WorldWideScience

Sample records for female lymantria dispar

  1. Differences in wing morphometrics of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) between populations that vary in female flight capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Shi; Fang Chen; Melody A. Keena

    2015-01-01

    All male gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar L., are capable of strong directed flight, but flight in females varies, increasing from west to east geographically across Eurasia. To better understand how the wings differ between female flight capable and flightless strains, a wing morphometric analysis of 821 gypsy moths from eight geographic strains (three...

  2. Effects of Lymantria dispar feeding and mechanical wounding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In plants, lipoxygenase (LOX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been related to defense mechanisms against insect feeding and wounding and these roles were investigated in poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra) regarding induction by third-instar Lymantria dispar larvae feeding and punching mechanical ...

  3. Classification, genetic variation and pathogenicity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from Asia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Harrison; Melody A. Keena; Daniel L. Rowley

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) has been formulated and applied to control outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To classify and determine the degree of genetic variation among isolates of L. dispar NPVs from different parts of the range of the gypsy moth, partial sequences of the

  4. Identification of a novel Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus mutant that exhibits abnormal polyhedron formation and virion occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; Melissa J. Mercer; Dana Pohlman; Mary Ellen Kelly; David S. Bischoff

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies on the formation of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) few polyhedra (FP) mutants, several polyhedron formation mutants (PFM) were identified that appeared to be unique. These viral mutants are being characterized to investigate the processes of polyhedron formation and virion occlusion. Ld

  5. Contributions of immune responses to developmental resistance in Lymantria dispar challenged with baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McNeil; Diana Cox-Foster; James Slavicek; Kelli. Hoover

    2010-01-01

    How the innate immune system functions to defend insects from viruses is an emerging field of study. We examined the impact of melanized encapsulation, a component of innate immunity that integrates both cellular and humoral immune responses, on the success of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in its...

  6. The reconstruction of Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the South Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergei Kucherov

    1991-01-01

    Interest in investigating the influence of extreme ecological factors on the radial growth of oak (Quercus robur L.) is bound up with oak dieback in the South Urals during the last decade. Factors contributing to this problem in the study area are hard winter frosts, late spring frosts, and Lymantria dispar L. outbreaks. To...

  7. Inheritance and world variation in thermal requirements for egg hatch in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Mode of inheritance of hatch traits in Lymantria dispar L. was determined by crossing populations nearly fixed for the phenotypic extremes. The nondiapausing phenotype was inherited via a single recessive gene and the phenotype with reduced low temperature exposure requirements before hatch was inherited via a single dominant gene. There was no...

  8. Properties of two Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates obtained from the microbial pesticide Gypchek

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; John Podgwaite; Carita. Lanner-Herrera

    1992-01-01

    Two Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolates, 5-6 and A2-1, differing in the phenotypic characteristic of the number of viral occlusions in infected cells, were obtained from a production lot of the microbial pesticide Gypchek and several of their replication properties were investigated and compared. Budded virus titer produced in cell...

  9. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison Robert L.; Daniel L. Rowley; Melody A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Aba624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054...

  10. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction?and olfaction-based pest management?has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from...

  11. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  12. The activity of phenoloxidase in haemolymph plasma is not a predictor of Lymantria dispar resistance to its baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita S. Kasianov; Irina A. Belousova; Sergey V. Pavlushin; Ivan M. Dubovskiy; John D. Podgwaite; Vyacheslav V. Martemyanov; Stanislav A. Bakhvalov; Erjun. Ling

    2017-01-01

    Host innate immunity is one of the factors that determines the resistance of insects to their entomopathogens. In the research reported here we studied whether or not phenoloxidase (PO), a key enzyme in the melanogenesis component of humoral immunity of insects, plays a role in the protection of Lymantria dispar larvae from infection by L...

  13. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  14. Disease-parasitoid relationships in natural populations of Lymantria dispar [Lep.: Lymantriidae] in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Reardon; J.D. Podgwaite

    1976-01-01

    Immature Lymantria dispar L. were collected from 6 geographically distinct populations over 2 years to determine correlations between parasitoid and disease incidences. Incidence of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus disease (NPV) was found to be positively correlated with incidences of the parasitoids Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg...

  15. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Impact of deletion of the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus PEP gene on viral potency: expression of the green fluorescent protein prevents larval liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1999-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) is an effective biological control agent of the gypsy moth, L. dispar, but is not in general use because the high cost of production limits availability. In an effort to generate a more cost efficient LdMNPV biopesticide, two...

  17. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  18. Heavy metal concentrations of the endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis bouche (hymenoptera) in contaminated Lymantria dispar L. Larvaie (lepidoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, C. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    The braconid wasp Glyptapanteles liparidis is one of the main parasitoids of the forest pest insect Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and therefore a regulator of the pest population. The eggs of the endoparasitoid are deposited in early larval stages of the host. The parasitoid larvae develop in the haemolymph of the host and feed exclusively on the nutrients of the haemolymph. Applied metals at the No-observed-effect-concentration level for L. dispar did not affect G. liparidis directly. Instead the parasitoid development is probably influenced by the alteration of the trophic situations within the host due to its metal stress. This study provides information on the metal concentration of the parasitoid larvae shortly before their eclosion from the host. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Molecular characterization of the insect immune protein hemolin and its high induction during embryonic diapause in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.-Y. Lee; F. M. Horodyski; A. P. Valaitis; D. L. Denlinger

    2002-01-01

    During the embryonic (pharate first instar) diapause of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, a 55 kDa protein is highly up-regulated in the gut. We now identify that protein as hemolin, an immune protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily. We isolated a gypsy moth hemolin cDNA and demonstrated a high degree of similarity with hemolins from three other...

  20. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  1. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the potential of genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify the geographic origins of intercepted gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) specimens: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrine Picq; Melody Keena; Nathan Havill; Don Stewart; Esther Pouliot; Brian Boyle; Roger C. Levesque; Richard C. Hamelin; Michel Cusson

    2017-01-01

    Forest invasive alien species are a major threat to ecosystem stability and can have enormous economic and social impacts. For this reason, preventing the introduction of Asian gypsy moths (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica and L. d. japonica) into North America has been identified as a top priority by North American authorities....

  3. Development of insect viruses as pesticides: The case of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; H.M. Mazzone

    1981-01-01

    Biological control, one component of integrated pest management, encompasses the use of several types of biological agents to control insect pest populations. Of these biological control agents, the insect viruses appear to offer one logical alternative to the chemical insecticides. One such virus, the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria...

  4. Molecular Alliance of Lymantria dispar Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus and a Short Unmodified Antisense Oligonucleotide of Its Anti-Apoptotic IAP-3 Gene: A Novel Approach for Gypsy Moth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Shumskykh, Maksym N; Kasich, Igor N; Gal'chinsky, Nikita V; Bekirova, Viktoriya V; Makarov, Valentin V; Agranovsky, Alexey A; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Zubarev, Ilya V; Kubyshkin, Anatoly V; Fomochkina, Iryna I; Gorlov, Mikhail V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2017-11-17

    Baculovirus IAP (inhibitor-of-apoptosis) genes originated by capture of host genes. Unmodified short antisense DNA oligonucleotides (oligoDNAs) from baculovirus IAP genes can down-regulate specific gene expression profiles in both baculovirus-free and baculovirus-infected insects. In this study, gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) larvae infected with multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV), and LdMNPV-free larvae, were treated with oligoDNA antisense to the RING (really interesting new gene) domain of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene. The results with respect to insect mortality, biomass accumulation, histological studies, RT-PCR, and analysis of DNA apoptotic fragmentation suggest that oligoRING induced increased apoptotic processes in both LdMNPV-free and LdMNPV-infected insect cells, but were more pronounced in the latter. These data open up possibilities for promising new routes of insect pest control using antisense phosphodiester DNA oligonucleotides.

  5. Molecular Alliance of Lymantria dispar Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus and a Short Unmodified Antisense Oligonucleotide of Its Anti-Apoptotic IAP-3 Gene: A Novel Approach for Gypsy Moth Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Oberemok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Baculovirus IAP (inhibitor-of-apoptosis genes originated by capture of host genes. Unmodified short antisense DNA oligonucleotides (oligoDNAs from baculovirus IAP genes can down-regulate specific gene expression profiles in both baculovirus-free and baculovirus-infected insects. In this study, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar larvae infected with multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV, and LdMNPV-free larvae, were treated with oligoDNA antisense to the RING (really interesting new gene domain of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene. The results with respect to insect mortality, biomass accumulation, histological studies, RT-PCR, and analysis of DNA apoptotic fragmentation suggest that oligoRING induced increased apoptotic processes in both LdMNPV-free and LdMNPV-infected insect cells, but were more pronounced in the latter. These data open up possibilities for promising new routes of insect pest control using antisense phosphodiester DNA oligonucleotides.

  6. Neurometamorphosis of the ear in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its homologue in the earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, F P; Fullard, J H

    1996-10-01

    The adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae: Noctuoidea) has a pair of metathoracic tympanic ears that each contain a two-celled auditory chordotonal organ (CO). The earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae: Bombycoidea), has a homologous pair of three-celled, nonauditory hindwing COs in their place. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the adult CO in both species arises from a preexisting larval organ or if it develops as a novel structure during metamorphosis. We describe the larval metathoracic nervous system of L. dispar and M. disstria, and identify a three-celled chordotonal organ in the anatomically homologous site as the adult CO. If the larval CO is severed from the homologue of the adult auditory nerve (IIIN1b1) in L. dispar prior to metamorphosis, the adult develops an ear lacking an auditory organ. Axonal backfills of the larval IIIN1b1 nerve in both species reveal three chordotonal sensory neurons and one nonchordotonal multipolar cell. The axons of these cells project into tracts of the central nervous system putatively homologous with those of the auditory pathway in adult L. dispar. Following metamorphosis, M. disstria moths retain all four cells (three CO and one multipolar) while L. dispar adults possess two cells that service the auditory CO and one nonauditory, multipolar cell. We conclude that the larval IIIN1b1 CO is the precursor of both the auditory organ in L. dispar and the putative proprioceptor CO in M. disstria and represents the premetamorphic condition of these insects. The implications of our results in understanding the evolution of the ear in the Lepidoptera and insects in general are discussed.

  7. Host Range Factor 1 from Lymantria dispar Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) Is an Essential Viral Factor Required for Productive Infection of NPVs in IPLB-Ld652Y Cells Derived from L. dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ikeda, Motoko; Felipe Alves, Cristiano A.; Thiem, Suzanne M.; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2004-01-01

    Host range factor 1 (HRF-1) of Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus promotes Autographa californica MNPV replication in nonpermissive Ld652Y cells derived from L. dispar. Here we demonstrate that restricted Hyphantria cunea NPV replication in Ld652Y cells was not due to apoptosis but was likely due to global protein synthesis arrest that could be restored by HRF-1. Our data also showed that HRF-1 promoted the production of progeny virions for two other baculoviruses, Bombyx mori NPV and Spodoptera exigua MNPV, whose replication in Ld652Y cells is limited to replication of viral DNA without successful production of infectious progeny virions. Thus, HRF-1 is an essential viral factor required for productive infection of NPVs in Ld652Y cells. PMID:15507661

  8. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  9. Expression of chitinase-encoding genes in Bacillus thuringiensis and toxicity of engineered B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai toward Lymantria dispar larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertcanawanichakul, Monthon; Wiwat, Chanpen; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Dean, Donald Harry

    2004-03-01

    Chitinase genes from Aeromonas hydrophila and Bacillus circulans No.4.1 were cloned into the plasmid pHY300PLK and designated as pHYA2 and pHYB43, respectively. Both plasmids were introduced into various strains of B. thuringiensis by electroporation. Plasmid pHYB43 was generally structurally stable, but showed lower segregrational stability than pHYA2 in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai when grown under nonselective conditions. The production of chitinase from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai harboring pHYB43 or pHYA2 could be detected after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D- N,N'- diacetylchitobioside as the substrate. Moreover, B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai harboring pHYB43 gave 15 times higher chitinase activity than when harboring pHYA2, as determined by means of a colorimetric method using glycol chitin as the substrate. In addition, B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai harboring pHYB43 was more toxic to gypsy moth larvae ( Lymantria dispar) than parental B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai or its clone harboring pHYA2.

  10. Influence of dietary cadmium exposure on fitness traits and its accumulation (with an overview on trace elements) in Lymantria dispar larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Mutić, Jelena; Trifković, Jelena; Đurđić, Slađana; Perić Mataruga, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    Bioaccumulation and excretion of heavy metals in insects is only partially clarified. We have investigated cadmium accumulation in the feces, head and integument of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae exposed to chronic dietary intake of cadmium. The aim of the experiment was to establish modalities of metal accumulation, primarily cadmium, as well as changes in fitness traits in two insect populations receiving 50 or 100μgCd/g dry food. The egg-masses originated from two localities: a protected nature reserve (unpolluted population) and an area near a busy highway (polluted population) in Serbia. At both added dietary levels cadmium concentration was highest in feces. Small alterations in metal concentrations after both cadmium treatments were detected in the integument. It was established that irrespective of population origin, the modality of decline of larval mass and relative growth rate (RGR) was similar. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the integument were approximately the same regardless of dietary cadmium intake. However, cadmium accumulation in the examined tissues, as well as variability of fitness traits depended on population origin and cadmium concentration. In larvae from both populations not given contaminated food the head was the organ with the greatest accumulation of trace elements. Our results reveal how invasive phytophagous insects cope with high metal concentrations in their food by body mass (RGR) reduction and energy allocation towards processes that enable accumulation of cadmium and other trace elements in different tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal analysis and spatial mapping of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus transcripts and in vitro translation polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek

    1991-01-01

    Genomic expression of the Lymantriu dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) was studied. Viral specific transcripts expressed in cell culture at various times from 2 through 72 h postinfection were identified and their genomic origins mapped through Northern analysis. Sixty-five distinct transcripts were identified in this...

  12. Synchronous Crepuscular Flight of Female Asian Gypsy Moths: Relationships of Light Intensity and Ambient and Body Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Charlton; Ring T. Carde; William E. Wallner; William E. Wallner

    1999-01-01

    Female gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) of Asian heritage studied in central Siberia and Germany exhibit a highly synchronous flight at dusk, after light intensity falls to about 2 lux. This critical light intensity sets the timing of flight behaviors independent of ambient temperature. Flight follows several minutes of preflight wing fanning during which females in...

  13. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  14. Toward a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., introduced from Europe in the 19th century, has become ...

  15. Weight Misperceptions and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Female Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona C. Krauss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.

  16. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C B; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G; Groothuis, Patrick G; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2014-11-18

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the Apc(Min/+) mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas.

  17. Effects of Lymantria dispar feeding and mechanical wounding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... In plants, lipoxygenase (LOX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been related to defense mechanisms ... Studies of insect-plant interaction suggest that ..... component of the inducible defense response in tomato against herbivores. Phytochemical diversity and redundancy in ecological interactions (eds.

  18. Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus: Identification, occurrence and genetic diversity in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A high prevalence of nuclear polyhedrosis has been observed in larval outbreaks of Lymantria mathura in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, the virus responsible has not been identified. Here the virus was designated Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus (LymaNPV), based on partial sequence results of the lef-8, lef-9, and polh genes and transmission electron microscopic observations. Diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting of the partial polh gene and a subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that LymaNPV was an exclusive causative agent for the nuclear polyhedrosis of the L. mathura larvae. LymaNPV was also detected from a very small fraction of L. dispar larvae that co-occurred with L. mathura larvae where the prevalence of LymaNPV-caused disease was high. A bioassay using LymaNPV against L. dispar larvae produced infection with the inoculated virus. This finding was consistent with the results of the field sample analysis. LymaNPV contained six genome types in the L. mathura populations sampled, as determined by RFLP of LymaNPV genomic DNA and southern blot hybridization analyses. None of the genome types was unique to any sampling site, indicating that some flow had occurred among sites. However, genome-type composition seemed to differ among sites. This study provides basic information about the interaction between L. mathura and LymaNPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the Gap: Compensation Disparities between Male and Female Physician Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noël; Cawley, James F; McCall, Timothy C

    Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession. Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Practice variables, including experience, specialty, and hours worked, were controlled for in an ordinary least-squares sequential regression model to examine whether there remained a disparity in total compensation. In addition, the absolute disparity in compensation was compared with historical data collected by American Academy of PAs over the previous 1.5 decades. Without controlling for practice variables, a total compensation disparity of $16,052 existed between men and women in the PA profession. Even after PA practice variables were controlled for, a total compensation disparity of $9,695 remained between men and women (95% confidence interval, $8,438-$10,952). A 17-year trend indicates the absolute disparity between men and women has not lessened, although the disparity as a percent of male compensation has decreased in recent years. There remain challenges to ensuring pay equality in the PA profession. Even when compensation-relevant factors such as experience, hours worked, specialty, postgraduate training, region, and call are controlled for, there is still a substantial gender disparity in PA compensation. Remedies that may address this pay inequality include raising awareness of compensation disparities, teaching effective negotiation skills, assisting employers as they develop equitable compensation plans, having less reliance on past salary in position negotiation, and professional associations advocating for policies that support equal wages and opportunities, regardless of personal characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Karl Barth’s male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s gender perspective is often analysed with reference to his so-called “theoethics” or “creational theology”. This perspective perpetuates an asymmetry in gender relations that was prevalent in Biblical times, throughout Christianity and to some extent still is visible today. He based his view on the subordination of women on an exegesis of Genesis 1:27 as “intertext” of Ephesians 5:22-23. Barth’s asymmetrical gender perspective is a product of his embedment in Western Christian tradition which in turn, is rooted in early Christian patriarchal theology. The aim of this article is to focus on Barth’s ontological reframing of the traditional understanding of the Biblical notion of human beings as created in the “image of God”. The article consists of four sections: (a Luther’s and Calvin’s gender perspectives; (b the Enlightenment failure to achieve emancipation; (c gender disparity in Reformed theology; and (d a feminist alternative.

  1. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  2. Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%. Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%, Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8% and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6% presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%, Paraiba (APC=11.9%, and Piaui (APC=10.9%. CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually, considerable inequalities are found, with rate decline or stabilization in states with higher socioeconomic levels and a substantial increase in those with lower socioeconomic levels.

  3. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  4. Spatial association of racial/ethnic disparities between late-stage diagnosis and mortality for female breast cancer: where to intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past twenty years, racial/ethnic disparities between late-stage diagnoses and mortality outcomes have widened due to disproportionate medical benefits that different racial/ethnic groups have received. Few studies to date have examined the spatial relationships of racial/ethnic disparities between breast cancer late-stage diagnosis and mortality as well as the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on these two disparities at finer geographic scales. Methods Three methods were implemented to assess the spatial relationship between racial/ethnic disparities of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis and morality. First, this study used rate difference measure to test for racial/ethnic disparities in both late-stage diagnosis and mortality of female breast cancer in Texas during 1995-2005. Second, we used linear and logistic regression models to determine if there was a correlation between these two racial/ethnic disparities at the census tract level. Third, a geographically-weighted regression analysis was performed to evaluate if this correlation occurred after weighting for local neighbors. Results The spatial association of racial disparities was found to be significant between late-stage diagnosis and breast cancer mortality with odds ratios of 33.76 (CI: 23.96-47.57) for African Americans and 30.39 (CI: 22.09-41.82) for Hispanics. After adjusting for a SES cofounder, logistic regression models revealed a reduced, although still highly significant, odds ratio of 18.39 (CI: 12.79-26.44) for African-American women and 11.64 (CI: 8.29-16.34) for Hispanic women. Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that census tracts with low and middle SES were more likely to show significant racial disparities of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis and mortality rates. However, values of local correlation coefficients suggested that the association of these two types of racial/ethnic disparities varied across geographic regions. Conclusions This study

  5. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  6. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Longitudinal Cohort of U.S. Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009. In addition to reporting sexual orientation identity/attractions, participants reported sex of lifetime sexual partners. Log-binominal models were used to examine HPV vaccination across sexual orientation groups. Among females, 56% received ≥1 dose. In contrast, 8% of males obtained ≥1 dose; HPV vaccination initiation was especially low among completely heterosexual males. After adjusting for potential confounders, completely heterosexual (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 [0.30-0.68]) and mostly heterosexual (RR; 95% CI: 0.44 [0.25-0.78]) males were half as likely to have received even a single dose compared to gay males. Compared to lesbians, no differences were observed for completely heterosexual or bisexual females, but mostly heterosexual females were 20% more likely to have received at least one dose. HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. are strikingly low and special attention is needed for boys and men, especially those who do not identify as gay. Vaccinating everyone, regardless of sex/gender and/or sexual orientation, will not only lower that individual's susceptibility but also decrease transmission to partners, females and/or males, to help eradicate HPV through herd immunity.

  7. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  8. Heterosexual male and female disparities in HIV infection at the end of an epidemic: HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in New York City, 2001-2005 and 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Arasteh, Kamyar; Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N C; Cooper, Hannah L F; Perlman, David C

    2018-04-01

    We examined whether sex disparities (heterosexual male:female) in HIV infection continue to persist at the "end of the HIV epidemic" among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City (NYC). An "end of the epidemic" was operationally defined as 1) prevalence of untreated HIV infection <5%, and 2) estimated HIV incidence <0.5/100 person-years. PWID were recruited from persons entering substance use treatment programs at Mount Sinai Beth Israel in 2001-2005 and 2011-2015. A structured interview was administered, and HIV and HSV-2 testing was conducted. Incidence was estimated using newly diagnosed cases of HIV. Disparity analyses compared prevalence of HIV, of untreated HIV, HIV risk behaviors, and estimated HIV incidence. By 2011-2015, both heterosexual male and female PWID met the two criteria for an "end of the epidemic," and there were no significant differences in the prevalence of untreated HIV infection. A large sex difference remained in estimated HIV incidence. In 2013-2015, estimated HIV incidence was 2.8/10,000 PY for males and 7.1/10,000 PY for females. Females had greater risk for HIV on several factors. While NYC has reached an "end of the epidemic" for both heterosexual male and female PWID, sex disparities persist, particularly differences in HIV incidence. Eliminating the sex disparities may require a greater focus on factors associated with sexual transmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silvicultural methods of Lymantria dispar L. management: effects on Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Andrew Liebhold; Kurt. Gottschalk

    1997-01-01

    The abundance of twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber), adults were sampled using sticky panels over a 6-year period in a mixed hardwood forest in West Virginia. Sixteen stands (average size 10.5 ha) were used in the study; eight of these were silviculturally thinned in 1989, the remainder were uncut. During 1990 and 1991, populations...

  10. European gypsy moth (lymantria dispar L.) outbreaks: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher B. Davidson; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James E. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    The literature on tree mortality following outbreaks of European gypsy moth was reviewed. The trends in defoliation and mortality and the influence of defoliation on mortality of individual trees and forest stands have been summarized via a regional perspective. The literature showed that: certain tree species are defoliated at higher rates than other species, and...

  11. The ecology, geopolitics, and economics of managing Lymantria dispar in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Barry B. Bai; Donald A. Eggen; Donna S. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Increases in global trade and travel have resulted in a number of species being inadvertently (or, in a few cases, deliberately) introduced into new geographical locations. In most cases, there is generally a lack of information regarding a species' biology and ecology, and its potential to cause environmental and economic harm. Regardless, management decisions...

  12. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    A gram-negative bacillus, pathogenic for gypsy moth larvae, was characterized culturally, morphologically, and physiologically as a member of the Serratia group of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The microorganism lacked the pigmentation characteristic of the group but was generally distinguished from closely related members of the family by its...

  13. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  14. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  15. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy R. deWaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the...

  16. A small molecule for a big transformation: Topical application of a 20-nucleotide-long antisense fragment of the DIAP-2 gene inhibits the development of Drosophila melanogaster female imagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadar Palmah M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several genes have been identified to play important roles associated with sex selection in Drosophila melanogaster. An essential part is attributed to the sex-lethal gene that depends on the expression of the X:A (number of chromosomes to autosomes ratio signal controlling both sex selection and dosage compensation processes in D. melanogaster. Interestingly, for sex selection in D. melanogaster there are no documented data addressing the role of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP genes and their signaling influence on this biological process. In this study, we found that topical application of a 20-nucleotide-long antisense DNA fragment (oligoDIAP-2 from the death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis (DIAP-2 gene interferes with D. melanogaster development and significantly decreases the number of female imagos and their biomass. We show that the applied antisense oligoDIAP-2 fragment downregulates the target DIAP-2 gene whose normal concentration is necessary for the development of female D. melanogaster. These data correspond to the results on downregulation of the target host IAP-Z gene of Lymantria dispar L. female imagos after topical treatment with an 18-nucleotide-long antisense DNA fragment from the L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus IAP-3 gene at the larval stage. The observed novel phenomenon linking the downregulation of insect IAP genes and the low rate of female imago development could have practical application, especially in insect pest control and molecular pathology.

  17. Sentencing Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice stakeholders are strongly concerned with disparities in penalty outcomes. Disparities are problematic when they represent unfounded differences in sentences, an abuse of discretion, and/or potential discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics. The Article presents an original empirical study that explores disparities in sentences at two levels: the individual case level and the regional level. More specifically, the study investigates upward departures in the United States’ federal sentencing system, which constitutes a guidelines-based structure. Upward departures carry unique consequences to individuals and their effects on the system as they lead to lengthier sentences, symbolically represent a dispute with the guidelines advice, and contribute to mass incarceration. Upward departures are discretionary to district courts and thus may lead to disparities in sentencing in which otherwise seemingly like offenders receive dissimilar sentences, in part because of the tendency of their assigned judges to depart upward (or not.

  18. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  19. Life Disparity before, during and after Stagnation of Danish Female Life Expectancy. a Cause of Death Analysis and a Comparison with Their Scandinavian Counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    Low lifespan tends to go with high lifespan inequality. We find that stagnation in lifespan of Danish women (roughly 1975-1995) was accompanied by a similar albeit shorter period of stagnation in lifespan inequality. Cause-specifically, we find that this stagnation results largely from death from...... cancers and non-infectious respiratory diseases, offsetting continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality. Before and after stagnation, life expectancy increased as disparity decreased, as the cardiovascular revolution unfolded. Comparing Denmark and its Scandinavian counterparts, we find...... that as Norway increasingly came to resemble Sweden in terms of high life expectancy, it also came to resemble Sweden in terms of low lifespan inequality. Next, we aim to make similar decompositions for Sweden and Norway, and aim to disentangle cohort effects from the question: what can Denmark do now...

  20. Disparities in Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer Among Female Residents of Texas: The Role of Racial Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chinedum O; Luo, Wen; Ory, Marcia G; McMaughan, Darcy; Bolin, Jane N

    2017-04-01

    Early-stage breast cancer can be surgically treated by using mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy, also known as breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Little is known about the association between racial residential segregation, year of diagnosis, and surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer, and whether racial residential segregation influences the association between other demographic characteristics and disparities in surgical treatment. This was a retrospective study using data from the Texas Cancer Registry composed of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2012. The dependent variable was treatment using mastectomy or BCT (M/BCT) and the independent variables of interest (IVs) were racial residential segregation and year of diagnosis. The covariates were race, residence, ethnicity, tumor grade, census tract (CT) poverty level, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and year of diagnosis. Bivariate and multivariable multilevel logistic regression models were estimated. The final sample size was 69,824 individuals nested within 4335 CTs. Adjusting for the IVs and all covariates, there were significantly decreased odds of treatment using M/BCT, as racial residential segregation increased from 0 to 1 (odds ratio [OR] 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.54). There was also an increased likelihood of treatment using M/BCT with increasing year of diagnosis (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.16). A positive interaction effect between racial residential segregation and race was observed (OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). Residents of areas with high indices of racial residential segregation were less likely to be treated with M/BCT. Racial disparities in treatment using M/BCT increased with increasing racial residential segregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  2. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  3. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid M. Chaudhry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year’s time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the purpose. 10 qualitative interviews were also conducted to supplement the findings and discussion. Quantification of the data suggests that males not only get more obituaries but also get added projection when compared to females. To understand the reasons behind this varied treatment, the participants’ responses were analyzed. The findings reveal that the observed differences in the death reportage of both genders do not purely fall in the line of gender discrimination. Males get situational advantage due to the factors like familial traditions, religious beliefs, cultural traditions and socio-economic environments.

