease of absorbency are the major causes of anemia among teenage girls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary iron folic acid supplementation and dietary iron intake in high school girls. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on sixty female high school students at grade one and three in Yasuj, Iran. Biochemical markers of iron status were measured beforehand and afterwards of folic acid supplementation for 16 weeks. Food consumption patterns and iron intake were determined by frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test by means of N4 analysis software. Results: Anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in grade one were 9.7%, 32.3% and 9.9% respectively, in addition to in grade three were 19.4% , 41.9% and 3.2% respectively. After iron folic acid supplementation, these indicators were 9.7%, 16.1% and 3.3% in grade one and in grade three were 9.7%, 22.6%, 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Overall, it appeared that weekly iron folic acid supplementation in duration of 16 weeks per year, with dietary modification, could improve the indices of blood in high school girls. Key words: Anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, iron folic acid supplementation

  5. Effectiveness of resilience training versus cognitive therapy on reduction of depression in female Iranian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamirinejad, Somayeh; Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golzari, Mahmoud; Borjali, Ahmad; Akaberi, Arash

    2014-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness among women. Its prevalence in women is two to three times that of men. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of resilience training on the reduction of depression in female college students. This semi-empirical study was carried out with two experimental groups and one control group. The research sample was women with symptoms of depression who were 18-22 years of age and living in a college dormitory. One experimental group was given eight 90-minute resilience training sessions, while the other received eight 90-minute cognitive therapy sessions. The control group didn't receive any interventions. The three groups under study were evaluated using the Beck II depression inventory before and after the interventions and two months after the treatment had ended. The three groups didn't have significant differences in age, marital status, or depression scores on the pretest. The resilience training group and cognitive therapy group showed a significant decrease in the average depression score from pretest to posttest and from pretest to follow-up. The main effect of groups, stage, and interaction between groups and stage also were significant (all were p depression but there was a significant difference between these two treatment groups and the control group. The effectiveness of resilience training was just as good as the effectiveness of cognitive therapy. The effects of resilience training on depression remained stable from the posttest to the follow-up, like that of cognitive therapy.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ENDURANCE, RESISTANCE AND CONCURRENT TRAINING ON THE HEART STRUCTURE OF FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on the heart structure. Thirty-nine untrained female students (mean age 24±2.58 yrs were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C; n=9, Endurance (E; n=10, Strength (S; n=10 and Concurrent (SE; n=10.E group training consisted of running at 65% of maximum heart rate (MHR for 16 min per training unit during the first week, reaching 80% of MHR for 30 min during the 8th week. S group training consisted of performing four leg presses, bench presses, pull down curls, and leg curls. During the first week, the training was performed at 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM in 2 sets with 10 repetitions. The intensity of training increased to 80% 1RM in 3 sets and 6 repetitions during the 8th week. The SE training included the sum of the training performed by the E and S training groups. Left ventricular end diastolic and systolic diameters, post-wall thickness, left ventricular mass and mass index and septum wall thickness were measured by m-mode and 2-D echocardiography as the structural parameters. The end diastolic diameter in E and SE groups, the ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular mass and mass index of the SE group after the training increased (P≤0.05. In comparing the groups, only the increase of the end diastolic diameter in the SE group was significant (P≤0.05. The 8 weeks of concurrent training compared with endurance or resistance training alone resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular end diastolic diameter. However, no significant differences were found for any other measured variables.

  7. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  8. Association of overweight and obesity with decline in academic performance among female high-school students, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaili, M A; Mohamed, A G; Alkhashan, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and future academic performance among high-school students in Saudi Arabia. This was a retrospective cohort study of 257 12th grade female students in Alabna (Ministry of Defence) high schools in Riyadh during 2013/14. Overweight/obesity was based on weight and height at 10th grade. Decline in academic performance was defined as a reduction by > 1 standard deviation in marks between 10th and 12th grades. One hundred and five students were overweight/obese and 30 had declined academic performance. Self-esteem scale was similar in both groups. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, study-related lifestyle and self-esteem, overweight/obesity was associated with declining academic performance. Other independent associates included paternal and maternal education, and living outside governmentally provided housing. We report a negative independent association between overweight/obesity and subsequent academic performance among female high-school students in Saudi Arabia. The results highlight the need for community and school programmes to target overweight/obesity among high-school students.

  9. Mathematically precocious and female: Self-efficacy and STEM course choices among high achieving middle grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Stacey M.

    The problem addressed in this project is the lack of mathematically gifted females choosing to pursue advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in secondary education due to deficiencies in self-efficacy. The purpose of this project was to study the effects of a child-guided robotics program as it relates to the self-efficacy of mathematically gifted 6th grade female students and their future course choices in the advanced STEM content areas. This mixed-model study utilized a STEM attitude survey, artifacts, interviews, field notes, and standardized tests as measurement tools. Significance was found between genders in the treatment group for the standardized science scores, indicating closure in the achievement gap. Research suggests that STEM enrichment is beneficial for mathematically gifted females.

  10. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  11. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Religiosity and Social Hopefulness among Female High-School Students in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    the field of psychology, which is known as positive psychology. Positive psychology is the scientific study of human abilities and strengths. One of the most important element of positive psychology is optimism. So this paper aims at considering the relationship between religiosity and social hopefulness.     Materials & Methods   This is an applied research. With regard to the type of study, it is a descriptive study and has used the survey method. The study population consists of all high school female students in Shiraz during the academic year of 1391 -92, whose total number is equal to 5637 individuals. 381 students were selected by use of cluster sampling method and Cochran formula. Data collection techniques in this study was a Likert type questionnaire and the data was analyzed by SPSS software.     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   In this study, emotional, religious, moral and ritual aspects of hope were measured. According to the results of previous research, a positive relationship between religious orientation and hopefulness was found. Likewise, hopelessness is associated with depression. Students who are religious and hopeful, have a higher tolerance threshold and are generally more successful in school.   

  13. Assessing the use of contraceptives by female undergraduate students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H. Coetzee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unplanned pregnancies amongst students at higher education institutions are a major concern worldwide, including South Africa. Apart from various social and psychological challenges, unplanned pregnancies affect students’ objectives of achieving academic success. Research undertaken in the United States of America (USA indicates that around 80% of female students in institutions of higher education between ages 18 and 24 are sexually active.Objectives: To assess and describe the use of contraceptives by undergraduate female students in a selected higher educational institution in Gauteng.Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative design was used. A total of 400 female undergraduate students were requested to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. Stratified random sampling was used to select the participants. They were selected systematically from two campuses. Data were entered using an excel sheet at the Department of Statistics, and analysed using the Statistical Analysis Software programme, (SAS version 9.3, of the Department of Statistics’ higher educational institutions.Results: A total of 74%females indicated they were sexually active, 79%of whom reported using contraceptives. The most common used methods were oral contraceptives at 38%, and 25% for male condoms. The most commonly known methods were condoms at 84%, and the oral contraceptive at 68%. The knowledge of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted diseases was high at 91%.Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and awareness on some contraceptive methods was found. Thus, educational programmes to increase students’ knowledge on the use of all contraceptive methods are urgently needed

  14. The Effect of nutrition education on knowledge, attitude, and performance about junk food consumption among students of female primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Homamodin; Pour, Zabihollah Gharli; Tavassoli, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undoubtedly, proper nutrition has important role in safeguarding the individual from many diseases, especially chronic ones, and increasing ones physical and intellectual efficiency. Considering the importance of nutrition education to school-age kids, this research was done with the purpose of determining the effect of nutrition education on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of female students at primary school about junk food consumption. Materials and Methods: This is an...

  15. Knowledge of Female Undergraduate Students on Breast Cancer and Breast Self-examination in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Latiff, Latiffah A; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah; Said, Salmiah Md; Ismail, Irmi Zarina

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, breast cancer is the first cancer among females regardness of race. The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge and BSE practice among undergraduate female students at four public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 820 undergraduate female students using a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and BSE practice. The mean age of the respondents was 21.7±1.2 years. The majority of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 16.5% of respondents had a family history of breast cancer. This study showed low level of knowledge on breast cancer and breast self-examination among participants. Only 19.6% participants were performing BSE regularly. Knowledge of breast self-examination was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.00). Also, there were significant associations between performing BSE with age, marital status and being trained by a doctor for doing BSE (p<0.05). Our findings showed that the rate of BSE practice and knowledge of breast cancer is inadequate among young Malaysian females. A public health education program is essential to improve breast cancer prevention among this group.

  16. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context.......Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context....

  17. Derogation of student female athletes who consult a sport psychologist: an alternative perspective on the negative halo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

    2001-03-01

    This study attempts to further research female student athletes' perceptions of the sport psychologist and other sport and mental health professionals. 90 British student athletes from 17 different sports completed a two-part questionnaire to examine the potential derogation effect as a result of consulting one of three identified professionals and to explore the perceived definition and role of the sport psychologist. A fictitious selection report of a female field hockey player was presented to subjects with coach, sport psychologist and psychotherapist as the three professionals. It was hypothesised that subjects' recommendations regarding selection would differ depending on the consultant used. No differences were found which suggests the absence of a negative halo effect and that derogation would not occur within this sample group. Definitions and perceived role of the sport psychologist varied with the subjective tone of the responses from participants being mainly positive (74%). These results indicate that this female student athlete sample has a moderated, even a positive, perception of the sport psychologist. A general acceptance of the sport psychologist falls in line with the suggestions of Murstein and Fontaine (1993) concerning a reported increase in acceptance of mental health professionals.