  4. Impact of viral enhancin genes on potency of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in L. dispar following disruption of the peritrophic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Merideth A. Humphries; Alyssa R. Genfron; James M. Slavicek

    2010-01-01

    Enhancins are metalloproteases found in many betabaculoviruses and several alphabaculoviruses, which enhance alphabaculovirus potency by degrading a protein component of the peritrophic matrix (PM), facilitating passage of virions through this structure. Earlier studies on betabaculovirus enhancins within heterologous systems suggested that enhancins facilitate virion...

  5. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  6. What is Binocular Disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Lappin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the geometric primitives of binocular disparity? The Venetian blind effect and other converging lines of evidence indicate that stereo-scopic depth perception derives from disparities of higher-order structure in images of surfaces. Image structure entails spatial variations of in-tensity, texture, and motion, jointly structured by observed surfaces. The spatial structure of bin-ocular disparity corresponds to the spatial struc-ture of surfaces. Independent spatial coordinates are not necessary for stereoscopic vision. Stere-opsis is highly sensitive to structural disparities associated with local surface shape. Disparate positions on retinal anatomy are neither neces-sary nor sufficient for stereopsis.

  7. Gender disparity in hopelessness among unemployed graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking recourse to the traditional gender-role expectation which views males as the family breadwinner and head, it is assumed that the psychological consequences of unemployment may not be the same for both male and female unemployed. In view of this, this study examined gender disparities in hopelessness in a ...

  8. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  9. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  10. Dermatologic health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Kesha J.; Stevens, Erica I.; Elmets, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Though significant data exist highlighting the extent of health disparities there is limited data specifically on dermatologic health disparities. Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer outcomes are poorer for ethnic minorities, people of low socioeconomic status, less educated, elderly, and uninsured. Recent reports indicate that atopic dermatitis is more prevalent among ethnic minorities; however it is unclear if morbidity is also increased in these populations. Given the current dermatology workforce shortage, the increased patient load may have an adverse effect on dermatologic care access. Additional concerns include the state of dermatologic training, insufficient research involving ethnic minorities, and a lack of investigations of dermatologic health disparities. As the U.S. demographics shift to become more racially diverse, the need to address and reduce dermatologic health disparities will increase. PMID:22117867

  11. Regional disparities in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Czabán, Vera

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  12. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  13. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  14. Regional disparities of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cismas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional issues include a variety of events that reflect the persistence of imbalances/ disparities in the development of a country’s regions (the trend of regional divergence. The major problem faced by all European regions is the high level of long-term unemployment, interregional disparities in this respect being obvious. The many (negative effects that unemployment generates - both for society and for individuals - fully justify the concerns of the world governments regarding both this reality and the continuous concern for finding solutions on employment at the highest level possible. These are the reasons why, this paper analyzes the issue of regional disparities of unemployment, in the EU countries, focusing on Romanian regions, using statistical data relevant for this purpose.

  15. Identification of Factors Contributing to Gender Disparity in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in absolute numbers while female dismissal rates soared alarmingly between 2000/01-2004/05. To bridge the gender disparity in participation, the paper recommends intervention strategies aimed at bolstering academic achievement and positive self-concept among female students. East African Social Science Research ...

  16. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  17. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  18. The 5' non-translated region of Varroa destructor virus 1 (genus Iflavirus): structure prediction and IRES activity in Lymantria dispar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.; Roode, E.C.; Pleij, C.W.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Structure prediction of the 5' non-translated region (NTR) of four iflavirus RNAs revealed two types of potential internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which are discriminated by size and level of complexity, in this group of viruses. In contrast to the intergenic IRES of dicistroviruses, the

  19. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Pilarska, D. K.; Linde, A.; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, M. L.; Hoch, G.; Solter, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 292-304 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:Karlova Univerzita v Praze a USDA US Forest Service(CZ) 161/79-982111; USDA FS Cooperative Agreement(US) AG 01CA-11242343-107; Grant US Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-65-0344; Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft(BG) 436 BUL 17/8/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : microsporidia * parasitology * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  20. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  1. Potency of nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes for European and Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; V.V. Martemyanov; J.M. Slavicek; S.A. Bakhavalov; S.V. Pavlushin; N. Hayes-Plazolles; R.T. Zerillo

    2013-01-01

    Gypchek is a gypsy nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product used for management of European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar L.) in the Unlted States, primarily in areas where the use of broad-spectrum pesticides is not appropriate. Similar LdMNPV products are used in Russia for control of a flighted-female strain of Asian gypsy moth (...

  2. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic, social, psychological ...One aspect of our experimental approach is to test whether therapeutically targeting cholesterol using heart healthy diets and FDA approved, safe and...of the racial differences seen in incidence and mortality. We sought to test this using preclinical models (done by Dr. Solomon for which no data

  3. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  4. Studi Biologi Ulat Bulu Lymantria marginata Wlk. (Lepidoptera : Lymantridae Pada Tanaman Mangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management, Departmentof Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Udayana. The purpose of this study was todetermine the life cycle of caterpillars L. marginata, praoviposisi period, oviposition, pascaoviposisi,male imago long life, female imago long life and fecundity of caterpillars L. marginata and sex ratio ofcaterpillars L. marginataThe results showed that the life cycle of L. marginata average of 52.00 ± 3.68 days with an eggstage was 8.20 ± 1.88 days, larval stage average 29.05 ± 1.76 days, and the pupal stage an average of12.60 ± 2.18 days (n = 20.The number of eggs laid by the female imago is 2872 grains with an average 143.60 ± 34.63 eggsper imago, with praoviposisi period was 2.15 ± 0.75 days, oviposition period of 1.80 ± 0.77 days, aperiod pascaoviposisi 2.05 ± 0.83 days. Females imago long live ranged from 5-7 days with an averageof 6 ± 0.85 days and males imago long life ranged from 2-7 days with an average of 4.5 ± 1.54 days(n = 20. Sex ratio of L. marginata approaching 1:1 (47% males and 53% females

  5. Gender disparity in antihypertensive utilization and blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and alpha methyldopa were more frequently prescribed in males (P=0.02) and females (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Gender disparity occurs in the utilization of certain antihypertensives and blood pressure control in the study population. This may be related to biologic, ...

  6. Student Enrolment in Malaysian Higher Education: Is There Gender Disparity and What Can We Learn from the Disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang-Da

    2018-01-01

    Access into higher education has traditionally been dominated by males. However, the current situation in Malaysia as well as in many developed and developing nations is that females have outnumbered males in higher education. By comparing gender enrolment, this paper illustrates the extent of gender disparity in Malaysian higher education across…

  7. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Geographical disparities of infant mortality in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun; He, Chunhua; Li, Xiaohong; Miao, Lei; Liang, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trends and causes of regional disparities of infant mortality rate (IMR) in rural China from 1996 to 2008. A population-based, longitudinal study. The national child mortality surveillance network. Population of the 79 surveillance counties. IMR, leading causes of infant death and the RR of IMR. The IMR in coastal, inland and remote regions declined by 72.4%, 62.9% and 58.2%, respectively, from 1996 to 2008. Compared with the coastal region, the RR of IMR were 1.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 1.9), 1.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.0) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) for inland region and 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.7), 3.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 3.5) and 3.1 (95% CI 2.7 to 3.4) for the remote region during 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008, respectively. The regional disparities existed for both male and female IMRs. The postneonatal mortality showed the highest regional disparities. Pneumonia, birth asphyxia, prematurity/low birth weight, injuries and diarrhoea were the main contributors to the regional disparities. There were significantly more infants who did not seek healthcare services before death in the remote region relative to the inland and coastal regions. The results indicated persistent existence of regional disparities in IMR in rural China. It is worth noting that regional disparities in IMR increased in the remote and coastal regions during 2001-2005 in rural China. These disparities remained unchanged during 2006-2008. The results indicate that strategies to reduce mortality caused by pneumonia, birth asphyxia and diarrhoea are keys to reducing IMR.

  9. Primary Care Providers Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Eugene; Leiferman, Jenn A.; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of primary care providers (PCPs) regarding the presence and underlying sources of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control. METHODS We conducted a survey of 115 PCPs from 2 large academic centers in Colorado. We included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The survey assessed provider recognition and perceived contributors of disparities in hypertension control. RESULTS Respondents were primarily female (66%), non-Hispanic White (84%), and physicians (80%). Among respondents, 67% and 73% supported the collection of data on the patients’ race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Eighty-six percent and 89% agreed that disparities in race/ethnicity and SES existed in hypertension care within the US health system. However, only 33% and 44% thought racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities existed in the care of their own patients. Providers were more likely to perceive patient factors rather than provider or health system factors as mediators of disparities. However, most supported interventions such as improving provider communication skills (87%) and cultural competency training (89%) to reduce disparities in hypertension control. CONCLUSIONS Most providers acknowledged that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control exist in the US health system, but only a minority reported disparities in care among patients they personally treat. Our study highlights the need for testing an intervention aimed at increasing provider awareness of disparities within the local health setting to improve hypertension control for minority patients. PMID:25631381

  10. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  11. Vectoring gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus by Apanteles melanoscelus (Hym.:Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Raimo; R.C. Reardon; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. larvae were exposed to Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) females contaminated with nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Three methods of contamination (ovipositor, total body surface, and exposure to infected hosts) and two exposure periods (2 and 24 hours) were tested. A significantly greater incidence of...

  12. Environmental health disparities in housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E

    2011-12-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing.

  13. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  14. Gender Disparity in Criminal Behaviour in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There had been differences in the crimes committed by male and female in various stages, throughout the world. Male criminality became the most significant issue in the literary discussion of crime, which gave female criminality little or no attention. Against this background, this paper looked into disparity in the punishment ...

  15. Gender Disparity in Criminal Behaviour in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Ado-Ekiti, Behaviour, Criminal, Disparity, and Gender. Introduction. Male and female define biological sex, feminine and masculine are socially constructed Genders. Maleness and femaleness are referred to as ascribed traits, feminility and masculinity as achieved characteristic that highly varied from one culture ...

  16. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 Years in the United States ... Do To Address Disparities Community-wide Initiatives Preventing teen pregnancy: Remarkable progress for many teens, but challenges ...

  17. Are We Missing the Mark? The Implementation of Community Based Participatory Education in Cancer Disparities Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Cassandra; Naylor, Keith; Watkins, Yashika; Britt, Thomas; Hinton, Lisa; Curry, Gina; Randal, Fornessa; Lam, Helen; Kim, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The Chicago south side, even more so than national populations, continues to be burdened with widening gaps of disparities in cancer outcomes. Therefore, Chicago community members were engaged in addressing the following content areas for a cancer disparities curriculum: (1) the south side Chicago community interest in participating in curriculum design, (2) how community members should be involved in designing cancer disparities curriculum, and (3) what community members believe the curriculum should address to positively impact their community. Eighty-six community members from 19 different zip code areas of Chicago attended the deliberative session. A survey composed of three quantitative and three short-answer content questions was analyzed. The majority of participants were from the south side of Chicago (62 %) and females (86 %). Most, 94 %, believed community members should be involved in cancer disparities curriculum development. Moreover, 56 % wanted to be involved in designing the curriculum, and 61 % reported an interest in taking a course in cancer disparities. Three categorical themes were derived from the qualitative questions: (1) community empowerment through disparities education-"a prescription for change," (2) student skill development in community engagement and advocacy training, and (3) community expression of shared experiences in cancer health disparities. The community provided valuable input for curricular content and has an interest in collaborating on cancer disparities curriculum design. Community participation must be galvanized to improve disparities curricular development and delivery to successfully address the challenges of eliminating disparities in health.

  18. The Role of Colorism in Explaining African American Females' Suspension Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Keith, Verna M.; Luo, Wen; Le, Huong; Salter, Phia

    2017-01-01

    African American female students' elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females' school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in…

  19. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  20. Dialysis facility staff perceptions of racial, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipford, Kristie J; McPherson, Laura; Hamoda, Reem; Browne, Teri; Gander, Jennifer C; Pastan, Stephen O; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-01-10

    Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States. This is a mixed methods study that uses both deductive and inductive qualitative analysis of a dialysis staff survey conducted in 2012 using three open-ended questions that asked staff to discuss their perceptions of factors that may contribute to transplant disparities among African American, female, and elderly patients. Study results suggested that the majority of staff (n = 255, 28%) perceived patients' low socioeconomic status as the primary theme related to why renal transplant disparities exist between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Staff cited patient perception of old age as a primary contributor (n = 188, 23%) to the disparity between young and elderly patients. The dialysis staff responses on gender transplant disparities suggested that staff were unaware of differences due to limited experience and observation (n = 76, 14.7%) of gender disparities. These findings suggest that dialysis facilities should educate staff on existing renal transplantation disparities, particularly gender disparities, and collaboratively work with transplant facilities to develop strategies to actively address modifiable patient barriers for transplant.

  1. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  2. Influences for gender disparity in dermatology in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ahmed; Jalal, Sabeena; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-02-01

    Despite constituting half the population, women represent a minority of active physicians and hold a small proportion of faculty leadership positions in North America. However, dermatology is one of the few specialties where women comprise a substantial portion of the workforce. This study explores extent and contributors to gender disparity in academic dermatology faculty positions, leadership, and research. We collected data on academic faculty including leadership from the websites of accredited U.S. and Canadian dermatology faculties. We used PubMed and SCOPUS to collect faculty research information including h-index, number of publications, citations, and years of active research. Although women constitute almost half of all dermatologists in the U.S. and Canada (47.9%), only one-fourth (26.1%) of all faculty heads are women. Furthermore, the proportion of women in higher faculty ranks (Assistant Professor, Associate Professors, and Professors) is much lower than males. Female dermatologists also have fewer publications, citations, and years of active research. Interestingly, having a female in a leadership position is associated with a higher proportion of female dermatologists in the faculty. Gender disparity exists in academic dermatology, and the current academics fail to account for the enormous social challenges that women face, which may put them at a disadvantage to career advancement. Among other factors, better representation of female leadership may encourage and inspire women joining academic faculties in the future. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  5. Primary Care Providers Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jessica; Nuccio, Eugene; Leiferman, Jenn A; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of primary care providers (PCPs) regarding the presence and underlying sources of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control. We conducted a survey of 115 PCPs from 2 large academic centers in Colorado. We included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The survey assessed provider recognition and perceived contributors of disparities in hypertension control. Respondents were primarily female (66%), non-Hispanic White (84%), and physicians (80%). Among respondents, 67% and 73% supported the collection of data on the patients' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Eighty-six percent and 89% agreed that disparities in race/ethnicity and SES existed in hypertension care within the US health system. However, only 33% and 44% thought racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities existed in the care of their own patients. Providers were more likely to perceive patient factors rather than provider or health system factors as mediators of disparities. However, most supported interventions such as improving provider communication skills (87%) and cultural competency training (89%) to reduce disparities in hypertension control. Most providers acknowledged that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control exist in the US health system, but only a minority reported disparities in care among patients they personally treat. Our study highlights the need for testing an intervention aimed at increasing provider awareness of disparities within the local health setting to improve hypertension control for minority patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Quality of Care and Disparities in Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Growing attention is being paid to obstetric quality of care as patients are pressing the health care system to measure and improve quality. There is also an increasing recognition of persistent racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in obstetric outcomes. Yet few studies have linked obstetric quality of care with racial and ethnic disparities. This article reviews definitions of quality of care, health disparities, and health equity as they relate to obstetric care and outcomes; describes current efforts and challenges in obstetric quality measurement; and proposes 3 steps in an effort to develop, track, and improve quality and reduce disparities in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  8. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  9. Characterizing, modeling, and addressing gender disparities in introductory college physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth

    2011-12-01

    The underrepresentation and underperformance of females in physics has been well documented and has long concerned policy-makers, educators, and the physics community. In this thesis, we focus on gender disparities in the first- and second-semester introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. Success in these courses is critical for future study and careers in physics (and other sciences). Using data gathered from roughly 10,000 undergraduate students, we identify and model gender differences in the introductory physics courses in three areas: student performance, retention, and psychological factors. We observe gender differences on several measures in the introductory physics courses: females are less likely to take a high school physics course than males and have lower standardized mathematics test scores; males outscore females on both pre- and post-course conceptual physics surveys and in-class exams; and males have more expert-like attitudes and beliefs about physics than females. These background differences of males and females account for 60% to 70% of the gender gap that we observe on a post-course survey of conceptual physics understanding. In analyzing underlying psychological factors of learning, we find that female students report lower self-confidence related to succeeding in the introductory courses (self-efficacy) and are less likely to report seeing themselves as a "physics person". Students' self-efficacy beliefs are significant predictors of their performance, even when measures of physics and mathematics background are controlled, and account for an additional 10% of the gender gap. Informed by results from these studies, we implemented and tested a psychological, self-affirmation intervention aimed at enhancing female students' performance in Physics 1. Self-affirmation reduced the gender gap in performance on both in-class exams and the post-course conceptual physics survey. Further, the benefit of the self

  10. Gender Disparity in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi Orode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination in benefiting from medical treatment is a worldwide pro-blem. Kidney transplantation, as the ideal treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, is not an exception. Considering the unique kidney donation patterns and different family styles in the Middle East, studying this problem in Iran seemed justifiable and necessary. In addition to comparing the numbers of female and male recipients, which has been done in other similar studies, considering the critical effect of waiting time on the outcome, we assessed and compared the waiting times also. The data of age, gender, nationality, donor type and waiting time before transplantation of 1426 (61.85% male, 38.14% female recipients who underwent transplantation in Imam Reza Hospital in the northeast of Iran from 1990 to 2003, was analyzed. Recipients were categorised into three groups based on donation patterns: those receiving kidney from live unrelated, live related and cadaver donors. The number of patients in each group was 1057 (61.96% male, 38.03% female, 232 (67.24% male, 32.75% female and 137 (51.82% male, 48.17% female respectively. The mean overall waiting time was 708 days. Comparing waiting time of male and female recipients in each of these groups did not show significant difference. In all categories of donors, females were less likely than males to be recipients. Furthermore, waiting time for females was longer than males when receiving kidney from sisters and children. For spousal donations, males were recipients more frequently than females although female recipients in this group waited less than their male counterparts to receive the kidney. Generally, our results are in accordance with results of similar researches. In all three mentioned groups, males com-prised the majority while the waiting time does not show significant difference between genders. We suggest some reasons for this phenomenon, of which the two main ones are: fewer females

  11. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  12. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  13. School Discipline Disparities: Lessons and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief, recent actions related to school discipline, discipline disparities in schools, the school-to-prison pipeline, and the added costs of suspending students in the U.S. are explored. The recommendations offered focus on how school leaders and policy makers can address disparities and how school cultures can be changed to reduce the…

  14. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure... upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants, or members have not...

  15. Regional economic disparities in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the analysis of regional income convergence inColombia, through the use of the income data recently estimated for the departments,the main subnational political units. The results show a polarization process betweenBogotá and the rest of the departments. The preponderance of Bogotá during the periodanalyzed is also discussed: its per capita income is more than double that of thenational average, and more than eight times the per capita income of the poorest department,Chocó. Persistence in the departmental per capita income ranking is observed:Bogotá is always ahead, while the departments in the periphery are in the last places.The findings lead to the conclusion that it is necessary to design policies to correctthe significant disparities in per capita income between Colombian regions.

  16. Disparity filtering: proximity detection and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David; Horswill, Ian; von Kaenel, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Simple stereo disparity filters can provide `proximity detectors' shaped like concave shells in front of the observer. Ideally, these are isodisparity surfaces. In practice, a narrowly tuned filter results in a thin shell. The special case of the zero-disparity surface is called the horopter. A disparity filter can also be useful for distinguishing an object that lies on an isodisparity surface from its surroundings. These filters are much less expensive than stereographic scene interpretation since they are local operations. Similarly, they are also less general. We analyze the expected proximity sensitivity of one simple version of the disparity filter and compare this to its empirical performance. We also present some feature based and correlation based disparity filters and compare their `segmentation' performance on various scenes.

  17. Socioeconomic dynamics of gender disparity in childhood immunization in India, 1992-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Prusty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that gender disparity in child health is minimal and narrowed over time in India. However, considering the geographical and socio-cultural diversity in India, the gender gap may persist across disaggregated socioeconomic context which may be masked by average level. This study examines the dynamics of gender disparity in childhood immunization across regions, residence, wealth, caste and religion in India during 1992-2006.We used multi-waves of the cross-sectional data of National Family Health Survey conducted in India between 1992-93 and 2005-06. Gender disparity ratio was used to measure the gender gap in childhood immunization across the selected socioeconomic characteristics. Multinomial regression analysis was used to examine the gender gap after accounting for other covariates.Results indicate that, at aggregate level, gender disparity in full immunization is minimal and has stagnated during the study period. However, gender disparity--disfavouring female children--becomes apparent across the regions, poor households, and religion--particularly among Muslims. Adjusted gender disparity ratio indicates that, full immunization is lower among female than male children of the western region, poor household and among Muslims. Between 1992-93 and 2005-06, the disparity in full immunization had narrowed in the northern region whereas it had, astonishingly, increased in some of the western and southern states of the country.Our findings emphasize the need to integrate gender issues in the ongoing immunization programme in India, with particular attention to urban areas, developed states, and to the Muslim community.

  18. UNEMPLOYMENT IN SLOVENIA: IMPACT OF GENDER DISPARITIES DURING UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja BORŠIČ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is one of the most important driving forces for economic competitiveness, development and growth. One half of a nation’s skills, knowledge, and productivity is represented by women. In the long run a country’s economic performance depends on how effectively and to what extent female talent is well utilized. Our survival analysis of gender disparities in duration of unemployed spells in Slovenia was based on a dataset with more than 450,000 unemployment spells for individuals between January 2004 and July 2008. The empirical analysis based on Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival function suggests that gender disparities in the duration of unemployment spells in Slovenia are significant. Our database shows that there are 107% more unemployment spells for women with tertiary education compared to men with the same level of education. This fact is indicating unexploited potential and underuse of female talents which, if accessed, could contribute to higher competitiveness and overall stronger economic growth of the country.

  19. Analysis of Disparity Error for Stereo Autofocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Shao-Kang; Shih, Kuang-Tsu; Chen, Homer H

    2018-04-01

    As more and more stereo cameras are installed on electronic devices, we are motivated to investigate how to leverage disparity information for autofocus. The main challenge is that stereo images captured for disparity estimation are subject to defocus blur unless the lenses of the stereo cameras are at the in-focus position. Therefore, it is important to investigate how the presence of defocus blur would affect stereo matching and, in turn, the performance of disparity estimation. In this paper, we give an analytical treatment of this fundamental issue of disparity-based autofocus by examining the relation between image sharpness and disparity error. A statistical approach that treats the disparity estimate as a random variable is developed. Our analysis provides a theoretical backbone for the empirical observation that, regardless of the initial lens position, disparity-based autofocus can bring the lens to the hill zone of the focus profile in one movement. The insight gained from the analysis is useful for the implementation of an autofocus system.

  20. Academic musculoskeletal radiology: influences for gender disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Sadia R; Khurshid, Kiran; Jalal, Sabeena; Bancroft, Laura; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-03-01

    Research productivity is one of the few quintessential gauges that North American academic radiology departments implement to determine career progression. The rationale of this study is to quantify the relationship of gender, research productivity, and academic advancements in the musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology to account for emerging trends in workforce diversity. Radiology residency programs enlisted in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA), Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) and International Skeletal Society (ISS) were searched for academic faculty to generate the database for gender and academic profiles of MSK radiologists. Bibliometric data was collected using Elsevier's SCOPUS archives, and analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Among 274 MSK radiologists in North America, 190 (69.34%) were men and 84 (30.66%) were women, indicating a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.34; p value = 0.042). The available number of female assistant professors (n = 50) was more than half of the male assistant professors (n = 88), this ratio however, plummeted at higher academic ranks, with only one-fourth of women (n = 11) professors compared to men (n = 45). The male MSK radiologist had 1.31 times the odds of having a higher h-index, keeping all other variables constant. The trend of gender disparity exists in MSK radiology with significant underrepresentation of women in top tiers of academic hierarchy. Even with comparable h-indices, at the lower academic ranks, a lesser number of women are promoted relative to their male colleagues. Further studies are needed to investigate the degree of influence research productivity has, in determining academic advancement of MSK radiologists.

  1. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  2. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  4. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. A Qualitative Study of Female Superintendents: Leadership Behaviors in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Amedy, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Remarkably few females hold the position of superintendent; although, there are capable women in the educational field who are qualified and interested. Researchers proposed many reasons for this disparity including the lack of studies regarding females in the superintendency. This void has made it difficult to determine a clear picture of what leadership behaviors female superintendents employ. Research questions included: (1) What leadership assumptions appear to form the basis for the lead...

  7. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  8. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...

  9. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  10. REGIONAL DISPARITIES – HISTORICAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate

  11. Race/ethnicity and disparities in mastectomy practice in the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dookeran, Keith A; Silva, Abigail; Warnecke, Richard B; Rauscher, Garth H

    2015-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic disparities in mastectomy practice and explore mediating factors to explain the disparity. Participants included 989 females aged 30-79 years, from a population-based study of newly diagnosed (primary in situ/invasive) breast cancer patients, in Chicago, Illinois, from 2005 to 2008, who completed an interview. Medical records were also abstracted for tumor, diagnostic, and treatment information. Multivariable logistic regression models with model-based standardization were used to estimate risk differences. Differences in rescaled coefficients were used to estimate the proportion of the disparity that could be mediated by patient and tumor characteristics. Mastectomy prevalence overall was 40 %. Factors significantly associated with increased rates of mastectomy (p race/ethnicity; younger age at diagnosis; lower socioeconomic status (SES); lack of recency of and adherence to screening mammography; and higher tumor pathologic stage and grade. In adjusted models (age, body mass index, comorbidity), compared to nH white patients, mastectomy was increased by 10 % points in both nH black (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.03, 0.18; p = 0.007) and Hispanic (95 % CI 0.01, 0.19; p = 0.028) patients. After accounting for the proportion of disparity mediated by tumor stage, the disparity was reduced by about a third in nH black (risk difference = 0.07, 95 % CI -0.01, 0.14) and half in Hispanic patients (risk difference = 0.04, 95 % CI -0.05, 0.13). Additional control for mediation by SES and other tumor-related factors almost completely eliminated the nH black:nH white disparity. The best approach to reducing the racial/ethnic disparity in mastectomy rates would be to intervene on factors that could affect stage at diagnosis.

  12. Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . The coding algorithm is based on bit-plane coding, disparity prediction via disparity warping and context-based arithmetic coding exploiting predicted disparity data. Experimental results show that the proposed compression scheme achieves average compression factors of about 48:1 for high resolution...... disparity maps for stereo pairs and outperforms different standard solutions for lossless still image compression. Moreover, it provides a progressive representation of disparity data as well as a parallelizable structure....

  13. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-01-02

    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p alcohol use willingness in multivariable cross-sectional or longitudinal models by sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to reduce tobacco-related disparities among sexual minorities.