  18. Modification of the Fox method to predict maximum oxygen uptake in female university students of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a simple method, i.e. the modified Fox test protocol (MFT) to predict VO2(max) in female sedentary university students of Kolkata, India. One hundred and eleven (111) healthy untrained female students of the University of Calcutta (mean age, body height and body mass of 22.76 ± 1.72 years, 163.52 ± 4.70 cm and 53.03 ± 3.78 kg, respectively) were randomly sampled for the study. They were further randomly divided into the study group (n = 60) and confirmatory group (n = 51). Direct estimation of the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2(max)) comprised an incremental bicycle exercise followed by expired gas analysis by the Scholander micro-gas analyzer. The submaximal heart rate (HR(sub)) was measured at the completion of five min of exercise at 110W workload. HR(sub) exhibited significant negative correlation (r = -0.87, P VO2(max). Application of the computed norm in the confirmatory group depicted insignificant difference between VO2(max) and predicted VO2(max) or PVO2(max). Limits of agreement between PVO2(max) and VO2(max) were substantially small. The standard error of estimate of the norm was also substantially small. From the present study, MFT is recommended for application in the sedentary female university students for accurate and reliable assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of VO2(max).

  19. Analysis of psychological problems of female college students%当代女大学生心理问题浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海英; 范琳琳

    2013-01-01

      随着社会的发展,女大学生越来越受到人们的关注,她们是大学生中的一个极富个性的群体,位于女性群体的较高层次上,但女大学生要在竞争中脱颖而出,需要付出比男生更多的努力,这对女大学生产生了一定的心理压力。分析女大学生心理问题成因并研究其对策,有利于提高女大学生素质,促进女大学生更好地成长与发展。%With the development of society, the female college students attract more and more attention by people, they are a group of college students with personality, at the higher level in female group, but female students to show themselves in the competition, need to pay more efforts than boys, which produces a certain psychological stress of female college students. Study on the countermeasures and analysis of the causes of the psychological problem of female college students, helps to improve the quality of female college students, to promote the better growth and development of female college students.

  20. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges. PMID:28220102

  1. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-Yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges.

  2. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Based Training on the Maladaptive Schemas of Female Students with Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Recently, a lot of discussions have been done about the third wave of behavioral and cognitive approaches, particularly in areas with eating disorders. The aim of current research is the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment based training on the maladaptive schemas of female students with bulimia nervosa. Materials & Methods: The design of current study is as quasi-experiment research with pre-test and post-test with control group. Statistical population consist of all high school female students of Arak city in the 2013-14 academic years. Samples were selected at first by multi stage cluster sampling method and after completing young schema questionnaire short form and Diagnostic Interview, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N=20 per group. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment based training and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results show that there exist significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group. This difference is significant at the level of 0.01. Therefore it seems that acceptance and commitment based training decreased maladaptive schemas of students with bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: The results of current research explain the importance of acceptance and commitment therapy in decreasing maladaptive schema of female students with bulimia nervosa. Thus, interventions based on this approach in schools for students lead to decreasing the psychological problems

  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccines: knowledge, attitude and perception among female students at the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwe, Christian Chigozie; Anorlu, Rose Ihuoma; Odeyemi, Kofoworola Abimbola

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to determine knowledge of and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccines among female undergraduate students at the University of Lagos. A self-administered questionnaire was administered between May and July 2010, to 368 female students aged 16-29years, who were selected from two faculties of the University of Lagos using two-stage sampling method. Data collected included: socio-demographic characteristics, sexual history, awareness and knowledge of HPV infection, cervical cancer and genital warts, and HPV vaccine; the perceived risk of acquiring genital HPV infection and developing cervical cancer or genital warts, and the willingness to receive an HPV vaccine. Only 64 (17.7%) and 52 (14.4%) of the students had ever heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccines respectively. The median HPV knowledge on a 15-item score was 2. Overall, only 11.1% knew that genital HPV infection can cause cervical cancer. Fourteen (6.9%) of those who were aware of cervical cancer agreed they were at risk of developing the disease. Of the 52 students who had heard of the HPV vaccine, 24 (46.2%) knew it was given for cervical cancer prevention and 30 (57.7%) expressed their willingness to receive the vaccine. The knowledge of and the perceived susceptibility to HPV infection and HPV-related diseases among female students in the University of Lagos were generally low. The need for a well-designed HPV-educational program to bridge the knowledge gap cannot be overemphasized. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploration of Relationship Between Stress and Spirituality Characteristics of Male and Female Engineering Students: A Comprehensive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Radha; Khanna, Ashu; Singh, Dharmendra

    2017-04-01

    This observational paper endeavours to recognize the connection between spirituality and stress. Four types of indicators are utilized for the estimation of anxiety, vis-à-vis, behavioural indicators, emotional indicators, sleep indicators and personal habits. As per pre-documented theory, if spirituality is high within an individual, then his/her stress will be low and vice versa. In college, the stress of education and scoring grades influences the understudy. Information is gathered through a survey in the light of spirituality index and stress index. Findings prove that the indicators of the stress are more visible in female students. Apart from this, there has been not much substantial study in the area of stress and spirituality among college students. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to discuss the various types of stress and effects of spirituality on the engineering students belonging to the age group of 21-26 years, prioritizing the indicators of stress as per the gender of students. The entire study constituted of a sample group of 200 participants, and for the entire process, correlation analysis was used to find the relative relation between spirituality and stress among girls and boys. T test is used for rejection of the null hypothesis. The article focuses on the current issues that students have been facing in the twenty-first century. Result of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the spirituality and stress of male and female students. Moreover, the article provides unique contribution to the literature and also offers suggestions for generating new research ideas that can be used to ameliorate the problems that plague individuals and organizations in today's world. This is the first article which covers the spirituality and stress of the engineering student and discusses the impact on young adults, as well as highlighting certain ways to overcome stress and enhance spirituality.

  5. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  6. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  7. Parents' Divorce Is More Strongly Related to the Self-Perceived Promiscuity and Drinking Behavior of Male than of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erica L.; McAndrew, Francis T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of 357 students (112 males, 245 females) responding to an online survey at a Midwestern liberal arts college revealed that males and children from divorced families perceived themselves as more promiscuous and drank more than did students from intact families. However, a significant interaction between the gender of the students and the…

  8. An educational program about premarital screening for unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis Ragab; Al-Bar, Hussein; Al-Fakeeh, Ali; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Qadi, Mahdi; Al-Bar, Adnan; Milaat, Waleed

    2011-03-01

    The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University (KAU) towards premarital screening (PMS) program, to determine predictors of high students' knowledge scores and to improve their knowledge about PMS through conduction of an educational campaign. Multi-stage stratified random sample method was used with recruitment of 1563 students from all faculties of KAU, during the educational year 2008-2009. The Pre-test included 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements with student's response through a 5-point Likert scale. Health education was conducted using audiovisual aids through pre-designed educational materials. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Students' knowledge about the program was generally low before the educational campaign. The predictors of high knowledge scores were being a health science student (aOR=4.15; 95% CI: 2.97-5.81), age ≥20 years (aOR=2.78; 95% CI: 2.01-3.85), family history of hereditary diseases and income ≥10,000 SR/month. Regarding attitude, almost all students (99.0%) agreed on the importance of PMS. After the educational program, students' knowledge about PMS was markedly improved. The mean students' knowledge score was 9.85 ± 5.36 in Pre-test and improved to 18.45 ± 4.96 in Post-test, with a highly statistical significant difference (paired t=25.40, p<0.000). The educational program was successful in improving students' knowledge about the PMS. Conduction of similar educational programs and adding PMS in the curriculum of secondary and university education are recommended. Copyright © 2010 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Menstrual hygiene management and school absenteeism among female adolescent students in Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla

    2014-10-29

    Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and its influence on school-attendance in Northeast Ethiopia. We conducted a mixed-method research combining quantitative and qualitative methods in Northeast Ethiopia. The quantitative study was conducted among 595 randomly selected adolescent school girls. Nine in-depth interviews; five school-dropout girls and four female teachers, and four focus group discussions among school girls were conducted in 2013. The mean age at menarche was 13.98 (±1.17) years. About 51% of girls had knowledge about menstruation and its management. Only a third of the girls used sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent during their last menstruation. Girls from urban areas, had mothers of secondary and above education and, families of higher monthly expenditure had more chance of using sanitary napkins than their counterparts. More than half of the girls reported to have been absent from school during their menstruation period. Those who did not use sanitary napkins were more likely to be absent from school [AOR-95% C.I: 5.37 (3.02 - 9.55)]. Fifty eight percent of girls reported that their school-performance had declined after they had menarche. In addition, the qualitative study indicated that school-dropout was common among girls who experienced teasing and humiliation by classmates when their clothes were stained with blood as they do not use sanitary napkins. Though there is an effort to increase girls' school enrollment, lack of basic needs, like sanitary napkins that facilitate routine activates of girls