  14. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  15. Sexual Orientation Trends and Disparities in School Bullying and Violence-Related Experiences, 1999–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J.; Adjei, Jones; Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of a population-based high school survey, we examine (1) the extent to which sexual orientation differences in school bullying and violence-related experiences are reported by lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female adolescents; (2) trends in school bullying and violence-related experiences for each gender/orientation group, and (3) whether disparities have changed over time. Data were drawn from eight Massachusetts biennial Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 1999 to 2013, grouped into 4 waves totaling 24,845 self-identified heterosexual, 270 lesbian/gay, and 857 bisexual youth. Disparities between LGB and heterosexual peers were found in all indicators. Heterosexual youth and gay males saw significant reductions in every outcome between the first and last waves. Among bisexual males, skipping school due to feeling unsafe, carrying weapons in school, and being bullied all decreased, but among lesbians and bisexual females only fighting in school declined significantly. Improvement trends in school safety were more consistent for heterosexual youth and gay males than for bisexual or lesbian females. Notably, despite these improvements, almost no reduction was seen in sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. PMID:29322064

  16. Sexual Orientation Trends and Disparities in School Bullying and Violence-Related Experiences, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Carol; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of a population-based high school survey, we examine (1) the extent to which sexual orientation differences in school bullying and violence-related experiences are reported by lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female adolescents; (2) trends in school bullying and violence-related experiences for each gender/orientation group, and (3) whether disparities have changed over time. Data were drawn from eight Massachusetts biennial Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 1999 to 2013, grouped into 4 waves totaling 24,845 self-identified heterosexual, 270 lesbian/gay, and 857 bisexual youth. Disparities between LGB and heterosexual peers were found in all indicators. Heterosexual youth and gay males saw significant reductions in every outcome between the first and last waves. Among bisexual males, skipping school due to feeling unsafe, carrying weapons in school, and being bullied all decreased, but among lesbians and bisexual females only fighting in school declined significantly. Improvement trends in school safety were more consistent for heterosexual youth and gay males than for bisexual or lesbian females. Notably, despite these improvements, almost no reduction was seen in sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities. Future research should identify influences leading to reduced school victimization, especially focusing on ways of eliminating persistent sexual orientation disparities.

  17. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Morphotype disparity in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Reitner, Joachim; Braiser, Martin; Donoghue, Phil; Schirrmeister, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Prokaryotes have dominated life on Earth for over 2 billion years. Throughout the Precambrian, prokaryotes acted as the major biological impetus for both large and small scale environmental changes. Yet, very little is known about the composition, diversity and evolution of ancient microbial communities due to poor preservation during the Precambrian period. Previous studies of fossils that date to this period relied mainly on light microscopy to identify microfossil morphology and abundance, with limited success. Here we present novel analyses of the microbial remains found in Precambrian stromatolites using Synchrotron Radiation x-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Microfossils found in samples of three Precambrian deposits, 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool, Australia, 2.1 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, and 650 Ma Rasthof Cap Carbonate, Namibia, have been reconstructed in 3D. Based on four scans from each sample, we estimated size and abundance of spheroidal microfossils within those deposits. Our findings show that while cell abundance decreased towards the end of the Precambrian, the biovolume of microfossils within the host rock remained relatively constant. Additionally, both size and disparity increase through time. Constant biovolumes and yet different sizes for these three deposits, point towards a negative correlation of large cell size and cell abundance. This negative correlation indicates that the systems in which these prokaryotes lived may have been biolimited. Both, gas exchange and nutrient uptake in prokaryotes function via diffusion. Therefore, one would expect bacteria to evolve towards an increasing surface to volume ratio. Increased cell sizes, and hence decreased overall surface to volume ratio observed in our data, suggest the influence of other selective factors. Decreased abundance and increased cell size could potentially be associated to changes in nutrient availability and the occurrence of predation. As cells increased in size, more nutrients would

  19. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  20. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  1. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  2. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  3. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  4. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  5. Mediation Analysis for Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica E M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-08-15

    Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation. We used data on 900,726 births from 2003 to 2007 in the Penn Moms study, conducted in Pennsylvania, to assess the extent to which breastfeeding prior to hospital discharge explained the racial disparity in infant mortality. Overall, for every 1,000 births, 3.36 more infant deaths occurred among non-Hispanic black women relative to all other women (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 3.93). Using the difference and generalized product methods to assess the disparity that would remain if everyone breastfed prior to discharge suggested a complete elimination of the disparity (risk difference = -0.87 per 1,000 births; 95% confidence interval: -1.39, -0.35). In contrast, doubly robust methods suggested a reduction in the disparity to 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 2.20, 2.71) more infant deaths per 1,000 births among non-Hispanic black women. Standard approaches for mediation analysis in health disparities research can yield misleading results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet Siena; Uribe, Erika Flores; Weingart, Saul

    2017-09-01

    Although there is extensive evidence on disparities in the process and outcomes of health care, data on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety remain inconclusive in the United States. The aims of this study were to (1) explore differences in reporting race/ethnicity in studies on disparities in patient safety; (2) assess adjustment for socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and disease severity; and (3) make recommendations on the inclusion of race/ethnicity for future studies on adverse events. We searched PubMed database (for articles published from 1991 to May 1, 2013) using a predetermined criteria for studies on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety. Only quantitative studies that used chart review or administrative data for the detection of adverse events were considered for eligibility. Two reviewers independently extracted data on inclusion of race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and in stratification of outcomes. A total of 174 studies were initially obtained from the search. Of these, 24 met inclusion criteria and received full-text review. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies. Eight studies included race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and adjusted for confounders. Hospital-level variations such teaching status and percentage of minorities served were infrequently analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first methodological review of racial/ethnic disparities in patient safety in the United States. The evidence on the existence of disparities in adverse events was mixed. Poor stratification of outcomes by race/ethnicity and consideration of geographic and hospital-level variations explain the inconclusive evidence; variations in the quality of care at hospitals should be considered in studies using national databases.

  7. Race and healthcare disparities: overcoming vulnerablity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes recently published data and recommendations about healthcare disparities experienced by African Americans who have Medicare or other healthcare coverage. Against this background the paper addresses the ethics of such disparities and how disadvantages of vulnerable populations like African Americans are typically maintained in decision making about how to respond to such disparities. Considering how to respond to disparities reveals much that vulnerable populations would bring to the policy-making table, if they can also be heard when they get there. The paper argues that vulnerable populations like African Americans need fair representation in bodies deciding what to do about such disparities and that fairness requires proportional representation at all levels of decisions that affect healthcare--a radical change. In this decision setting, how to provide adequate protection of minorities needs much further attention. The most attractive decision-making model is deliberative democracy. The paper shows that in deliberation, fair representation requires not only having a voice in decisions, but a fair hearing of those voices. Achieving a fair hearing requires changes in norms of communication and training of all to give importance to greetings and other measures of civility and trust building, and to be open to diverse forms of expression. Decisions about how to respond to healthcare disparities would include what programs to initiate for whom, how to evaluate the programs, and what to do in response to such evaluations. Conclusions are that achieving such goals will take a sea change in how healthcare institutions and providers do their business, and that social activism at every level will be needed to effect these changes. The discussion highlights many ethical issues that need much greater attention.

  8. Credit Risk and Regional Economic Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vaněk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to bridge the areas of credit risk and regional economic disparities, and investigates the relationship between credit risk and economic indicators in the Czech Republic at the regional (NUTS 3 level. This relationship is consecutively examined using graphical and correlation analysis, regression techniques, and different types of clustering methods. Regions are then clustered into three groups according to their economic similarities and disparities. Subsequently, it is shown on the real data that region-specific information has the potential to be utilizable in credit scoring and possibly other applications.

  9. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Jung, Minna; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Using a quality improvement framework to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care highlights multiple opportunities for federal and state governments to exert policy leverage, particularly through their roles as purchasers and regulators. Under such a framework, federal and state governments can expand their roles in collecting race/ethnicity data; define universal and meaningful race/ethnicity categories; more broadly disseminate standards for cultural competence; and demand the reduction of disparities through leveraging their status as collectively the largest U.S. health care payer.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

  11. Have Mischievous Responders Misidentified Sexual Minority Youth Disparities in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Russell, Stephen T

    2017-05-05

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has been instrumental in identifying sexual minority youth health disparities. Recent commentary suggested that some Wave 1 youth responders, especially males, intentionally mismarked same-sex attraction and, as a result, published reports of health disparities from these data may be suspect. We use two recently developed approaches to identify "jokesters" and mischievous responding and apply them to the Add Health data. First, we show that Wave 1 same-sex attracted youth, including those who later reported completely heterosexual identities in adulthood, were no more likely than different-sex attracted youth and consistently heterosexual participants to be "jokesters." Second, after accounting for mischievous responses, we replicated six previously established disparities: depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and behaviors, alcohol use, cocaine use, parental satisfaction, and school connectedness. Accounting for mischievousness resulted in the elimination of one observed disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority youth: suicidal ideation for males who reported romantic attraction to both sexes. Results also showed that accounting for mischievous responding may underestimate disparities for sexual minority youth, particularly females. Overall, results presented here support previous studies that identified health disparities among sexual minority youth using these data.

  12. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  13. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  14. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA was extracted from microscopic positive stool samples and used to amplify a part of the genus Entamoeba small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), using ... between E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii because it obviates unnecessary chemotherapy with possible costs, side effects and drug resistance.

  15. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  16. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    ... on Guidance for Designing A National Healthcare Disparities Report INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other th...

  17. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  18. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. USAID Policy: Gender equality and female empowerment policy

    OpenAIRE

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This report is an update on USAID's progress towards gender equity and female empowerment since 1982. This policy strives towards positive development that is beneficial to men, women, and children. The goals are to reduce gender disparity in access to resources, reduce gender-based violence, and increase women's agency, leadership, and decision-making.

  20. Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We plan to expand the inquiry into the mechanisms in behavior and biology that lead to disparities as well as integrate the environmental, social, and cultural factors that affect these disparities. NIMHD ...

  1. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  2. Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7 th annual texas conference on health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyne Kpetemey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD, a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE, aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center′s outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was "Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies". The scientific program consisted of three sessions: "Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer", "Triple Negative Breast Cancer," and "Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer" featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.

  3. Gynecologic cancer disparities: a report from the Health Disparities Taskforce of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Yvonne; Holcomb, Kevin; Chapman-Davis, Eloise; Khabele, Dineo; Farley, John H

    2014-05-01

    To review the extent of health disparities in gynecologic cancer care and outcomes and to propose recommendations to help counteract the disparities. We searched the electronic databases PubMed and the Cochrane Library. We included studies demonstrating quantifiable differences by race and ethnicity in the incidence, treatment, and survival of gynecologic cancers in the United States (US). Most studies relied on retrospective data. We focused on differences between Black and White women, because of the limited number of studies on non-Black women. White women have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer compared to Black women. However, the all-cause ovarian cancer mortality in Black women is 1.3 times higher than that of White women. Endometrial and cervical cancer mortality in Black women is twice that of White women. The etiology of these disparities is multifaceted. However, much of the evidence suggests that equal care leads to equal outcomes for Black women diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. Underlying molecular factors may play an additional role in aggressive tumor biology and endometrial cancer disparities. Gynecologic cancer disparities exist between Black and White women. The literature is limited by the lack of large prospective trials and adequate numbers of non-Black racial and ethnic groups. We conclude with recommendations for continued research and a multifaceted approach to eliminate gynecologic cancer disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  5. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A

    2013-02-01

    One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, which consists of 2,379 Black and White girls across a span of socioeconomic status. The girls were assessed longitudinally from ages 10 to 19. Higher levels of stress during the 10 years predicted significantly greater increases in BMI over time compared to lower levels of stress. This relationship was significantly stronger for Black compared to White girls. Psychological stress is a modifiable risk factor that may moderate early racial disparities in BMI.

  6. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive method choice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Grace; Vittinghoff, Eric; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy, an important public health issue, disproportionately affects minority populations. Yet, the independent associations of race, ethnicity and other characteristics with contraceptive choice have not been well studied. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive use among 3,277 women aged 18-44 and at risk for unintended pregnancy were assessed using 2006-2008 data from of the California Women's Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were used to examine the independent and cumulative associations of racial, ethnic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with method choice. Differences in contraceptive use persisted in analyses controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to use high-efficacy reversible methods-that is, hormonals or IUDs (odds ratio, 0.5 for each). No differences by race or ethnicity were found specifically for IUD use in the full model. Blacks and U.S.-born Hispanics were more likely than whites to choose female sterilization (1.9 and 1.7, respectively), while foreign-born Asians had reduced odds of such use (0.4). Finally, blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to rely on male sterilization (0.3 and 0.1, respectively). Socioeconomic factors did not explain the disparities in method choice among racial and ethnic groups. Intervention programs that focus on improving contraceptive choice among black and, particularly, Asian populations need to be developed, as such programs have the potential to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies that occur among these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Gender Disparities Within US Army Orthopedic Surgery: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher M; Dworak, Theodora C; Anderson, Ashley B; Brelin, Alaina M; Nesti, Leon J; McKay, Patricia L; Gwinn, David E

    2018-01-01

    Women account for approximately 15% of the active duty US Army, and studies show that women may be at an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury during sport and military training. Nationally, the field of orthopedic surgery comprises 14% women, lagging behind other surgical fields. Demographics for US Military orthopedic surgeons are not readily available. Similarly, demographic data of graduating medical students entering Military Medicine are not reported. We hypothesize that a gender disparity within military orthopedics will be apparent. We will compare the demographic profile of providers to our patients and hypothesize that the two groups are dissimilar. Secondarily, we examine the demographics of military medical students potentially entering orthopedics from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) or the Health Professions Scholarship Program. A census was formed of all US Army active duty orthopedic surgeons to include staff surgeons and residents, as well as US Army medical student graduates and orthopedic patients. There are 252 Army orthopedic surgeons and trainees; 26 (10.3%) are women and 226 (89.7%) are men. There were no significant demographic differences between residents and staff. Between 2014 and 2017, the 672 members of the USUHS graduating classes included 246 Army graduates. Of those, 62 (25%) were female. Army Health Professions Scholarship Program graduated 1,072 medical students, with women comprising 300 (28%) of the group. No statistical trends were seen over the 4 yr at USUHS or in Health Professions Scholarship Program. In total, 2,993 orthopedic clinic visits during the study period were by Army service members, 23.6% were women. There exists a gender disparity among US Army orthopedic surgeons, similar to that seen in civilian orthopedics. Gender equity is also lacking among medical students who feed into Army graduate medical education programs. The gender profile of our patient population is not

  8. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile and by 6.0 and 2.4 years, respectively, in the highest income quartile. Life expectancy increased by 5.2 years among women in the lowest income quartile, 2.4 years due to premature deaths and 2.8 years due to late deaths. The gain in life expectancy among women in the highest income quartile of 5...... and mortality from 1986 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in life expectancy, life disparity and the threshold age that separates 'premature' and 'late' deaths. Mortality compression was quantified and compared between income quartiles. RESULTS: Since 1986, male life expectancy increased by 4.2 years...

  9. European Union of the Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to the idea of the necessity of changing EU’s political approach in order to face to the new inside and global challenges. In order to support this idea, the analysis uses four representative indicators: educational attainment level, hospital beds at 100000 inhabitants, employment rate and unemployment rate. The initial analysis was focused on EU’s regions and pointed out great disparities. A distinct part of the analysis covers Romanian regions. The analysis is realized on two levels: macroregions and NUTS 2 regions. Romania is not an exception from the paper’s approach. The main conclusion of the analysis is that EU arrived into critical point and has to change its political and economic approach in order to reduce and to eliminate the regional disparities and to increase its credibility as global actor.

  10. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  11. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  12. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  13. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  14. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  15. Acculturation, nutrition, and health disparities in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in the United States and will represent 25% of the US population by 2050. Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of poverty and poor health outcomes. We critically examined the evidence for a link between acculturation and health disparities in Latinos with a focus on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nutrition-related risk factors and illustrated how acculturation principles can help design a culturally appropriate T2D self-management intervention in Latinos. Evidence presented in this article was drawn from 1) systematic reviews identified through PubMed searches, 2) backward searches that were based on articles cited, 3) experts in the field, and 4) the author's personal files. The preponderance of the evidence supported an association of acculturation with poor dietary quality and obesity. These associations appeared to be modified by several socioeconomic and demographic factors and were not always linear. The association between acculturation and T2D is unclear. Longitudinal studies and more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to better understand if and how acculturation affects health-disparity outcomes in Latinos. Tailoring interventions to the acculturation level of individuals is likely to help reduce health disparities in Latinos.

  16. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  17. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Puterman, E; Epel, ES; Rehkopf, DH; Laraia, BA

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. Purpose: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Methods: Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

  18. Urban–rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban–rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban–rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban–rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (−1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services

  19. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  20. Health care expenditure disparities in the European Union and underlying factors: a distribution dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, José; Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, María

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines health care expenditure (HCE) disparities between the European Union countries over the period 1995-2010. By means of using a continuous version of the distribution dynamics approach, the key conclusions are that the reduction in disparities is very weak and, therefore, persistence is the main characteristic of the HCE distribution. In view of these findings, a preliminary attempt is made to add some insights into potentially main factors behind the HCE distribution. The results indicate that whereas per capita income is by far the main determinant, the dependency ratio and female labour participation do not play any role in explaining the HCE distribution; as for the rest of the factors studied (life expectancy, infant mortality, R&D expenditure and public HCE expenditure share), we find that their role falls somewhat in between.

  1. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  2. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  3. Racial and Ethnic Health Care Disparities Among Women in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrea; Borrero, Sonya; Wessel, Charles; Washington, Donna L; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Corbelli, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Women are a rapidly growing segment of patients who seek care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, yet many questions regarding their health care experiences and outcomes remain unanswered. Racial and ethnic disparities have been well-documented in the general population and among veterans; however, prior disparities research conducted in the VA focused primarily on male veterans. We sought to characterize the findings and gaps in the literature on racial and ethnic disparities among women using the VA. We systematically reviewed the literature on racial and ethnic health care disparities exclusively among women using the VA Healthcare System. We included studies that examined health care use, satisfaction, and/or quality, and stratified data by race or ethnicity. Nine studies of the 2,591 searched met our inclusion criteria. The included studies examined contraception provision/access (n = 3), treatment of low bone mass (n = 1), hormone therapy (n = 1), use of mental health or substance abuse-related services (n = 2), trauma exposure and use of various services (n = 1), and satisfaction with primary care (n = 1). Five of nine studies showed evidence of a significant racial or ethnic difference. In contrast with the wealth of literature examining disparities both among the male veterans and women in non-VA settings, only nine studies examine racial and ethnic disparities specifically among women in the VA Healthcare System. These results demonstrate that there is an unmet need to further assess health care disparities among female VA users. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  5. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. Disparity between the perceived alcohol-related attitudes of parents and peers increases alcohol risk in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cail, Jessica; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer norms have been found to be a particularly strong correlate of alcohol consumption by college students, research suggests that parents also have a significant impact on the behaviors of their children, even after their child has departed for college. The current study investigated the effect of disparity between the perceived approval of alcohol (injunctive norms) of parents and closest friends on college student drinking and consequences, and explored gender differences in this effect. It found that injunctive disparity was significantly correlated with individual drinking and related consequences over and above the strongest known predictor variables of gender, same-sex descriptive norms and drinks per week. Males experienced significantly greater disparity between the beliefs of their parents and their peers, which was related increased drinking and a greater sense of connection to their same-sex peer group. Among females, greater perceived disparity was associated with greater alcohol-related consequences. These results suggest that it may not be the individual attitudes of parents and peers, but rather the difference between them, that is impacting behavior. Interventions that reduce perceived disparity, either by correcting the over-estimation of peer’s drinking, or by encouraging parents to stay involved in their children’s social lives by promoting socialization with peers whose attitudes more closely match their own, may be beneficial in reducing risky college drinking. PMID:19833444

  7. Widening rural-urban disparities in youth suicides, United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Hiance-Steelesmith, Danielle L; Phillips, Gary S; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Lester, Natalie; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Campo, John V

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about recent trends in rural-urban disparities in youth suicide, particularly sex- and method-specific changes. Documenting the extent of these disparities is critical for the development of policies and programs aimed at eliminating geographic disparities. To examine trends in US suicide mortality for adolescents and young adults across the rural-urban continuum. Longitudinal trends in suicide rates by rural and urban areas between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2010, were analyzed using county-level national mortality data linked to a rural-urban continuum measure that classified all 3141 counties in the United States into distinct groups based on population size and adjacency to metropolitan areas. The population included all suicide decedents aged 10 to 24 years. Rates of suicide per 100,000 persons. Across the study period, 66,595 youths died by suicide, and rural suicide rates were nearly double those of urban areas for both males (19.93 and 10.31 per 100,000, respectively) and females (4.40 and 2.39 per 100,000, respectively). Even after controlling for a wide array of county-level variables, rural-urban suicide differentials increased over time for males, suggesting widening rural-urban disparities (1996-1998: adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.98; 2008-2010: adjusted IRR, 1.19; difference in IRR, P = .02). Firearm suicide rates declined, and the rates of hanging/suffocation for both males and females increased. However, the rates of suicide by firearm (males: 1996-1998, 2.05; and 2008-2010: 2.69 times higher) and hanging/suffocation (males: 1996-1998, 1.24; and 2008-2010: 1.63 times higher) were disproportionately higher in rural areas, and rural-urban differences increased over time (P = .002 for males; P = .06 for females). Suicide rates for adolescents and young adults are higher in rural than in urban communities regardless of the method used, and rural-urban disparities appear to be increasing over time. Further

  8. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  9. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  10. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  11. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  12. The development areas - between cohesion and disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena LUPCHIAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current development regions are composed by counties with very different development levels, and the urban centres they include are also characterised by different polarisation abilities. Great differences persist among the Romanian development regions, created in order to mitigate the development discrepancies existing in Romania. The comparative analysis of socio-economic development, attractiveness and quality of life benchmarks, from the beginning of these territorial constructions to the current time, seeks to outline the extent to which they have led to a rebalancing or, on the contrary, to greater disparities, not only within the development areas themselves, but also at national level

  13. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  14. Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

  15. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Epidemiology, Analysis, and Library Services (DEALS) Disparities Analytics CDC Disability and Health, Health Care Data & Statistics Healthy People 2020 HHS National Partnership for Action (NPA) AHRQ ...

  16. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei

    2017-09-01

    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  18. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational injury disparities in the US hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan; Vossenas, Pamela; Krause, Niklas; Moriarty, Joan; Frumin, Eric; Shimek, Jo Anna M; Mirer, Franklin; Orris, Peter; Punnett, Laura

    2010-02-01

    Hotel employees have higher rates of occupational injury and sustain more severe injuries than most other service workers. OSHA log incidents from five unionized hotel companies for a three-year period were analyzed to estimate injury rates by job, company, and demographic characteristics. Room cleaning work, known to be physically hazardous, was of particular concern. A total of 2,865 injuries were reported during 55,327 worker-years of observation. The overall injury rate was 5.2 injuries per 100 worker-years. The rate was highest for housekeepers (7.9), Hispanic housekeepers (10.6), and about double in three companies versus two others. Acute trauma rates were highest in kitchen workers (4.0/100) and housekeepers (3.9/100); housekeepers also had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (3.2/100). Age, being female or Hispanic, job title, and company were all independently associated with injury risk. Sex- and ethnicity-based disparities in injury rates were only partially due to the type of job held and the company in which the work was performed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Gender disparities in research productivity among 9952 academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Cherla, Deepa V; Diaz, Lucia; Kovalerchik, Olga; Mauro, Kevin M; Baredes, Soly; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S

    2013-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased considerably over the past 3 decades, and they now comprise approximately half of medical school matriculants. We examine whether gender disparities in research productivity are present throughout various specialties and compare these findings to those previously described among otolaryngologists. Bibliometric analysis. Research productivity, measured by the h-index, was calculated for 9,952 academic physicians representing 34 medical specialties. Additionally, trends in how rate of research productivity changed throughout different career stages were compared. Women were underrepresented at the level of professor and in positions of departmental leadership relative to their representation among assistant and associate professors. Male faculty had statistically higher research productivity both overall (H = 10.3 ± 0.14 vs. 5.6 ± 0.14) and at all academic ranks. For the overall sample, men and women appeared to have equivalent rates of research productivity. In internal medicine, men had higher early-career productivity, while female faculty had productivity equaling and even surpassing that of their male colleagues beyond 20 to 25 years. Men and women had equivalent productivity in surgical specialties throughout their careers, and similar rates in pediatrics until 25 to 30 years. Female academic physicians have decreased research productivity relative to men, which may be one factor contributing to their underrepresentation at the level of professor and departmental leader relative to their proportions in junior academic ranks. Potential explanations may include fewer woman physicians in the age groups during which higher academic ranks are attained, greater family responsibilities, and greater involvement in clinical service and educational contributions. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Disparities in obesity among rural and urban residents in a health disparate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie L; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2014-10-08

    The burden of obesity and obesity-related conditions is not borne equally and disparities in prevalence are well documented for low-income, minority and rural adults in the United States. The current literature on rural versus urban disparities is largely derived from national surveillance data which may not reflect regional nuances. There is little practical research that supports the reality of local service providers such as county health departments that may serve both urban and rural residents in a given area. Conducted through a community-academic partnership, the primary aim of this study is to quantify the current levels of obesity (BMI), fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) in a predominately rural health disparate region. Secondary aims are to determine if a gradient exists within the region in which rural residents have poorer outcomes on these indicators compared to urban residents. Conducted as part of a larger ongoing community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative, data were gathered through a random digit dial telephone survey using previously validated measures (n = 784). Linear, logistic and quantile regression models are used to determine if residency (i.e. rural, urban) predicts outcomes of FV intake, PA and BMI. The majority (72%) of respondents were overweight (BMI = 29 ± 6 kg/m2), with 29% being obese. Only 9% of residents met recommendations for FV intake and 38% met recommendations for PA. Statistically significant gradients between urban and rural and race exist at the upper end of the BMI distribution. In other words, the severity of obesity is worse among black compared to white and for urban residents compared to rural residents. These results will be used by the community-academic partnership to guide the development of culturally relevant and sustainable interventions to increase PA, increase FV intake and reduce obesity within this health disparate region. In particular, local stakeholders may wish to

  2. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  3. Understanding the gender disparity in bladder cancer risk: The impact of sex hormones and liver on bladder susceptibility to carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that bladder cancer (BC) incidence is approximately 4-fold higher in men than in women in the US, and a similar disparity also exists in other countries. The reason for this phenomenon is not known, which impedes progress in BC prevention. However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. These animal studies and related studies in the ...

  4. The effects of Arkansas master settlement spending on disparities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Scharf, Deborah; Engberg, John; Schultz, Dana

    2012-04-01

    We assessed the effect of Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) spending on smoking disparities in Arkansas, which distinguished itself from other states by investing all of its MSA funds in health-related programs. In 1996-2009 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we specified multivariate logistic models to examine gender and racial/ethnic disparities in smoking rates within Arkansas (a pre-post analysis) and between Arkansas and its 6 neighboring states. Before the MSA programs started in 2001, male Arkansans smoked more than did female Arkansans (P < .05). After the programs, smoking declined significantly among men (but not women), eliminating the gender disparity by 2009. Smoking among men in Arkansas also declined more than it did in neighboring states (P < .05). Hispanics showed a greater decline in smoking than did non-Hispanic Whites in Arkansas (but not in neighboring states). In 2001, Hispanic Arkansans smoked more than did non-Hispanic Whites (P < .05); by 2009, Hispanic Arkansans smoked significantly less than did non-Hispanic Whites (P < .05). MSA-funded programs were more effective in some segments of the Arkansas population than in others. Policymakers should consider targeting future MSA tobacco control programs to populations most resistant to change.

  5. Ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in malaysia: an analysis by risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew K G; Dunn, Richard A; Yen, Steven T

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes.

  6. Gypsy moth larval defense mechanisms against pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Tariq M. Butt

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the response of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval hemocytes to L. dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) administered per os and by injection, and to injected hyphal bodies and natural protoplasts of some entomopathogenic, entomophthoralean fungi.