  10. Perceptions of Female and Male University Students on Sustainable Maritime Development Concept: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Solak Fışkın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is a fact that maritime transport is essential for achieving sustainable transport development, and the concept of sustainable development has recently raised great interest in maritime industry. The fundamental role in driving and supporting the sustainability should be pursued by young people, and in Turkey as a developing country, sustainable maritime development should be particularly emphasized by the young population amounting to one third of total. The aim of this paper is to analyze the perceptions of female and male students on sustainable maritime development concept. Method: In order to reach this aim, the study was carried out using a questionnaire distributed to maritime faculty students in Turkey. Three pillars of sustainable maritime development were used to reveal how important the issue is for students and how they perceive them. Results: The study indicated strong emphasis of social sustainable maritime development while the key factor perceived as water pollution as one of the environmental item. Conclusion: The results of the study reveal not only the perceptional differences between Turkish female and male students on sustainable development concept but also on sources of environmental concerns.

  11. Health Belief Model and HIV/AIDS among high school female students in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2010-01-01

    ="font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";"> containing HIV. (1-4   It is such a strange and frightening disease that sometimes people stopped thinking about it as a disease and start to wrap it in different layers of mystery.(5 According to the latest figures published in the UNAIDS/WHO 2006 AIDS Epidemic Update, an estimated 39.5 million people are living with HIV. (6 An important factor in the spread of HIV/AIDS is believed to be poor knowledge about how it is spread and can be prevented. The utility of the Health Belief Model continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study is a cross- sectional study that 180 female students from three high schools in Yazd, Iran, completed a specially designed questionnaire, based on Health Belief Model in spring 2009. Our data showed that the mean score of perceived susceptibility was 21.19 (out of 32 and perceived severity was 12.47 (out of 24. Also the mean score of perceived benefits and barriers were 9.05 and 9.45 (out of 12 and out of 16 respectively. The respondents acquired 46.61% of total knowledge score, 66.21% of perceived susceptibility, 51.95% of perceived severity, 75.41% of perceived benefits and 59.06% of perceived barriers. A positive association found

  12. The Effect of Osteoporosis Prevention Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Adolescent Female Students in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder among females. Primary prevention is the easiest and cheapest way to deal with this condition. Therefore, it is important to educate about osteoporosis risk factors and preventive behaviors during adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of osteoporosis prevention education on knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescent female students in Kermanshah, Iran. Materials and Methods: We performed this quasi-experimental research in 118 adolescent female students in Kermanshah in 2014. The participants were selected with multistage cluster sampling form guidance schools of the city. They were allocated randomly to intervention (n=53 and control (n=65 groups. We collected data by a four-part questionnaire including demographic information, knowledge, attitude and behavior about osteoporosis prevention. Data were analyzed in SPSS 19 using independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-squared and Pearson’s correlation. Results: The mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice displayed no significant difference between case and control groups at pre-intervention (P>0.05. However, the averages of knowledge (P=0.024 and attitude (P=0.003 increased significantly in the training group after performing the educational program. Although, the behavior mean had no significant difference between the two groups at post-intervention (P= 0.086. Conclusions: Educating about osteoporosis prevention led to promote the knowledge and attitude of adolescent female students in Kermanshah. However, this training had no influence on behavior. It is necessary to consider this problem in designing educational interventions in this target group.

  13. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

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    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  14. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

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    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  15. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

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    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  16. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata.

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    Sengupta, P

    2014-07-01

    In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevalence of malnutrition (both obesity and undernutrition) among undergraduate male and female college students of Kolkata, based on body mass index (BMI) and some direct and derived anthropometric measures describing the body composition of the subjects. This cross-sectional study conducted in October-December 2011. The present investigation was carried out in randomly selected male (mean age 20.9 [2.25]) and female college students (mean age 20.3 [2.34]) of Kolkata. A total of 100 students of different colleges has participated, having the age of 18-22 years. Measures included a total of 24 variables which included thirteen direct anthropometric measures and 11 derived variables. Analysis of collected data showed significantly higher BMI, fat mass, body adiposity index, but, lower waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index in female students. Anthropometric data also showed lower waist circumference and abdominal extension in female college students. Conversely, male students showed a higher fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and thigh circumferences (TCs). Based on the findings of the present study, it can be reported that higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being overweight/obese was observed in female students, though they have shown lower abdominal fat distribution, which is a cue of female physical attractiveness. However, male students are found to have a higher FFM, MUAC and TCs, which is the indicator of strength and energy.

  17. Primary dysmenorrhea magnitude, associated risk factors, and its effect on academic performance: evidence from female university students in Ethiopia

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    Hailemeskel, Solomon; Demissie, Asrate; Assefa, Nigussie

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is the most common gynecologic compliant among adolescent females. There is a wide variation in the estimate of PD, which ranges from 50% to 90%, and the disorder is the most common cause of work and school absenteeism in adolescent females. Objective To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of PD among female university students and understand its effects on students’ academic performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed in 440 research participants. A multistage stratified sampling technique was employed to select the study units. Structured and pretested self-administered questionnaires were used and weight and height measurements were conducted. The severity of dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by using a verbal multidimensional scoring system and visual analog scale. The data were double entered in Epi Info version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results A total of 440 students participated in this study. The prevalence of PD was 368 (85.4%). Of these, 123 (28.5%) had mild, 164 (38.1%) moderate, and 81 (18.8%) severe primary dysmenorrheal pain. Among students with PD, 88.3% reported that PD had a negative effect on their academic performance. Of these, 80% reported school absence, 66.8% reported loss of class concentration, 56.3% reported class absence, 47.4% reported loss of class participation, 37.8% reported limited sport participation, 31.7% reported limitation in going out with friends, and 21% reported inability to do homework. Based on the multivariate logistic regression, PD was statistically significant with those who had lower monthly stipends, a history of attempt to lose weight, a history of depression or anxiety, disruption of social network of family, friends or people they love, who consumed more than four glasses of tea per day, who drunk one or more Coca-Cola or Pepsi per day, in

  18. Impact of health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria University students.

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    Mounir, Gehan M; Mahdy, Nehad H; Fatohy, Ibtsam M

    2003-01-01

    In Egypt, adolescents don't have enough and/or correct knowledge regarding reproductive health. Health education interventions are widely seen as the most appropriate strategy for promoting young people's sexual health. The aim of the present work was to assess the impact of a short-term health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria university students. Quasi-experimental study (pre-post testing control group) was carried out among 682 female university students living in the university hostels, 354 students represented the intervention group (Ezbet-Saad hostel) who received the program and 328 students constituted the control group (El-Shatby hostel). The study revealed that no one had satisfactory knowledge level while 61.7 % and 38.3% respectively had fair and poor levels. The low knowledge level was more evident regarding the questions about: the meaning of the term 'reproductive health' (only 5.1% gave correct complete answer), the benefits of premarital examination (only 37.9% reported complete answer), the investigations done for the pregnant woman (only 28.3% gave complete answer) the benefits of breast feeding (only 8.2% reported complete answer), methods of family planning (only 36.4% gave complete answer), side effects of female genital mutilation (only 4% reported complete answer), sexually transmitted diseases and methods of protection (only 11.9% and 3.9% reported complete answer). It was evident that 32.6% had an overall positive attitude level, 46.3% were in the neutral level and 21.1% had a negative level. It was also found that students of highly or moderately educated mothers and of high social class reported significantly higher knowledge score about premarital examination, age of marriage and breast-feeding than those of non-educated mothers and of low social class. After the intervention program there was a significant improvement in the majority of knowledge questions from pre to post test

  19. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom.

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    Fatemeh Bazarganipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran.The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students. A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms.The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims.The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness.

  20. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  1. Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) in Higher Education from the Perspective of Female Students: An Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Laura J.

    A persistent disadvantage for females is systemically embedded in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in postsecondary institutions. As a result, undergraduate women majoring in STEM fields face a uniquely difficult path; yet, for the most part, recommendations made and supported in the literature have focused on recruitment of women to STEM fields or on ways to make women more successful and comfortable in their STEM major. These recommendations have so far proved to be insufficient to remedy a gender gap and serve to replicate the existing male hierarchy. In order to truly make the STEM classroom one in which women are welcome and comfortable and to challenge the existing social and scientific systems, it is necessary to explore and understand the social and political implications embedded within teaching and learning choices. This institutional ethnography addresses that gap. The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the institutional practices of STEM education at a Midwest research university (MRU) from the standpoint of female undergraduate students. Using the framework of feminist standpoint theory, this study explored the everyday "work" of female undergraduate STEM students to provide a unique perspective on the STEM education teaching and learning environment. Data collection began with in-depth interviews with female undergraduate math and physics students. As the institutional processes shaping undergraduate participant experiences were identified, subsequent data collection included classroom observations, additional interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of the texts that mediate these processes (e.g., syllabi and student handbooks). Data analysis followed Carspecken's process of ethnographic data analysis that began with low-level coding, followed by high-level coding, and concluded by pulling codes together through the creation of themes. Analysis of data led to three key findings. First, undergraduate