  7. Iron status of toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya M; Hamner, Heather C; Suchdev, Parminder S; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Mei, Zuguo

    2017-12-01

    Background: Total-body iron stores (TBI), which are calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, can be used to assess the iron status of populations in the United States. Objective: This analysis, developed to support workshop discussions, describes the distribution of TBI and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) among toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females. Design: We analyzed data from NHANES; toddlers aged 12-23 mo (NHANES 2003-2010), nonpregnant females aged 15-49 y (NHANES 2007-2010), and pregnant females aged 12-49 y (NHANES 1999-2010). We used SAS survey procedures to plot distributions of TBI and produce prevalence estimates of ID and IDA for each target population. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design. Results: According to these data, ID prevalences (± SEs) were 15.1% ± 1.7%, 10.4% ± 0.5%, and 16.3% ± 1.3% in toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females, respectively. ID prevalence in pregnant females increased significantly with each trimester (5.3% ± 1.5%, 12.7% ± 2.3%, and 27.5% ± 3.5% in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively). Racial disparities in the prevalence of ID among both nonpregnant and pregnant females exist, with Mexican American and non-Hispanic black females at greater risk of ID than non-Hispanic white females. IDA prevalence was 5.0% ± 0.4% and 2.6% ± 0.7% in nonpregnant and pregnant females, respectively. Conclusions: Available nationally representative data suggest that ID and IDA remain a concern in the United States. Estimates of iron-replete status cannot be made at this time in the absence of established cutoffs for iron repletion based on TBI. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03274726. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Racial Disparities in Emergency Department Utilization for Dental/Oral Health-Related Conditions in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Natalia I

    2017-01-01

    Hospital emergency departments (EDs) are a place where many Americans seek treatment of dental conditions. Racial and ethnic minorities consistently have higher rates of ED utilization than whites for dental conditions. The reasons for these disparities and significant public health concerns are investigated less often. In this paper, we measure trends in racial disparities in ED discharges for dental conditions in Maryland from 2010 to 2013. To understand these disparities, we also describe differences between racial groups in age, gender, income, location, payer, comorbidities, and the availability of dental care. 2010-2013 State Emergency Department Data for Maryland were used in the analysis. Rates per 100,000 of the population are calculated using information from census population estimates. Cost-to-charge ratios are used to estimate the costs of ED discharges. Dental/oral health-related conditions (DOHRC) are defined as discharge diagnoses of ICD-9-CM codes 520.0 through 529.9. Descriptive statistics and fixed effects logistic regression models with a rare event correction are used to analyze the data. Blacks, especially females aged 25-34, have larger proportions of total ED discharges due to DOHRC, and higher population rates of DOHRC, than any other racial or ethnic group. In 2013, Blacks represented 30% of Maryland's population and accounted for 52% of ED costs for DOHRC. Hispanics and those of other races have much lower rates of DOHRC discharges. The regression results show that the high proportion of DOHRC discharges among Blacks may be explained by the concentration of Blacks in low-income central cities with less access to dental care. There are significant racial disparities in the ED utilization for DOHRC in Maryland. These disparities reflect the lack of access to dental care due to both cost and geographic limitations. This results in high healthcare costs and ineffective solutions for patients. Addressing oral health disparities will require

  9. Health disparities in the immunoprevention of human papillomavirus infection and associated malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira eBakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes about 1.6% of the roughly 1.6 million new cancer cases that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommendation that all 11-12 year old males and females be vaccinated. In fact, only about 38% and 14% of eligible females and males respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization.Many factors are associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities, including race, age, family income and patient education, resulting in widespread disparities in vaccination rates and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. HPV vaccination campaigns face the challenge of stagnant HPV immunization rates, which are increasing slowly overall but remain far below target levels. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equal across all groups and vaccination rates are strikingly disparate across the federal poverty level. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving vaccination coverage where it is weakest. In addition to demographics, socioeconomic factors and attitudes of

  10. (un)Recognized Discrimination: : A Study of Sexual Harassment and the Disparity between Law and Practice in the South Korean Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, Ragnhild Finne

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the last four decades, the active participation of South Korean women in the country’s economy has increased steadily. This has been followed by the enactment of several legal acts aimed to protect female workers from discrimination at the workplace. As this study will show, there exists a great disparity between the level of legal protection against sexual harassment and the actual practice of it in the workplace. While approximately 50 to 80 percent of female workers are...

  11. Gender disparities in HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Central Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Boltaev, Azizbek; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Bramson, Heidi; Arasteh, Kamyar; Phillips, Benjamin W; Hagan, Holly

    2013-11-01

    Disparities in HIV infection, with females having higher rates of HIV infection than males, have been noted among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in many countries. We examined male/female HIV disparities among PWID in Central Asia and compared these disparities with patterns worldwide. A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted for studies reporting HIV prevalence by gender among PWID. To be included in the analyses, reports had to contain (1) samples of PWID from Central Asia, (2) HIV data based on laboratory testing, (3) HIV prevalence reported for males and females, and (4) samples that were not recruited on the basis of HIV status. Data were abstracted from 11 studies in 5 countries in Central Asia: China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the total sample size was 12,225. The mean weighted OR for HIV prevalence among females to males was 0.913 (95% CI 0.07, 1.26), with high heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=70.0%) and a possible publication bias among studies with small sample sizes (Eggers test=-1.81, 95% CI -5.18, 0.54). The non-significant higher HIV prevalence among male PWID in Central Asia contrasts with the worldwide findings which show slightly higher HIV prevalence among female PWID. This may reflect the relative recency of the HIV epidemics in Central Asia. The findings also suggest there may be factors that protect female PWID from HIV in some settings. Further examination of transmission dynamics in Central Asia is necessary to better understand the HIV epidemic among PWID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  14. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of gender disparity is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in ...

  15. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  16. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  17. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  18. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  19. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  20. Husserl and Heidegger: exploring the disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Henry, Tracy; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Introduced as an alternative to empirical science, phenomenology offers nursing an insightful means for understanding nursing phenomena specifically in relation to lived experiences. However, not all phenomenologies were created equal, a point which has left many a nursing researcher not only confused. Furthermore, this confusion might result in the choosing of a philosophical framework that is neither cognizant with the research question nor the epistemological lens through which the researcher operates. Drawing on common nursing examples to illustrate concepts, the authors closely examine and debate the disparities between Husserl's transcendental phenomenology and Heidegger's hermeneutic approach to phenomenology. The aim of the article is to demystify the dense language used and present the fundamental beliefs of each philosopher in a format that is accessible to novice phenomenologists.

  1. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  2. Revisiting racial disparities in access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy post implementation of Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Kalakoti, Piyush; Henry, Miriam; Mishra, Vikas; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil; Sun, Hai

    2017-07-01

    Prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act(ACA), several reports demonstrated remarkable racial disparities in access to surgical care for epileptic patients. Implementation of ACA provided healthcare access to 7-16 million uninsured Americans. The current study investigates racial disparity post ACA era in (1) access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (DRTLE); (2) short-term outcomes in the surgical cohort. Adult patients with DRTLE registered in the National Inpatient Sample (2012-2013) were identified. Association of race (African Americans and other minorities with respect to Caucasians) with access to surgical management of TLE, and short-term outcomes [discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges] in the surgical cohort were investigated using multivariable regression techniques. Of the 4062 patients with DRTLE, 3.6%(n=148) underwent lobectomy. Overall, the mean age of the cohort was 42.35±16.33years, and 54% were female. Regression models adjusted for patient demographics, clinical and hospital characteristics demonstrated no racial disparities in access to surgical care for DRTLE. Likewise, no racial disparity was noted in outcomes in the surgical cohort. Our study reflects no racial disparity in access to surgical care in patients with DRTLE post 2010 amendment of the ACA. The seismic changes to the US healthcare system may plausibly have accounted for addressing the gap in racial disparity for epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  4. Health Disparities and Cancer: Racial Disparities in Cancer Mortality in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Eileen B.; Meltzer, Jeremy P.; Bethea, Traci N.

    2015-01-01

    Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S.) have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates and mortality trends for Blacks and Whites. The complex relationship between socioeconomic status and race and its contribution to racial cancer disparities is discussed. Based on current trends and the potential and limitations of the patient protection and affordable care act with its mandate to reduce health care inequities, future trends, and challenges in cancer mortality disparities in the U.S. are explored. PMID:25932459

  5. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological 'design' space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused morphometric studies. The unique structural and

  6. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W.; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological ‘design’ space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Methods Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Key Results Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Conclusions Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused

  7. Defining racial and ethnic disparities in THA and TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgit, Kaan; Nelson, Charles L

    2011-07-01

    For minority populations in the United States, especially African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, healthcare disparities are a serious problem. The literature documents racial and ethnic utilization disparities with regard to THA and TKA. We therefore (1) defined utilization disparities for total joint arthroplasty in racial and ethnic minorities, (2) delineated patient and provider factors contributing to the lower total joint arthroplasty utilization, and (3) discussed potential interventions and future research that may increase total joint arthroplasty utilization by racial and ethnic minorities. We searched the MEDLINE database and identified 67 articles, 21 of which we excluded. By searching Google and Google Scholar and reference lists of the included articles, we identified 40 articles for this review. Utilization disparities were defined by documented lower utilization of THA or TKA in specific racial or ethnic groups. Lower utilization of THA and TKA among some racial and ethnic minority groups (African Americans, Hispanics) is not explained by decreased disease prevalence or disability. At least some utilization disparities are independent of income, geographic location, education, and insurance status. Causal factors related to racial and ethnic disparities may be related in part to patient factors such as health literacy, trust, and preferences. Provider unconscious or conscious biases or beliefs also play a role in at least some healthcare disparities. Racial and ethnic THA and TKA utilization disparities exist. These disparities are not explained by lower disease prevalence. The existing data suggest patient education, improved health literacy regarding THA and TKA, and a patient-provider relationship leading to improved trust would be beneficial. Research providing a better understanding of the root causes of these disparities is needed.

  8. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  9. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nigeria is among the countries with a high number of annual maternal deaths partly due to low utilization of maternal health services (MHS). Objective: This study aimed to explore whether there is an association between women's level of education and the appropriate use of antenatal and delivery services.

  11. Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A long term investment in girls' education will improve income, interaction with health care providers, level of autonomy to seek and pay for .... lack of autonomous status to negotiate their reproductive rights within the family ... 20 – 30 years was reported to have a fourfold lower risk of dying from pregnancy ...

  12. Karl Barth's male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barth's asymmetrical gender perspective is a product of his embedment in Western Christian tradition which in turn, is rooted in early Christian patriarchal theology. The aim of this article is to focus on Barth's ontological reframing of the traditional understanding of the Biblical notion of human beings as created in the “image ...

  13. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as

  14. Hospitalizations Among Homeless Women: Are There Ethnic and Drug Abuse Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald; Longshore, Douglas; Leake, Barbara; Nyamathi, Adeline; Teruya, Cheryl; Arangua, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores associations among the vulnerabilities of being female, being a member of a minority group, and being a drug abuser in homeless women’s hospitalizations. It uses a 1997 probability survey of 974 homeless females age 15–44 in Los Angeles. In unadjusted analyses, whites were more likely than other ethnic minority groups to be hospitalized, and drug abusers were more likely to be hospitalized than non-drug abusers. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that factors associated with hospitalization differed considerably among the ethnic and drug-abuse subgroups. For example, ethnic disparities in inpatient health care were found for drug-abusing women, but not for those who did not abuse drugs. Pregnancy was the only important determinant of hospitalization in all subgroups (OR, 2.9–17.4). Preventing unintended pregnancy appears to be the most inclusive means of reducing hospitalization and attendant costs among homeless women. PMID:18923904

  15. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-25

    It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients.

  16. Sexual orientation disparities in weight status in adolescence: findings from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Corliss, Heather L; Haines, Jess; Rockett, Helaine R; Wypij, David; Field, Alison E

    2009-09-01

    A growing number of studies among adult women have documented disparities in overweight adversely affecting lesbian and bisexual women, but few studies have examined sexual orientation-related patterns in weight status among men or adolescents. We examined sexual orientation group trends in BMI (kg/m(2)), BMI Z-scores, and overweight using 56,990 observations from 13,785 adolescent females and males in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a large prospective cohort of US youth. Participants provided self-reported information from six waves of questionnaire data collection from 1998 to 2005. Gender-stratified linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and BMI Z-scores and modified Poisson regression models to estimate risk ratios for overweight, controlling for age and race/ethnicity, with heterosexuals as the referent group. Among females, we observed fairly consistently elevated BMI in all sexual orientation minority groups relative to heterosexual peers. In contrast, among males we documented a sexual-orientation-by-age interaction indicating steeper increases in BMI with age from early-to-late adolescence in heterosexuals relative to sexual orientation minorities. Additional prospective research is needed to understand the determinants of observed sexual orientation disparities and to inform appropriate preventive and treatment interventions. The long-term health consequences of overweight are well-documented and over time are likely to exact a high toll on populations with elevated rates.

  17. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Weight Status in Adolescence: Findings From a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Corliss, Heather L.; Haines, Jess; Rockett, Helaine; Wypij, David; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies among adult women have documented disparities in overweight adversely affecting lesbian and bisexual women, but few studies have examined sexual orientation-related patterns in weight status among men or adolescents. We examined sexual orientation group trends in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), BMI Z-scores, and overweight using 56,990 observations from 13,785 adolescent females and males in the Growing Up Today Study, a large prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided self-reported information from six waves of questionnaire data collection from 1998 to 2005. Gender-stratified linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and BMI Z-score and modified Poisson regression models to estimate risk ratios (RR) for overweight, controlling for age and race/ethnicity, with heterosexuals as the referent group. Among females, we observed fairly consistently elevated BMI in all sexual orientation minority groups relative to heterosexual peers. In contrast, among males we documented a sexual-orientation-by-age interaction indicating steeper increases in BMI with age from early to late adolescence in heterosexuals relative to sexual orientation minorities. Additional prospective research is needed to understand the determinants of observed sexual orientation disparities and to inform appropriate preventive and treatment interventions. The long-term health consequences of overweight are well-documented and over time are likely to exact a high toll on populations with elevated rates. PMID:19300430

  18. Serotonin Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Contribute to Sex Disparity in Hepatocellular CarcinomaSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC occurs more frequently and aggressively in men than in women. Although sex hormones are believed to play a critical role in this disparity, the possible contribution of other factors largely is unknown. We aimed to investigate the role of serotonin on its contribution of sex discrepancy during HCC. Methods: By using an inducible zebrafish HCC model through hepatocyte-specific transgenic krasV12 expression, differential rates of HCC in male and female fish were characterized by both pharmaceutical and genetic interventions. The findings were validated further in human liver disease samples. Results: Accelerated HCC progression was observed in krasV12-expressing male zebrafish and male fish liver tumors were found to have higher hepatic stellate cell (HSC density and activation. Serotonin, which is essential for HSC survival and activation, similarly were found to be synthesized and accumulated more robustly in males than in females. Serotonin-activated HSCs could promote HCC carcinogenesis and concurrently increase serotonin synthesis via transforming growth factor (Tgfb1 expression, hence contributing to sex disparity in HCC. Analysis of liver disease patient samples showed similar male predominant serotonin accumulation and Tgfb1 expression. Conclusions: In both zebrafish HCC models and human liver disease samples, a predominant serotonin synthesis and accumulation in males resulted in higher HSC density and activation as well as Tgfb1 expression, thus accelerating HCC carcinogenesis in males. Keywords: Liver Cancer, TGFB1, Kras, Zebrafish

  19. Racial disparities in the type of postmastectomy reconstruction chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Tsai, Thomas C; Wenger, Julia B; Guo, Lifei

    2015-05-01

    Racial disparities remain for women undergoing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Understanding patterns of racial disparities in IBR utilization may present opportunities to tailor policies aimed at optimizing care across racial groups. The aim of this study was to determine if racial disparities exist for types of IBR chosen. A national, retrospective cohort study used the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to detect the odds by race for receiving each subtype of IBR after mastectomy-prosthetic, pedicled-transfer autologous tissue, or free-transfer autologous tissue. Secondary outcome was trends in IBR rates over time. There were 44,597 women identified in the data set who underwent mastectomy. Thirty-seven percent of women (N = 16, 642) were noted to undergo IBR after mastectomy. Prosthetic reconstruction (84.4%, n = 37, 640) was the most common form of IBR compared with pedicled-autologous reconstruction (15.4%, n = 6868) and free transfer autologous reconstruction (4.9%, n = 2185), P Racial disparities persisted from 2005-2011; as minority patients were less likely to undergo IBR than whites (P disparities in access to high-quality care and underlying cultures. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in IBR should be tailored to specific patterns of disparities among Asian, black, and Hispanic women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persisting Racial Disparities in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Utilization and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandran, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to study whether racial disparities in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) utilization and outcomes have declined over time. We used the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011. We used chi-squared test to compare characteristics, Cochran-Armitage test to compare utilization rates, and Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression to compare time-trends in outcomes by race. From 1998 to 2011, 176,141 Whites and 7694 Blacks underwent TSA. Compared to Whites, Blacks who underwent TSA were younger (69.1 vs. 64.2 years; p racial disparities increased from 1998 to 2011 (p disparities did not change over time (p = 0.31). These disparities in utilization were borderline significant in adjusted analyses. There were no racial differences in proportion discharged to inpatient medical facility in 1998-2000, 15.2 vs. 15.0 % (p = 0.95), and in 2009-2011, 12.3 vs. 11.1 % (p = 0.37), respectively. We found increasing racial disparities in TSA utilization. Some disparities in outcomes exist as well. Patients, surgeons, and policy-makes should be aware of these findings and take action to reduce racial disparities.

  1. Disparities in the Use of Sacral Neuromodulation among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudano, Melissa A; Seklehner, Stephan; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Reynolds, W Stuart; Garrett, Kelly A; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A; Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard K

    2015-08-01

    Sacral neuromodulation with the InterStim® has been done to treat urinary and bowel control. There are limited data in the literature on use trends of sacral neuromodulation. We explored disparities in use among Medicare beneficiaries. We queried a 5% national random sample of Medicare claims for 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010. All patients with an ICD-9 diagnosis code representing a potential urological indication for sacral neuromodulation were included. Patients who underwent device implantation were identified using CPT-4 codes. Statistical analysis was done with the chi-square and Fisher tests, and multivariate logistic regression using software. A total of 2,322,060 patients were identified with a diagnosis that could potentially be treated with sacral neuromodulation. During the 10-year study period the percent of these patients who ultimately underwent implantation increased from 0.03% to 0.91% (p <0.0001) for a total of 13,360 (0.58%). On logistic regression analysis women (OR 3.85, p <0.0001) and patients younger than 65 years (OR 1.00 vs 0.29 to 0.39, p <0.0001) were more likely to be treated. Minority patients (OR 0.38, p <0.0001) and those living in the western United States (OR 0.52, p <0.0001) were less likely to receive treatment. Sacral neuromodulation use significantly increased among Medicare beneficiaries in a 10-year period. Patients were more likely to be treated with sacral neuromodulation if they were female, white, younger (younger than 65 years) and living outside the western United States. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Racial Disparities in Sleep: The Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Curtis, David S.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Chae, David H.; Boylan, Jennifer M.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Disparities in sleep duration and efficiency between Black/African American (AA) and White/European American (EA) adults are well-documented. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood disadvantage as an explanation for race differences in objectively measured sleep. Methods Data were from 133 AA and 293 EA adults who participated in the sleep assessment protocol of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (57% female; Mean Age = 56.8 years, SD=11.4). Sleep minutes, onset latency, and waking after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed over seven nights using wrist actigraphy. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed by linking home addresses to tract-level socioeconomic data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel models estimated associations between neighborhood disadvantage and sleep, and the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage mediated race differences in sleep controlling for family socioeconomic position and demographic variables. Results AAs had shorter sleep duration, greater onset latency, and higher WASO than EAs (ps < .001). Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with WASO (B = 3.54, p = .028), but not sleep minutes (B = −2.21, p = .60) or latency (B = 1.55, p = .38). Furthermore, race was indirectly associated with WASO via neighborhood disadvantage (B = 4.63, p = .035), which explained 24% of the race difference. When measures of depression, health behaviors, and obesity were added to the model, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and WASO was attenuated by 11% but remained significant. Conclusion Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage mediates a portion of race differences in WASO, an important indicator of sleep efficiency. PMID:27938909

  3. Strategies for targeting health care disparities among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju

    2010-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in United States and at a great risk for poor health outcomes linked to poor access to health care. Their large geographic distribution makes it critical that the underlying factors resulting in health care disparities among documented and undocumented Hispanics be addressed at local, state, and national levels. Health care systems should establish community partnership for effective strategies to address these disparities. This article presents factors identified in the literature that contribute to health care disparities among Hispanics and provides strategies for improving access to health care for health promotion.

  4. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    , the ability of H. somnus and M. dispar to act as primary pathogens under these conditions were minimal and inconsistent. However, a transient rise in body temperature, a marked granulocytosis and increased levels of interleukin-8 in peripheral blood after inoculation with H. somnus indicated a clear systemic...... investigated by recording clinical data, cytokine expression of peripheral blood cells and pathology. Twelve calves were included in the study: Three animals were exposed to H. somnus only, and two to M. dispar only, whereas five were challenged to M. dispar followed by exposure to H. somnus 11-14 days later...

  5. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  6. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional Disparities in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBOLYA KURKÓ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abolishment of the communist regime, the establishment of a democratic legal and institutional system brought important changes in the development of the regional economy of Romania. The old – from an economic point of view – differentiating factors have lost some of their importance, mainly the level of industrialization, which, in the past, was used to measure economic development. In addition, other factors came forward, that correlate more with the economic capacity, but, nowadays, their positive effect can only be increased by the combination of several other factors: foreign investments, as an indicator of regional attractiveness, regional GDP, the level of personal income, and the appreciation of human resources. Today, in the interest of enhancing the competitiveness of the regions a special role is reserved for entrepreneurial activity, the strength of the SME sector, the role of foreign working capital in the local economy, but also the territorial concentration of R&D centers. The study focuses on some aspects of disparities regarding the regional economic structure.

  8. Disparities in the management of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer Y; Chen, Ling; Gumer, Arielle R; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is common among young women. Treatment can consist of either surgery with salpingectomy or salpingostomy or medical management with methotrexate. In addition to acute complications, treatment of ectopic pregnancy can result in long-term sequelae that include decreased fertility. Little is known about the patterns of care and predictors of treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy. Similarly, data on outcomes for various treatments are limited. We examined the patterns of care and outcomes for women with ectopic pregnancy. Specifically, we examined predictors of medical (vs surgical) management of ectopic pregnancy and tubal conservation (salpingostomy vs salpingectomy) among women who underwent surgery. The Perspective database was used to identify women with a diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy treated from 2006-2015. Perspective is an all-payer database that collects data on patients at hospitals from throughout the United States. Women were classified as having undergone medical treatment, if they received methotrexate, and surgical treatment, if treatment consisted of salpingostomy or salpingectomy. Multivariable models were developed to examine predictors of medical treatment and of tubal conserving salpingostomy among women who were treated surgically. Among the 62,588 women, 49,090 women (78.4%) were treated surgically, and 13,498 women (21.6%) received methotrexate. Use of methotrexate increased from 14.5% in 2006 to 27.3% by 2015 (Pectopic pregnancy. There are significant race- and insurance-related disparities associated with treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  10. CORRECTIONS FOR RACIAL DISPARITIES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christopher L.; Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical analysis has documented racial disparities at the beginning and end stages of a criminal case. However, our understanding about the perpetuation of — and even corrections for — differential outcomes as the process unfolds remains less than complete. This Article provides a comprehensive examination of criminal dispositions using all DWI cases in North Carolina during the period 2001–2011, focusing on several major decision points in the process. Starting with pretrial hearings and culminating in sentencing results, we track differences in outcomes by race and gender. Before sentencing, significant gaps emerge in the severity of pretrial release conditions that disadvantage black and Hispanic defendants. Yet when prosecutors decide whether to pursue charges, we observe an initial correction mechanism: Hispanic men are almost two-thirds more likely to have those charges dropped relative to white men. Although few cases survive after the plea bargaining stage, a second correction mechanism arises: Hispanic men are substantially less likely to receive harsher sentences and are sent to jail for significantly less time relative to white men. The first mechanism is based in part on prosecutors’ reviewing the strength of the evidence but much more on declining to invest scarce resources in the pursuit of defendants who fail to appear for trial. The second mechanism seems to follow more directly from judicial discretion to reverse decisions made by law enforcement. We discuss possible explanations for these novel empirical results and review methods for more precisely identifying causal mechanisms in criminal justice. PMID:28066033

  11. Understanding the gender disparity in bladder cancer risk: the impact of sex hormones and liver on bladder susceptibility to carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that bladder cancer (BC) incidence is approximately four-fold higher in men than in women in the United States, and a similar disparity also exists in other countries. The reason for this phenomenon is not known, which impedes progress in BC prevention. However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. These animal studies and related studies in the context of available human data provide significant insight into what may drive the excessive BC risk in men, which is the focus of this article. The carcinogenicity and biotransformation of bladder carcinogens as well as the impact of sex hormones on these processes are discussed, highlighting the novel concept that the gender disparity in BC risk may result primarily from the interplay of androgen, estrogen, and liver, with the liver functioning via its metabolic enzymes as the main decider of bladder exposure to carcinogens in the urine and the male and female hormones exerting opposing effects on carcinogenesis in the bladder and likely also on liver enzymes handling bladder carcinogens. The findings may facilitate further investigation into the mechanism of gender disparity in BC risk and may also have important implications for BC prevention.

  12. Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruger Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after

  13. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  14. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  15. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...

  16. The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid Managed Care, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  17. Health Disparities between Rural and Urban Women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kim

    2015-10-01

    With much discussion about health disparities in Minnesota in recent years, there has been growing awareness about the inequities between rich and poor and between majority and minority groups. Attention also needs to be paid to the disparities between women who live in rural areas and those who live in urban parts of the state. Rural women are poorer, older and less likely to have adequate health insurance than their urban counterparts, which can compromise their health status. They also fare worse on a number of health indicators and face barriers to adequate health care that can exacerbate disparities. This article describes the root causes of health disparities between women living in rural and urban parts of the state and explores strategies to mitigate them that include increasing the rural physician workforce, improving access to primary and specialty care through telehealth services, and expanding health insurance options.

  18. Teaching About Health Care Disparities in the Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Leonor; Irby, David M.; Harleman, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teachers often observe interactions that may contribute to health care disparities, yet may hesitate to teach about them. A pedagogical model could help faculty structure teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting, but to our knowledge, none have been adapted for this purpose. In this paper, we adapt an established model, Time-Effective Strategies for Teaching (TEST), to the teaching of health care disparities. We use several case scenarios to illustrate the core components of the model: diagnose the learner, teach rapidly to the learner’s need, and provide feedback. The TEST model is straightforward, easy to use, and enables the incorporation of teaching about health care disparities into routine clinical teaching. PMID:20352501

  19. Explaining Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Uiters, Ellen; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored characteristics of in-hospital care and treatment of immigrant patients to better understand the processes underlying ethnic disparities in patient safety. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with care providers regarding patient safety events involving immigrant

  20. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  1. Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    (insulin resistance, obesity) with widely varying symptoms among the affected. Studies have shown a clear pattern of disparity in clinical manifestations of its component phenotypes across ethnic populations. Recent genetic association studies suggested differential genetic background that could contribute...

  2. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... orientation among others. Social determinants of health like poverty, unequal access to health care, lack of education, ... Determinants of Health website . Popular Links African Americans Overview of health disparities found in black communities Hispanics ...

  3. Entamoeba dispar strains: analysis of polymorphism in Tunisian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Soumaya Ben; Bouratbine, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect intra-species polymorphism in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is an important tool for studying geographic distribution and transmission mechanisms. E. dispar and E. histolytica share the same mechanism for transmission among human hosts, and so after differentiation between these species. We studied the intra-species variation and distribution of E. dispar strains obtained from cyst passers, specifically from African students and Tunisian food handlers. We analyzed the polymorphic region of the chitinase protein gene in 13 individuals infected with E. dispar, of which 9 were from Tunisia and 4 from other African countries. We identified 7 different chitinase patterns in Tunisians while the 4 isolates from other countries each had a distinct pattern. Two of the patterns we found have been reported in studies from Mexico and India, possibly indicating worldwide spread of certain strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  5. Gender Disparities in Haryana: Extents and Spatial Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and describes the extent of gender disparities in Haryana, particularly in respect of sex ratio, literacy and participation in economic activities. Significant gender disparities were evidenced by sex ratio, literacy rate and women participation rate. The paper found that districts having lower gender gap in literacy were able to increase sex ratio more than the districts having higher gender gap in literacy. This is also corroborated by negative correlation coefficient bet...

  6. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  7. Disseminating Health Disparities Education Through Tele-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaSonya Knowles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years of research demonstrate that there are wide disparities in health throughout America. Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist when specific population subgroups are compared. Health Disparities in America: Working Toward Social Justice is a course instructed every fall by Dr. Lovell Jones, director of The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH at UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CRMH has created a course that examines the social and societal factors that are fundamental in creating disparities in health. Students from 10 different academic programs and institutions participate in this course. The course is unique in the aspect that various, diverse speakers whom are experts in their field of study instruct each class. This health disparities course is conducted at one of three different academic institutions in the Houston area and broadcast via satellite to various academic institutions by means of teleeducation. Tele-education is defined as a mode of instruction utilizing different forms of media such as video, audio technology tools and computers. Video and audio technologies involve the transmission of interface between learners and instructors, either interactive or non-interactive. Tele-education technologies have an important role to play in addressing the dissemination of health disparities education. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of tele-education as a mode of instruction to introduce the multi-disciplinary components of health disparities. Our findings suggest that tele-education is a useful tool in imparting health disparities education.

  8. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  10. Controlling disease and creating disparities: a fundamental cause perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G

    2005-10-01

    The United States and other developed countries experienced enormous improvements in population health during the 20th century. In the context of this dramatic positive change, health disparities by race and socioeconomic status emerged for several potent killers. Any explanation for current health disparities must take these changing patterns into account. Any explanation that ignores large improvements in population health and fails to account for the emergence of disparities for specific diseases is an inadequate explanation of current disparities. We argue that genetic explanations and some prominent social causation explanations are incompatible with these facts. We propose that the theory of "fundamental causes" can account for both vast improvements in population health and the creation of large socioeconomic and racial disparities in mortality for specific causes of death over time. Specifically, we argue that it is our enormously expanded capacity to control disease and death in combination with existing social and economic inequalities that create health disparities by race and socioeconomic status: When we develop the ability to control disease and death, the benefits of this new-found ability are distributed according to resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections. We present data on changing mortality patterns by race and socioeconomic status for two types of diseases: those for which our capacity to prevent death has increased significantly and those for which we remain largely unable to prevent death. Time trends in mortality patterns are consistent with the fundamental cause explanation.

  11. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  12. Sex Disparity in Food Allergy: Evidence from the PubMed Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are potentially fatal immune-mediated disorders that are growing globally. The relationship between sex and food allergy remains incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that, should sex influence the clinical response to food allergens, this would be reflected by a sex disparity in published studies of food allergy. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed literature for IgE-mediated allergy to 11 allergenic foods of international regulatory importance. No date restriction was used and only articles in English were considered. Of the 4744 articles retrieved, 591 met the inclusion criteria representing 17528 subjects with food allergies. Whereas among children with food allergies, 64.35% were males and 35.65% were females (male/female ratio, 1.80, among adults 34.82% were males and 65.18% were females (male/female ratio, 0.53. Consequently, these data argue that there is need for further investigation to define the role of sex in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  13. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO and colleges (HBO in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study breaks down wage differentials into two components: a component which can be explained by the observed characteristics and an unexplained component. The analysis provides new evidence for the magnitude and the origin of ethnic wage differentials by gender. In general, ethnic wage gap is larger for migrant women than migrant men and larger for Western and Caribbean migrants than for Mediterranean migrants. Ethnic minority workers appear to have larger wage surpluses which is almost entirely explained by their observed favourable characteristics. Most notably, Mediterranean female graduates have significantly positive wage discrimination, while Western female graduates seem to face a small wage penalty.

  14. Racial Disparities in HIV Care Extend to Common Comorbidities: Implications for Implementation of Interventions to Reduce Disparities in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly K; Bokhour, Barbara; McInnes, D Keith; Yakovchenko, Vera; Okwara, Leonore; Midboe, Amanda M; Skolnik, Avy; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Asch, Steven M; Gifford, Allen L; Ohl, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have described racial disparities in the quality of care for persons with HIV infection, but it is unknown if these disparities extend to common comorbid conditions. To inform implementation of interventions to reduce disparities in HIV care, we examined racial variation in a set of quality measures for common comorbid conditions among Veterans in care for HIV in the United States. The cohort included 23,974 Veterans in care for HIV in 2013 (53.4% black; 46.6% white). Measures extracted from electronic health record and administrative data were receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV viral control (serum RNA racial disparities in HIV care should comprehensively address and monitor processes and outcomes of care for key comorbidities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A Sex Disparity Among Earthquake Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardagh, Michael; Standring, Sarah; Deely, Joanne M; Johnston, David; Robinson, Viki; Gulliver, Pauline; Richardson, Sandra; Dierckx, Alieke; Than, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Understanding who is most vulnerable during an earthquake will help health care responders prepare for future disasters. We analyzed the demography of casualties from the Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand. The demography of the total deceased, injured, and hospitalized casualties of the Christchurch earthquake was compared with that of the greater Christchurch population, the Christchurch central business district working population, and patients who presented to the single acute emergency department on the same month and day over the prior 10 years. Sex data were compared to scene of injury, context of injury, clinical characteristics of injury, and injury severity scores. Significantly more females than males were injured or killed in the entire population of casualties (P20% were injured at commercial or service localities (444/2032 males [22%]; 1105/4627 females [24%]). Adults aged between 20 and 69 years (1639/2032 males [81%]; 3717/4627 females [80%]) were most frequently injured. Where people were and what they were doing at the time of the earthquake influenced their risk of injury.

  16. Demographic and spatial disparity in HIV prevalence among incarcerated population in the US: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Srimoyee

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empirically the presence of any spatial and demographic disparity in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection rate among the prison inmates across 48 states in the US and compare the results for 2000 and 2010. HIV infection is a severe health issue for incarcerated populations in the US. In 2010, the rate of diagnosed HIV infection among inmates in state and federal prisons was five times more than the nonincarcerated population. The National Prisoner Statistics database was used to find the demographic disparities in HIV prevalence rate based on incarceration rate, gender, race/ethnicity, the proportion of non-US citizens, and proportion of population below 18 years. State-level spatial mapping, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Moran's I statistic (univariate and bivariate) were computed based on these demographic characteristics using QGIS and Geoda software. There was a statistically significant pattern of spatial disparity in overall, male and female HIV infection rates across the state prisoners, with South and South-Eastern states facing a higher risk of infection. There was also statistically significant bivariate spatial association of HIV infection rate with the covariates: whites (negative), blacks (positive), non-US citizen (positive), and prisoners under age 18 years (positive) for both 2000 and 2010. There was a statistically significant higher HIV infection rate among the female prisoners in comparison to the male prisoners. It is of prime importance to examine the state-level disparities in HIV infection rate based on place and demographics. This is because evaluating the spatial pattern will help in accessing the relevant local information and provide federal agencies with better knowledge to target interventions and prevention programs toward the subgroup of the population at higher risk and help in controlling and reducing HIV infection prevalence.

  17. The contribution of three dimensions of allostatic load to racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lozada, Alexis R; Daw, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates whether different dimensions of physiological dysregulation, modeled individually rather than additively mediate racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported health. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010) and the Karlson, Hold, and Breen (KHB) mediation model, this paper explores what operationalization of biomarker data most strongly mediate racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) among adults in the United States, net of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and medication controls. Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had significantly higher odds of reporting poor/fair self-rated health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. Operationalizations of allostatic load that disaggregate three major dimensions of physiological dysregulation mediate racial/ethnic disparities strongly between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites, but not between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Disaggregating these dimensions explains racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair SRH better than the continuous score. Analyses on sex-specific disparities indicate differences in how individual dimensions of allostatic load contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair SRH differently. All individual dimensions are strong determinants of poor/fair SRH for males. In contrast, for females, the only dimension that is significantly associated with poor/fair SRH is inflammation. For the analytic sample, additive biomarker scores fit the data as well or better than other approaches, suggesting that this approach is most appropriate for explaining individual differences. However, in sex-specific analyses, the interactive approach models fit the data best for men and women. Future researchers seeking to explain racial/ethnic disparities in full or sex-stratified samples should consider disaggregating allostatic load by dimension.

  18. A moderating role for gender in racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol services utilization: results from the 2000 to 2010 national alcohol surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Murphy, Ryan D; Mulia, Nina; Gilbert, Paul A; Martinez, Priscilla; Bond, Jason; Polcin, Douglas L

    2014-08-01

    , our evidence for persistent gender disparities and for social influence factors as drivers of these disparities tentatively suggests a need for intensified outreach to female heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. A moderating role for gender in racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol services utilization: Results from the 2000-2010 National Alcohol Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Murphy, Ryan D.; Mulia, Nina; Gilbert, Paul A.; Martinez, Priscilla; Bond, Jason; Polcin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    appropriate interventions. Meanwhile, our evidence for persistent gender disparities and for social influence factors as drivers of these disparities tentatively suggests a need for intensified outreach to female heavy drinkers. PMID:25041173

  20. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity

  2. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  4. Pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area: Gender and racial disparities and risk for psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Tobin, Erin T; Clark, Shannon; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective for weight loss; however, only a small percentage of those who qualify choose to pursue it. Additionally, although psychiatric symptoms appear to be common among candidates, the risk factors for symptoms are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of those who are pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area, whether demographic disparities continue to exist, and identify characteristics of those who may be at higher risk for experiencing psychiatric symptoms. There were 424 bariatric candidates who completed a required psychological evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates tended to be middle-aged, Caucasian females, which was unexpected when compared to the rates of obesity among these groups. Therefore, it appears that there are disparities in who chooses to seek out bariatric surgery compared to those who may qualify due to their obesity status. Cultural factors may play a role in why males and African Americans seek out bariatric surgery less frequently. Psychiatric symptoms among candidates are also common, with depression symptoms increasing with age and BMI. Perhaps the compounding effects of medical comorbidities over time are contributing to greater depressive symptoms in the older patients. Findings from this study suggest that we may need to explore ways of encouraging younger patients, males, and ethnic minorities to pursue bariatric surgery to increase weight loss success and decrease medical comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-09-01

    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  7. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  8. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Racial disparities in colon cancer survival: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Jeffrey H; Rosenbaum, Paul R; Ross, Richard N; Niknam, Bijan A; Ludwig, Justin M; Wang, Wei; Clark, Amy S; Fox, Kevin R; Wang, Min; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Giantonio, Bruce J

    2014-12-16

    Differences in colon cancer survival by race are a recognized problem among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine to what extent the racial disparity in survival is due to disparity in presentation characteristics at diagnosis or disparity in subsequent treatment. Black patients with colon cancer were matched with 3 groups of white patients: a "demographic characteristics" match controlling for age, sex, diagnosis year, and Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) site; a "presentation" match controlling for demographic characteristics plus comorbid conditions and tumor characteristics, including stage and grade; and a "treatment" match, including presentation variables plus details of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. 16 U.S. SEER sites. 7677 black patients aged 65 years or older diagnosed between 1991 and 2005 in the SEER-Medicare database and 3 sets of 7677 matched white patients, followed until 31 December 2009. 5-year survival. The absolute difference in 5-year survival between black and white patients was 9.9% (95% CI, 8.3% to 11.4%; PRacial disparities in colon cancer survival did not decrease among patients diagnosed between 1991 and 2005. This persistent disparity seemed to be more related to presentation characteristics at diagnosis than to subsequent treatment differences. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and National Science Foundation.

  10. Hong Kong Chinese parental attitudes towards vaccination and associated socio-demographic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda Dong-Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

    2016-03-14

    Most previous studies on parental attitudes towards vaccination focused on a disease-specific vaccine. In this study we describe general attitudes towards vaccination in Chinese parents and associated socio-demographic disparities. Data were collected from a random sample of 1996 Hong Kong Chinese parents by telephone interviews (response rate 60%). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Most parents believed vaccination to be effective (91.6%) and beneficial (78.7%), though many considered optional vaccines unimportant (39.5%) and unnecessary (62.1%). Demographic characteristics associated with parental negative attitudes to vaccination included being female, born in Hong Kong, married, having fewer children, and children ever experienced vaccination side effects. Lower personal income and religious affiliation were associated with more hesitant attitudes towards optional vaccines. Segments of the population hold significantly negative attitudes towards vaccination and optional vaccines, suggesting a need for targeted efforts on vaccination communication in these groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Mortality Disparities in Central Appalachian Coal- and Non-Coal-Mining Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Shannon M; Meacham, Susan L; Balmert, Lauren C; Talbott, Evelyn O; Buchanich, Jeanine M

    2015-06-01

    Determine whether select cause of death mortality disparities in four Appalachian regions is associated with coal mining or other factors. We calculated direct age-adjusted mortality rates and associated 95% confidence intervals by sex and study group for each cause of death over 5-year time periods from 1960 to 2009 and compared mean demographic and socioeconomic values between study groups via two-sample t tests. Compared with non-coal-mining areas, we found higher rates of poverty in West Virginia and Virginia (VA) coal counties. All-cause mortality rates for males and females were higher in coal counties across all time periods. Virginia coal counties had statistically significant excesses for many causes of death. We found elevated mortality and poverty rates in coal-mining compared with non-coal-mining areas of West Virginia and VA. Future research should examine these findings in more detail at the individual level.

  12. Combining disparate data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  13. Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press

  14. Racial disparities in prostate cancer: a molecular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Khan, Mohammad Aslam; Prajapati, Vijay K.; Singh, Seema; Carter, James E.; Singh, Ajay P.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates are remarkably higher in African-American men as compared to their European-Americans counterparts. Despite these recognitions, precise causes underlying such prevalent racial disparities remain poorly understood. Although socioeconomic factors could account for such differences up to a certain extent, it is now being increasingly realized that such disparity has a molecular basis. Indeed, several differences, including genetic polymorphism, gene mutations, epigenetic modifications, miRNAs alterations, etc., have been reported in malignant prostate tissues from patients of diverse racial backgrounds. Here, we attempt to provide a molecular perspective on prostate cancer racial disparities by gathering available information on these associated factors and discussing their potential significance in disproportionate incidence and clinical outcomes. PMID:27814645

  15. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  16. The Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Méndez, Marta Rivero; Portillo, Carmen; Padilla, Geraldine; Cuca, Yvette; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the partnership between the schools of nursing at the University of California San Francisco and the University of Puerto Rico to address the need for nursing research on HIV/AIDS health disparities. The partnership led to the creation of the Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities with funding from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Nursing Research. We provide background information on the disproportionate impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on racial and ethnic minorities, describe the major predictors of health disparities in persons at risk for or diagnosed with HIV/AIDS using the Outcomes Model for Health Care Research, and outline the major components of the Nursing Research Center. The center's goal is to improve health outcomes for people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS by enhancing the knowledge base for HIV/AIDS care.

  17. Feminist intersectionality: bringing social justice to health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A

    2011-05-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011

  18. Commentary: Addressing Racial Disparities in Stroke: The Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert J; Ellis, Charles; Magwood, Gayenell; Kindy, Mark S; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lackland, Daniel T

    2018-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery." As a result, three related projects (basic science, clinical science and population science) were designed utilizing animal modeling, mapping of brain connections, and community-based interventions. In this article we describe: 1) the goals and objectives of the individual projects; and 2) how these projects could provide critical evidence to explain why racial-ethnic minorities traditionally experience recovery trajectories that are worse than Whites.

  19. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  20. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  1. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps programs for female adolescents to reduce or avoid risky situations, such as inability to negotiate condom use with older sex partners. Additionally, programs must be developed for both female and male gang members to help them understand and identify unequal gender norms, and interpersonal and sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  2. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Medical decision-making and healthcare disparities: The physician's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberegg, Scott K; Terry, Peter B

    2004-07-01

    Widespread disparities in US healthcare have been documented with attendant speculation about their causes, including the potential role of the physician as a healthcare decision-maker. However, the current evidence on physician decision-making is inadequate to draw firm conclusions on how it relates to healthcare inequalities. In this article, we review the available evidence on physician decision-making as it relates to healthcare disparities, with an emphasis on its shortcomings, discuss potential sources of bias, including interpersonal factors and physician preferences, and make suggestions for further research in this area.

  4. Stereoscopic Roadside Curb Height Measurement using V-Disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thøgersen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available...... in the disparity image obtained from a stereo setup. Data about the geometry of the scene is extracted in the form of a row-wise histogram of the disparity map. From parameterizing the two strongest lines, each pixel can be labeled as belonging to one plane, either ground, sidewalk or curb candidates. Experimental...

  5. Racial/ethnic disparities and consumer activation in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Judith H; Greene, Jessica; Becker, Edmund R; Roblin, Douglas; Painter, Michael W; Perez, Debra J; Burbank-Schmitt, Edith; Tusler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether increasing individuals' activation (self-management) levels could hold potential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health. A causal model is posited that assumes that social-environmental factors influence activation levels, which in turn influence health outcomes. Relationships are examined separately for whites and African Americans, and findings are supportive of the model for both groups. Simulations of what would happen to outcomes if there were racial parity in activation predict a narrowing of the racial gap in health and behavior. The findings suggest that a focus on increasing activation holds potential for addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health.

  6. Trust in Physicians and Racial Disparities in HIV Care

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Moore, Richard D.; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Mistrust among African Americans is often considered a potential source of racial disparities in HIV care. We sought to determine whether greater trust in one's provider among African-American patients mitigates racial disparities. We analyzed data from 1,104 African-American and 201 white patients participating in a cohort study at an urban, academic HIV clinic between 2005 and 2008. African Americans expressed lower levels of trust in their providers than did white patients (8.9 vs. 9.4 on ...

  7. Health consequences of disparity: the US Affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Neal A; Hixon, Allen L

    2011-07-01

    Health disparities and the social determinants of health are often discussed, but their relationship to political forces, the integrity of cultures, social and environmental change, and mental health outcomes are not well understood. Specifically the US Affiliated Pacific Islands Jurisdictions (USPAIJ) is an area of profound isolation and deprivation with a unique sociocultural history. This article provides an overview of health disparities in the US Affiliated Pacific in the context of the environment, and international and state policies. The article explores how the political, economic, social, and environmental context of the USAPIJ shapes health status and provides a "social determinants of health" model for health improvement for the people of the region.

  8. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Let's Get Physical: Sexual Orientation Disparities in Physical Activity, Sports Involvement, and Obesity Among a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and obesity among a population-based adolescent sample. We analyzed data from the 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment for 13,933 students in grades 9 through 12 in 22 Wisconsin high schools. We conducted logistic regressions to examine sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and body mass index among male and female adolescents. When we accounted for several covariates, compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were less likely to participate in team sports (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.53) and more likely to be overweight (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62) or obese (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.48). Sexual minority males were less likely than heterosexual males to be physically active (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83) or to participate in team sports (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.32), but the 2 groups did not differ in their risk of obesity. Sexual orientation health disparities in physical activity and obesity are evident during adolescence. Culturally affirming research, interventions, and policies are needed for sexual minority youths.

  10. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  11. Quality improvement implementation and disparities: the case of the health disparities collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H

    2011-12-01

    The Health Disparities Collaboratives (HDCs), a quality improvement (QI) collaborative incorporating rapid QI, a chronic care model, and learning sessions, have been implemented in over 900 community health centers across the country. To determine the HDC's effect on clinical processes and outcomes, their financial impact, and factors important for successful implementation. Systematic review of the literature. The HDCs improve clinical processes of care over short-term period of 1 to 2 years, and clinical processes and outcomes over longer period of 2 to 4 years. Most participants perceive that the HDCs are successful and worth the effort. Analysis of the Diabetes Collaborative reveals that it is societally cost-effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $33,386 per quality-adjusted life year, but that consistent revenue streams for the initiative do not exist. Common barriers to improvement include lack of resources, time, and staff burnout. Highest ranked priorities for more funding are money for direct patient services, data entry, and staff time for QI. Other common requests for more assistance are help with patient self-management, information systems, and getting providers to follow guidelines. Relatively low-cost ways to increase staff morale and prevent burnout include personal recognition, skills development opportunities, and fair distribution of work. The HDCs have successfully improved quality of care, and the Diabetes Collaborative is societally cost-effective, but policy reforms are necessary to create a sustainable business case for these health centers that serve many uninsured and underinsured populations.

  12. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, David M; Polly, P David

    2013-11-22

    Fossil discoveries over the past 30 years have radically transformed traditional views of Mesozoic mammal evolution. In addition, recent research provides a more detailed account of the Cretaceous diversification of flowering plants. Here, we examine patterns of morphological disparity and functional morphology associated with diet in early mammals. Two analyses were performed: (i) an examination of diversity based on functional dental type rather than higher-level taxonomy, and (ii) a morphometric analysis of jaws, which made use of modern analogues, to assess changes in mammalian morphological and dietary disparity. Results demonstrate a decline in diversity of molar types during the mid-Cretaceous as abundances of triconodonts, symmetrodonts, docodonts and eupantotherians diminished. Multituberculates experience a turnover in functional molar types during the mid-Cretaceous and a shift towards plant-dominated diets during the late Late Cretaceous. Although therians undergo a taxonomic expansion coinciding with the angiosperm radiation, they display small body sizes and a low level of morphological disparity, suggesting an evolutionary shift favouring small insectivores. It is concluded that during the mid-Cretaceous, the period of rapid angiosperm radiation, mammals experienced both a decrease in morphological disparity and a functional shift in dietary morphology that were probably related to changing ecosystems.

  13. Income-Based Disparities in Early Elementary School Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study documents gaps in kindergarten and first-grade science achievement by family income and explores the degree to which such gaps can be accounted for by student race/ethnicity, out-of-school activities, parental education, and school fixed effects. In doing so, it expands on prior research that documents disparate rates of science…

  14. gender disparity in prevalence of depression among patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2013-11-03

    Nov 3, 2013 ... disorders reveals depression as being a significant and growing public health problem associated with a heavy burden of ... Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), The. Composite International Diagnostic Interview. (CIDI) .... Personality, 2004, 32(7), 649-656. 4. World Health Organization. Gender. Disparities In ...

  15. Gender disparity in internet utilisation habits of medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that there still exists gender inequality in internet utilization by students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It recommends paradigm shift in teaching, information dissemination patterns and policy implementation to accomplish the desired change. Keywords: Internet, Utilization, Habits, Gender, Disparity, Digital, Divide.

  16. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  17. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F

    2014-10-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.

  18. School Choice and Educational Opportunity: Rationales, Outcomes and Racial Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for school choice, and the significance of choice mechanisms for racial disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes. It identifies tensions between liberty-based rationales and equality-based rationales, and surveys research findings on the outcomes of school choice policies, especially with regard to…

  19. Residential Segregation and Racial Cancer Disparities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma; Lee, Joseph G L; Efird, Jimmy T; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides the first review of empirical studies of segregation and black-white cancer disparities. We searched all years of PubMed (through May 2016) using these terms: racial segregation, residential segregation, neighborhood racial composition (first terms) and (second terms) cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, screening. The 17 (of 668) articles that measured both segregation and a cancer outcome were retained. Segregation contributed significantly to cancer and to racial cancer disparities in 70% of analyses, even after controlling for socioeconomic status and health insurance. Residing in segregated African-American areas was associated with higher odds of later-stage diagnosis of breast and lung cancers, higher mortality rates and lower survival rates from breast and lung cancers, and higher cumulative cancer risks associated with exposure to ambient air toxics. There were no studies of many types of cancer (e.g., cervical). Studies differed in their measure of segregation, and 40% used an invalid measure. Possible mediators of the segregation effect usually were not tested. Empirical analysis of segregation and racial cancer disparities is a recent area of research. The literature is limited to 17 studies that focused primarily on breast cancer. Studies differed in their measure of segregation, yet segregation nonetheless contributed to cancer and to racial cancer disparities in 70% of analyses. This suggests the need for further research that uses valid measures of segregation, examines a variety of types of cancers, and explores the variables that may mediate the segregation effect.

  20. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  1. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services in India. British rulers opened hospitals for modern medicine; medical colleges; nurses schools etc. in the 19th century to the joyous welcome of natives. During the same period, they set up Indian Research Fund Association two years ahead of the MRC of ...

  2. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  3. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stool samples were examined for trophozoites in watery stool and for cyst in formed stool using light microscope. Fifty four (54) (17.0 %) of the children ... Prevalence of E. Histolytica/E. dispar varied significantly with the type of stool, age and level of education ( P 0.05) was ...

  4. Disparities in access to pediatric hearing health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Matthew L; Kaufman, Michael R; McNulty, Beth N

    2017-10-01

    There are significant disparities in care facing children with hearing loss. The objective of this review is to assess the current disparities in pediatric hearing healthcare delivery, describe the barriers of efficient and effective pediatric hearing health care, and explore the innovations to improve pediatric hearing healthcare delivery. Children with hearing loss from certain geographic regions or ethnic background are significantly delayed in diagnosis and treatment. Multiple patient characteristics (presentation of hearing loss), parental factors (insurance status, socioeconomic status, educational status, and travel distance to providers), and provider barriers (specialist shortage and primary care provider challenges) prevent the delivery of timely hearing health care. Advances, such as improved screening programs and the expansion of care through remote services, may help to ameliorate these disparities. Timely identification and treatment of pediatric hearing loss is critical to prevent lifelong language complications. Children from vulnerable populations, such as rural residents, face significant disparities in care. Careful assessment of these barriers and implementation of culturally acceptable interventions are paramount to maximize communication outcomes of children with hearing loss.

  5. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services in India. Research Institutions started in late 19th and early 20th century included Plague laboratory, Nutrition Research Lab at Coonoor; Malaria Research Institute in Delhi; King Institute, Guindy; Central ...

  6. Monitoring population density and fluctuations of Anisandrus dispar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark and ambrosia beetles consist of two main ecological groups; bark beetles settle in the phloem, whereas ambrosia beetles bore in the xylem (sapwood). The latter are very detrimental ... in Samsun province. Key words: Hazelnut, population monitoring, Anisandrus dispar, Xyleborinus saxesenii, red winged sticky traps.

  7. Disparities in Overweight and Obesity among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…

  8. Can internet infrastructure help reduce regional disparities? : evidence from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celbis, M.G.; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents novel evidence regarding the role of regional internet infrastructure in reducing regional per capita income disparities. We base our study on the assumptions that (1) the diffusion of information homogenizes regional economies through reducing the dissimilarities in institutions

  9. When does power disparity help or hurt group performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakci, Murat; Greer, Lindred L; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2016-03-01

    Power differences are ubiquitous in social settings. However, the question of whether groups with higher or lower power disparity achieve better performance has thus far received conflicting answers. To address this issue, we identify 3 underlying assumptions in the literature that may have led to these divergent findings, including a myopic focus on static hierarchies, an assumption that those at the top of hierarchies are competent at group tasks, and an assumption that equality is not possible. We employ a multimethod set of studies to examine these assumptions and to understand when power disparity will help or harm group performance. First, our agent-based simulation analyses show that by unpacking these common implicit assumptions in power research, we can explain earlier disparate findings--power disparity benefits group performance when it is dynamically aligned with the power holder's task competence, and harms group performance when held constant and/or is not aligned with task competence. Second, our empirical findings in both a field study of fraud investigation groups and a multiround laboratory study corroborate the simulation results. We thereby contribute to research on power by highlighting a dynamic understanding of power in groups and explaining how current implicit assumptions may lead to opposing findings. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Bringing Everyone to the Table to Eradicate School Discipline Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allison; Mediratta, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Philanthropies funded the work of the Positive and Safe Schools Advancing Greater Equity (PASSAGE) initiative, which is a unique approach to ending discipline disparities focused on partnerships between districts and community organizations. Open Society Foundations is considering funding similar work. For this interview, "Voices…

  11. Disparities in the estimation of the interstellar electron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, L.C.; Ng, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    Two disparities have been observed: 1. Careful analysis of the interstellar electron data shows that anomalous modulation has happened in the years 1972 - 75, which has caused some confusion in the estimation of the interstellar electron spectrum. 2. At low-energy region, the local effect on the interstellar electron spectrum is significant if one compares the measured electron data with the radio data

  12. Social Capital, Information, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Math Course Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study revealed that socioeconomically advantaged students persist in high school math at higher rates than their disadvantaged peers even when they have the same initial placements and skill levels. These disparities are larger among students with prior records of low academic status because students…

  13. Disparities in Abortion Experience and Access to Safe Abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra,. Ghana1 ... years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in women's experiences of abortion and access to safe abortion care. ..... cultural and religious attitudes towards induced.