  2. Contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweya, Mussa N; Msuya, Sia E; Mahande, Michael J; Manongi, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for factors associated with modern contraceptive use was computed using multiple logistic regression models. A P-value of students were involved in the study. Two-thirds (260, 64.8%) of the participants had had sexual intercourse. The majority (93.8%) of the participants had knowledge of contraception. One hundred and seventy-five (43.6%) sexually active women reported that they used contraceptives in the past, while 162 (40.4%) were current contraceptive users. More than half (54.2%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity between the ages of 20–24 years. The most popular methods of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were friends, television, and health care workers (44.8%, 40.3%, and 39.0%, respectively). Conclusion Most of the participants had knowledge of contraception. However, the rate of contraceptive use was low. The majority of the respondents were sexually active and started sexual activity at >18 years of age. Hence, advocacy for adolescent reproductive health education to promote the use of the available

  3. Resilience and Academic Achievement of Male and Female Secondary Level Students in Pakistan

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    Sarwar, Muhammad; Inamullah, Hafiz; Khan, Naeemullah; Anwar, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to succeed despite barriers that make it difficult for the students to succeed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample consisted of 127 secondary…

  4. Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses

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    Atherton, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    The study of confidence was undertaken at the University of Newcastle with students selecting science courses at two campuses. The students were enrolled in open access programs and aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The "third person effect" was used to measure the confidence levels of…

  5. Evaluating the Male and Female Students' Welcome of the Cultural-Art Plans

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    Eshaghian, Masomeh; Saadatmand, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the welcome of culture-art plans in the high schools of Khomeyni Shahr City from perspectives of the educational coaches and students in the 2013. The present study is a descriptive-survey research. The statistical population of this study includes the educational coaches and students participating in the…

  6. Male-Female Student Retention in HBCUs: A Comparative Analysis of Sample Data across Five Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala-Harrison, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the college retention rates of black students. There could be issues related to the student's own personality attributes, personal and/or family circumstances, financial factors, background events, social factors, as well as a myriad of institutional factors associated with the school system and/or a particular school…

  7. Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    The study of confidence was undertaken at the University of Newcastle with students selecting science courses at two campuses. The students were enrolled in open access programs and aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The "third person effect" was used to measure the confidence levels of…

  8. What's Life Got to Do with It? The Role of Life Experiences in Shaping Female Community College Students' Transfer Intent in STEM Fields of Study

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    Wickersham, Kelly; Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    Transfer in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields from community colleges to 4-year institutions holds great policy significance in alleviating the female underrepresentation in the STEM pipeline, with proportionately more female students attending community colleges. Considering the knowledge gap on this often overlooked topic,…

  9. A comparative study of voice complaints and risk factors for voice complaints in female student teachers and practicing teachers early in their career.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed to compare female student teachers (454 subjects; 1st to 4th year of training) and practicing teachers (82 female teachers; 1st to 4th year of teaching career) of primary education early in their career, with regard to risk factors perceived to be

  10. A comparative study of voice complaints and risk factors for voice complaints in female student teachers and practicing teachers early in their career.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed to compare female student teachers (454 subjects; 1st to 4th year of training) and practicing teachers (82 female teachers; 1st to 4th year of teaching career) of primary education early in their career, with regard to risk factors perceived to be

  11. Personal anxiety - the determinant of the anthropometric and functional status of female students

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    Romanenko Valerij Aleksandrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of dependence of the physical status of the students on their level of personal (genetic anxiety. The experiment involved 105 students aged 19-21 years. It is shown that between anxiety and performance of the genetic status of the students there anthropometric and functional ambiguous dependence. These relationships are determined by the peculiarities of somatotype, the oxygen-transport system and the mechanisms of energy. It is established that anxious students are characterized low level of physical development, insufficient capacity of the cardiorespiratory system. This corresponds to the same level of physical performance, aerobic capacity and resistance to hypoxia. These patterns remain when evaluating the power and capacity of the glycolytic mechanism of energy and non-anxious in anxious students.