  14. Erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Durán-Díaz, Ángel; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human intestinal and liver amebiasis. The extraordinary phagocytic activity of E. histolytica trophozoites has been accepted as one of the virulence mechanisms responsible for their invasive capacity. The recognition of the noninvasive Entamoeba dispar as a different species has raised the question as to whether the lack of pathogenic potential of this ameba correlates with a limited phagocytic capacity. We have therefore compared the process of erythrophagocytosis in both species by means of light and video microscopy, hemoglobin measurement, and the estimation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we confirmed that E. dispar has lower erythrophagocytic capacity. We also observed by video microscopy a new event of erythrocyte opsonization-like in both species, being more characteristic in E. histolytica. Moreover, E. dispar showed a lower capacity to produce ROS compared with the invasive species and also showed a large population of amoebae that did not engulf any erythrocyte over time. Our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has a higher phagocytic capacity than E. dispar, including a higher rate of production of ROS in the course of ingesting red blood cells.

  15. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2015-01-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  16. Disparity refinement process based on RANSAC plane fitting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more accurate than normal flow state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms. The performance evaluations are based on standard image quality metrics i.e. structural similarity index measure, peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. Keywords: computer vision; disparity refinement; image segmentation; RANSAC; ...

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.11 Disparate... validation. A selection procedure—even though validated against job performance in accordance with these guidelines—cannot be imposed upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants...

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  19. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  20. Female urethral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi

    1988-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These events are rare in healthy women using hormone therapy close to menopause. Women who have not had a hysterectomy also need to take progestin, another female hormone, to prevent uterine cancer. Other Medicines. Non-prescription ...

  2. Sexual Assault against Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Sexual Assault Against Females Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  3. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  4. Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kathy S.

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.

  5. Predictors of assault among urban female trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Periyanayagam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assault is a common mechanism of injury among female trauma victims. This paper identifies risk factors for assault in female victims and explores the interplay between identified predictors of assault and their combined contribution to female violent victimization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all female trauma patients was performed using the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry from 1999-2003. Patients with assault listed as their mechanism of injury were compared to patients with other mechanisms of injury. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using STATA statistical software to identify independent risk factors for assault. Finally, interaction affects were studied among these identified risk factors. Results: Female victims of assault were more likely to be African American (OR 1.32, P < 0.001, lack insurance (OR 1.79, P < 0.001, and to have tested positive for drugs (OR 1.32, P < 0.001 than women with other mechanisms of injury. In addition to the independent effects of these variables, patient drug use and lack of insurance demonstrated interaction effects (OR 1.67, P = 0.02. Conclusion: In this study, women of color, the uninsured, and those using drugs were disproportionately represented among assault victims, highlighting further evidence of trauma disparities. Most significantly, this study demonstrates that predictors of assault in women frequently coexist and both independently and in combination may increase the risk for female violent victimization.

  6. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  7. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...

  8. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  9. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  10. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Making Death Visible: Chechen Female Suicide Bombers in an Era of Globalization (ProQuest, 2009), 65. 91 Gammer, “Nationalism and History ,” 121. 92...18 III. CASE STUDY: THE RUSSO–CHECHEN CONFLICT .................................19 A. CHECHEN HISTORY ...Bloom, “Female Suicide Bombers: A Global Trend,” Daedalus, 136, no. 1 (2007): 94. 2 Mia Bloom, Bombshell (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania

  11. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  12. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Corporatization of pain medicine: implications for widening pain care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H

    2011-04-01

    The current health care system in the United States is structured in a way that ensures that more opportunity and resources flow to the wealthy and socially advantaged. The values intrinsic to the current profit-oriented culture are directly antithetical to the idea of equitable access. A large body of literature points to disparities in pain treatment and pain outcomes among vulnerable groups. These disparities range from the presence of disproportionately higher numbers and magnitude of risk factors for developing disabling pain, lack of access to primary care providers, analgesics and interventions, lack of referral to pain specialists, longer wait times to receive care, receipt of poor quality of pain care, and lack of geographical access to pharmacies that carry opioids. This article examines the manner in which the profit-oriented culture in medicine has directly and indirectly structured access to pain care, thereby widening pain treatment disparities among vulnerable groups. Specifically, the author argues that the corporatization of pain medicine amplifies disparities in pain outcomes in two ways: 1) directly through driving up the cost of pain care, rendering it inaccessible to the financially vulnerable; and 2) indirectly through an interface with corporate loss-aversion/risk management culture that draws upon irrelevant social characteristics, thus worsening disparities for certain populations. Thus, while financial vulnerability is the core reason for lack of access, it does not fully explain the implications of corporate microculture regarding access. The effect of corporatization on pain medicine must be conceptualized in terms of overt access to facilities, providers, pharmaceuticals, specialty services, and interventions, but also in terms of the indirect or covert effect of corporate culture in shaping clinical interactions and outcomes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Trust in physicians and racial disparities in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somnath; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Mistrust among African Americans is often considered a potential source of racial disparities in HIV care. We sought to determine whether greater trust in one's provider among African-American patients mitigates racial disparities. We analyzed data from 1,104 African-American and 201 white patients participating in a cohort study at an urban, academic HIV clinic between 2005 and 2008. African Americans expressed lower levels of trust in their providers than did white patients (8.9 vs. 9.4 on a 0-10 scale; p African Americans were also less likely than whites to be receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) when eligible (85% vs. 92%; p = 0.02), to report complete ART adherence over the prior 3 days (83% vs. 89%; p = 0.005), and to have a suppressed viral load (40% vs. 47%; p = 0.04). Trust in one's provider was not associated with receiving ART or with viral suppression but was significantly associated with adherence. African Americans who expressed less than complete trust in their providers (0-9 of 10) had lower ART adherence than did whites (adjusted OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66). For African Americans who expressed complete trust in their providers (10 of 10), the racial disparity in adherence was less prominent but still substantial (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95). Trust did not affect disparities in receipt of ART or viral suppression. Our findings suggest that enhancing trust in patient-provider relationships for African-American patients may help reduce disparities in ART adherence and the outcomes associated with improved adherence.

  15. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  17. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. © F. Moravec et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  18. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes. Models with sexual orientation only were compared to models with factors hypothesized to increase or decrease risk of pain. Significant odds ratios (OR for chronic pain frequency (daily/weekly vs. rarely with confidence intervals (CI and associated factors are reported. Compared to same-gender heterosexual females, mostly heterosexuals were more likely to report headaches (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.09, 1.79 and mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to report muscle/joint pain (mostly heterosexual OR = 1.69, CI = 1.29, 2.20; bisexual OR = 1.87, CI = 1.03, 3.38. Compared to same-gender heterosexual males, gay males were more likely to report headaches (OR = 2.00, CI = 1.06, 3.82, but less likely to report muscle/joint pain (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.11, 0.74. Significant disparities were attenuated by up to 16% when associated factors were added to the model. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain were partially explained by associated factors, but more research is needed to develop intervention and prevention strategies.

  19. Improving Occupational Health Disparity Research: Testing a method to estimate race and ethnicity in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Bonauto, David K

    2018-04-02

    Race and ethnicity data are often absent from administrative and health insurance databases. Indirect estimation methods to assign probability scores for race and ethnicity to insurance records may help identify occupational health inequities. We compared race and ethnicity estimates from the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) formula to self-reported race and ethnicity from 1132 workers. The accuracy of the BISG using gender stratified regression models adjusted for worker age and industry were excellent for White and Latino males and Latino females, good for Black and Asian Pacific Islander males and White and Asian Pacific Islander females. American Indian/Alaskan Native and those who indicated they were "Other" or "More than one race" were poorly identified. The BISG estimation method was accurate for White, Black, Latino, and Asian Pacific Islanders in a sample of workers. Using the BISG in administrative datasets will expand research into occupational health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  1. Approaching environmental health disparities and green spaces: An ecosystem services perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well...

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis from Kindergarten to Eighth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Staff, Jeremy; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur across early and middle childhood is currently unknown. We examined the over-time dynamics of race/ethnic disparities in diagnosis from kindergarten to eighth grade and disparities in treatment in fifth and eighth…

  3. Free Space Computation From Stochastic Occupancy Grids Based On Iconic Kalman Filtered Disparity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Madsen, Claus B.

    2010-01-01

    variance and increasing the density of the filtered disparity map. Then, a stochastic occupancy grid is calculated from the filtered disparity map, providing a top-down view of the scene where the uncertainty of disparity measurements are taken into account. These occupancy grids are segmented to indicate...

  4. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  5. Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexis; McAlear, Frieda; Scott, Allison

    2015-01-01

    "Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools" exposes one of the foundational causes of underrepresentation in computing: disparities in access to computer science courses in California's public high schools. This report provides new, detailed data on these disparities by student body…

  6. Multiple disparities in adult mortality in relation to social and health care perspective: results from different data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung-Bae; Acharaya, Sambhu

    2017-08-08

    Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. Data was created from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al. (Universal health coverage, 2010), and religious categories of all UN country members. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA followed by a post hoc test, and a linear regression were used where applicable. The average AM rate for males and females was 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. There was high disparity of AM between countries with and without UHC and between groups with low and high income. UHC and political stability would significantly reduce AMR by >0.41 in both sexes and high economic status would reduce male AMR by 0.44, and female AMR by 0.70. It can be concluded that effective health care; UHC and political stability significantly reduce AM.

  7. Understanding the gender disparity in HIV infection across countries in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which is exacerbated by their role in society and biological vulnerability. The specific objectives of this article are to (i) determine the extent of gender disparity in HIV infection; (ii) examine the role of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) awareness and sexual behaviour factors on the gender disparity and (iii) establish how the gender disparity varies between individuals of different characteristics and across countries. The analysis involves multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2003–2008. The findings suggest that women in sub-Saharan Africa have on average a 60% higher risk of HIV infection than their male counterparts. The risk for women is 70% higher than their male counterparts of similar sexual behaviour, suggesting that the observed gender disparity cannot be attributed to sexual behaviour. The results suggest that the risk of HIV infection among women (compared to men) across countries in sub-Saharan Africa is further aggravated among those who are younger, in female-headed households, not in stable unions or marital partnerships or had an earlier sexual debut. PMID:21545443

  8. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Acute Stroke Care in the Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Gardener, Hannah; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina M; Asdaghi, Negar; Burgin, W Scott; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Nobo, Ulises; Oluwole, Sofia; Rose, David Z; Waters, Michael F; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Robichaux, Mary; Waddy, Salina P; Romano, Jose G; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-02-14

    Racial-ethnic disparities in acute stroke care can contribute to inequality in stroke outcomes. We examined race-ethnic disparities in acute stroke performance metrics in a voluntary stroke registry among Florida and Puerto Rico Get With the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals. Seventy-five sites in the Florida Puerto Rico Stroke Registry (66 Florida and 9 Puerto Rico) recorded 58 864 ischemic stroke cases (2010-2014). Logistic regression models examined racial-ethnic differences in acute stroke performance measures and defect-free care (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment, in-hospital antithrombotic therapy, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, discharge antithrombotic therapy, appropriate anticoagulation therapy, statin use, smoking cessation counseling) and temporal trends. Among ischemic stroke cases, 63% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), 18% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), 14% were Hispanic living in Florida, and 6% were Hispanic living in Puerto Rico. NHW patients were the oldest, followed by Hispanics, and NHBs. Defect-free care was greatest among NHBs (81%), followed by NHWs (79%) and Florida Hispanics (79%), then Puerto Rico Hispanics (57%) ( P disparity in Puerto Rico persisted (2010: NHWs=63%, NHBs=65%, Florida Hispanics=59%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=31%; 2014: NHWs=93%, NHBs=94%, Florida Hispanics=94%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=63%). Racial-ethnic/geographic disparities were observed for acute stroke care performance metrics. Adoption of a quality improvement program improved stroke care from 2010 to 2014 in Puerto Rico and all Florida racial-ethnic groups. However, stroke care quality delivered in Puerto Rico is lower than in Florida. Sustained support of evidence-based acute stroke quality improvement programs is required to improve stroke care and minimize racial-ethnic disparities, particularly in resource-strained Puerto Rico. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Evaluation of the Abington isolate of the gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus against a formulation of Gypchek in small field plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Webb; M. Shapiro; J. D. Podgwaite; D. D. Cohen; R. L. Ridgway

    1991-01-01

    The "Abington" isolate of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was compared with a formulation of Gypchek against a natural gypsy moth population in the Swallow Falls State Forest in Garrett County, MD.

  10. Susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth suppression in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Papp Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Norman R. Dubois

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenological and physiological susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt), a product widely used for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suppression in Michigan and other infested states. We...

  11. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  12. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  13. Stalking by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.

  14. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  15. Harnessing Implementation Science to Increase the Impact of Health Disparity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Woodward, Eva N.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Hausmann, Leslie R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health disparities are differences in health or health care between groups based on social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Disparity research often follows three steps: detecting (Phase 1), understanding (Phase 2), and reducing (Phase 3), disparities. While disparities have narrowed over time, many remain. Objectives We argue that implementation science could enhance disparities research by broadening the scope of Phase 2 studies and offering rigorous methods to test disparity-reducing implementation strategies in Phase 3 studies. Methods We briefly review the focus of Phase 2 and Phase 3 disparities research. We then provide a decision tree and case examples to illustrate how implementation science frameworks and research designs could further enhance disparity research. Results Most health disparities research emphasizes patient and provider factors as predominant mechanisms underlying disparities. Applying implementation science frameworks like the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research could help disparities research widen its scope in Phase 2 studies and, in turn, develop broader disparities-reducing implementation strategies in Phase 3 studies. Many Phase 3 studies of disparity reducing implementation strategies are similar to case studies, whose designs are not able to fully test causality. Implementation science research designs offer rigorous methods that could accelerate the pace at which equity is achieved in real world practice. Conclusions Disparities can be considered a “special case” of implementation challenges—when evidence-based clinical interventions are delivered to, and received by, vulnerable populations at lower rates. Bringing together health disparities research and implementation science could advance equity more than either could achieve on their own. PMID:28806362

  16. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  17. Interval Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S

    2018-01-01

    Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.

  18. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  19. Gender disparities in acute coronary syndrome: a closing gap in the short-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadri, Jelena R; Sarcon, Annahita; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Diekmann, Johanna; Bataiosu, Roxana D; Hellermann, Jens; Csordas, Adam; Baumann, Lukas; Schöni, Aline A; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze gender disparities in a large cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients from the Zurich Acute Coronary Syndrome (Z-ACS) Registry. Gender disparities in ACS were examined. The primary endpoint included in-hospital death rate, and the secondary endpoint major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) at 30-day follow-up. Furthermore, independent predictors for MACCEs and death were identified. In total, 2612 patients with ACS were identified. Out of these, 23% were women. The mean age was higher in women (68.6 ± 12.2; P < 0.001). Troponin-T on admission (1.33 ± 4.64 vs. 1.19 ± 3.04 μg/l; P = 0.002) and N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide on admission (3456.2 ± 7286.7 vs. 1665.6 ± 4800.6 ng/l; P < 0.001) were higher in women compared with men. Single-vessel disease was more common in women (44.9 vs. 39.7%; P = 0.023) and, conversely, multivessel disease was more prevalent in male patients as compared with their female counterparts (59.4 vs. 54.4%; P = 0.029). At discharge, men were more likely prescribed statins (89.4 vs. 85.2%; P = 0.004). Overall mortality and MACCEs were similar for both genders. In women, peak creatine kinase and peak C-reactive protein emerged as independent predictors for MACCEs and SBP on admission, and maximal C-reactive protein and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIIb/IIIa) as strong independent predictors for in-hospital death. The present results suggest a closing gap in short-term outcome and improvement in cardiac care between women and men. Nonetheless, differences in treatment strategies continue to exist, particularly pertaining to statin regimens at discharge, which might potentially have a powerful impact on long-term outcomes and gender disparities.

  20. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  1. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Department of Family and Community Medicine, Medical College, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. Received 27 ... alone.1. The practice is deep-rooted in gender disparity, cultural uniqueness, and ideas about purity, modesty, esthetics, status and honor. Moreover, it acts as a trial to manage women's sex-.

  2. Intra-regional disparities in Sisak-Moslavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Braičić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct discrepancies in social and economic development levels between different parts of the Sisak-Moslavina County. Although discussed in earlier researches, the County's intraregional disparities were approached in a new way. The paper deals with the disparities between administrative cities and municipalities and between the northern (Sisak Posavina and Moslavina and the southern (Banovina part of the County by applying two groups of indicators – economic development and demographic development. Based on these indicators administrative cities and municipalities ranking has been conducted, two synthetic ranks have been derived and their correlation tested. According to different indicators, the Municipality of Gvozd is in the most unfavourable situation while the most favourable indicators are related to the town of Kutina.

  3. Spatial analysis to identify disparities in Philippine public school facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaya Leah Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues that affect school building conditions as a case study of the Philippines. Geographic information systems were utilized to investigate the allocation of public school resources and the extent of disparity in education facilities among 75 Philippine provinces. Four clusters of the provinces were identified by applying spatial statistics and regionalization techniques to the public school data. Overall, the building conditions are of high quality in the northern provinces. The greater region of the capital is overcrowded but well maintained. The eastern seaboard region and the southern provinces have poor conditions due to frequent natural calamities and the prolonged civil unrest, respectively. Since the spatial analysis result shows that the school building requirements are largely unmet, some recommendations are proposed so that they can be implemented by the government in order to improve the school facilities and mitigate the existing disparities among the four clusters of the Philippines.

  4. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.

  5. Regional Economic Growth; Socio-Economic Disparities among Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Özgür SARICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State level economy has always been relying on its major metropolitan area’s economic success. So, such metropolitan agglomerations have been considered the only agents that can foster the state’s economic standing as if other economic places do (or may not have significant contribution to the regional economy. In contrast, as some major cities enhance their economic well-being and agglomerate in specialized sector, the rest of the region lose their economic grounds or stay constant by widening the economic gap among cities. Therefore, an institutional approach can help to establish new regional arrangements to substitute all economic places to coordinate each other and succeed the economic growth as part of state government by reducing the disparities. In this sense, this study builds upon the inquiry that seeks the impacts of some economic disparities among economic places (counties on the performances of state level regional economy.

  6. Research on sentencing: disparity, punishment and vocabularies of motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raupp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present an overview of inter- national and national empirical studies on senten- cing. We aim to show this field’s trajectory, its main discussions and findings as well as its “blind spots”. The main goal of this article is to draw attention to how this field of research allows us to think about the problem of the disparity on sentencing as a criminal justice operation pattern. This problem has been identified by many studies, but also by the social re- presentation of the criminal justice. From a literature review on sentencing and an analysis of the main stu- dies identified, this article proposes a new direction to understand the problem of disparity on sentencing in criminal justice and indicates a new subject to be explored as well as new empirical research possibili- ties on sentencing.

  7. Age-related racial disparities in prostate cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Prostate cancer mortality rates have decreased over recent decades, but racial disparities in prostate cancer survival still present as a serious challenge. These disparities may be impacted by age; in fact, African-American men younger than age 65 have prostate cancer mortality rates nearly three times greater than that of White men. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted in Medline and EMBASE databases focusing on articles comparing survival and mortality rates for prostate cancer patients across age and race. Articles included were based on the following criteria: (1) included African-American and White prostate cancer patients residing in the US; (2) measured racial disparities across distinct age categories with at least one category below and one above age 65; and (3) addressed racial disparities in terms of overall survival or mortality. Twenty eight articles compared survival and mortality disparities between African-American and White prostate cancer patients across different age categories. Of the 28 articles, 19 articles (68%) showed disparities decreased with age, 8 articles (29%) showed disparities constant with age, and 1 article (3%) showed disparities increased with age. More often the survival and mortality gap between African-American and White prostate cancer patients decreases with age. Additional studies are needed to elucidate other factors that may influence racial disparities in prostate cancer patients. These results provide insight into the racial disparities in prostate cancer and suggest more resources should be directed towards decreasing the disparity gap in younger prostate cancer patients.

  8. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  9. Promoting Health Equity And Eliminating Disparities Through Performance Measurement And Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew C; O'Rourke, Erin; Chin, Marshall H; Ponce, Ninez A; Bernheim, Susannah M; Burstin, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Current approaches to health care quality have failed to reduce health care disparities. Despite dramatic increases in the use of quality measurement and associated payment policies, there has been no notable implementation of measurement strategies to reduce health disparities. The National Quality Forum developed a road map to demonstrate how measurement and associated policies can contribute to eliminating disparities and promote health equity. Specifically, the road map presents a four-part strategy whose components are identifying and prioritizing areas to reduce health disparities, implementing evidence-based interventions to reduce disparities, investing in the development and use of health equity performance measures, and incentivizing the reduction of health disparities and achievement of health equity. To demonstrate how the road map can be applied, we present an example of how measurement and value-based payment can be used to reduce racial disparities in hypertension among African Americans.

  10. Prenatal and Postpartum Care Disparities in a Large Medicaid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.

  11. Breast and cervical cancer screening disparities associated with disability severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Andresen, Elena M; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has noted disparities between women with and without disabilities in receipt of timely screening for breast and cervical cancer. Some studies suggest greater disparities for women with more severe disabilities, but the research to date has yielded inconsistent findings. Our purpose was to further examine differences in receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in relation to severity of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses examined whether Pap smears and mammograms had been received within the recommended timeframe according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines. We compared four groups of women aged 18 to 64 years, categorized by presence and complexity of disability: 1) No limitations, 2) basic action difficulties only, 3) complex activity limitations only, and 4) both basic and complex activity limitations. Women both with and without disabilities fell short of Healthy People 2020 goals for breast and cervical cancer screening. Overall, women with disabilities were less likely to be up to date with both mammograms and Pap tests. The magnitude of disparities was greater for women with complex limitations. Disparities in Pap testing, but not mammography, remained significant when controlling for demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors. Women with more complex or severe disability were less likely to be up to date with breast and cervical cancer screenings. Targeted efforts are needed to reduce barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for women with significant disabilities, especially those who also experience other socioecological disadvantages. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Demographic and Urbanization Disparities of Liver Transplantation in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hung Wen; Chin-Li Lu; Carol Strong; Yih-Jyh Lin; Yao-Li Chen; Chung-Yi Li; Chiang-Chin Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Limited access to or receipt of liver transplantation (LT) may jeopardize survival of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Taiwan launched its National Health Insurance (NHI) program in 1995, which essentially removes financial barriers to health care. This study aims to investigate where there are still demographic and urbanization disparities of LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Data analyzed in this study were retrieved from Taiwan’s NHI inpatient claims. A total of 3020 ...

  13. A media advocacy intervention linking health disparities and food insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related food insecurity leads to disparities related to the consumption of a popular food product across Canada (namely, Kraft Dinner?), we launched a media...

  14. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p

  15. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...

  16. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  18. Confronting female genital mutilation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The issue of FGM has always been considered 'sensitive' (meaning dangerous), which has deeply affected the way it has been approached and addressed. .... cutting18), even if it means hiding the apparent intention of the practice (to honour)? The most recent theory, popularised by Tostan, is that female circumcision is ...

  19. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  20. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging Changes in the levels of androgens (male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is thinner, while the hair on their face is coarser. Family history of male or female pattern baldness.

  1. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immigrants and refugees into Western cultures has made it important for health care practitioners to understand some of the customs, beliefs and traditions surrounding female circumcision. This is especially the case in South Africa with its 8 million illegal immigrants. .... A poster used in the campaign against FGM in France.

  2. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  3. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context to...... a multiplier effect in reducing gender gaps in entrepreneurship rates.......-founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  4. Acculturation, nutrition, and health disparities in Latinos1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background: Latinos have become the largest minority group in the United States and will represent 25% of the US population by 2050. Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of poverty and poor health outcomes. Objectives: We critically examined the evidence for a link between acculturation and health disparities in Latinos with a focus on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nutrition-related risk factors and illustrated how acculturation principles can help design a culturally appropriate T2D self-management intervention in Latinos. Design: Evidence presented in this article was drawn from 1) systematic reviews identified through PubMed searches, 2) backward searches that were based on articles cited, 3) experts in the field, and 4) the author's personal files. Results: The preponderance of the evidence supported an association of acculturation with poor dietary quality and obesity. These associations appeared to be modified by several socioeconomic and demographic factors and were not always linear. The association between acculturation and T2D is unclear. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies and more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to better understand if and how acculturation affects health-disparity outcomes in Latinos. Tailoring interventions to the acculturation level of individuals is likely to help reduce health disparities in Latinos. PMID:21367946

  5. Needed Interventions to Reduce Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie

    2016-08-01

    Large racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in health persist in the United States. Eliminating these health disparities is a public health challenge of our time. This article addresses what is needed for social and behavioral interventions to be successful. We draw on important insights for reducing social inequalities in health that David Mechanic articulated more than a decade ago in his article "Disadvantage, Inequality, and Social Policy." We begin by outlining the challenge that interventions that have the potential to improve health at the population level can widen social inequalities in health. Next, given that there are racial differences in SES at every level of SES, we review research on race/ethnicity-related aspects of social experience that can contribute to racial inequalities in SES and health. We then explore what is needed for social and behavioral interventions to be successful in addressing disparities and consider the significance of race/ethnicity in designing and developing good policies to address this added dimension of inequality. We conclude that there is a pressing need to develop a scientific research agenda to identify how to build and sustain the political will needed to create policy to eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  6. Disparities in new graduate transition from multiple stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamack, Monica; Rush, Kathy L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand multiple stakeholder perspectives of new graduate (NG) transition programs. It was part of a larger mixed-methods study (2011) designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of new graduate nurse transition best practices, across six British Columbia health authorities. Data collection involved individual interviews with academic nurse educators (n=4) and separate focus groups with new graduate (n=48) and front-line nurse leaders (n=69). Disparity emerged as the overriding theme and described differences between stakeholder group perspectives, between expectations and reality, and within and across programs. Four disparities emerged: entry-level education and practice, perspectives on employment and career planning, transition program elements and support. Despite general satisfaction with undergraduate preparation, theory-practice gaps were identified. New Graduates experienced misalignments between their employment expectations and their realities. The employed student nurse program in which many new graduates had participated did not always yield employment, but when it did, differences in transitional expectations arose between new graduates and leaders. There was considerable variation across and within provincial new graduate programs with respect to orientation, supernumerary time and preceptorship characteristics, including lack of training. Disparities arose in the nature, amount of and access to support and the monitoring of new graduate progress. Findings reinforced organizational complexities and the importance of communication across education and practice sectors. This paper uncovers the tensions between the perspectives of new graduates and nurse leaders about transitional programs and opens the opportunity to collaborate in aligning the perspectives.

  7. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  8. Tobacco-Related Health Disparities Across the Cancer Care Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Pineiro, Barbara; Hooper, Monica Webb; Gray, Jhanelle E; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-10-01

    Use of tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Racial/ethnic minorities and individuals of low socioeconomic status disproportionately experience tobacco-related disease and illness. Unique challenges and circumstances exist at each point in the cancer care continuum that may contribute to the greater cancer burden experienced by these groups. We reviewed tobacco-related disparities from cancer prevention to cancer survivorship. We also describe research that seeks to reduce tobacco-related disparities. Racial/ethnic minorities and low-income individuals experience unique social and environmental contextual challenges such as greater environmental cues to smoke and greater levels of perceived stress and social discrimination. Clinical practice guidelines support the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and behavioral counseling for racial and ethnic minorities, yet smoking cessation rates are lower in this group when compared with non-Hispanic whites. Superior efficacy for culturally adapted interventions has not yet been established. To reduce health disparities in this population, a comprehensive strategy is needed with efforts directed at each point along the cancer care continuum. Strategies are needed to reduce the impact of contextual factors such as targeted tobacco marketing and social discrimination on smoking initiation and maintenance. Future efforts should focus on increasing the use of evidence-based cessation treatment methods and studying its effectiveness in these populations. Attention must also be focused on improving treatment outcomes by reducing smoking in diverse racial and ethnic patient populations.

  9. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  10. Occupational health disparities: a state public health-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2014-05-01

    This report used employment and public health surveillance data in Michigan to characterize work-related race/ethnic health disparities. U.S. Census data were used to calculate the percent by race/Hispanic ethnicity in occupational groups ranked by three measures for potential work-related health risks. Disparities by race/ethnicity were generated from occupational health surveillance data. Blacks and Hispanics were over-represented in lower wage-higher manual-labor occupations and in highest risk occupations. Blacks were at greater risk of silicosis, work-related asthma, and work-related burns than whites, and Hispanics had higher rates of work-related acute fatal injuries and pesticide injury than non-Hispanics. Michigan employment data indicated that blacks and Hispanics were overly represented in lower paid and more hazardous jobs. Occupational health surveillance data confirmed disparate risks for some illnesses and injuries. This approach can be used in other states to bring awareness to policy makers and direct interventions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  12. Asymmetrical DNA replication promotes evolution: disparity theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, M; Doi, H

    1998-01-01

    Heredity is guaranteed by faithful DNA replication whereas evolution depends upon errors accompanying DNA replication. This contradiction existing between heredity and evolution cannot be resolved in an individual organism, but only in terms of a population, in that a delicate balance exists between wild type and variants in a population which is necessary for the survival of the species. Namely, there seems to be a key in the mechanism of DNA replication to solve some problems of evolution. DNA is replicated semiconservatively using the leading and discontinuous lagging strands. According to our 'disparity theory of evolution', the existence of a sufficient fidelity difference between the leading and lagging strands is advantageous in terms of evolution, because the diversity of genotypes is enlarged but genotypes that have occurred in the past are guaranteed. In theory, by artificially increasing the fidelity difference between the leading and lagging strand ('disparity mutator'), evolution is accelerated while avoiding the extinction of the population. Using a disparity mutator, we should be able to improve living things, including multicellular organisms, within constrained conditions. A double-stranded algorithm, which mimics the structure and replication manner of DNA, is promising for solving optimization problems.

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage among adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; O’Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W.; Lindley, Megan C.; Farrall, Susan; Bridges, Carolyn B.

    2018-01-01

    Background Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in immunization rates is a compelling public health goal. Disparities in childhood vaccination rates have been absent in recent years for most vaccines. Purpose The objective of this study is to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity in the United States. Methods The 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was analyzed in 2014 to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity for six vaccines routinely recommended for adults: The vaccines are: influenza, Tetanus, pneumococcal, human papilloma virus, and zoster vaccines. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with all adult vaccinations. Results Vaccination coverage was significantly lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians compared with non-Hispanic whites, with only a few exceptions. Age, sex, education, health insurance, usual place of care, number of physician visits in the past 12 months, and health insurance were independently associated with receipt of most of the vaccines examined. Racial/ethnic differences narrowed, but gaps remained after taking these factors into account. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in vaccination levels narrow when adjusting for socioeconomic factors analyzed in this survey, but are not eliminated, suggesting that other factors that associated with vaccination disparities were not measured by the NHIS and could also contribute to the differences in coverage. Additional efforts including systems changes to ensure routine assessment and recommendations for needed vaccination among adults for all racial/ethnic groups are essential for improving vaccine coverage. PMID:26297451

  14. Oral health disparities and food insecurity in working poor Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Vanessa; Quiñonez, Carlos; Figueiredo, Rafael; Locker, David

    2009-08-01

    This study explored oral health disparities associated with food insecurity in working poor Canadians. We used a cross-sectional stratified study design and telephone survey methodology to obtain data from 1049 working poor persons aged between 18 and 64 years. The survey instrument contained sociodemographic items, self-reported oral health measures, access to dental care indicators (dental visiting behaviour and insurance coverage) and questions about competing financial demands. Food-insecure persons gave 'often' or 'sometimes' responses to any of the three food insecurity indicators used in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003) assessing 'worry' about not having enough food, not eating enough food and not having the desired quality of food because of insufficient finances in the previous 12 months. Food-insecure working poor persons had poor oral health compared with food-secure working poor persons indicated by a higher percentage of denture wearers (P oral health as good or very good (P oral health disparities between food-insecure and food-secure persons related to denture wearing, having a toothache, reporting poor/very poor self-rated oral health or experiencing an oral health impact persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and access to dental care factors (P poor persons reported relinquishing goods or services in order to pay for necessary dental care. This study identified oral health disparities within an already marginalized group not alleviated by access to professional dental care. Working poor persons regarded professional dental care as a competing financial demand.

  15. Descriptive Analysis of the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Melody S.; Gilbert, Keon L.; Hudson, Darrell; Milam, Laurel; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There are more than 500 articles in the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities literature across a broad array of diseases and outcomes. However, unlike many other forms of research (e.g., clinical trials, systematic reviews) there are no required reporting guidelines when submitting results of disparities studies to journals. Objective Describe the race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature in terms of study design, journal characteristics, generation of health disparities research, type of disparity measure used, and adherence to disparities measurement guidelines. Methods We searched three databases of peer-reviewed literature, PubMed, Ovid Medline, and JSTOR, for English language articles published in 2014 on racial/ethnic healthcare disparities. Studies must have quantitatively measured the difference in health outcomes between two racial/ethnic groups in order to be included. Our final sample included 266 studies from 167 medical and public health journals. Findings Only 7% (n=19) of articles reported both an absolute and relative measure of disparity; the majority of studies (64%, n=171) reported only a relative measure of effect. Most studies were published in clinical journals (74%, n=198), used secondary data (86%, n=229), and calculated black-white disparities (82%, n=218). The most common condition studied was cancer (25%, n=67), followed by a surgical procedure (18%, n= 48). On average, articles in the sample only met 61% of the applicable guidelines on reporting of disparities. Conclusions and relevance To be able to synthesize findings in the racial disparities literature (meta-analysis), there is a need for the use of consistent methods for quantifying disparities and reporting in the literature. A more consistent battery of measures and consistent reporting across studies may help speed our understanding of the origins and development of solutions to address healthcare disparities. Despite guidelines for best practices in

  16. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, subway system and a public bicycle share program on the Island of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have examined potential disparities in access to transportation infrastructures, an important determinant of population health. To examine individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Examining associations between sociodemographic variables and access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program, 6,495 adult respondents (mean age, 48.7 years; 59.0 % female) nested in 33 areas were included in a multilevel analysis. Individuals with lower incomes lived significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program. At the area level, the interaction between low-education and low-income neighborhoods showed that these areas were significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program controlling for individual and urbanicity variables. More deprived areas of the Island of Montreal have better access to transportation infrastructure than less-deprived areas.

  18. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  19. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the

  20. Racial Disparities in Disability Among Older Adults: Finding From the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J.; McCleary, Rachael; Smolen, Jenny R.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Persistent and consistently observed racial disparities in physical functioning likely stem from racial differences in social resources and environmental conditions. Method We examined the association between race and reported difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in 347 African American (45.5%) and Whites aged 50 or above in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities–Southwest Baltimore, Maryland Study (EHDIC-SWB). Results Contrary to previous studies, African Americans had lower rates of disability (women: 25.6% vs. 44.6%, p = .006; men: 15.7% vs. 32.9%; p = .017) than Whites. After adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities, African American women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.14, 0.70]) and African American men (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = [0.13, 0.90]) retained their functional advantage compared with White women and men, respectively. Conclusion These findings within an integrated, low-income urban sample support efforts to ameliorate health disparities by focusing on the social context in which people live. PMID:25502241

  1. Physiological Demands, Morphological Characteristics, Physical Abilities and Injuries of Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; James, Nic; Trajković, Nebojša; Ignjatović, Aleksandar; Sarmento, Hugo; Trecroci, Athos; Mendes, Bruno Miguel Borges

    2017-12-01

    The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players. Physiological demands are similar between men's and women's soccer, but competitive women's matches were characterized by nearly 33% less distance covered, although at higher intensity levels (maximum speeds greater than 15 km/h) than typically found in the men's game. Sub-elite female players also tended to run less at higher intensity levels at the end of both halves in comparison with elite female players. High intensity running is an important factor of success in soccer since many critical moments of the game occur under this condition. The ability to rapidly change direction also determined elite, sub-elite and amateur levels. The implementation of functional training, which focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometric exercises, to improve explosive power, may improve conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of injuries which was 3-8 times higher in females compared to males. This review presents an in-depth overview of the most influential factors for determining success in female soccer.

  2. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Conclusion.  Recommendations are given for assessment and treatment of FSAD and PGAD. Giraldi A, Rellini AH, Pfaus J, and Laan E. Female sexual arousal disorders. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.......Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...

  3. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  4. A comparative study on gender disparity in nutritional status in children under five years in rural and urban communities of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Yesmin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas.  Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of

  5. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization among U.S. College Students: Applying the Institution of Medicine Definition of Health Care Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly

    2015-10-01

    The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.

  6. Geographic variation in health care and the problem of measuring racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Chandra, Amitabh; Skinner, Jonathan S

    2005-01-01

    In its study of racial and ethnic disparities in health care, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that there were large and significant disparities in the quality and quantity of health care received by minority groups in the United States. This article shows that where a patient lives can itself have a large impact on the level and quality of health care the patient receives. Since black or Hispanic populations tend to live in different areas from non-Hispanic white populations, location matters in the measurement and interpretation of health (and health care) disparities. There is wide variation in racial disparities across geographic lines: some areas have substantial disparities, while others have equal treatment. Furthermore, there is no consistent pattern of disparities: some areas may have a wide disparity in one treatment but no disparity in another. The problem of differences in quality of care across regions, as opposed to racial disparities in care, should remain the target of policy makers, as reducing quality disparities would play a major role in improving the health care received by all Americans and by minority Americans in particular.

  7. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  8. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  9. The influence of parental participation on obesity interventions in african american adolescent females: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell

    2015-01-01

    African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Who's in Our Neighborhood? Healthcare Disparities Experiential Education for Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patow, Carl; Bryan, Debra; Johnson, Gail; Canaan, Eugenia; Oyewo, Adetolu; Panda, Mukta; Walsh, Eric; Zaidan, James

    2016-01-01

    Residents and fellows frequently care for patients from diverse populations but often have limited familiarity with the cultural preferences and social determinants that contribute to the health of their patients and communities. Faculty physicians at academic health centers are increasingly interested in incorporating the topics of cultural diversity and healthcare disparities into experiential education activities; however, examples have not been readily available. In this report, we describe a variety of experiential education models that were developed to improve resident and fellow physician understanding of cultural diversity and healthcare disparities. Experiential education, an educational philosophy that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content, is an effective adult learning method. This report summarizes the experiences of multiple sponsors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency and fellowship programs that used experiential education to inform residents about cultural diversity and healthcare disparities. The 9 innovative experiential education activities described were selected to demonstrate a wide range of complexity, resource requirements, and community engagement and to stimulate further creativity and innovation in educational design. Each of the 9 models is characterized by residents' active participation and varies in length from minutes to months. In general, the communities in which these models were deployed were urban centers with diverse populations. Various formats were used to introduce targeted learners to the populations and communities they serve. Measures of educational and clinical outcomes for these early innovations and pilot programs are not available. The breadth of the types of activities described suggests that a wide latitude is available to organizations in creating experiential education programs that reflect their individual program and institutional needs and

  11. Economic Disparities and Syphilis Incidence in Massachusetts, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, Laura; Caten, Evan; Hsu, Katherine; DeMaria, Alfred

    We used area-level indicators of poverty to describe economic disparities in the incidence rate of infectious syphilis in Massachusetts to (1) determine whether methods developed in earlier AIDS analyses in Massachusetts could be applied to syphilis and (2) characterize syphilis trends during a time of increased rates of syphilis incidence. Using census tract data and population counts from the US Census Bureau and Massachusetts data on syphilis, we analyzed the incidence rate of syphilis infection from 2001 to 2013 by the poverty level of the census tract in which people with syphilis resided, stratified by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The syphilis incidence rate increased in all census tract groups in Massachusetts from 2001 to 2013, and disparities in incidence rates by area poverty level persisted over time. The overall incidence rate of syphilis increased 6.9-fold from 2001 to 2013 in all census tract poverty-level groupings (from 1.5 to 10.3 per 100 000 population), but the rise in rate was especially high in the poorest census tracts (from 5.6 to 31.0 per 100 000 population) and among men (from 2.2 to 19.4 per 100 000 population). The highest syphilis incidence rate was among non-Hispanic black people. The largest changes in incidence rate occurred after 2010. One region had a disproportionate increase in incidence rates and a disproportionate impact on the statewide trend. Census tract poverty analyses can inform the targeting of interventions that make progress toward reducing disparities in rates of syphilis incidence possible.

  12. Walkability and safety around elementary schools economic and ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam

    2008-04-01

    Children's physical inactivity and obesity are growing public health problems in the U.S., especially among low-income, minority populations. Walking to school may help address these problems. This cross-sectional study examined disparities in the environmental support for walking around 73 public elementary schools in Austin TX. GIS was used to measure the neighborhood-level walkability and safety. Field audits were conducted to assess the street-level walkability. Analyses of variance and regressions were performed to analyze economic and ethnic disparities. For the top-quartile schools with higher poverty or Hispanic student percentages, the surroundings showed higher neighborhood-level walkability with shorter distances to school and more sidewalks compared with the bottom quartile. These areas, however, also had higher crash and crime rates and lower street-level walkability captured by visual quality, physical amenities, maintenance, and perceived safety. In predictions of environmental conditions using poverty and Hispanic student percentages, poverty was associated with many adverse conditions on the street level and with only two favorable situations, shorter distances to school and lower traffic volumes, on the neighborhood level. The Hispanic student percentage did not correlate with most street-level variables, but predicted both increased dangers from traffic and crime and higher neighborhood-level walkability with more sidewalks, greater density, and mixed land uses. Economic and ethnic disparities exist in the environmental support for walking, suggesting the need for tailored interventions in promoting active living. Low-income, Hispanic children are more likely to live in unsafe areas with poor street environments but with some favorable neighborhood-level conditions.

  13. Health disparities in liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, C Wendy; Sonderup, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates health. It has 3% of the global healthcare workforce with a mean of 0.8 healthcare workers per 1000 population. Barriers to healthcare access are many and compounded by limited civil registration data, socio-economic inequalities, discrepancies in private and public healthcare services and geopolitical strife. The UN 2014 report on the Millennium Development Goals suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will probably not meet several goals, however with HIV/AIDS and Malaria (goal 6), many successes have been achieved. A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study demonstrated that cirrhosis mortality in sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 1980 and 2010. Aetiologies included hepatitis B (34%), hepatitis C (17%), alcohol (18%) and unknown in 31%. Hepatitis B, C and alcohol accounted for 47, 23 and 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma respectively. In 10%, the underlying aetiology was not known. Liver disease reflects the broader disparities in healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many of these challenges are not insurmountable as vaccines and new therapies could comprehensively deal with the burden of viral hepatitis. Access to and affordability of therapeutics remains the major barrier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  15. Racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-08-01

    Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by this very early time period. Secondary analysis of data from children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative cohort of U.S. children born in 2001. Data include information from birth certificates, parent and teacher questionnaires, and in-person developmental assessments conducted with children at intervals from 9 months through kindergarten entry. The analytic sample included children enrolled in the ECLS-B at the 60-month assessment (N = 6,550). Black children in the United States were 70% (1 - OR of .30) less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than otherwise similar White children. Hispanic children initially appeared to be underdiagnosed for ADHD. However, their disparity with Whites became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for whether a language other than English was primarily spoken in the home. Analyses of kindergarten teacher-reported classroom behavior indicated that neither Black nor Hispanic children displayed less frequent ADHD-related behaviors than Whites. Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the US. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  17. Demographic and Urbanization Disparities of Liver Transplantation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hung Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited access to or receipt of liver transplantation (LT may jeopardize survival of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Taiwan launched its National Health Insurance (NHI program in 1995, which essentially removes financial barriers to health care. This study aims to investigate where there are still demographic and urbanization disparities of LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Data analyzed in this study were retrieved from Taiwan’s NHI inpatient claims. A total of 3020 people aged ≥18 years received LT between 2000 and 2013. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence rate of LT according to secular year, age, sex, and urbanization. The multiple Poisson regression model was further employed to assess the independent effects of demographics and urbanization on prevalence of LT. The biennial number of people receiving LT substantially increased from 56 in 2000–2001 to 880 in 2012–2013, representing a prevalence rate of 1.63 and 18.58 per 106, respectively. Such increasing secular trend was independent of sex. The prevalence was consistently higher in men than in women. The prevalence also increased with age in people <65 years, but dropped sharply in the elderly (≥65 years people. We noted a significant disparity of LT in areas with different levels of urbanization. Compared to urban areas, satellite (prevalence rate ratio (PRR, 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.57–0.69 and rural (PRR, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.69–0.83 areas were both associated with a significantly lower prevalence of LT. There are still significant demographic and urbanization disparities in LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Given the predominance of living donor liver transplantation in Taiwan, further studies should be conducted to investigate factors associated with having a potential living donor for LT.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Quality of Care for Cardiovascular Disease in Ambulatory Settings: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liming; Fakeye, Oludolapo A; Graham, Garth; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2017-09-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes are widely reported, but research has largely focused on differences in quality of inpatient and urgent care to explain these disparate outcomes. The objective of this review is to synthesize recent evidence on racial and ethnic disparities in management of CVD in the ambulatory setting. Database searches yielded 550 articles of which 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Reviewed studies were categorized into non-interventional studies examining the association between race and receipt of ambulatory CVD services with observational designs, and interventional studies evaluating specific clinical courses of action intended to ameliorate disparities. Based on the Donabedian framework, this review demonstrates that significant racial/ethnic disparities persist in process and outcome measures of quality of ambulatory CVD care. Multimodal interventions were most effective in reducing disparities in CVD outcomes.

  19. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    bisphosphonate therapy. Reducing SRE’s may be a way to decrease health care costs. 11 | P a g e 2013: Spencer BA, Insel BJ...hospital. We were also interested in whether disparities due to race or access to care influence the development of MESCC and its subsequent...4.42) Residence Rural Referent Urban 1.24 (0.93, 1.66) 0.97 (0.50, 1.90) 0.61 (0.27, 1.40) Socioeconomic status First quintile Referent Second

  20. Methods Matter: Tracking Health Disparities in Alternative High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Goyal, Mohit; Simonton, Amanda J; Richardson, Rebecca; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students are at-risk for school dropout and engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors that should be monitored over time. They are excluded from most public health surveillance efforts (e.g., Youth Risk Behavior Survey; YRBS), hindering our ability to monitor health disparities and allocate scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. Using active parental consent, we recruited 515 students from 14 AHSs in Texas to take a modified YRBS. We calculated three different participation rates, tracked participation by age of legal consent (≥18 and high-risk sample and cannot generalize findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. White Paper: SSAT Commitment to Workforce Diversity and Healthcare Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Matthew; Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Telem, Dana; Hawn, Mary T; Michelassi, Fabrizio; Reid-Lomardo, K Marie

    2016-05-01

    The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Track (SSAT) is committed to diversity and inclusiveness of its membership, promotion of research related to healthcare disparities, cultural competency of practicing gastrointestinal surgeons, and cultivation of leaders with unique perspectives. The SSAT convened a task force to assess the current state of diversity and inclusion and recommend sustainable initiatives to promote these goals. Working through the current committee structure of the Society, and by establishing a permanent Diversity and Inclusion liaison committee, the SSAT will maintain its commitment and strive towards diversity of thought and inclusiveness on every level to improve the well-being and betterment of its membership and the patients they serve.

  2. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  3. Urban and rural educational system disparities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue of the educational system in more details and to deal with conceptions, methodological approaches and the acquired knowledge, focused particularly on Romanian educational system.The mean of the paper is to present the complex issue of regional and territorial disparities in Romania. The educational system in Romania is at a crossroad. Initiated important reforms in the sector after the last 21 years – including changing the curriculum, student assessment, teacher training, funding and management module – will be continued to improve outcomes in education.

  4. Access to abortion services: a neglected health disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Weitz, Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Minority and low SES women have persistently and disproportionately higher rates of abortion than White and higher SES women, yet have limited access to these services. The response of governmental health agencies to these disparities in abortion has focused solely on decreasing the number of abortions, without attention to access to needed health services. This commentary seeks to build an understanding of how access to abortion care is currently impeded for low-income women and women of color and calls for an end to that omission.

  5. Child abuse as a predictor of gendered sexual orientation disparities in body mass index trajectories among U.S. youth from the Growing Up Today Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-06-01

    This research aimed to explain sexual orientation disparities in body mass index (BMI) by examining child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. We used data from 7,960 females and 5,992 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study over nine waves between 1996 (ages 12-14 years) and 2007 (ages 20-25 years). Using repeated measures of BMI (kg/m(2)) as a continuous outcome, gender-stratified latent quadratic growth models adjusted for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. BMI at age 17 years (intercept) and 1-year change in BMI (slope) are reported. Bisexual females had higher BMI at age 17 years (β = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.00-2.18) and displayed greater one-year increases in BMI (β = .09, 95% CI = .03-.14), compared with completely heterosexual females. Gay males displayed smaller 1-year increases in BMI (β = -.19, 95% CI = -.25 to -.12), compared with completely heterosexual males. No sexual orientation differences in BMI at age 17 years were observed for males, but gay males' BMI at age 25 was less than completely heterosexual males' BMI by 2 units. Among females, sexual orientation differences remained but were slightly attenuated after controlling for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. Among males, the addition of child abuse and weight-related behaviors did not change the estimated difference in 1-year BMI increases. Sexual orientation differences in BMI were partly explained by child abuse and weight-related behaviors in females. More research is needed to explore additional drivers of these disparities among both females and males. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Child Abuse as a Predictor of Gendered Sexual Orientation Disparities in BMI Trajectories Among U.S. Youth from the Growing Up Today Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research aimed to explain sexual orientation disparities in BMI by examining child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. Methods We used data from 7960 females and 5992 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study over nine waves between 1996 (ages 12–14 years) and 2007 (ages 20–25 years). Using repeated measures of BMI (kg/m2) as a continuous outcome, gender-stratified latent quadratic growth models adjusted for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. BMI at age 17 years (intercept) and one-year change in BMI (slope) are reported. Results Bisexual females had higher BMI at age 17 years (β = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.18) and displayed greater one-year increases in BMI (β = .09, 95% CI = .03, .14), compared to completely heterosexual females. Gay males displayed smaller one-year increases in BMI (β = − .19, 95% CI = −.25, −.12), compared to completely heterosexual males. No sexual orientation differences in BMI at age 17 years were observed for males, but gay males’ BMI at age 25 was less than completely heterosexual males by 2 units. Among females, sexual orientation differences remained but were slightly attenuated after controlling for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. Among males, the addition of child abuse and weight-related behaviors did not change the estimated difference in one-year BMI increases. Conclusions Sexual orientation differences in BMI were partly explained by child abuse and weight-related behaviors in females. More research is needed to explore additional drivers of these disparities among both females and males. PMID:24388110

  7. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  8. Tradition Versus Female Circumcision: A Study Of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Female circumcision is a culturally sanctioned tradition practiced in many Africa countries and has deleterious consequences on women's health, sexuality and fertility. Objective: To determine the extent of the practice and factors that influence decisions on female circumcision. Methods: The first 700 female ...

  9. Gender disparities in completing school education in India: Analyzing regional variations

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    Is gender disparity greater in North India? This paper seeks to answer this question by examining gender differences in probability of completing school education across regions in India. A Gender Disparity Index is calculated using National Sample Survey Organization unit level data from the 61st Round and regional variations in this index analyzed to examine the hypothesis that gender disparity is greater in the North, comparative to the rest of India. This is followed by an econometric exe...

  10. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health issues, disparities, and information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Becky

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons, while widely diverse in many ways, share health disparities related to the stigma and discrimination they experience, including disproportionate rates of psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and suicide. Lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and the transgender communities have additional health concerns and disparities unique to each population. This paper highlights the national recognition of these health issues and disparities and presents web-based information resources about them and their mitigation.

  11. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  12. Genital tuberculosis in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Angeline Grace

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.

  13. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Methods and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; McGuire, Thomas G; Zaslavsky,, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review methods of measuring racial/ethnic health care disparities. Study Design Identification and tracking of racial/ethnic disparities in health care will be advanced by application of a consistent definition and reliable empirical methods. We have proposed a definition of racial/ethnic health care disparities based in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Unequal Treatment report, which defines disparities as all differences except those due to clinical need and preferences. After briefly summarizing the strengths and critiques of this definition, we review methods that have been used to implement it. We discuss practical issues that arise during implementation and expand these methods to identify sources of disparities. We also situate the focus on methods to measure racial/ethnic health care disparities (an endeavor predominant in the United States) within a larger international literature in health outcomes and health care inequality. Empirical Application We compare different methods of implementing the IOM definition on measurement of disparities in any use of mental health care and mental health care expenditures using the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Conclusion Disparities analysts should be aware of multiple methods available to measure disparities and their differing assumptions. We prefer a method concordant with the IOM definition. PMID:22353147

  15. Joined at the hip: linked characters and the problem of missing data in studies of disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Rosario, Michael V; Eiting, Thomas P; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2014-08-01

    Paleontological investigations into morphological diversity, or disparity, are often confronted with large amounts of missing data. We illustrate how missing discrete data affect disparity using a novel simulation for removing data based on parameters from published datasets that contain both extinct and extant taxa. We develop an algorithm that assesses the distribution of missing characters in extinct taxa, and simulates data loss by applying that distribution to extant taxa. We term this technique "linkage." We compare differences in disparity metrics and ordination spaces produced by linkage and random character removal. When we incorporated linkage among characters, disparity metrics declined and ordination spaces shrank at a slower rate with increasing missing data, indicating that correlations among characters govern the sensitivity of disparity analysis. We also present and test a new disparity method that uses the linkage algorithm to correct for the bias caused by missing data. We equalized proportions of missing data among time bins before calculating disparity, and found that estimates of disparity changed when missing data were taken into account. By removing the bias of missing data, we can gain new insights into the morphological evolution of organisms and highlight the detrimental effects of missing data on disparity analysis. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. An Approach to Integrating Health Disparities within Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Maribel; Marte, Otto; Barba, Joseph; Hubbard, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the incidence, prevalence and burden of disease among communities targeted by gender, geographic location, ethnicity and/or socio-economic status. While biomedical research has identified partial origin(s) of divergent burden and impact of disease, the innovation needed to eradicate health disparities in the United States requires unique engagement from biomedical engineers. Increasing awareness of the prevalence and consequences of health disparities is particularly attractive to today's undergraduates, who have undauntedly challenged paradigms believed to foster inequality. Here, the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York (CCNY) has leveraged its historical mission of access-and-excellence to integrate the study of health disparities into undergraduate BME curricula. This article describes our novel approach in a multiyear study that: (i) Integrated health disparities modules at all levels of the required undergraduate BME curriculum; (ii) Developed opportunities to include impacts of health disparities into undergraduate BME research projects and mentored High School summer STEM training; and (iii) Established health disparities-based challenges as BME capstone design and/or independent entrepreneurship projects. Results illustrate the rising awareness of health disparities among the youngest BMEs-to-be, as well as abundant undergraduate desire to integrate health disparities within BME education and training.

  17. The Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI): Developing workforce capacity for health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Ward, Earlise; Westaby, Katelyn; Adams, Alexandra; Esmond, Sarah L; Garza, Mary A; Hogle, Janice A; Scholl, Linda M; Quinn, Sandra C; Thomas, Stephen B; Sorkness, Christine A

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research. Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute-the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)-with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research. In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding. HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.

  18. Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Pediatricians’ Encouragement of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Implications for Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Roberto, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background In medically underserved regions such as Appalachia, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are higher than the general U.S. population; therefore, it is important for pediatricians to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Unfortunately, little is known about the predictors of pediatricians’ encouragement of the HPV vaccine among medically underserved populations. The current study compared attitudes and behaviors of pediatricians with practices in Appalachia with those in non-Appalachia to identify potential strategies for reducing health disparities. Methods A survey was conducted with 334 pediatricians located in Appalachia and non-Appalachia counties to examine how prior behavior, perceived susceptibility, severity, self-efficacy, response-efficacy, and behavioral intentions are related to self-reported vaccine encouragement. Results Pediatricians in Appalachia perceived their patients to be less susceptible to HPV and reported lower rates of HPV encouragement than pediatricians in non-Appalachia. In addition, self-efficacy had a significant indirect association with vaccine encouragement for pediatricians in non-Appalachia. Conclusion This study’s findings emphasize the importance of increasing Appalachian pediatricians’ awareness of their patients’ susceptibility to HPV. Broader efforts to increase encouragement of the HPV vaccine among pediatricians should focus on promoting self-efficacy to encourage the HPV vaccine to parents of young females. PMID:21907591

  19. Research productivity and gender disparities: a look at academic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Angie M; Mady, Leila J; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Goljo, Erden; Svider, Peter F; Ciminello, Frank; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-01-01

    The h-index has utility in examining the contributions of faculty members by quantifying both the amount and the quality of research output and as such is a metric in approximating academic productivity. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the relationship between h-index and academic rank in plastic surgery and (2) to describe the current gender representation in academic plastic surgery to assess whether there are any gender disparities in academic productivity. The h-index was used to evaluate the research contributions of plastic surgeons from academic departments in the United States. There were 426 (84%) men and 79 (16%) women in our sample. Those in higher academic ranks had higher h-index scores (p academic rank, there was a significant difference in academic productivity between men and women in assistant and associate professor positions (6.4 vs 5.1, respectively; p = 0.04). The h-index is able to objectively and reliably quantify academic productivity in plastic surgery. We found that h-indices increased with higher academic rank, and men had overall higher scores than their female colleagues. Adoption of this metric as an adjunct to other objective and subjective measures by promotions committees may provide a more reliable measure of research relevance and academic productivity in academic plastic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Violence as Mediating Variable in Mental Health Disparities Associated to Sexual Orientation Among Mexican Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2018-01-05

    In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes toward homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior. The outcomes were negative and positive mood, suicidal ideation and intent, self-concept, and self-esteem. There were differences by gender because in males, there were more disparities in mental health associated with sexual orientation (suicidal ideation and attempt, negative and positive mood, negative self-concept, and family-related self-esteem) than in females (suicidal ideation and negative mood). Experiences of school violence were mediators in the relationship between sexual orientation and most health outcomes in males.

  1. Sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder symptoms among adolescent boys and girls in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Austin, S Bryn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-17

    Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years. Multivariable regression models (adjusting for BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) examined associations between sexual orientation and (1) odds of past-year purging and binge eating, and (2) mean differences in body dissatisfaction, pressure to increase muscularity (boys only), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire subscales. At age 14, gay and bisexual boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater body dissatisfaction than their same-gender heterosexual peers. All sexual minority boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater mean dysfunctional eating behaviors than their same-gender heterosexual peers. At age 16, gay and bisexual boys had 12.5 times the odds of heterosexual boys of binge eating; mostly heterosexual boys had over three times the odds of reporting binge eating. Sexual minority girls had over twice the odds of heterosexual girls of purging and binge eating. By mid-adolescence, sexual minority youth in the UK had elevated risk for eating disorder symptoms, suggesting the need for early prevention efforts.

  2. Racial disparities in omission of oncotype DX but no racial disparities in chemotherapy receipt following completed oncotype DX test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, David J; Ibraheem, Abiola; Dolan, M Eileen; Goss, Kathleen H; Conzen, Suzanne; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-02-01

    To examine racial/ethnic disparities in Oncotype DX (ODX) testing among patients with node-negative, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers and possible racial/ethnic disparities in chemotherapy receipt following ODX testing within Recurrence Score (RS) category (Not Done, Low, Intermediate, High), as well as chemotherapy receipt time trends within RS categories. A retrospective cohort list of 125,288 women who were potentially indicated for ODX testing from 2010 to 2014 was obtained using the National Cancer Database. We fit multivariate logistic regression predicting chemotherapy receipt, adjusting for clinical factors, patient demographic factors, and hospital-level factors, separately by RS category, and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as time trends. Overall, ODX testing was completed for 46.1% of Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, 43.9% of NH Blacks, and 41.7% of Hispanics. Among patients who did not receive ODX testing, NH Black and Hispanic women both experienced statistically significant increases in chemotherapy receipt relative to NH White women (NH Black OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.11-1.37; Hispanic OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.42). However, among patients with ODX results, no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in chemotherapy receipt were observed within strata of RS category. Trend analyses demonstrated increasing adherence to national guidelines for ODX testing. We identified racial disparities in omission of ODX testing but no differences in chemotherapy receipt if ODX test results were obtained, suggesting increasing access to ODX testing may improve racial equality in efficacious use of adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer.

  3. Disparities in human papillomavirus vaccine awareness among U.S. parents of preadolescents and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisk, Lauren E; Allchin, Adelyn; Witt, Whitney P

    2014-02-01

    Improved parental awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could increase uptake of vaccines early in the life course, thereby reducing adolescents' later risk for HPV infection and cancer. As such, we sought to determine factors related to parental awareness of HPV vaccines, using a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined data on 5735 parents of preadolescents and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Parents were asked if they had ever heard of HPV vaccines or shots. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the odds of parental awareness of HPV vaccines, controlling for relevant covariates. Most US parents (62.6%) heard of HPV vaccines. Multivariable results revealed parents of children who were older, female, and insured were more likely to have heard of HPV vaccines; parents who were female, white (non-Hispanic), English speakers, born in the United States, married or living with a partner, more educated, and had higher income were also more likely to be aware of HPV vaccines. Notably, parents of children who had a well-child checkup in the last 12 months were significantly more likely to have heard of HPV vaccines (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.46). Given the significant disparities in parental awareness of HPV vaccines, improving access to preventive pediatric health care could offer an opportunity to increase parental awareness. In addition, public health efforts that provide culturally sensitive information in a variety of languages may be an effective way to reach vulnerable groups.

  4. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  5. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qobadi, Mina; Payton, Marinelle

    2017-03-03

    Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used in this study ( n = 3794). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS's multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7, ref = male) after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25-44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6, ref ≥ 64 years), those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5, ref = physically active) or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, ref = college graduate) were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, ref = male) and those aged 18-24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21-0.9, ref ≥ 64 years) were less likely to be obese.

  6. Differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR in rural communities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngui Romano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, a total of 426 human faecal samples were examined for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii infection via a combination of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Entamoeba species. Methods Faecal sample were collected from 426 participants in five rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia. The faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique followed by iodine staining and examined via microscopy for the presence of Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples for Entamoeba species cysts were further characterized using a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR targeting 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene. The data entry and analysis was carried out using the SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program for Windows version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. Results Based on single faecal examination, overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 17.6% (75/426. Females (19.1% were more commonly infected compared to males (15.9%. Comparison by age groups showed that adults (23.9% had higher infection rates than children (15.3%. The PCR results showed that 52 out of 75 microscopy positive samples successfully generated species-specific amplicons. The infection with E. histolytica (75.0%; 39/52 was the most common, followed by E. dispar (30.8%; 18/52 and E. moshkovskii (5.8%; 3/52. Of these, 33 (63.5% were shown to contain only E. histolytica, 10 (19.2% contained E. dispar and 3 (5.8% contained only E. moshkovskii. Mixed infection with E. histolytica and E. dispar was found in 6 (11.5% samples. Conclusions The present study essentially emphasized the benefit of molecular techniques in discriminating the pathogenic Entamoeba species from the non-pathogenic for accurate diagnosis and better management of amoebiasis. The

  7. Differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rural communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Angal, Lorainne; Fakhrurrazi, Siti Aminah; Lian, Yvonne Lim Ai; Ling, Lau Yee; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Mahmud, Rohela

    2012-09-04

    In this study, a total of 426 human faecal samples were examined for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii infection via a combination of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Entamoeba species. Faecal sample were collected from 426 participants in five rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia. The faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique followed by iodine staining and examined via microscopy for the presence of Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples for Entamoeba species cysts were further characterized using a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) targeting 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene. The data entry and analysis was carried out using the SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program for Windows version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Based on single faecal examination, overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 17.6% (75/426). Females (19.1%) were more commonly infected compared to males (15.9%). Comparison by age groups showed that adults (23.9%) had higher infection rates than children (15.3%). The PCR results showed that 52 out of 75 microscopy positive samples successfully generated species-specific amplicons. The infection with E. histolytica (75.0%; 39/52) was the most common, followed by E. dispar (30.8%; 18/52) and E. moshkovskii (5.8%; 3/52). Of these, 33 (63.5%) were shown to contain only E. histolytica, 10 (19.2%) contained E. dispar and 3 (5.8%) contained only E. moshkovskii. Mixed infection with E. histolytica and E. dispar was found in 6 (11.5%) samples. The present study essentially emphasized the benefit of molecular techniques in discriminating the pathogenic Entamoeba species from the non-pathogenic for accurate diagnosis and better management of amoebiasis. The presence of E. moshkovskii is of great public health

  8. Accelerators: Sparking Innovation and Transdisciplinary Team Science in Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol R. Horowitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors. Rooted in team science, diverse board experts formed topic-specific “accelerators”, tasked with collaborating to rapidly generate new ideas, questions, approaches, and projects comprising patients, advocates, clinicians, researchers, funders, public health and industry leaders. We began with four accelerators—digital health, big data, genomics and environmental health—and were rapidly able to respond to funding opportunities, transform new ideas into clinical and community programs, generate new, accessible, actionable data, and more efficiently and effectively conduct research. This innovative model has the power to maximize research quality and efficiency, improve patient care and engagement, optimize data democratization and dissemination among target populations, contribute to policy, and lead to systems changes needed to address the root causes of disparities.

  9. TOURISM OFFER IN ROMANIA AND NORTHERN TRANSYLVANIA – TERRITORIAL DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUJZA TÜNDE COZMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism Offer in Romania and Northern Transylvania – Territorial Disparities. Explaining spatiality has been in the focus of tourism geographers since the beginnings, and the examination of spatial processes still represents a major challenge for researchers, knowing that there is no segment in the functioning of society in which spatiality is not present. The approach was to consider tourism as a complex spatial phenomenon, in order to explain better its processes. Romanian literature abounds in descriptive research of travel and tourism, discussing quantitative and qualitative issues, attraction classifications, tourism potential and geographic dispersal. However, a serious deficit manifests in explanatory research. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the territorial disparities in the tourism offer of Romania, in generally and of Northern Transylvania in particularly, in the light of current trends characterizing the national tourism industry. Besides spatial characteristics, this paper also deals with tourism penetration on regional level, and territorial concentration of accommodation capacity in the region of Northern Transylvania. The results show that in the moderately-high saturated destination of Northern Transylvania the accommodation capacity in use is spatially concentrated and only a few localities can be regarded as the strongholds of the accommodation basis. The study brings novel results especially for tourism planning, but also provides a basis for further research.

  10. Disparities in diabetes: the nexus of race, poverty, and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Darrell J; Thorpe, Roland J; McGinty, Emma E; Bower, Kelly; Rohde, Charles; Young, J Hunter; LaVeist, Thomas A; Dubay, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty concentration on the odds of having diabetes. We found a race-poverty-place gradient for diabetes prevalence for Blacks and poor Whites. The odds of having diabetes were higher for Blacks than for Whites. Individual poverty increased the odds of having diabetes for both Whites and Blacks. Living in a poor neighborhood increased the odds of having diabetes for Blacks and poor Whites. To address race disparities in diabetes, policymakers should address problems created by concentrated poverty (e.g., lack of access to reasonably priced fruits and vegetables, recreational facilities, and health care services; high crime rates; and greater exposures to environmental toxins). Housing and development policies in urban areas should avoid creating high-poverty neighborhoods.

  11. STUDY ON THE CAUSES OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Mioara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Successive enlargements of the European Union have led to increasing heterogeneity of the development levels of the states and regions members. The Romanian development regions are among the most poorly economically developed European regions and are regarded as economies based on production factors where the development of economy is mainly triggered by the poorly qualified labour and the natural resources. This paper aims to analyse and to identify the factors lying at the bottom of regional development and the causes of Romanian regional disparities, by comparative analyse and the break down the basic development indicators into their components. The regional economic disparities from Romania tend to be more prominent due following causes: low level of development of most regions, structure of economy dominated by economic sectors with a low productivity; the low research-innovation potential; the low share of the population having a higher education, reduced capacity of the poorly developed regions to withhold the highly qualified labour, the weak development of infrastructure, particularly poor quality of infrastructure networks. Romania stays anchored in a development model characterized by an anachronous economic structure, a poorly qualified labour, a slow accumulation of capital and a reduced sustainability of the development rate.

  12. LGBT healthcare disparities: What progress have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly fifteen years have passed since this author's publication which examined the depth of education and training for medical students and practicing physicians specific to clinical competence in the care of lesbian and gay patients in the United States. Since then, there has been an explosion of research gains which have shed a steady light on the needs and disparities of lesbian and gay healthcare. This rich literature base has expanded to include bisexual and transgender (LGBT) healthcare in peer-reviewed journals. Despite these research gains underscoring a call for action, there continues to be a dearth of cultural competency education and training for healthcare professionals focused on clinical assessment and treatment of LGBT patients. This article will focus exclusively on the current status of medical and nursing education and training specific to clinical competence for LGBT healthcare. We are long overdue in closing the clinical competency gap in medical and nursing education to reduce the healthcare disparities within the LGBT community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distance decay and persistent health care disparities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-11-04

    Access to health care is a particular concern given the important role of poor access in perpetuating poverty and inequality. South Africa's apartheid history leaves large racial disparities in access despite post-apartheid health policy to increase the number of health facilities, even in remote rural areas. However, even when health services are provided free of charge, monetary and time costs of travel to a local clinic may pose a significant barrier for vulnerable segments of the population, leading to overall poorer health. Using newly available health care utilization data from the first nationally representative panel survey in South Africa, together with administrative geographic data from the Department of Health, we use graphical and multivariate regression analysis to investigate the role of distance to the nearest facility on the likelihood of having a health consultation or an attended birth. Ninety percent of South Africans live within 7 km of the nearest public clinic, and two-thirds live less than 2 km away. However, 14% of Black African adults live more than 5 km from the nearest facility, compared to only 4% of Whites, and they are 16 percentage points less likely to report a recent health consultation (p South Africans must travel to obtain health care and improving the quality of care provided in poorer areas will reduce inequality. Much has been done to redress disparities in South Africa since the end of apartheid but progress is still needed to achieve equity in health care access.

  14. Sleep disparity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Roberts, Dorothy; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2015-01-01

    Sleep represents a set of biological functions necessary for the maintenance of life. Performing these functions, though, requires that an individual engage in behaviors, which are affected by social and environmental factors. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position represent categories of factors that likely play a role in the experience of sleep in the community. Previous studies have suggested that racial/ethnic minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged may be more likely to experience sleep patterns that are associated with adverse health outcomes. It is possible that disparities in sleep represent a pathway by which larger disparities in health emerge. This review (1) contextualizes the concept of race/ethnicity in biomedical research, (2) summarizes previous studies that describe patterns of sleep attainment across race/ethnicity groups, (3) discusses several pathways by which race/ethnicity may be associated with sleep, (4) introduces the potential role of socioeconomic position in the patterning of sleep, and (5) proposes future research directions to address this issue. PMID:26431755

  15. Income disparities and convergence across regions of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Chocholatá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of regional income disparities of the net disposable income of households (in Euro per inhabitant across the regions of Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Germany during the period 2000-2013. The analysis deals with the 82 NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions and is based on the concept of sigma-convergence, beta-convergence and growth-volatility relationship. Preliminary analysis concentrating on mapping of the analysed indicators is followed by consideration of the region’s location supported by the results of spatial autocorrelation testing. The sigma-convergence analysis reveals the persistence of disparities in the net disposable income of households in the period 2000-2013 both at the national and subnational level. Although the results of spatial analysis have proved the existence of spatial dependence, following the classical approach, the beta-convergence concept is tested with the use of both non-spatial and spatial models. The potentially different convergence characteristics of Visegrad 4 countries’ (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary regions and regions of Austria and Germany as well as the examination of the possible relationship between the regional growth and volatility are also taken into account in the econometric convergence modelling.

  16. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Preventable Disease: A Fundamental Cause Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether fundamental cause theory (which posits that, in societal conditions of unequal power and resources, members of higher-status groups experience better health than members of lower-status groups because of their disproportionate access to health-protective factors) might be relevant in explaining health disparities related to sexual orientation. We used 2001 to 2011 morbidity data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a representative general population-based study in Sweden. A total of 66 604 (92.0%) individuals identified as heterosexual, 848 (1.2%) as homosexual, and 806 (1.1%) as bisexual. To test fundamental cause theory, we classified diseases in terms of preventability potential (low vs high). There were no sexual orientation differences in morbidity from low-preventable diseases. By contrast, gay or bisexual men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.93) and lesbian or bisexual women (adjusted OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.10) had a greater risk of high-preventable morbidity than heterosexual men and women, respectively. These differences were sustained in analyses adjusted for covariates. Our findings support fundamental cause theory and suggest that unequal distribution of health-protective resources, including knowledge, prestige, power, and supportive social connections, might explain sexual orientation health disparities.

  18. Tracking Biocultural Pathways to Health Disparities: The Value of Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Costello, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Cultural factors and biomarkers are emerging emphases in social epidemiology that readily ally with human biology and anthropology. Persistent health challenges and disparities have established biocultural roots, and environment plays an integral role in physical development and function that form the bases of population health. Biomarkers have proven to be valuable tools for investigating biocultural bases of health disparities. Aims We apply recent insights from biology to consider how culture gets under the skin and evaluate the construct of embodiment. We analyze contrasting biomarker models and applications, and propose an integrated model for biomarkers. Three examples from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) illustrate these points. Subjects and methods The longitudinal developmental epidemiological GSMS comprises a population-based sample of 1420 children with repeated measures including mental and physical health, life events, household conditions, and biomarkers for pubertal development and allostatic load. Results Analyses using biomarkers resolved competing explanations for links between puberty and depression, identified gender differences in stress at puberty, and revealed interactive effects of birthweight and postnatal adversity on risk for depression at puberty in girls. Conclusion An integrated biomarker model can both enrich epidemiology and illuminate biocultural pathways in population health. PMID:19381986

  19. Age- and Gender-related Disparities in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Acute ST-segment elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pilgrim

    Full Text Available Previous analyses reported age- and gender-related differences in the provision of cardiac care. The objective of the study was to compare circadian disparities in the delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI according to the patient's age and gender.We investigated patients included into the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (AMIS registry presenting to one of 11 centers in Switzerland providing primary PCI around the clock, and stratified patients according to gender and age.A total of 4723 patients presented with AMI between 2005 and 2010; 1319 (28% were women and 2172 (54% were ≥65 years of age. More than 90% of patients 90 minutes was found in elderly males (adj HR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40-1.95, p<0.001 and females (adj HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.27-1.93, p<0.001, as well as in females <65 years (adj HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.13-1.91, p = 0.004 as compared to males <65 years of age, with significant differences in circadian patterns during on- and off-duty hours.In a cohort of patients with AMI in Switzerland, we observed discrimination of elderly patients and females in the circadian provision of primary PCI.

  20. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  1. Trends in racial disparities for asthma outcomes among children 0 to 17 years, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Lara J; Moorman, Jeanne E; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Racial disparities in childhood asthma have been a long-standing target for intervention, especially disparities in hospitalization and mortality. Describe trends in racial disparities in asthma outcomes using both traditional population-based rates and at-risk rates (based on the estimated number of children with asthma) to account for prevalence differences between race groups. Estimates of asthma prevalence and outcomes (emergency department [ED] visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) were calculated from national data for 2001 to 2010 for black and white children. Trends were calculated using weighted loglinear regression, and changes in racial disparities over time were assessed using Joinpoint. Disparities in asthma prevalence between black and white children increased from 2001 to 2010; at the end of this period, black children were twice as likely as white children to have asthma. Population-based rates showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (ED visits and hospitalizations) or increased (asthma attack prevalence, deaths). In contrast, analysis with at-risk rates, which account for differences in asthma prevalence, showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (deaths), decreased (ED visits, hospitalizations), or did not exist (asthma attack prevalence). Using at-risk rates to assess racial disparities in asthma outcomes accounts for prevalence differences between black and white children, and adds another perspective to the population-based examination of asthma disparities. An at-risk rate analysis shows that among children with asthma, there is no disparity for asthma attack prevalence and that progress has been made in decreasing disparities in asthma ED visit and hospitalization rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Adult vaccination disparities among foreign born populations in the United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; O’Halloran, Alissa; Greby, Stacie; Williams, Walter W.

    2018-01-01

    Background An estimated 13% foreign born persons are living in the United States. Foreign born persons are considered at higher risk of under-vaccination and exposure to several vaccine preventable diseases pre-migration or during return trips to their birth country. Information on vaccination coverage among foreign born populations is limited. Purpose To assess adult vaccination coverage disparities among foreign born populations in the United States. Methods Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed in 2013. For non-influenza vaccines, we calculated the weighted proportion vaccinated. For influenza vaccination, we used the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess coverage among individuals interviewed during September 2011–June 2012 and vaccinated from August 2011–May 2012. Results Overall, unadjusted vaccination coverage among U.S. born respondents was significantly higher than that of foreign born respondents: influenza, ≥18 years (40.4% versus 33.8%); PPV, 18–64 years with high-risk conditions (20.8% versus 13.7%); PPV, ≥65 years (62.6% versus 40.5%); tetanus vaccination, ≥18 years (65.0% versus 50.6%); Tdap, ≥18 years (15.5% versus 9.3%); hepatitis B, 18–49 years (37.2% versus 28.4%); shingles, ≥60 years (21.3% versus 12.0%); and HPV, females 18–26 years (38.7% versus 14.7%). Exceptions were noted for hepatitis A vaccination among travelers and hepatitis B vaccination of persons ≥18 years with diabetes. Among the foreign born, vaccination coverage was generally lower for non-U.S. citizens, recent immigrants, and those interviewed in a language other than English. Foreign born were less likely than U.S. born to be vaccinated for pneumococcal (≥65 years), tetanus (≥18 years), Tdap (≥18 years), and HPV (women 18–26 years) after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Vaccination coverage was lower among foreign born adults than those born in the U.S. Vaccination coverage varied by immigration status

  3. Disparate Vision: Preston S. Cohen’s Lightfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Pješivac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships between the geometry of space, theory of perception and theory of narrative in the context of Preston Scott Cohen’s Lightfall – the atrium space of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art in Israel. The starting premise of the study is that it is possible to see the atrium space of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art as an inversion of the atrium space of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Guggenheim Museum in New York. Hence, the main hypothesis is that Cohen’s Lightfall transgresses the language of modernist architecture, moving from the constitution of exhibition space for pure gaze to the constitution of exhibition space for disparate vision. This means breaking with the homogeneous, universal space and time concepts of totalitarianism with the aim of building space-time concepts based on a disjunctive synthesis of narratives, ideologies and discourses of different societies, cultures and arts, or building space-time concepts in a continuous process of becoming. How does the architecture of Cohen’s Lightfall reject the totalitarian modernist interior of the museum as an institution designed solely for the observation of the work of art? How is the theory and practice of contemporary art and culture reflected in the aesthetics of Lightfall and, vice versa, how do the aesthetics of Lightfall influence the practice of contemporary art, culture and society? In other words, in what way does Cohen’s atrium space set the work of art not as autonomous, isolated, neutral and without context but as a unit of discourse? How does Cohen make the transition from the constitution of artistic space for pure gaze to the constitution of artistic space for disparate vision? This study draws on the theoretical investigations of Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Jacques Derrida, Gilbert Simondon and Pierre Bourdieu.   Article received: December 23, 2016; Article accepted: January 20, 2017; Published online: April 20, 2017 Original scholarly

  4. Recidivism and Survival Time: Racial Disparity among Jail Ex-Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Spjeldnes, Solveig; Yamatani, Hide

    2010-01-01

    Incarcerated men, most of whom are recidivists, are disproportionately black. Much literature about prison ex-inmates reports on this disparity, yet little is known about racial disparity in recidivism rates among jail ex-inmates. This study examined recidivism rates and survival time (period from release date to rearrest) among male ex-inmates…

  5. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  6. State disparities in colorectal cancer rates: Contributions of risk factors, screening, and survival differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); J. Ma (Jiemin); W. Xiau-Cheng (Wu); K. Pawlish (Karen); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Northeastern states of the United States have shown more progress in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates than Southern states, and this has resulted in considerable disparities. This study quantified how the disparities in CRC rates between Louisiana

  7. Racial Disparity in Administrative Autism Identification across the United States during 2000 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Krezmien, Michael P.; Mulcahy, Candace; Tincani, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of disparate identification of autism at national and local levels is accumulating, but there is little understanding about disparate identification of autism at the state level. This study examined trends in state-level administrative identification of autism under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Prevalence rates and…

  8. Te Kotahitanga: Addressing Educational Disparities Facing Maori Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Cavanagh, Tom; Teddy, Lani

    2009-01-01

    The major challenges facing education in New Zealand today are the continuing social, economic and political disparities within our nation, primarily between the descendants of the European colonisers and the Indigenous Maori people. These disparities are also reflected in educational outcomes. In this paper, an Indigenous Maori Peoples' solution…

  9. The association between racial disparity in income and reported sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S; Kent, Charlotte K; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race-income county groups (high and low race-income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income.

  10. Gender-Based Pay Disparities in Intercollegiate Coaching: The Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, John; Glazier, Michael S.; Evans, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the legal issues surrounding pay disparities between men and women in intercollegiate coaching, including how courts have treated disparate wage claims under the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Title IX, and the defenses used by institutions. Offers suggestions for defending claims and a detailed review of…

  11. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  12. The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Funding. Backgrounder. No. 2548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Achievement disparities among racial and ethnic groups persist in the American education system. Asian and white students consistently perform better on standardized tests than Hispanic and black students. While many commentators blame the achievement gap on alleged disparities in school funding, this Heritage Foundation paper demonstrates that…

  13. Gender disparities in anxiety and quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; van den Broek, Krista C; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2011-01-01

    A paucity of studies in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients has examined gender disparities in patient-reported outcomes, such as anxiety and quality of life (QoL). We investigated (i) gender disparities in anxiety and QoL and (ii) the magnitude of the effect of gender vs. New...

  14. Disparity Disambiguation by Fusion of Signal and Symbolic-Level Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralli, J.; Diaz, J.; Ros, E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for resolving ambiguities in low-level disparity calculations in a stereo-vision scheme by using a recurrent mechanism that we call signal-symbol loop. Due to the local nature of low-level processing it is not always possible to estimate the correct disparity values produced...

  15. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  16. Geographic variation in racial disparities in child maltreatment: The influence of county poverty and population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Lanier, Paul; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Welch, Hannah; Dineen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    There are documented disparities in the rates at which black children come into contact with the child welfare system in the United States compared to white children. A great deal of research has proliferated aimed at understanding whether systematic biases or differential rates of risk among different groups drive these disparities (Drake et al., 2011). In the current study, county rates of maltreatment disparity are compared across the United States and examined in relation to rates of poverty disparity as well as population density. Specifically, using hierarchical linear modeling with a spatially lagged dependent variable, the current study examined data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) and found that poverty disparities were associated with rates of maltreatment disparities, and densely populated metropolitan counties tended to have the greatest levels of maltreatment disparity for both black and Hispanic children. A significant curvilinear relationship was also observed between these variables, such that in addition to the most densely populated counties, the most sparsely populated counties also tended to have higher rates of maltreatment disparity for black and Hispanic children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 25273 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, Faith Based R21. Date: June 29-July 1, 2010. Time: 5 p... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  18. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  19. Bioinformatic analysis of Rp1 gene causing visual disparity in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Bioinformatic analysis of Rp1 gene causing visual disparity in humans. Sana Zahra and ... mRNA degradation but also results in truncated protein production leading towards visual disparity in humans. Secondary structure of RP1 gene was ..... The comparison clearly supports the fact that missense mutation R677X causes ...

  20. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…