  12. Knowledge Extraction for Discriminating Male and Female in Logical Reasoning from Student Model

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    Elalfi, A E E; Asem, Y M

    2009-01-01

    The learning process is a process of communication and interaction between the teacher and his students on one side and between the students and each others on the other side. Interaction of the teacher with his students has a great importance in the process of learning and education. The pattern and style of this interaction is determined by the educational situation, trends and concerns, and educational characteristics. Classroom interaction has an importance and a big role in increasing the efficiency of the learning process and raising the achievement levels of students. Students need to learn skills and habits of study, especially at the university level. The effectiveness of learning is affected by several factors that include the prevailing patterns of interactive behavior in the classroom. These patterns are reflected in the activities of teacher and learners during the learning process. The effectiveness of learning is also influenced by the cognitive and non cognitive characteristics of teacher that...

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC

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    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.

  14. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

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    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  15. Effect of exposure to photographs of thin models on self-consciousness in female college students.

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    Wegner, B S; Hartmann, A M; Geist, C R

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate influence of brief exposure to images taken from print media on the general self-consciousness and body self-consciousness of 67 college women. After viewing photographs of either thin female models or control photographs, the women completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the Body Self-consciousness Questionnaire. Although alpha was .45, the college women who looked at images of thin female models gave immediate ratings significantly (p Self-consciousness and Body Self-consciousness than those who looked at control images.

  16. Analysis of ehealth search perspectives among female college students in the health professions using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J Don; Tennant, Bethany

    2012-04-27

    The current "Millennial Generation" of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants' objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0

  17. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Regular Female Preparatory School Students towards Emergency Contraceptives in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

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    Solomon Abrha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraceptive (EC is a type of modern contraception that is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Use of EC with in a defined time period could prevent unwanted pregnancy and its damaging consequences like unintended child birth and unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of emergency contraceptives among female preparatory students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 366 female students at Atse Yohanesse preparatory school from January to May 2013. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data processing and analyzing was done using statistical package for social sciences version 20. Result: In this study, about 90.7% of the respondents had heard about emergency contraceptives. The major sources of information were mass media, club in school and friends. About 277 (75.7% of the students had good knowledge about EC. The older age was significantly associated with the students’ awareness (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.37. The majority (229(64.9% of respondents had a positive attitude towards EC. Age and ethnic group were significantly associated with the students’ attitude towards EC. Among those respondents who used contraceptives, 60.5% of them responded to use EC. About two-third (67.4% of ever users of EC had good knowledge of the correct time of taking EC after unprotected sexual intercourse. Conclusion: Although the findings of this study showed high prevalence of knowledge and attitude towards EC among respondents, the improvement of female students’ knowledge about specific details of the method and timely utilization of emergency contraception is still required.

  18. The impact of mirrors on body image and performance in high and low performing female ballet students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radell, Sally A; Adame, Daniel D; Cole, Steven P; Blumenkehl, Nicole J

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the effect of mirrors on body image and performance in high and low performing female collegiate ballet students. Twenty-three females enrolled in a beginning ballet class were taught using mirrors, and a second group of 23 beginning females were taught without mirrors. All participants completed the Cash 69-item Body Self-Relations Questionnaire during the first and last class of a 14-week semester. They were videotaped performing in the studio during the fifth and fourteenth weeks. Two ballet teachers independently viewed the videotapes to evaluate the dancers' rhythmic accuracy, ease and flow of movement, and mastery of steps and alignment, and rated the students' skill level on a 1-5 scale. For analysis purposes, students whose scores averaged three or higher were categorized as "high performers," and those who averaged less than three were "low performers." Two (mirror, non-mirror) by two (high performance, low performance) by two (pre-test, post-test) repeated measures ANOVAs were used to test class differences over the course of the semester. There were significant 3-way interactions for overweight preoccupation (p < 0.01) and body-areas satisfaction (p < 0.05). Low performers increased in overweight preoccupation in the non-mirror class while decreasing in the mirror class. High performers significantly increased in satisfaction for most areas of their body in the non-mirror class, while there were smaller increases for both low and high performers in the mirror class. It is concluded that while use of the mirror has some benefits in training, higher performing dancers feel better about their body image when they do not use the mirror. Lower performers who use the mirror worry less about their weight; those who do not use the mirror worry more. The mirror may provide feedback that helps low performing dancers feel more comfortable with their weight.

  19. Physical injury assessment of male versus female chiropractic students when learning and performing various adjustive techniques: a preliminary investigative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Laura L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries.

  20. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Roman Shrestha

    Full Text Available Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal.A cross-sectional study was conducted between August-September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes.Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8% of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51-4.55, parents' occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58-9.58, and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99-9.54 were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55-0.79 and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49-4.80 were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards