Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge
Sullivan,John P.; Zuanon,Jansen; Cox Fernandes,Cristina
We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and si...
William G. R. Crampton
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The bluntnose knifefish genus BrachyhypopomusMago-Leccia, 1994, is diagnosed from other Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae + Hypopomidae by the presence of a disk-like ossification in the anterior portion of the palatoquadrate, and by the following external characters: short snout, 18.7-32.6% of head length (vs. 33.3-68.6% in Hypopomus, Gymnorhamphichthys, Iracema, and Rhamphichthys, absence of a paired accessory electric organ in the mental or humeral region (vs. presence in Hypopygus and Steatogenys, presence of 3-4 pectoral proximal radials (vs. 5 in Akawaio, presence of the antorbital + infraorbital, and the preopercular cephalic lateral line canal bones (vs. absence in Racenisia. Brachyhypopomus cannot be diagnosed unambiguously from Microsternarchus or from Procerusternarchus on the basis of external characters alone. Brachyhypopomus comprises 28 species. Here we describe 15 new species, and provide redescriptions of all 13 previously described species, based on meristic, morphometric, and other morphological characters. We include notes on ecology and natural history for each species, and provide regional dichotomous keys and distribution maps, based on the examination of 12,279 specimens from 2,787 museum lots. A lectotype is designated for Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian & Bass, 1990. Brachyhypopomus species are abundant in shallow lentic and slow-flowing freshwater habitats from southern Costa Rica and northern Venezuela to Uruguay and northern Argentina. Species diversity is highest in Greater Amazonia, where 20 species occur: B. alberti, new species, B. arrayae, new species, and B. cunia, new species, in the upper rio Madeira drainage; B. batesi, new species, in the central Amazon and rio Negro; B. beebei, B. brevirostris, B. regani, new species, B. sullivani, new species, and B. walteri, widespread through the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the Guianas; B. belindae, new species, in the central
Andrea B. Schaan
Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Brachyhypopomus draco from southern Brazil is described. Information is provided on the establishment of the reproductive period in this species and its relations with environmental and feeding factors, as well as on the absolute and relative fecundities, spawning type, sex ratio and sexual dimorphism. The species exhibits a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.173 oocytes per mg of female total weight, and fractional spawning. The sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 during all sampled months. Sexual dimorphism related to hypertrophy of the male's distal portion of caudal filament was observed and males grew to greater lengths than females. Male gonadosomatic index (GSI was significantly related to water depth, oxygen saturation and temperature. Female GSI was significantly related to water depth and hepatosomatic index.
Hupé, Ginette J; Lewis, John E
Brown ghost knifefish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, are a species of weakly electric fish that produce a continuous electric organ discharge (EOD) that is used in navigation, prey capture and communication. Stereotyped modulations of EOD frequency and amplitude are common in social situations and are thought to serve as communication signals. Of these modulations, the most commonly studied is the chirp. This study presents a quantitative analysis of chirp production in pairs of free-swimming, physically interacting male and female A. leptorhynchus. Under these conditions, we found that in addition to chirps, the fish commonly produce a second signal type, a type of frequency rise called abrupt frequency rises, AFRs. By quantifying the behaviours associated with signal production, we find that Type 2 chirps tend to be produced when the fish are apart, following periods of low aggression, whereas AFRs tend to be produced when the fish are aggressively attacking one another in close proximity. This study is the first to our knowledge that quantitatively describes both electrocommunication signalling and behavioural correlates on a subsecond time-scale in a wave-type weakly electric fish.
Adauto Lima Cardoso
Full Text Available Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes.
Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A; Lauder, George V
South American electric knifefish are a leading model system within neurobiology. Recent efforts have focused on understanding their biomechanics and relating this to their neural processing strategies. Knifefish swim by means of an undulatory fin that runs most of the length of their body, affixed to the belly. Propelling themselves with this fin enables them to keep their body relatively straight while swimming, enabling straightforward robotic implementation with a rigid hull. In this study, we examined the basic properties of undulatory swimming through use of a robot that was similar in some key respects to the knifefish. As we varied critical fin kinematic variables such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength of sinusoidal traveling waves, we measured the force generated by the robot when it swam against a stationary sensor, and its velocity while swimming freely within a flow tunnel system. Our results show that there is an optimal operational region in the fin's kinematic parameter space. The optimal actuation parameters found for the robotic knifefish are similar to previously observed parameters for the black ghost knifefish, Apteronotus albifrons. Finally, we used our experimental results to show how the force generated by the robotic fin can be decomposed into thrust and drag terms. Our findings are useful for future bio-inspired underwater vehicles as well as for understanding the mechanics of knifefish swimming.
Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Lauder, George V, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)
South American electric knifefish are a leading model system within neurobiology. Recent efforts have focused on understanding their biomechanics and relating this to their neural processing strategies. Knifefish swim by means of an undulatory fin that runs most of the length of their body, affixed to the belly. Propelling themselves with this fin enables them to keep their body relatively straight while swimming, enabling straightforward robotic implementation with a rigid hull. In this study, we examined the basic properties of undulatory swimming through use of a robot that was similar in some key respects to the knifefish. As we varied critical fin kinematic variables such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength of sinusoidal traveling waves, we measured the force generated by the robot when it swam against a stationary sensor, and its velocity while swimming freely within a flow tunnel system. Our results show that there is an optimal operational region in the fin's kinematic parameter space. The optimal actuation parameters found for the robotic knifefish are similar to previously observed parameters for the black ghost knifefish, Apteronotus albifrons. Finally, we used our experimental results to show how the force generated by the robotic fin can be decomposed into thrust and drag terms. Our findings are useful for future bio-inspired underwater vehicles as well as for understanding the mechanics of knifefish swimming.
Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; Lauder, George V; MacIver, Malcolm A
South American electric knifefish are a leading model system within neurobiology. Recent efforts have focused on understanding their biomechanics and relating this to their neural processing strategies. Knifefish swim by means of an undulatory fin that runs most of the length of their body, affixed to the belly. Propelling themselves with this fin enables them to keep their body relatively straight while swimming, enabling straightforward robotic implementation with a rigid hull. In this study, we examined the basic properties of undulatory swimming through use of a robot that was similar in some key respects to the knifefish. As we varied critical fin kinematic variables such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength of sinusoidal traveling waves, we measured the force generated by the robot when it swam against a stationary sensor, and its velocity while swimming freely within a flow tunnel system. Our results show that there is an optimal operational region in the fin's kinematic parameter space. The optimal actuation parameters found for the robotic knifefish are similar to previously observed parameters for the black ghost knifefish, Apteronotus albifrons. Finally, we used our experimental results to show how the force generated by the robotic fin can be decomposed into thrust and drag terms. Our findings are useful for future bio-inspired underwater vehicles as well as for understanding the mechanics of knifefish swimming.
Curet, Oscar; Maciver, Malcolm; Patankar, Neelesh
Apteronotus albifrons, also known as the black ghost knifefish, generate a weak electric field for omnidirectional sensing. This is matched by an extraordinary multi-directional swimming ability that is achieved by undulating a ribbon-like anal fin. Forward or backward motion is generated by a traveling wave on the ribbon fin. We have discovered that, for hovering and vertical swimming, the knifefish use two oppositely traveling waves on the ribbon fin. To understand the hydrodynamic mechanism of hovering and heave we performed fully resolved simulations of self-propulsion of the knifefish. We used kinematic inputs based on experimental observations. We found that the counter propagating waves generate two opposite streamwise jets along the bottom edge of the ribbon fin. These two jets meet approximately at the mid-section along the fin length and are deflected downward. The resultant downward momentum imparted to the fluid creates an upward force on the fish body which can be used for hovering or vertical swimming. There is a vortex ring pair of opposite directions at the middle of the fin that is associated with this fluid flow. Further insight into how the knifefish control heave and hovering was obtained from the measurements of force generated by a robotic ribbon fin for different wave parameters.
McKenzie, David J; Steffensen, John F; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S
The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 body lengths (BL) s(-1) and an active metabolic rate (AMR) of 350±21 mg kg(-1) h(-1), with 38±6% derived from air breathing. All of the knifefish exhibited a significant increase in air-breathing frequency (f(AB)) with swimming speed. If denied access to air in normoxia, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.1 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 338±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1), similar to aquatic normoxia, but with 55±5% of AMR derived from air breathing. Indeed, f(AB) was higher than in normoxia at all swimming speeds, with a profound exponential increase during exercise. If the knifefish were denied access to air in hypoxia, U(crit) declined to 1.2±0.1 BL s(-1) and AMR declined to 199±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1). Therefore, air breathing allowed the knifefish to avoid limitations to aerobic scope and exercise performance in aquatic hypoxia.
Youngerman, Eric D; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V
The maneuverability demonstrated by the weakly electric ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) is a result of its highly flexible ribbon-like anal fin, which extends nearly three-quarters the length of its body and is composed of approximately 150 individual fin rays. To understand how movement of the anal fin controls locomotion we examined kinematics of the whole fin, as well as selected individual fin rays, during four locomotor behaviors executed by free-swimming ghost knifefish: forward swimming, backward swimming, heave (vertical) motion, and hovering. We used high-speed video (1000 fps) to examine the motion of the entire anal fin and we measured the three-dimensional curvature of four adjacent fin rays in the middle of the fin during each behavior to determine how individual fin rays bend along their length during swimming. Canonical discriminant analysis separated all four behaviors on anal fin kinematic variables and showed that forward and backward swimming behaviors contrasted the most: forward behaviors exhibited a large anterior wavelength and posterior amplitude while during backward locomotion the anal fin exhibited both a large posterior wavelength and anterior amplitude. Heave and hover behaviors were defined by similar kinematic variables; however, for each variable, the mean values for heave motions were generally greater than for hovering. Individual fin rays in the middle of the anal fin curved substantially along their length during swimming, and the magnitude of this curvature was nearly twice the previously measured maximum curvature for ray-finned fish fin rays during locomotion. Fin rays were often curved into the direction of motion, indicating active control of fin ray curvature, and not just passive bending in response to fluid loading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
McKenzie, David J.; Steffensen, John Fleng; Taylor, Edwin W.
The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm......, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved...... to air in hypoxia, U(crit) declined to 1.2±0.1 BL s(-1) and AMR declined to 199±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1). Therefore, air breathing allowed the knifefish to avoid limitations to aerobic scope and exercise performance in aquatic hypoxia....
Ilieş, Iulian; Sipahi, Rifat; Zupanc, Günther K H
The study of indeterminate-growing organisms such as teleost fish presents a unique opportunity for improving our understanding of central nervous tissue growth during adulthood. Integrating the existing experimental data associated with this process into a theoretical framework through mathematical or computational modeling provides further research avenues through sensitivity analysis and optimization. While this type of approach has been used extensively in investigations of tumor growth, wound healing, and bone regeneration, the development of nervous tissue has been rarely studied within a modeling framework. To address this gap, the present work introduces a distributed model of spinal cord growth in the knifefish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, an established teleostean model of adult growth in the central nervous system. The proposed model incorporates two mechanisms, cell proliferation by active stem/progenitor cells and cell drift due to population pressure, both of which are subject to global constraints. A coupled reaction-diffusion equation approach was adopted to represent the densities of actively-proliferating and non-proliferating cells along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord. Computer simulations using this model yielded biologically-feasible growth trajectories. Subsequent comparisons with whole-organism growth curves allowed the estimation of previously-unknown parameters, such as relative growth rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuong, Dang Diem; Borowiec, Brittney; Clifford, Alexander M; Filogonio, Renato; Somo, Derek; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark; Milsom, William K
The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of externally versus internally oriented CO 2 /H + -sensitive chemoreceptors in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the facultative air-breathing fish, Chitala ornata (the clown knifefish). Fish were exposed to environmental acidosis (pH ~ 6.0) or hypercarbia (≈ 30 torr PCO 2 ) that produced changes in water pH equal to the pH levels of the acidotic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO 2 versus H + . We also injected acetazolamide to elevate arterial levels of PCO 2 and [H + ] in fish in normocarbic water to distinguish between internal and external stimuli. We measured changes in gill ventilation frequency, air breathing frequency, heart rate and arterial blood pressure in response to each treatment as well as the changes produced in arterial PCO 2 and pH. Exposure to normocarbic water of pH 6.0 for 1 h did not produce significant changes in any measured variable. Exposure to hypercarbic water dramatically increased air breathing frequency, but had no effect on gill ventilation. Hypercarbia also produced a modest bradycardia and fall in arterial blood pressure. Injection of acetazolamide produced similar effects. Both hypercarbia and acetazolamide led to increases in arterial PCO 2 and falls in arterial pH although the changes in arterial PCO 2 /pH were more modest following acetazolamide injection as were the increases in air breathing frequency. The acetazolamide results suggest that the stimulation of air breathing was due, at least in part, to stimulation of internally oriented CO 2 /H + chemoreceptors monitoring blood gas changes.
Gam, Le Thi Hong; Jensen, Frank Bo; Damsgaard, Christian
and fell towards control values during the last half of the exposure period. Plasma nitrate, in contrast, rose continuously, reflecting detoxification of nitrite to nitrate. MetHb generated from the reaction between nitrite and erythrocyte Hb reached 38% at day 2, but then decreased to 17% by the end......The clown knifefish is a facultative air breather, which is widely farmed in freshwater ponds in Vietnam. Here we report a very high nitrite tolerance (96h LC50 of 7.82mM) in this species and examine the effects of 1mM (LC5) and 2.5mM (LC10) ambient nitrite on haemoglobin (Hb) derivatives......, electrolyte levels, acid-base status, and total body water content during 7days of exposure. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte methaemoglobin (metHb) reductase activity is upregulated by nitrite exposure. Plasma nitrite levels increased for 2-3days but stayed below environmental levels...
Gam, Le Thi Hong; Jensen, Frank Bo; Damsgaard, Christian; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark
The clown knifefish is a facultative air breather, which is widely farmed in freshwater ponds in Vietnam. Here we report a very high nitrite tolerance (96h LC 50 of 7.82mM) in this species and examine the effects of 1mM (LC 5 ) and 2.5mM (LC 10 ) ambient nitrite on haemoglobin (Hb) derivatives, electrolyte levels, acid-base status, and total body water content during 7days of exposure. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte methaemoglobin (metHb) reductase activity is upregulated by nitrite exposure. Plasma nitrite levels increased for 2-3days but stayed below environmental levels and fell towards control values during the last half of the exposure period. Plasma nitrate, in contrast, rose continuously, reflecting detoxification of nitrite to nitrate. MetHb generated from the reaction between nitrite and erythrocyte Hb reached 38% at day 2, but then decreased to 17% by the end of experiment. The first order rate constant for metHb reduction by erythrocyte metHb reductase increased from 0.01 in controls to 0.046min -1 after 6days of nitrite exposure, showing up-regulation of this enzyme. While such upregulation has been suggested in nitrite-exposed fish species, this study provides the first experimental evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gam, Le Thi Hong; Jensen, Frank Bo; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark
Nitrite and carbon dioxide are common environmental contaminants in the intensive aquaculture ponds used to farm clown knifefish (Chitala ornata) in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypercapnia reduces nitrite uptake across the gills, because pH regulation will reduce chloride uptake and hence nitrite uptake as the two ions compete for the same transport route via the branchial HCO 3 - /Cl - exchanger. Fish fitted with arterial catheters were exposed to normocapnic/normoxic water (control), nitrite (1 mM), hypercapnia (21 mmHg CO 2 ), or combined hypercapnia (acclimated hypercapnia) and nitrite for 96 h. Blood was sampled to measure acid-base status, haemoglobin derivatives and plasma ions. Plasma nitrite increased for 48 h, but levels stayed below the exposure concentration, and subsequently decreased as a result of nitrite detoxification to nitrate. The total uptake of nitrite (evaluated as [NO 2 - ] + [NO 3 - ]) was significantly decreased in hypercapnia, in accordance with the hypothesis. Methemoglobin and nitrosylhemoglobin levels were similarly lower during hypercapnic compared to normocapnic nitrite exposure. The respiratory acidosis induced by hypercapnia was half-compensated by bicarbonate accumulation in 96 h, which was mainly chloride-mediated (i.e. reduced Cl - influx via the branchial HCO 3 - /Cl - exchanger). Plasma osmolality and main ions (Na + , Cl - ) were significantly decreased by hypercapnia and by nitrite exposure, consistent with inhibition of active transport. We conclude that hypercapnia induces a long-lasting, and mainly chloride-mediated acid-base regulation that reduces the uptake of nitrite across the gills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Adam R.; Proffitt, Melissa R.; Ho, Winnie W.; Mullaney, Claire B.; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Alves-Gomes, José A.; Smith, G. Troy
The electric communication signals of weakly electric ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) provide a valuable model system for understanding the evolution and physiology of behavior. Apteronotids produce continuous wave-type electric organ discharges (EODs) that are used for electrolocation and communication. The frequency and waveform of EODs, as well as the structure of transient EOD modulations (chirps), vary substantially across species. Understanding how these signals have evolved, however, has been hampered by the lack of a well-supported phylogeny for this family. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the Apteronotidae by using sequence data from three genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, recombination activating gene 2, and cytochrome oxidase B) in 32 species representing 13 apteronotid genera. This phylogeny and an extensive database of apteronotid signals allowed us to examine signal evolution by using ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) and phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models. Our molecular phylogeny largely agrees with another recent sequence-based phylogeny and identified five robust apteronotid clades: (i) Sternarchorhamphus + Orthosternarchus, (ii) Adontosternarchus, (iii) Apteronotus + Parapteronotus, (iv) Sternarchorhynchus, and (v) a large clade including Porotergus, ‘Apteronotus’, Compsaraia, Sternarchogiton, Sternarchella, and Magosternarchus. We analyzed novel chirp recordings from two apteronotid species (Orthosternarchus tamandua and Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus), and combined data from these species with that from previously recorded species in our phylogenetic analyses. Some signal parameters in O. tamandua were plesiomorphic (e.g., low frequency EODs and chirps with little frequency modulation that nevertheless interrupt the EOD), suggesting that ultra-high frequency EODs and ‘‘big” chirps evolved after apteronotids diverged from other gymnotiforms. In contrast to previous studies, our PGLS
Full Text Available Recent study of the type-material of Tembeassu marauna, a poorly-known species currently represented in collections only by its holotype (male and paratypes (male and female, all collected forty years ago at the Ilha Solteira reservoir area, upper Paraná river region, revealed an unique pattern of dental arrangement among members of the order Gymnotiformes. This autapomorphic condition refers to a patch of around 15 elongate conical, extra teeth associated to soft tissue, and disposed inside the mouth on a restricted area at the roof of oral cavity and located just in front of the premaxillary bones (although clearly apart from those. Besides this obvious feature, two additional conditions are recognized as possibly unique for T. marauna, which refer to the conspicuous "fleshy" (that is, not presenting subjacent bony structures anterior elongations of the upper and lower jaws. Some additional osteological features identified on radiographs taken from the type material belonging to that species are presented. A brief discussion is furnished, indicating that the recent inclusion of the nominal Tembeassu marauna in Apteronotus La Cépède is not supported by currently available evidence. Thus, it is herein suggested that the species is kept in it own separate genus within the Apteronotidae. Finally, it is argued that T. marauna possibly represents an endangered species at the upper Paraná river region.
... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...
Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen
Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will
Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.
Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female
... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...
... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...
... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...
Teh, Yik Koon
This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.
The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.
... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...
... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...
Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi
Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)
... These events are rare in healthy women using hormone therapy close to menopause. Women who have not had a hysterectomy also need to take progestin, another female hormone, to prevent uterine cancer. Other Medicines. Non-prescription ...
... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Sexual Assault Against Females Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...
Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.
Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...
Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan
ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...
Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J
The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....
Making Death Visible: Chechen Female Suicide Bombers in an Era of Globalization (ProQuest, 2009), 65. 91 Gammer, “Nationalism and History ,” 121. 92...18 III. CASE STUDY: THE RUSSO–CHECHEN CONFLICT .................................19 A. CHECHEN HISTORY ...Bloom, “Female Suicide Bombers: A Global Trend,” Daedalus, 136, no. 1 (2007): 94. 2 Mia Bloom, Bombshell (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Katherine P. Dabney
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R
The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.
Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.
Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L
The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.
Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S
Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.
Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...
Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen
Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.
... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...
The issue of FGM has always been considered 'sensitive' (meaning dangerous), which has deeply affected the way it has been approached and addressed. .... cutting18), even if it means hiding the apparent intention of the practice (to honour)? The most recent theory, popularised by Tostan, is that female circumcision is ...
Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...
... Aging Changes in the levels of androgens (male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is thinner, while the hair on their face is coarser. Family history of male or female pattern baldness.
immigrants and refugees into Western cultures has made it important for health care practitioners to understand some of the customs, beliefs and traditions surrounding female circumcision. This is especially the case in South Africa with its 8 million illegal immigrants. .... A poster used in the campaign against FGM in France.
Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta
The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam
Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context to...... a multiplier effect in reducing gender gaps in entrepreneurship rates.......-founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...
Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.
Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is
Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista
To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the
Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James
and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods. The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Conclusion. Recommendations are given for assessment and treatment of FSAD and PGAD. Giraldi A, Rellini AH, Pfaus J, and Laan E. Female sexual arousal disorders. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.......Introduction. Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).
Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
Introduction: Female circumcision is a culturally sanctioned tradition practiced in many Africa countries and has deleterious consequences on women's health, sexuality and fertility. Objective: To determine the extent of the practice and factors that influence decisions on female circumcision. Methods: The first 700 female ...
G Angeline Grace
Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam
to experiment provisional founder identities, especially if the founder is perceived as a role model. Role models are more likely to be influential, the more similar they are to the focal person, especially if both are minorities, as is the case for women in entrepreneurial environments. We study how joiner......-founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...
Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...
Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G
A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Goodman, Michael P
Genital plastic surgery for women has come under scrutiny and has been the topic of discussion in the news media, online, and in medical editorials. In the absence of measurable standards of care, lack of evidence-based outcome norms, and little standardization either in nomenclature or training requirements, concern has been raised by both ethicists and specialty organizations.Some women request alteration of their vulvas and vaginas for reasons of cosmesis, increasing self-esteem, and improving sexual function. Patients must be assured their surgeon is properly trained and should understand that few validated long-term safety or outcome data are presently available in this relatively new field. Women also should be made aware that, although they may wish to cosmetically or physically alter their external genitalia, this does not mean that they are developmentally or structurally "abnormal." It is important that training guidelines for practitioners be established and that long-term outcome, psychosexual, and safety data be published. The genital plastic surgeon must have sufficient training in sexual medicine to withhold these procedures from women with sexual dysfunction, mental impairment, or body dysmorphic disorder. In an atmosphere in which trademarked marketing terms are becoming part of the lexicon, a more descriptive terminology is suggested, incorporating the terms "labiaplasty," "reduction of clitoral hood," "perineoplasty," "hymenoplasty," and "vaginoplasty." The term "female cosmetic genital surgery" is presented as a descriptive umbrella encompassing these genital plastic procedures.
Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.
One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb ...
ABSTRACT. The paper highlights the role females play towards achieving a sustainable development in an upcoming society in the global community. The productions of low income yielding crops which are relegated to the females are highlighted. Issues bothering on gender-imbalance in the education of children in the ...
Mar 9, 1974 ... A case of female intersex was admitted to the hospital with severe lower abdominal pain. On examination a phallus of 5 x 2,5 cm was found, without a urethra but with a perineal urinary opening. There were two scrotal folds, but no vagina. The patient had the build of a female, with two well-formed breasts.
Vineet V Mishra
Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20-47 years were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26-30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology.
Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan
Mota, Renato Lains
ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522
Renato Lains Mota
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.
Mota, Renato Lains
Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Vyas, Bhumika; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Saini, Suwa Ram
Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This ...
Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z
There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J
A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous
Garcia Fontes, M
This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer
Adel Hussein Elduma
CONCLUSION: The practice of female genital mutilation is spread all over the country. Poor women with low level of education are at high risk for this phenomenon. More efforts have to be provided to end this dangerous practice.
Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.
Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B
Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.
Kodama, Naomi; Odaki, Kazuhiko
The theory of employee discrimination gives a possible explanation for the scarcity of female executive officers. This paper tests the employee discrimination hypothesis by measuring the wage premium received by employees working with female executives against their tastes for discrimination. Using a fixed effects analysis of establishment-level panel data on Japanese employees, we separate the discrimination premiums that would otherwise cause a bias from the establishment-level unobserved p...
Anselmino, Matteo; Battaglia, Alberto; Gallo, Cristina; Gili, Sebastiano; Matta, Mario; Castagno, Davide; Ferraris, Federico; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo
Atrial fibrillation is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia. Its prevalence increases with age and preferentially affects male patients. Over 75 years of age, however, female patients being more prevalent, the absolute number of patients affected is similar between sexes. Despite this, few data are available in the literature concerning sex-related differences in atrial fibrillation patients. The present systematic review therefore considers comorbidities, referring symptoms, quality of life, pharmacological approaches and trans-catheter ablation in female rather than in male atrial fibrillation patients in search of parameters that may have an impact on the treatment outcome. In brief, female atrial fibrillation patients more commonly present comorbidities, leading to a higher prevalence of persistent atrial fibrillation; moreover, they refer to hospital care later and with a longer disease history. Atrial fibrillation symptoms relate to low quality of life in female patients; in fact, atrial fibrillation paroxysm usually presents higher heart rate, leading to preferentially adopt a rate rather than a rhythm-control strategy. Female atrial fibrillation patients present an increased risk of stroke, worsened by the lower oral anticoagulant prescription rate related to the concomitant higher haemorrhagic risk profile. Trans-catheter ablation is under-used in female patients and, on the contrary, they are more commonly affected by anti-arrhythmic drug side effects.
Brown, Kelly A; Dewoolkar, Aditya V; Baker, Nicole; Dodich, Colleen
The number of adolescent girls participating in sports has dramatically increased throughout the last few decades. In the early 1990's, an association between amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating was recognized and eventually labeled the 'Female Athlete Triad'. In 1997, the Task Force on Women's Issues of American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a position statement on this triad of conditions that were becoming increasingly more prevalent amongst female athletes. Initially, the 'Female Athlete Triad' was characterized by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, as the number of adolescent female athletes has continued to grow, there has been further research and investigation into this field and the triad has evolved in definition. It is essential for all health care practitioners and other professionals who care for adolescent athletes to be attentive to the clinical signs, detection, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad, as the sequelae can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of a young person both in the short and long-term.
... 2015 All Females by Age All Females by Race White Females by Age Black Females by Age ... in Females, 2015 (current listing) All Females by Race/Ethnicity- United States, 2015 All Females by Age ...
Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.
Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.
Wang Jian; Han Xinian; Liu Guanghua; Wang Chenguang; Jia Ningyang; Xue Feng
Objective: To evaluate the imaging features of female pseudohermaphroditism. Methods: The imaging findings in 9 cases of female pseudohermaphroditism were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thickening, prolongation, and twist of bilateral adrenal glands was found in 7 untreated cases, 2 of them had macronodular hyperplasia. One of the treated cases was without thickening or twist of adrenal glands, the other treated case coexisted with adrenal myelolipoma. Agenesis of the uterus and vagina was found in 4 cases. Conclusion: Female pseudohermaphroditism is a hereditary disease, and the hyperplasia of adrenal glands and agenesis of uterus and vagina were secondary manifestations. Early detection of these abnormalities could be achieved with imaging modalities, and early treatment could result in remedy of these abnormalities. (authors)
Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.
Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.
Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".
of the feet and binding caused gait, spine and infection prob- lems, and was ultimately banned in 1912 but persisted secretly for another 50 years or so until both education of women and social norms progressed to the point that it was no longer toler- ated. Despite laws in many African countries prohibiting female cir-.
Sluijter, Eric Jan
Rembrandt's extraordinary paintings of female nudes - Andromeda, Susanna, Diana and Her Nymphs, Danaë, Bathsheba - as well as his etchings of nude women, have fascinated many generations of art lovers and art historians, but they have also elicited vehement criticism. They were considered
Wilson, M. Lee
Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…
The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for the development of aspiring female coaches based on the ideas of existing high-performance female coaches. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with national-level female coaches in the United Kingdom, four recurrent ideas for developing female coaches in a male-dominated profession emerged.…
Sarah Day Crim; Mark Dubois; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas
There is a limited amount of research focusing on female forestland owners. In looking at female forestland owners as a group researchers are often left with more questions than answers. What is the role of these landowners in the forestry sector? How do female forestland owners manage their lands? Do female forestland owners possess unique characteristics, needs, and...
Hansen, H H
Female circumcision, or clitoridectomy, has been mentioned in ancient writings from many parts of the world. There are 4 different degrees of total or partial clitoridectomy involving removal of different parts of the female genitalia. The most radical, Sudanese or Pharonic circumcision, is not now practiced in very many areas. The procedure is generally performed 1-2 years preceding puberty. Therefore, it cannot really be considered a rite of passage. Complications following the procedure are mentioned. The are 4 reasons for having the procedure performed: 1) religious; 2) aesthetic; 3) for prevention of undesirable sexual stimulation; and 4) tradition. In Egypt, the 4th most radical type of clitoridectomy is not practiced. The other 3 types are practiced by both Muslims and Christian Copts. During a stay in Egypt during 1966-67, the author had a chance to observe the incidence of the procedure among all classes of Egyptian women.
Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.
Full Text Available Influences of educational level and gender were examined through free drawings. A total of 216 participants were recruited ranging from nursery school to university students. Using an adaptation of Turgeon’s methodology, participants were given a standardized set of colored pens and asked to draw a picture. Pictures were analyzed for the area of the page covered, colors used, number of colors used, and content. Overall, females covered more of the page, and used more colors than males. Females drew significantly more sky, flowers/trees and buildings (in most cases houses, and males drew more people and vehicles. In relation to educational level, nursery children used fewer colors than the other groups and secondary school children used more colors than primary school children. It was concluded that gender differences in content, and color, of drawings exist and these differences remain stable into adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of social and evolutionary theory.
Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.
Mota, Renato Lains
ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes ...
Roy Aloke K
Full Text Available Fifty female patients, in the age range 3.5 to 45 yrs, suffering from chronic diffuse alopecia were studied for the probable causes. In 26% of cases, iron deficiency anaemia was found to be the major aetiological factor and 20% cases showed hupothyroidism. The cause could not be traced in 40% of cases. In majority of cases, multiple factors might be implicated.
Seow, D.; Brown, Lorraine
This qualitative study explores the travel motivations and experiences of solo female Asian tourists. Data were collected from ten in-depth interviews with a focus on Asian women’s travel motivations, experiences and constraints. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Resistance was found to be an important factor as in order to travel solo, the participants had to resist sociocultural expectations for Asian women’s behaviour. Sexualized male attention was also found to be an importa...
Sarah E. Frasure
Full Text Available A 42-year-old female presented to the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and a fever of 102°F. She described multiple recent male sexual partners, with inconsistent condom use. Her vital signs were unremarkable. Her physical exam was notable for moderate right lower quadrant tenderness to palpation. There was no cervical motion tenderness. The emergency physician performed a bedside abdominal ultrasound (Video, and subsequently ordered a computed tomography (Figure, which confirmed the diagnosis.
Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone
Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females (40.63 %. Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.
Tuong, Dang Diem; Ngoc, Tran Bao; Huynh, Vo Thi Nhu; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Hai, Tran Ngoc; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark
It has been argued that tropical ectotherms are more vulnerable to the projected temperature increases than their temperate relatives, because they already live closer to their upper temperature limit. Here we examine the effects of a temperature increase in environmental temperature to 6°C above the present day median temperature (27°C) in the freshwater air-breathing fish Chitala ornata, on aspects of its respiratory physiology in both normoxia and in hypoxia. We found no evidence of respiratory impairment with elevated temperature. The standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine metabolic rate (RMR) in the two temperatures in normoxia and hypoxia increased with Q 10 values between 2.3 and 2.9, while the specific dynamic action (SDA) and its coefficient increased from 7.8 to 14.7% in 27°C and 33°C, respectively. In addition, Chitala ornata exhibited significantly improved growth at the elevated temperature in both hypoxic and normoxic water. While projected temperature increases may negatively impact other essential aspects in this animal's environment, we see no evidence of a negative impact on this species itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mandal, Anup; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Punia, Peyush; Chauhan, U K; Lakra, Wazir Singh
Twenty-seven enzyme systems, six random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, and two microsatellite loci were tested to determine intraspecific divergence in the natural population of the endangered Indian featherback fish, Chitala chitala, for the first time. The 262 samples of C. chitala were collected from six riverine locations in India: the Satluj, Ganga (Ghagra, Bhagirathi, and Brahmaputra), Mahanadi, and Narmada river systems. The analysis revealed population subdivisions, with an F(ST) value from 0.1235 (95% confidence 0.0868-0.1621) for RAPD and a combined F(ST) of 0.0344 (95% confidence 0.0340-0.0350) for microsatellite loci. An analysis of 38 allozyme loci did not reveal any polymorphism in the samples from any of the riverine localities; a possible explanation for this could be that the ancestors of Chitala could have faced a population reduction in prehistoric periods, as low allozyme variation is also reported for other species of Chitala from south Asia.
Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.
Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity.
Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.
Dec 2, 2006 ... The female condom is the only female-initiated method. (women instigate use but need co-operation of their partner) that is known to be safe and effective in reducing the risk of pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The design of the female condom offers more protection ...
Sexual. Abstract. Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; ... Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to .... Addiction Psychiatry Officer, Member of ISAM, Member of WAS, Member.
This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...
Mandara, M U
To determine the prevalence and distribution of female genital mutilation (FGM) procedures in a Nigerian population. Five hundred consecutive women were evaluated for evidence of FGM. The WHO classification system was utilized. Demographic and sociocultural information was collected. Thirty-four percent of women were found to have some type of FGM. Type I and Type II procedures were the most common. Fifty-five percent of women were unaware they had FGM and 62% with FGM did not know the reason. Twenty-one percent of women said they were going to have FGM on their daughters. FGM is still broadly practiced among ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. Educational efforts need to be directed at eliminating this practice.
Most of Nigeria's estimated 50 million females have suffered female genital mutilation (FGM). Those who have escaped FGM either belong to nonmutilating tribes, are members of enlightened families, or have been overlooked for some reason. Nigerian girls who undergo FGM are told that the pain the suffer will be eased when they marry, but they are not told that this will likely occur because sexual intercourse will widen their vaginal opening or else it will be surgically widened. Many who submit their children to this mutilation have no clear idea about why it is called for except to claim that it protects a family's honor by proving virginity. A Yoruba scholar claims that FGM is used in that tribe to reduce a woman's sexual desires so that she will not engage in intercourse during the 18 months she breast feeds her baby (it is believed that sperm migrates to the mother's milk and can make the baby ill). Yoruba husbands have no curb on their sexual pleasure and may marry as many wives as they can afford. Yorubas mutilate girls when they are 2-8 years old. Ibos, on the other hand, mutilate young women when they are preparing for marriage as part of an initiation ceremony. Abohs mutilate women during their first pregnancy in the belief that this aids the safe delivery of the child by protecting it from contact with the "lethal" clitoris during delivery. While some argue for maintaining FGM because it is an African tradition, other harmful customs, such as facial scarification, have been eliminated.
Harts, Anna M. F.; Schwanz, Lisa E.; Kokko, Hanna
When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source–sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617
Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M
Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vaidakis, D; Panoskaltsis, T; Poulakaki, N; Kouloura, A; Kassanos, D; Papadimitriou, G; Salamalekis, E
The aim of the present study was to record how the treatment of female cancer may affect sexuality and interpersonal relations in the couple. From September 2008 until February 2012, the authors prospectively studied 67 patients with breast cancer (Group A) and 43 with gynecological cancers (Group B). As control groups 33 patients with benign breast and 30 patients with benign gynecological lesions (group 0a and 0b respectively) were used. Sexuality and interpersonal relations were evaluated by a questionnaire. The authors also evaluated interpersonal relations focusing on sexual function at the time of diagnosis and a year after the initial treatment for cancer. A significant reduction of the "sexual desire", "sexual Arousal", and "orgasm" dimension was found in both cancer groups, in contrast to the control group, revealing no significant change. The "sexual enjoyment" scale was significantly decreased in gynecological cancer group but not in breast cancer group. While the score on the "relationship quality" dimension significantly increased in both cancer groups. In all groups, there was a significantly positive correlation between sexual function and enjoyment; on the contrary, there was a significantly negative correlation between relationship quality and sexual function and enjoyment. Sexual dysfunctions is a clinical problem which should be evidenced at the beginning of therapy, from the oncologists in order to provide integrated treatment to their patients.
Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.
Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function
González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J
The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P
Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rose Marie Azzopardi
Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.
Sever, David M; Hamlett, William C
Internal fertilization and oviparity most likely are symplesiomorphies for modern reptiles, and viviparity has evolved independently numerous times in Sauria and Serpentes. Oviducal sperm storage is known in females of all taxa except Amphisbaenia. However, in Rhynchocephalia and Crocodilia, sperm storage is poorly studied, and specialized sperm storage tubules (Ssts) are unknown. We use the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis [(Chelonia+Archosauria) (Squamata)] to trace evolution of sperm storage characters. Ssts arose independently in Chelonia and Squamata. Turtles possess albumen-secreting glands in the anterior half of the oviduct (the tuba or isthmus), and the most distal of these glands also serve as Ssts; in addition, some turtles possess Ssts in the adjacent segment of the oviduct, the uterus. Squamates lack albumen-secreting glands, and the ancestral state is possession of Ssts in the posterior infundibulum (uterine tube). Secondarily, iguanids have evolved vaginal Ssts. In this paper, we present the first ultrastructural observations on vaginal Ssts in lizards, using Anolis sagrei (Polychrotidae). Proximally, the neck of these simple tubular glands continues the alternation of ciliated and secretory cells lining the lumen of the vagina. However, the epithelial cells of the distal sperm storage area are neither secretory nor ciliated. The Ssts of Anolis are more similar to those of birds more than to infundibular receptacles in snakes and lizards. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
E. Edouard; O. Olatunbosun; L. Edouard
Female genital mutilation (FGM), sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into ...
Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to anorgasmia and even frigidity. This procedure is now prohibited by law in Egypt.
Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya
The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.
Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ
Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].
Pertovaara, Antti; Linnankoski, Ilkka; Artchakov, Denis; Rämä, Pia; Carlson, Synnöve
Earlier studies suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists may enhance sexual activity in human and nonhuman male primates. It is not known whether these compounds influence the sexual behavior of female primates. We determined whether the administration of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole), a dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), or their combination to female Macaca arctoides (stumptail macaque) monkeys produces changes in sexual behavior of the female with a male. Following the administration of drugs to the female, the behavior of the female with a male stumptail was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.03-0.3 mg/kg im) increased short-time mounting behavior of the male and the total number of copulations. Apomorphine alone (0.125-0.25 mg/kg) or in combination with atipamezole had no significant effects on sexual behavior. The result indicates that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist administered in the female stumptail increases sexual behavior of the male with the female. A plausible explanation for this finding is that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist increases sexual arousal in female stumptails and this, possibly due to a change in psychosocial behavior of the female, triggers increased sexual activity in males.
White, Frances J; Wood, Kimberley D
The question of whether bonobos show feeding priority and female dominance has been proposed and examined, both in the wild and in captive studies, with differing results. The relationship between female dominance and female feeding priority has been best studied in prosimian primates. These studies use established criteria of females consistently evoking submissive behavior from males in dyadic encounters for determining female dominance. Although the relationship is complex, female dominance in prosimians is associated with preferential access to food. Data from studies of wild habituated bonobos in the Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo, are examined for evidence of both female feeding priority and female social dominance using similar criteria as used for prosimians. Bonobos showed evidence of female feeding priority in small, but not in large, food patches. Male-male competition for mating opportunities at the start of the food bout was related to some, but not all, differences in time spent feeding between the sexes. Female dominance similar to that seen in prosimians was not observed in these bonobos. Males were consistently dominant in dyadic interactions. Female feeding priority with male dyadic social dominance implies that male deference during feeding cannot be excluded as one explanation of interpretations of female dominance in bonobos. Additionally, dominance of male bonobos by females appears to require the presence of female coalition partners. As in other primates with female feeding priority, bonobo females express this trait where food is economically defendable. Unlike prosimians, however, bonobo female feeding priority may result from male deference and the importance of female coalitions in nondyadic interactions.
The polyurethane female condom is stronger than the latex male condom. Thus, the single-use female condom is less likely to break and has a longer shelf life than the single-use male condom. The ring at the closed end of the condom helps women insert the condom and secures the condom inside the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina and protects the labia and the base of the penis. Female condom use reduces the likelihood of transmission of infectious diseases. The female condom is as effective at preventing pregnancy as the male condom and the diaphragm. Its life-table pregnancy rate in a multicenter clinical trial in the US and Latin America was 15.1% (12.4% in US and 22.% in Latin America). The 6-month failure rate during perfect use was 4.3%. In laboratory studies, no sexually transmitted organism, including HIV, penetrated the female condom. In a human use study, 14% of controls and 14.7% of non-perfect users were reinfected with trichomonas while none of the perfect users were reinfected. Advantages of the female condom follow: allows for greater sensitivity and greater protection than the male condom, is controlled by the female, can be used with any lubricant (even oil-based lubricants), and can be inserted well before intercourse. Disadvantages include cost (5 times costlier than the male condom), unsightly coverage of female genitalia, noisy during use, and breakage (although breakage rates were lower than for latex condoms: 1% vs. 2-5%). Method acceptability studies among various populations show that the inner rings and movement of the female condom during use were the most common complaints. Many women liked the female condom and would recommend it to others. Only a few women complained about insertion problems, yet it took some women at least two tries to insert the female condom.
Khanna, R; Price, J
India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children
Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The
Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Cesare, Linda; Camperio Ciani, Giorgia; Capiluppi, Claudio
A growing number of researchers suggest that female homosexuality is at least in part influenced by genetic factors. Unlike for male homosexuality, few familial studies have attempted to explore maintenance of this apparently fitness-detrimental trait in the population. Using multiple recruitment methods, we explored fecundity and sexual orientation within the pedigrees of 1,458 adult female respondents. We compared 487 homosexual and 163 bisexual with 808 heterosexual females and 30,203 of their relatives. Our data suggest that the direct fitness of homosexual females is four times lower than the direct fitness of heterosexual females of corresponding ages. The prevalence of nonheterosexuality within the homosexual female respondents' families (2.83%) appear to be more than four times higher than the basal prevalence in the Italian population (0.63%). Pedigree size and relative fecundity in both the paternal and maternal sides of the homosexual women's families were significantly higher than in the heterosexuals' families. If confirmed, the relative average fecundity increase within the family seems to offset the loss in fitness due to the low direct fitness of homosexual females. Therefore, the balanced fecundity in the homosexual females' families may allow the trait to be maintained at a low-frequency equilibrium in the population.
А С Борисова
Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.
Lückerath – Rovers, M.
The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board.
St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…
This study examines the knowledge and attitude of female undergraduate students in Nigeria toward STIs/HIV/AIDS pandemic. Quantitative research technique was adopted to examine this objective using University of Lagos female students as study population. The specific research method adopted in the study is ...
Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P
Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.
Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D
Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D
Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is...
Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, Luc
We study the gender pay gap for all top managers (CEO and executive directors) of listed UK companies and find mixed evidence: female CEOs do not face a pay gap, but the other female executive directors (e.g. CFO, COO, Deputy CEO) are discriminated against (while controlling for position, tenure,
Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay
Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.
Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.
Abstract. The observation that about 90% of Eritrean women were circumcised in 2002 increased interest to understand the trends, determinants, and consequences of female genital cutting (FGC). The study used data from the 2002 EDHS and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation Survey to consider factors that influence the ...
Females are considered the backbone of the agricultural workforce. Female agricultural workers are compelled to carry out considerable amounts of manual and physically demanding tasks in the agricultural fields for long periods of time. This continuous and excessive work may cause the development of musculoskeletal ...
Blinde, Elaine M.
Data from several surveys and studies which examined the sports experience of over 2,000 female college athletes is summarized. Issues explored include reasons for and conditions surrounding sport participation, academic performance of female athletes, reactions to college sport, and post-college sport participation patterns. (IAH)
Veri, Maria J.
Considers constructs and operation of homophobic discourse surrounding female athletes, employing Foucauldian notions of discipline and discourse and feminist critiques of the gendered body to depict female athletes as nonconformist to the discipline of femininity. The paper argues that homophobic discourse exists in response to this nonconformity…
Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital,. Sagamu. KEY WORDS: Female genital. Cutting ... need to improve female education among this population, intensify anti-FGC campaigns and more ..... it as a health problem and a human rights abuse issue that.
Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph
On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female
Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?
the body but intrathoracic involvement (pulmonary and hilar nodes) ... affecting both genders with slight female preponderance. (4). All age ... in a Nigerian female. Summary. Sarcoidosis is relatively uncommon in indigenous black Africans, especially along the West African coast. There has not been any report of isolated ...
This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…
Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe
60% of students at Aarhus School of Architecture (AAA) are women. Yet there are far more male than female students who harbor a desire to become independent. Overall as much as 48% of all students at AAA want to start their own business. Significantly, however, the interest is greatest on second ......' entrepreneurs, where female students are underrepresented. This paper will show how enterprising elements...
Richardson, Agnes M.
The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…
Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth
State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.
Halsner, U E; Lucas, M W
In the overall spectrum of plastic surgery, hair transplantation for females still plays a marginal role. Previously applied standard methods (standard grafts) could not produce aesthetically satisfying results, so that many female patients who could have benefitted from an operation were discouraged from doing so. It was not until the method of using minigrafts exclusively to cover large areas of androgenetic alopecia in men was developed that acceptable treatment possibilities were also made available to women. The main applications of hair transplantation for females are: androgenetic alopecia, hereditary changes in the hairline, traumatic alopecia, and cosmetic indications. Since 1986 all female patients were exclusively treated with mini- and micrografts in one to two or three sessions. Performing hair transplantation calls for a high degree of sensitivity on the part of the surgeon with respect to the woman and her expectations. With the mini- and micrograft technique new aspects in hair transplantation for females can be offered.
Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin
Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment.
Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.
This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778
Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani
Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.
Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.
Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.
Martha Cantú Cavada
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.
Vasey, Paul L
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.
Ozawa, Glen Y; Bearse, Marcus A; Adams, Anthony J
The purpose of this paper is to review male-female differences in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. These differences will be established primarily through results from our present research and a review of related literature. Previously, we have demonstrated that neuroretinal dysfunction can be used to predict the location of future retinopathy up to three years before it is manifest. Our current research suggests that, for type 2 diabetes, the normal differences in neuroretinal function between nondiabetic males and females under 50 years of age are altered in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, local neuroretinal function in type 2 diabetes is more abnormal in adult males compared with adult females. The literature also suggests that there are male-female differences in the occurrence of diabetes. In adolescence, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is greater in males, whereas in type 2 diabetes, the incidence is greater in females. This excess of females in type 2 diabetes shifts to a more equal incidence between the two sexes in adults. In addition, advanced retinopathy in type 1 diabetes appears to be more common in males, and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy at the time of diagnosis in type 2 diabetes appears to be more associated with male sex. Although the reasons for male-female differences identified in this review are unknown, sex appears to be a significant factor in certain aspects of diabetes incidence and diabetic retinopathy.
Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh
This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P urine of females reduced over the years (P phosphorus (P phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits.
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
Of those migrating to urban centers in the Philippines, a disproportionate number of them are young females, most of whom end up working in the service sector. Between 1975-80, 1.3 million people migrated to urban centers, 56% of whom were females. Furthermore, a 1980 census indicates that 13% of all urban migrants were females age 15-19, and almost 1/4 of them were women in their 20s. Figures also show that single females make up a substantial portion of the urban migrants. Compared to the men migrating into the cities, the female urban migrants had lower educational attainments. Many of uneducated migrants do not integrate as easily, and are relegated to the periphery of urban centers. The search for employment serves as the driving force for urban migration, and in fact, the level of female participation in the workforce is high. But while male migrants work mostly as craftsmen or in the production sector, most female migrants work in the service sector. This category includes domestic workers, laundry women, cooks and waitresses, hospitality girls, and prostitutes. Generally attracting single, young females, the service sector has easy entry, which helps explain the high rate of female employment. The author explains that this trend is cause for concern, considering that the number of people involved is large, that the service sector provides low earning, and that it lends itself to the exploitation of the workers. Nonetheless, the author says that the migration pattern might only be transitory, and the urban migration might be a liberating process for women, but explains that further research is needed concerning the upward mobility of urban migrants.
Simmons, Leigh W
Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Research on sexual selection shows that the evolution of secondary sexual characters in males and the distribution of sex differences are more complex than was initially suggested but does not undermine our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved. However, the operation of sexual selection in females has still received relatively little attention. Recent studies show that both intrasexual competition between females and male choice of mating partners are common, leading to strong sexual selection in females and, in extreme cases, to reversals in the usual pattern of sex differences in behavior and morphology.
Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia
This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...
Patil, Sowmya Naveen; Bielamowicz, Kevin
Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a very rare condition in females. The processus vaginalis within the inguinal canal forms "the canal of Nuck" in females, homologous to the processus vaginalis in males. Failure of obliteration of the processus vaginalis results in either a direct or an indirect inguinal hernia or if a sac of serous fluid is retained, it forms a hydrocele. Very little has been reported on this condition in the literature. We present a case of hydrocele of canal of Nuck in an 8-year-old female.
Shindo, Tetsuya; Nishida, Sachiyo; Maehana, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Shintarou; Muranaka, Takashi; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Yanase, Masahiro; Takatsuka, Keiji
We report a 49-year-old female who had circumferential urethral diverticulum. She was admitted to our department for urinary retention. A cystic lesion surrounding the urethra had been detected by magnetic resonance imaging. We diagnosed the lesion as a urethral diverticulum after injecting dye to the cystic mass from vagina and confirming its discharge from the urethra at the pubic side by urethroscopy. Transvaginal resection of the diverticulum was peformed. In general, 4% of female urethral diverticula cause urinary retention. On the other hand, 1% of female bladder outlet obstruction is caused by urethral diverticula. It is neccessary for us to keep in mind urethral diverticulum when we evaluate female patients with urinary retention.
... may be involved with infertility in females and males? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ... Spanish Statistics and Research Couples With Obesity May Take Longer to Achieve Pregnancy ( ...
Singla, P.; Long, S.S.; Long, C.M.; Genadry, R.R.; Macura, K.J.
Female urethral diverticulum is a localized out-pouching of the urethra that is becoming increasingly prevalent, but often poses a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally, conventional voiding cystourethrography has been used to make the preoperative diagnosis. With the development of higher-resolution images acquired through ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the anatomy and various abnormalities of the female urethra can be better elucidated. This article focuses on the imaging features of female urethral diverticulum, with emphasis on diagnostic pearls, particularly using MRI. Female urethral diverticulum can be best identified by their location in the posterolateral urethra and by their communication with the urethral lumen. Improved imaging techniques combined with increased physician awareness of urethral diverticulum will lead to more prompt and accurate diagnosis of this entity, leading to better treatment of affected patients
Zihlman, Adrienne L
When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V
The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.
. Nigeria. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt. Methods: Four hundred undergraduate ...
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.
Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.
Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G
There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...
Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...
Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch
Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)
Enany, R; Graf, P; Höss, C; Sautter, R; Kolta, K
Female circumcision is a very old tradition still widely practised in Africa. The extent of female circumcision ranges from resection of the clitoridal prepuce (= sunnitic circumcision) to resection of labia minora and majora as well as clitoridectomy (= pharaonic circumcision). Wound approximation by sutures or scar contraction may cause partial closure of the vaginal orifice (= infibulation). Historical, sociological as well as medical aspects are discussed and reconstructive procedures described.
Dréno, B; Layton, A; Zouboulis, C C; López-Estebaranz, J L; Zalewska-Janowska, A; Bagatin, E; Zampeli, V A; Yutskovskaya, Y; Harper, J C
In the adult female, acne is a chronic condition with a substantial negative psychological, social and emotional impact. Based on time of onset, two subtypes of adult female acne are recognized: 'persistent acne' is a continuation of the disease from adolescence, while 'late-onset acne' first presents in adulthood. The morphological characteristics of adult female acne are often distinct from adolescent acne. In adults, inflammatory lesions (particularly papules, pustules and nodules) are generally more prominent on the lower chin, jawline and neck, and comedones are more often closed comedones (micro cysts). Adult acne is mainly mild-to-moderate in severity and may be refractory to treatment. A holistic approach to acne therapy should be taken in adult females, which combines standard treatments with adjunctive therapy and cosmetic use. A number of factors specific to the adult female influence choice of treatment, including the predisposition of older skin to irritation, a possible slow response to treatment, a high likelihood of good adherence, whether of child-bearing age, and the psychosocial impact of the disease. Adherence to therapy should be encouraged through further patient education and a simplified regimen that is tailored to suit the individual patient's needs and lifestyle. This article reviews the specific characteristics of adult female acne, and provides recommendations for acne therapy in this patient group. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Schroeder, Julia; Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Winney, Isabel; Simons, Mirre; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry
One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect). Our exceptionally extensive long-term data set of repeated observations of a wild passerine allows us to disentangle paternal care adjustment within males-within pairs and between males-while accounting for environmental variables. We found a within-male adjustment of paternal provisioning, but not incubation effort, relative to the cuckoldry in their nest. This effect was mainly driven by females differing consistently in their fidelity. There was no evidence that this within-male adjustment also took place across broods with the same female, and we found no between-male effect. Interestingly, males that gained more extrapair paternity provided less care. Data from a cross-foster experiment suggested that males did not use kin recognition to assess paternity. Our results provide insight into the role of individual variation in parental care and mating systems.
Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.
Bergeron, Jennifer L; Wilken, Reason; Miller, Mia E; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharyya, Neil
To identify contemporary trends in female authorship in the otolaryngology literature. Analysis of 4 otolaryngology journals. All articles published in Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Laryngoscope, and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in 2008 were reviewed and compared with prior data from 1978, 1988, and 1998. Each published article's authorship panel was examined for the number of authors and each author's sex, degree, and the subspecialty area of publication. Year-to-year comparisons were conducted for the rates and characteristics of female authorship. A total of 544, 629, 713, and 785 articles from 1978, 1988, 1998, and 2008, respectively, were analyzed. From 1998 to 2008, the overall percentage of female authors increased from 14.5% to 22.5% (P otology (18.6%), general (22.3%), head and neck (22.2%), plastics (18.9%), and pediatrics (19.4%) (P = .885). A significant number of female first authors continue to be nonphysicians (19.2% in 2008, P < .001). Female authorship has shown significant and steady increases in the otolaryngology literature, particularly in the past decade. Increased rates of publication from female otolaryngologists within most subspecialties have resulted in similar rates of publication across the subspecialties.
Pröhl, Heike; Berke, Olaf
In many species with a resource-based mating system, males defend resources to increase their attractiveness to females. In the strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio, suitable tadpole-rearing sites appear to be a limited resource for females. Territorial males have been suggested to defend tadpole-rearing sites to increase their access to females. In this study we investigate the spatial association between tadpole-rearing sites and the sexes as well as the spatial association of males and females. If strawberry poison frogs have resource defense polygyny, we expect males and females to be associated with tadpole-rearing sites and that females will deposit their offspring in tadpole-rearing sites inside the territories of their mates. To test this hypothesis, home range and core area sizes were calculated for both sexes and the association patterns were compared in two areas that differed in their abundance of tadpole-rearing sites. Home ranges and core areas of females were much larger than male home ranges. Females showed a clumped distribution in the vicinity of tadpole-rearing sites. Males were not clumped and were less associated with tadpole-rearing sites. Females generally did not use tadpole-rearing sites in the territory of their mates and we therefore conclude that males did not defend tadpole-rearing sites for females. Our data are consistent with the general assumption that female distribution is influenced by resource distribution and that male distribution depends on female distribution. Nevertheless, the distribution of D. pumilio females was also influenced by male spacing patterns. Males probably initially establish their core areas where female density is high and then females move among territories to sample males. Males compete vigorously for places with high female density, the defense of which is likely important for enhancing their mating success. In general, the spacing patterns did not differ between populations but the sex ratio was
Parnell, Kathy; And Others
White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…
Levin, Roy J; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C
The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2010 and to make specific recommendations according to the Oxford Centre for evidence based medicine (2009) "levels of evidence" wherever relevant. Recommendations were made for particular studies to be undertaken especially in controversial aspects in all six sections of the reviewed topics. Despite numerous laboratory assessments of female sexual function, genital assessments alone appear insufficient to characterise fully the complete sexual response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael
Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.
Chatterjee, Karishma; Markham Shaw, Charla
This study examines newspaper and broadcast news depictions of the female condom from 1993 to 2009 in the three major television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC), and in 8 of 10 top daily newspapers and 3 of 4 national newspapers published in the United States, according to circulation figures as of September 30, 2008. Given the high rates of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and their effect on women, particularly those between 15 and 24 years of age, it is important to examine media sources and the health information that the public is or is not receiving through these sources. This study (a) examines whether the female condom was depicted positively or negatively in broadcast and newspaper coverage, (b) determines the ways in which the female condom was compared with the male condom and with other contraceptives, and (c) identifies the sources used by journalists in female condom portrayals. The authors discuss the implications of the coverage of the female condom by broadcast and print news.
Tucci, Sonia A.; Boyland, Emma J.; Halford, Jason C.G.; Harrold, Joanne A.
Background Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators’ own BMI. Methods 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female) viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target) accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW) or always kept a normal weight (NW)), and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Results Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males. PMID:24107842
Sonia A. Tucci
Full Text Available Background: Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators' own BMI. Methods: 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW or always kept a normal weight (NW, and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Results: Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion: Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males.
Farmer, Melissa; Yoon, Hana; Goldstein, Irwin
Female sexual function reflects a dynamic interplay of central and peripheral nervous, vascular, and endocrine systems. The primary challenge in the development of novel treatments for female sexual dysfunction is the identification and targeted modulation of excitatory sexual circuits using pharmacologic treatments that facilitate the synthesis, release, and/or receptor binding of neurochemicals, peptides, and hormones that promote female sexual function. To develop an evidence-based state-of-the-art consensus report that critically integrates current knowledge of the therapeutic potential for known molecular and cellular targets to facilitate the physiologic processes underlying female sexual function. State-of-the-art review representing the opinions of international experts developed in a consensus process during a 1-year period. Expert opinion was established by grading the evidence-based medical literature, intensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Scientific investigation is urgently needed to expand knowledge and foster development of future treatments that maintain genital tissue integrity, enhance genital physiologic responsiveness, and optimize positive subjective appraisal of internal and external sexual cues. This article critically condenses the current knowledge of therapeutic manipulation of molecular and cellular targets within biological systems responsible for female sexual physiologic function. Future treatment targets include pharmacologic modulation of emotional learning circuits, restoration of normal tactile sensation, growth factor therapy, gene therapy, stem cell-based therapies, and regenerative medicine. Concurrent use of centrally and peripherally acting therapies could optimize treatment response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.
In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin's (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT₁, 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT₁A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sen, Aritro; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert
An increasing body of evidence suggests that immune-mediated processes affect female reproductive success at multiple levels. Crosstalk between endocrine and immune systems regulates a large number of biological processes that affect target tissues, and this crosstalk involves gene expression, cytokine and/or lymphokine release and hormone action. In addition, endocrine-immune interactions have a major role in the implantation process of the fetal (paternally derived) semi-allograft, which requires a reprogramming process of the maternal immune system from rejection to temporary tolerance for the length of gestation. Usually, the female immune system is supportive of all of these processes and, therefore, facilitates reproductive success. Abnormalities of the female immune system, including autoimmunity, potentially interfere at multiple levels. The relevance of the immune system to female infertility is increasingly recognized by investigators, but clinically is often not adequately considered and is, therefore, underestimated. This Review summarizes the effect of individual autoimmune endocrine diseases on female fertility, and points towards selected developments expected in the near future.
Quan Q Dinh
Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia
Gupta, Priya M; Hamner, Heather C; Suchdev, Parminder S; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Mei, Zuguo
Background: Total-body iron stores (TBI), which are calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, can be used to assess the iron status of populations in the United States. Objective: This analysis, developed to support workshop discussions, describes the distribution of TBI and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) among toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females. Design: We analyzed data from NHANES; toddlers aged 12-23 mo (NHANES 2003-2010), nonpregnant females aged 15-49 y (NHANES 2007-2010), and pregnant females aged 12-49 y (NHANES 1999-2010). We used SAS survey procedures to plot distributions of TBI and produce prevalence estimates of ID and IDA for each target population. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design. Results: According to these data, ID prevalences (± SEs) were 15.1% ± 1.7%, 10.4% ± 0.5%, and 16.3% ± 1.3% in toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females, respectively. ID prevalence in pregnant females increased significantly with each trimester (5.3% ± 1.5%, 12.7% ± 2.3%, and 27.5% ± 3.5% in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively). Racial disparities in the prevalence of ID among both nonpregnant and pregnant females exist, with Mexican American and non-Hispanic black females at greater risk of ID than non-Hispanic white females. IDA prevalence was 5.0% ± 0.4% and 2.6% ± 0.7% in nonpregnant and pregnant females, respectively. Conclusions: Available nationally representative data suggest that ID and IDA remain a concern in the United States. Estimates of iron-replete status cannot be made at this time in the absence of established cutoffs for iron repletion based on TBI. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03274726. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I
Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.
Dandash, K F; Refaat, A H; Eyada, M
There continues to be a high rate of female circumcision being practiced in Egypt. A questionnaire covering circumcision status, circumstances of circumcision procedures, and attitudes towards circumcising their daughters was given to female students in nursing secondary schools. This population was chosen as a representative sample of future mothers who also will work in a very sensitive area related to female circumcision. Results showed that all the students surveyed were circumcised. The peak ages for circumcision performance were between 10 and 12 years. About 60% of operations were performed by physicians and about 80% were done under anaesthesia at home. Rural residence was the main variable influencing the continuation of this practice in a culture in which traditions and habits are strongly respected. This points to the difficulties that face any efforts to eradicate this process.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D
Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury.
Lehane, Christine Marie
, thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...... that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes......Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples...
Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Forstner, R. (eds.) [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv., Salzburg (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiodiagnostik
MRI and CT exquisitely depict the anatomy of the female pelvis and offer fascinating diagnostic possibilities in women with pelvic disorders. This volume provides a comprehensive account of the use of these cross-sectional imaging techniques to identify and characterize developmental anomalies and acquired diseases of the female genital tract. Both benign and malignant diseases are considered in depth, and detailed attention is also paid to normal anatomical findings and variants. Further individual chapters focus on the patient with pelvic pain and the use of MRI for pelvimetry during pregnancy and the evaluation of fertility. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the most recent diagnostic and technical advances, and the text is complemented by many detailed and informative illustrations. All of the authors are acknowledged experts in diagnostic imaging of the female pelvis, and the volume will prove an invaluable aid to everyone with an interest in this field. (orig.)
Kevin R. Brough
Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301
Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren
The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player.
Pelley, Elaine; Danoff, Ann; Cooper, David S; Becker, Carolyn
Given that approximately 70% of current endocrinology fellows are women, female physicians will compose the majority of the future endocrinology workforce. This gender shift partly reflects an apparent waning of interest in endocrinology among male trainees. It also coincides with a projected shortage of endocrinologists overall. Female physicians face unique challenges in the workplace. To continue to attract trainees to the specialty and support their success, it is imperative that these challenges be recognized, understood, and addressed. A PubMed search using the terms "female physician" and "physician gender" covering the years 2000-2015 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The following topics were identified as key to understanding the impact of this gender shift: professional satisfaction, work-life balance, income, parenthood, academic success, and patient satisfaction. Several changes can be predicted to occur as endocrinology becomes a female-predominant specialty. Although professional satisfaction should remain stable, increased burnout rates are likely. Work-life balance challenges will likely be magnified. The combined effects of occupational gender segregation and a gender pay gap are predicted to negatively impact salaries of endocrinologists of both genders. The underrepresentation of women in academic leadership may mean a lesser voice for endocrinology in this arena. Finally, gender biases evident in patient satisfaction measures--commonly used as proxies for quality of care--may disproportionately impact endocrinology. Endocrinology is predicted to become the most female-predominant subspecialty of internal medicine. The specialty of endocrinology should take a lead role in advocating for changes that support the success of female physicians. Strengthening and supporting the physician workforce can only serve to attract talented physicians of both genders to the
Kingsberg, Sheryl; Althof, Stanley E
Prevalence data suggest that more than 40% of women experience sexual problems and that 12% of these women are distressed by the problem. In the 1960s, Masters and Johnson introduced what is now considered the classic linear model of female sexual response based on a physiologic foundation. Recently, Rosemary Basson introduced a nonlinear interconnected model which emphasizes the importance of emotional intimacy and satisfaction as integral components of the female sexual response cycle. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV TR), there are six female sexual disorders: hypoactive sexual desire disorder, aversion disorder, sexual arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder, vaginismus, and dyspareunia. Despite the high prevalence, few healthcare professionals take the time or feel adequately trained to assess and treat these sexual problems. Sexuality questionnaires play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions. They are used to (1) identify/diagnose individuals with a particular dysfunction, (2) assess the severity of the dysfunction, (3) measure improvement or satisfaction with treatment, (4) examine the impact of the dysfunction on the individual's quality of life (relationship satisfaction, mood, sexual confidence), and (5) study the impact of the dysfunction on the partner and his or her quality of life. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are increasingly important in both clinical practice and research settings. The instruments reviewed have played a significant role in furthering our understanding of the impact of female sexual function on the patient and partner and its treatment. It is important for the clinician and researcher to familiarize themselves with the best available measures for identifying specific dysfunctions, measuring distress due to the sexual dysfunction, assessing treatment efficacy, and objectively evaluating the quality of life issues of women with these dysfunctions. However
Goedele Van den Broeck
Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.
Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet
Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.
Blasi, Jennica; Keuhl-Coe, Abby; Kirkland, Hanna; Larson, Michael
• Hypothesis: Female guppies do not influence each other’s choice of male guppy • Predictions: If female guppies do not influence each other’s choice in males, then most females guppies will choose the same male whether alone or in the presence of other females • Choice is defined as which pane of glass the female interacts more with from 1 to 3 minutes after being introduced to the tank • 34 Females were used, 17 small and 17 large
In this paper the author presents Theravāda Buddhist perceptions of the female body and their impact on sexuality, gender equality and salvation. In doing so the author draws on a selection of texts from the Buddhist canonical literature, which are relevant to the Theravāda tradition. Early Buddhist literature reflects an understanding of the female body as being more closely connected to the material world and the cycle of reincarnation, due to its biological qualities. This has a severe imp...
Baum, A L
There are factors that uniquely affect young females in sports. The sociologic aspects of female youth sports can be understood from a historical perspective. Athletics have an influence on the development of young girls, from gender identity and sexual orientation to the foundations of self-esteem and moral development. There is a relationship between certain psychopathologic conditions common in girls and athletics, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders. Although involvement in sports may engender some of these problems, others may be successfully treated through physical exercise.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM. This article explores the urological complications experienced by women who have undergone this practice, and the effects this can have on their health and wellbeing.
Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette
This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching...... methods and application of technology is needed as well as elimination of female hostile attitudes. The findings are based on a literature review supplemented with results from a work shop with students from a technical university....
Tilly, Jonathan L.; Sinclair, David A.
SUMMARY The role of metabolism in ovarian aging is poorly described, despite the fact that ovaries fail earlier than most other organs. Growing interest in ovarian function is being driven by recent evidence that mammalian females routinely generate new oocytes during adult life through the activity of germline stem cells. In this perspective, we overview the female reproductive system as a powerful and clinically relevant model to understand links between aging and metabolism, and we discuss new concepts for how oocytes and their precursor cells might be altered metabolically to sustain or increase ovarian function and fertility in women. PMID:23747243
The article argues for an approach to studies of sexuality in Africa that considers the subject of female sexuality from the perspective of capacity and power. Based on data from Mozambique, and informed by conceptual frameworks as well as by research findings from other African countries......, the article investigates preparations of the erotic female body such as body tattoos, hip belts of glass beads, and elongated labia. It also discusses how “traditional” sexual capacity-building has been transferred from rural contexts into urban settings, empowering young women in love relationships...
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a topic much debated and analyzed by many research institutions and organizations. In recent years, the total number of entrepreneurs has been increasing significantly, female entrepreneurship being the one that has increased a lot. In this study, we are going to present and analyze the results of studies conducted at European level regarding the comparative evolution of male versus female entrepreneurship. The main conclusion that emerges from the analysis of the results obtained is that the number of women entrepreneurs is almost equal to that of men entrepreneurs in many European countries.
Full Text Available This paper examines some results of a research on female offenders’ life histories and pathways to prison in Belgium. Women’s pathways into crime will be presented and the connection of these pathways to their life histories will be explored. The study reveals that the greater part of the research population are adult-onset offenders. The authors argue that the importance of adult-onset pathways for female offenders might be explained by the emergence of (gendered vulnerabilities within the women’s lives, often accumulated not before adulthood.
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert
This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…
Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R
Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Hasdemir, P Solmaz; Oral, O; Calik, E; Ulusoy, M; Varol, R; Ozcakir, H Tayfun
Female athlete triad (FAT) is a serious healthcare concern in the young female population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of FAT and its relationship with gynecologic complaints of young Turkish female athletes. This was a cross-sectional survey and included 87 female athletes involved in a variety of sports as a case group and 85 sedentary female university students from Ege and Celal Bayar Universities. All subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of 32 separate questions assessing eating behavior, menstrual status, gynecologic and systemic complaints, psychological problems, and sexual history. SPSS 21.0 was used for statistical analysis. This survey involved 172 females in between to 30 years of age. The age of menarche was found to be significantly lower in the sedentary group (p = 0.00). Late menstruation and oligoamenorrhea were notable complaints among the athletes, and body mass index (BMI) was found to be statistically lower in the athletic group (p = 0.00). Cold hands and hair loss were seen more often in the sedentary group compared to the athletic group (p 0.05). Excessive sports activity can be hazardous in young female population. Lower BMI might be related to menstrual irregularity. Young female population should be informed about this relationship, especially athletes who are particularly at risk. Certain precautions should be taken into consideration in this population in order to get benefits of sports activity.
Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E
Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting
Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo
The use of accurate, species-specific diet-tissue discrimination factors is a critical requirement when applying stable isotope mixing models to predict consumer diet composition. Thus, diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination factors in several tissues for both captive and wild South American sea lions were estimated to provide appropriate values for quantifying feeding preferences at different timescales in the wild populations of this species. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the blood components of two female-pup pairs and females' prey muscle from captive individuals were determined by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) to calculate the respective isotopic discrimination factors. The same analysis was carried out in both blood components, and skin and hair tissues for eight female-pup pairs from wild individuals. Mean diet-to-female Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N values were higher than the female-to-pup ones. Pup tissues were more (15) N-enriched than their mothers but (13) C-depleted in serum and plasma tissues. In most of the tissue comparisons, we found differences in both Δ(15) N and Δ(13) C values, supporting tissue-specific discrimination. We found no differences between captive and wild female-to-pup discrimination factors either in Δ(13) C or Δ(15) N values of blood components. Only the stable isotope ratios in pup blood are good proxies of the individual lactating females. Thus, we suggest that blood components are more appropriate to quantify the feeding habits of wild individuals of this species. Furthermore, because female-to-pup discrimination factors for blood components did not differ between captive and wild individuals, we suggest that results for captive experiments can be extrapolated to wild South American sea lion populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kindig, Louise E.
Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…
Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern
Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…
Wilcoxon, Barbara R.
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…
Best, Connie L.; And Others
Examined influence of assault and participant characteristics on medical students' attitudes toward rape and nonsexual-assault victims. First- and third-year students read narratives of three types of assault patients. Female students revealed more favorable attitudes toward victims than did males. Implications for service delivery to rape victims…
Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt
The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary...
Women participation in entrepreneurship has increased tremendously over the last decades and now is significant in most developed and many developing countries. The study sought to explore the career motives of female psychology students. Ex-post facto research design was employed to inform the research.
The study identified specific challenges preventing female employees from moving into leadership positions. These include the link between their leadership aspirations and their existing qualifications, age, and how candidates are recruited and placed for positions. Implications for management include management ...
Draws on existing literature and an earlier field study to explore the problems faced by African females when studying abroad. The general disadvantages faced by women are exacerbated for African women. The inequities they faced in their home cultures are compounded when they have to adjust to study abroad. (SLD)
The distal urethral stenosis in female children is a pathological reality. It is represented by the hymenal hood, the meatal stenosis and the distal urethral ring. Diagnosis and localisation of the stenosis is maintained by calibration with bougies a boule. Therapeutical consequences are: internal urethrotomy, bilateral meatotomy and excision of hymenal hoods. (Author)
Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.
The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)
...; an appreciation of diversity; an outsider's impatience with rituals and symbols of status that divide people who work together and so reinforce heirarchies. These values may be defined as female because they have been nurtured in the private, domestic sphere to which womenhave been restricted for so long.
The recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) is that infants should be fed exclusively on breast milk for the first 6 months, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been on the decline in Nigeria. The study determines knowledge, attitude and intending practice of unmarried female undergraduates ...
and Attitude of Female Nursing Students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Momnéola 0A, and U znqgbn VU. ABSTRACT. This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student ...
Six female mathematicians and their accomplishments spanning 1500 years are highlighted. The six women chosen were Hypatia, Emilie du Chatelet, Sophie Germain, Sonya Kovalevsky, Emmy Noether, and Julia Robinson. The women were selected for inclusion based on the myriad aspects of their contributions. (AIM)
Hamid Reza Baradaran
Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.
The study focused on sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates and the attendant health implications. It was carried out in the tertiary institutions in Imo State using 415 final year degree students drawn from four institutions in the State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The design was a ...
Jukema, Joop; Piersma, Theunis
Female mimics are known from many species, but permanent, non-conditional, alternative mating strategies are only known from an isopod, a fish, a lizard and a bird. The single bird example refers to lek-breeding ruffs Philomachus pugnax, a shorebird for which two strategies (independent and
Full Text Available Seven ritual chants of the Tikuna female initiation ritual, recorded in the Amazon Trapezium in 2008. The chants are transcribed in Tikuna with a Spanish translation.TO LISTEN THE MP3 FILES WITH THE CHANTS, SELECT "Supplementary Files" IN THE MENU ON THE RIGHT
Physics has always had a relatively low proportion of female students and researchers. In the EU there are on average 33% female PhD-graduates in the physical sciences, while the percentage of female professors amounts to 9% . At CERN the proportion is even less with only 6.6 % of the research staff being women . The fact that there is no proportional relationship between the number of PhD-graduates and professors also suggests women are less likely to succeed in an academic career than men . A typical ATLAS plenary meeting. More laptops than women... Is the low representation of women in physics a problem, do we actually need more female physicists? In my view this question has to be answered from three perspectives, the perspective of society, the perspective of science and the perspective of women. The perspective of society Starting from the viewpoint of society, several issues can be raised. Firstly, physics is a field of innovation. Many technological advancements having a huge imp...
Sufi rituals have historically been more open to women than other Islamic religious practices such as prayer in the mosques, legal scholarship, and preaching. While the past decades have seen some, albeit modest, opening of the latter fields for female participation, even leadership, in the Sufi milieu, the participation of ...
Emergency contraception (EC) is of public health importance for preventing unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Challenged by the high incidence of unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions observed among female high school learners who were attending the clinics in Tswaing Sub-district of North West ...
The detection of insecticides resistance status in a natural population of Anopheles vectors is a vital tool for malaria control intervention strategy against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, which is the main malaria vector in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility status of the female Anopheles ...
Arnfred, Signe; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm
with Christian missionaries and a Danish trade monopoly. According to Jessen Williamson, pre-colonial Greenlandic conceptions of gender were characterized by a certain social indifference to gender, and the absence of a given hierarchy of male dominance/female subordination—a situation of genderlessness. During...
Abstract. Tanzania, like many other countries in Africa, has for a long time suffered from cultural-related gender inequality syndrome where females did not receive the same share of opportunity as males in many aspects of socioeconomic development, notably in education, politics, administration, science and technology.
Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-
Irma Optimisti näitusest "Female mathematics" Helsingis Muu-galeriis, mis on osa projektist "Mõistelisus ja käsitöölikkus (Käsitteellisyys ja käsityöläisyys) ehk naine ja tehnoloogia". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Päevaleht", 1996, 27. veebruar
Female undergraduates' knowledge about cervical carcinoma and awareness of risk factors and screening in south-western Nigeria. ... Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 17.0 software and the level of significance was P < 0.05. Results: Thirty nine percent of the students were less than 20 years of age. Over 35% of ...
Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…
Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali
Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.
A 3-month pilot study conducted from April-June 1979 with 16 major informants provides information for constructing a preliminary model of female life in Mauritania. An introduction gives definitions for terms used differently in Mauritania (tribe, ethnic group, and class) and discusses examples of each. The study (based mainly on repeated…
The Campaign Against Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu (CAFIT), sponsored by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has brought to light a quadrangular model for the prevention of the social evil of female infanticide. The existence of female infanticide, according to the CAFIT, exposed the deplorable condition of women in society and reflected the perpetuation of customary and traditional practices in the sociocultural life of the people. The practice was associated with militant communities and other weaker segments living in less developed regions and with backward pockets marked by illiteracy, superstition, poverty, indebtedness, fear of liability, and emotional attachments to the soil and to cults. This paper also indicates the following preventive measures against female infanticide that are aimed at empowering women: establishing self-help groups and the sanction of micro credit for women in order to facilitate economic development, establishing rural and agriculture-based small-scale industries in order to generate local self-employment, and synchronization of crop insurance and marketing facilities in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate compensation in the event of crop failure caused by natural disasters.
Apr 27, 2015 ... This article proposes a comparative study of two novels, The House of the Spirits. (1982) and Portrait in Sepia (2000) by Chilean author, Isabel Allende. In an attempt to represent various facets of Latin American female identity, this article uses carnalismo as recurring trope while reinstating the particular ...
Clark, Nancy; And Others
A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)
Santos, R.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848468; Schoevers, E.J.; Roelen, B.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859; Fink-Gremmels, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997
Exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to adverse effects on female reproduction by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism or degradation of steroid hormones, interaction with steroid receptors or impairing oocyte maturation and competence. To assess such effects, many studies initially focussed
Elzevier, Hendrik Willem
In this thesis we describe in chapter two the evaluation of female sexual function in an outpatient urologic clinic related to different urological complaints. Sexual abuse appeared to be a quite frequent problem in urological practice. In chapter three sexual abused patients are evaluated in
Sabrina Antonella Abeni
This article analyses some passages of those tales, combining them with the ideas expressed by the author in her famous essay, demonstrating the originality and unconventionality of her interpretation of female desire, subject to misunderstanding and disputes, but strongly appreciated in recent years .
Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette
This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching me...
www.sciencedirect.com. Opinion article. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights. A.E. Groeneveld. Department of Urology, Mbabane Clinic, Swaziland. Received 22 November 2012; received in revised form 1st December 2012; accepted 1st December 2012. 'All procedures that involve partial or complete ...
Aleman, Ana M. Martinez
This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…
The purpose of the study was to examine factors predicting body image dissatisfaction among female university undergraduates in Ogun State. Adolescent have been found to be influenced by a number of factors which may determine how they feel about their body images. Two hundred and fifty Undergraduate students ...
van Dijk, C. N.; Lim, L. S.; Poortman, A.; Strübbe, E. H.; Marti, R. K.
The relationship between long-term ballet dancing and eventual arthrosis of the hip, ankle, subtalar, and first metatarsophalangeal joint was examined in 19 former professional female dancers, aged 50 to 70 years. The dancers were compared with pair-matched controls. All 38 women underwent medical
Daniels, Roberta R.
The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)
Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others
Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…
Price, Karen; Clearihan, Lynette
Women are increasingly entering the Australian general practice workforce. This study aims to explore female general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of possible barriers to leadership and professional roles in the workforce. A purposive, convenience sample of 30 female GPs in active practice was approached in February, 2012. An anonymous, pa-per-based, semi-quantitative survey sought to identify participation and leadership confidence within general practice in a number of professional roles. The top two barriers participants identified for after-hours medical meetings were energy to attend and geographical location. For after-hours care, the top two barriers identified were energy and self-motivation. Few participants aspired to 'leadership' activities. 'Medical mentoring' was most likely to attract them into leadership. It is important female GPs' perspectives are explored in general practice. This small survey suggests further studies are needed in the importance of energy limitations and lack of self-confidence in restricting female GPs' capacity to fully engage in professional roles.
Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…
The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singingbehaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitoredthe activity–rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a ...
Any representation of the human body is permeated with pre-existing notions and ideals. In this article Louis Laganà discusses about the works and artistic career of Lawrence Buttigieg who is well-known for his female nudes.
Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Knudson, Gail
Sexual health is important to overall health and quality of life. Sexual problems have been associated with relationship problems and may interfere with overall health and they may also be a marker for other undiagnosed comorbid medical conditions. In order for healthcare professionals to manage the sexual health concerns of their patients, it is important for them to understand what constitutes good sexual health. To that end, it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the evolving theoretical models offered to describe a healthy sexual response as well as an understanding of the neurobiology of sexual function. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Revised lists six primary female sexual disorders: hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual aversion disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder,dyspareunia, and vaginismus. Despite a growing awareness of the high prevalence of sexual disorders they are not typically identified nor treated. There are a number of reasons why clinicians fail to identify and treat sexual problems including insufficient training in sexual medicine and communication skills, time-constraints, and embarrassment. Treatment for female sexual problems is usually individualized and may include a combination of office-based education and basic counseling, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and treatment of concomitant medical conditions.
Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Luijks, H D P
To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. Systematic literature search. A literature search was performed in the electronic literature databases PubMed and PsycInfo. After exclusion based on title, abstract or missing data, 9 studies remained. All these studies met quality criteria that were set up in advance. The studies were assessed by 2 researchers. Suicide among male physicians occurred at the same or at a slightly lower rate, than in the general population. Even after correction for age, female physicians committed suicide more often. The gender difference in suicide in the general population, i.e. suicide attempts by men are more successful than those by women, was not found in physicians. Male and female physicians often used medication as their preferred method of suicide, and at twice the rate that people in the general population did. Female physicians are at higher risk of committing suicide than their male counterparts, although this situation is perhaps changing now that they are less of a minority. With respect to prevention, one might consider paying more attention to depression in physicians and those in training, and to constructing a more open professional culture in which mistakes are condemned less.
Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Luijks, H.D.P.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. DESIGN: Systematic literature search. METHOD: A literature search was performed in the
... athletes' age, sport participation experience and year of study. Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. Results indicated that the primary motives for participation were to improve skills, physical fitness and team spirit.
Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...
Objective: To study the prevalence of substance abuse among female secondary school students in Anambra State. Design: This is a cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on smoking, use of sedatives and alcohol drinking habits from 725 ...
female undergraduates, the causes and effects of such unhealthy behaviour on healthy living. .... to get the money from. Being in a precarious condition, they turn to prostitution based on the fact that they are looking for money to settle their school bills. Equally, Misi ... Drugs like cocaine, marijuana and alcohol are used most.
Green, Colin P.; Homroy, Swarnodeep
A number of studies have found little economic impact of board gender diversity on firm performance. We return to this issue in the context of large European firms. Our contribution is twofold. First, using information on the gender of CEOs children as a source of exogenous variation in female
Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.
Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…
Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...
Makinde, O N; Elusiyan, J B E; Adeyemi, A B; Taiwo, O T
For more than 25 years, efforts have been geared towards curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to see if all these efforts have made any impact in reducing the prevalence of FGM appreciably in the south-West of Nigeria. To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation and profiling the trends of FGM affected patients. A prospective study based on direct observation of the external genitalia by health-care workers . Five hundred and sixty five females less than 15 years of age. The children emergency and gynaecological wards of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria from 1st of January to December 31s 2007. Forty one point nine percent of the patients examined had female genital mutilation, 93.2% of these had the procedure before attaining the age of one year. Type 2 FGM predominated (58.22%). The procedure was performed predominantly (64.6%) by traditional birth attendants. The decision to have the procedure done was influenced in 78% of cases by mothers and grandmothers. In 35.4% of cases, there were immediate and short term complications. Demands of tradition predominated (59.1%) as the most important reason for the practice of female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM appears to be still highly prevalent and resistant to change probably due to deep rooted socio-cultural factors. Strategies such as public education campaigns highlighting its negative impact on health and disregard for human rights should be evolved.
Jonathan P Evans
Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.
Full Text Available This study explores the portrayals of female protagonists by female screenwriters through feminist critical discourse analysis. Specifically, this study examines the female protagonists in the four Academy-Award winning films Thelma & Louise, The Piano, Lost in Translation, and Juno. By analyzing the roles and behavior of the female protagonists in these four films, I reveal how these female protagonists each experience the Heroine’s Journey, where they transcend their gender constraints and become more independent and empowered. These portrayals by female screenwriters are vital to the off-screen sector of the film industry because of the Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation, which states that human beings gain knowledge from the messages communicated to them by the media. Therefore, I conclude that the existing gap between female and male screenwriters must be closed to counter the reinforcement of gender roles and stereotypes, as well as ensure that women are inspired, not discouraged, by what they see on screen.
Evans, Jonathan P
In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.
Evans, Jonathan P.
In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816
The study is quantitative and is about working men and women’s view of male and female leadership. The intention of the study is to see if the men and women have a different perception of male and female leadership and also if they have different personality types. The method used was a survey where the sample is 80 participants, 31 men and 49 women from four different companies. Previous research shows that the perception of male and female leadership can be different, and that the reason ca...
Hernandez, Ernie, Jr.
Used photographs and biographical descriptions of female deputy strangers to examine effects of femininity and competence on male deputy attraction to and work acceptance of female deputies. Findings included an attraction preference for feminine-competent female deputies, and greater tolerance of feminine-incompetent female deputies for staff…
Results: One hundred and seventy seven females and 68 males were interviewed. The males had a higher level of education compared with the females (p<0.05). Female genital cutting was a prevalent practice in the community as 80% of all the respondents were aware of the practice and 69.9% of the females reported ...
This study examined the phenomenon of symmetrical skills in goal shot technique in female football players, of nine video recorded matches. The recording was taken during the 2nd Under 19 female football World Cup in 2004 and the 6th European female Championships of female seniors in 2005. The study comprised ...
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose
Elisângela Olegário da Silva
Full Text Available A nine-year-old female Boxer was diagnosed with osteosarcoma in the right hind limb. During imaging exams to investigate the occurrence of metastasis, it was observed a mass in the abdominal cavity. A laparotomy was performed, and the mass was detected in the left ovary. Intraoperative fine-needle aspirates were made and showed spindle cells with moderate cellular pleomorphism and neutrophils. The cytological findings were not compatible with osteosarcoma metastasis. The mass was excised and submitted to histopathological evaluation. The microscopic examination showed a proliferation of spindle cells forming small vascular channels and a trabecular pattern interspersed by discrete to moderate collagenous stroma. The cells showed moderate cellular pleomorphism and high mitotic index. There was abundant necrosis and multifocal hemorrhage. The definitive diagnosis was hemangiosarcoma. This is a rare primary ovary tumor in dogs with just one previous report in veterinary literature. However, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in female dogs with ovary mass.
Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.
The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.
Piccoli, Valentina; Fantoni, Carlo; Foroni, Francesco; Bianchi, Mauro; Carnaghi, Andrea
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words. These results show that the female dehumanization is automatically elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and likely associated with an enhanced activation of mate-attraction goals. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Patanaphan, V.; Prempree, T.; Sewchand, W.; Hafiz, M.A.; Jaiwatana, J.
Cancer arising from a female urethral diverticulum is rare, and because of its rarity, a review of the medical literature reveals significant nonuniformity in its management. We report an additional 2 cases of this disease, one of which has an even rarer feature of being mucin-producing. The management of our 2 cases is presented in detail and in line with the management of female urethral cancer. From our extensive literature search, diverticulectomy alone showed poor results with the highest rate of recurrence (67%). Extensive surgery, either in the form of cystourethrectomy or anterior exenteration, offered results comparable with those of combined therapy (diverticulectomy and full course of irradiation for early cases; preoperative irradiation followed by cystourethrectomy for late cases). Individualization of radiation treatment and cooperative effort between urologist and radiation oncologist are essential if best results are to be achieved
Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin
This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.
Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.
Sharma Rakesh K
Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal
Brooke H Miller
Full Text Available Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise, Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.
Kuo, Che-Ying; Baker, Hannah; Fries, Melissa H; Yoo, James J; Kim, Peter C W; Fisher, John P
Bioengineering strategies have demonstrated enormous potential to treat female infertility as a result of chemotherapy, uterine injuries, fallopian tube occlusion, massive intrauterine adhesions, congenital uterine malformations, and hysterectomy. These strategies can be classified into two broad categories as follows: (i) Transplantation of fresh or cryopreserved organs into the host and (ii) tissue engineering approaches that utilize a combination of cells, growth factors, and biomaterials that leverages the body's inherent ability to regenerate/repair reproductive organs. While whole organ transplant has demonstrated success, the source of the organ and the immunogenic effects of allografts remain challenging. Even though tissue engineering strategies can avoid these issues, their feasibilities of creating whole organ constructs are yet to be demonstrated. In this article we summarize the recent advancements in the applications of bioengineering to treat female infertility.
Chisholm, June F
Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.
De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H
Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...... chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....
Hohos, Natalie M; Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E
The prevalence of obesity is high among reproductive-age women and is associated with impaired reproductive function. Obesity is multifactorial in origin, yet many cases of obesity result from overconsumption of a diet high in fat. Excess dietary fat increases both adipose and nonadipose tissue lipid content and, through lipotoxicity, leads to cell dysfunction and death. High dietary fat intake, with or without the development of obesity, impairs female hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis functionality and fertility. Based on the current evidence, it appears the reproductive dysfunction involves increased leptin and insulin signaling at the various levels of the HPO axis, as well as changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ actions and increased inflammation, yet other mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes the current body of knowledge on impaired female reproductive function after high-fat diet exposure, as well as discusses proposed mechanisms through which this may occur. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
Sperm transit in the female tract is a critical event for the success of fertilization. From their deposition in the vagina to final migration in the oviduct, sperm pass through the different compartments of the genital tract in which they encounter different environments. The cervix and the uterotubal junction (UTJ) are two barriers with different relative importance according to the species. The protein composition, the degree of glycosylation and the hydration of the cervical mucus change during the oestrous cycle. Several sperm surface proteins are associated with their migration through the cervical mucus and the UTJ. Data regarding the interaction of sperm with secretions of the epithelial tissue lining the different compartments of the female genital tract during the sperm transit are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the migration of sperm through the cervix. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...
Adi, Samar G
The purpose of this multiple case study was to gather information about female aggression in situationally violent relationship. The interviews and surveys of four African-American couples were coded and analyzed to gather information about the impact of female aggression on the relationship, the contextual factors surrounding female aggression, and the motivations for female aggression. The results indicated that female aggression impacts the couple relationship in several ways. First,...
Phua Michelle Siew Huei
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of female directors on corporate boardroom on the extent of corporate environmental disclosure (CED of 260 Malaysian listed companies in year 2013. Resource dependence theory is utilized as the theoretical framework to explain the role of female directors on corporate boards. Content analysis is employed to gauge the extent of CED based on a self-constructed index that is derived from Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI and prior studies. Multiple regression is conducted and findings revealed that female directors– presence and female holding multiple directorships to be significant predictors of extent of CED. The findings lend support to the resource dependence theory on the contribution of board gender diversity and are useful for both policy makers and regulators.
Schiff, Melissa A
A cross-sectional survey of injuries among female youth soccer players found 44.6% (95% confidence interval 34.9%-54.8%) had ever been injured. The injury incidence rate for the current season was 2.2/1000 soccer exposure hours (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Future studies should evaluate modifiable risk factors in youth to identify injury prevention strategies.
Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
The underlying assumption in popular and scientific publications on sex differences in the brain is that human brains can take one of two forms “male” or “female,” and that the differences between these two forms underlie differences between men and women in personality, cognition, emotion, and behavior. Documented sex differences in brain structure are typically taken to support this dimorphic view of the brain. However, neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in ut...
Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Kosei
Sex differences in the nervous system are prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In humans, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure are larger in females, whereas some hypothalamic nuclei and associated structures are larger in males. Numerous studies in rodents have demonstrated that when these nuclei are exposed to circulating androgens during the critical period around birth, they develop into male-typical structures. In addition to this organizational effect, androgens exert an activational effect during adulthood. For example, sexually dimorphic gene expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala depends on circulating androgen levels. Cckar encodes a G protein-coupled receptor and its expression is sexually dimorphic. The major of Cckar-expressing neurons in the ventrolateral division of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) also express progesterone receptor (PR), with a female-biased expansion of arborizations in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Selective ablation of these PR-positive neurons in the VMHvl results in a marked reduction in female sexual receptivity and male aggression, demonstrating that these sexually dimorphic neurons contribute to gendered behavior in mammals. Remarkable sex differences in single neurons have been documented in the fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster). The fruitless (fru) gene in the fruitfly is considered as a major regulator of male courtship circuitry; a male specific fru-expressing neuron cluster, P1, can initiate male courtship when artificially activated even in the absence of courtship target (e.g., a female). The fru gene encodes a set of putative transcription factors that appear to orchestrate the transcription of ~100 genes by recruiting chromatin regulators, histone deacetylase 1 or heterochromatin protein 1a, to the target sites. These studies have unraveled the causal link among genes, brain sexual dimorphisms and gendered behaviors.
Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu
Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can ...
Anyanwu, John C.
Women employment has become a critical development challenge globally. This is because the exclusion of women in employment has potential negative effects on both sustainable inclusive development and poverty reduction. In this paper, we examine the characteristics and the key determinants of female employment in Africa. Our empirical estimates, using available cross-sectional data over the period, 1991 and 2009 suggest that in the all-Africa estimation, quadratic levels of real per capita GD...
Compernolle, Nell; Chakravarty, Shubha; Botea, Ioana
Migration, internal and external, continues to be a dominant livelihood strategy for households in Lesotho, with almost half (43 percent) of households reporting at least one member living away. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in female migration, due to a halt in new hires of Basotho men in South African mines and a concomitant expansion of jobs primarily for women in the export...
Full Text Available In this paper the author presents Theravāda Buddhist perceptions of the female body and their impact on sexuality, gender equality and salvation. In doing so the author draws on a selection of texts from the Buddhist canonical literature, which are relevant to the Theravāda tradition. Early Buddhist literature reflects an understanding of the female body as being more closely connected to the material world and the cycle of reincarnation, due to its biological qualities. This has a severe impact on the woman’s status and her chances of attaining enlightenment. Considering the early teaching of individuals possessing equal capacities to attain liberation, no matter what sex or social background, Buddhism as it developed over time failed to translate the equality of the sexes into a social reality. In fact, the perception of a distinct female ‘nature’ which was deemed a hindrance could not easily be erased from the collective consciousness. It is, however, important to note that Buddhist countries are subject to diverse influences that affect attitudes towards the female body, sexuality and the status of women—thus one has to be very careful with generalizations regarding norms and practices. Over time the negative attitudes and restrictions have been questioned; social changes have given way to new interpretations and perspectives. Pondering religious and cultural implications of the Buddhist attitude towards the body and its sex while also considering, for example, modern Mahayana Buddhist interpretations—especially by Western Buddhists and Buddhist Feminists—can lead to an acknowledgement of its potential of interpreting anattā, selflessness and an equality of capacity to practice Dhamma in favour of a general sex and gender equality.
Stevenson, Betsey; Wolfers, Justin
By many objective measures the lives of women in the United States have improved over the past 35 years, yet we show that measures of subjective well-being indicate that women's happiness has declined both absolutely and relative to men. The paradox of women's declining relative well-being is found across various datasets, measures of subjective well-being, and is pervasive across demographic groups and industrialized countries. Relative declines in female happiness have eroded a gender gap i...
Raquel Prudente de Carvalho Baldaçara
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The relationship between sex hormones and asthma has been evaluated in several studies. The aim of this review article was to investigate the association between asthma and female sex hormones, under different conditions (premenstrual asthma, use of oral contraceptives, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review of the medical literature, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: We searched the CAPES journal portal, a Brazilian platform that provides access to articles in the MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used based on Medical Subject Headings: asthma, sex hormones, women and use of oral contraceptives. RESULTS: The associations between sex hormones and asthma remain obscure. In adults, asthma is more common in women than in men. In addition, mortality due to asthma is significantly higher among females. The immune system is influenced by sex hormones: either because progesterone stimulates progesterone-induced blocking factor and Th2 cytokines or because contraceptives derived from progesterone and estrogen stimulate the transcription factor GATA-3. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between asthma and female sex hormones remain obscure. We speculate that estrogen fluctuations are responsible for asthma exacerbations that occur in women. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of estrogen, it decreases TNF-α production, interferon-γ expression and NK cell activity. We suggest that further studies that highlight the underlying physiopathological mechanisms contributing towards these interactions should be conducted.
Lai-Ming Tammy Ho
Full Text Available Neo-Victorian novelists sometimes use postgraduate students – trainee academics – who research nineteenth-century writers as protagonists. This article discusses four neo-Victorian novels, Lloyd Jones’s Mister Pip (2006, Justine Picardie’s Daphne (2008, A.N. Wilson’s A Jealous Ghost (2005 and Scarlett Thomas’s The End of Mr Y (2006, in which female postgraduate students take the centre stage. In Victorian literature, which mirrors the gender bias in the academic world and in society at large at that time, most scholars are male. The contemporary writers’ choice of female trainee academics is worth investigating as it speaks to the visibly changed gender make-up of contemporary academia. However, this utopian situation is complicated by the fact that the writers have chosen to frustrate the characters’ entry into the world of scholarship by having them leave the university environment altogether before the end of the novel. The fact that these females all choose to depart the university forms a contrast with notions of the university found in Victorian novels, in which leaving or not attending university might have detrimental effects on the characters.
Leddy John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.
Full Text Available Background: Botulinum toxin (BT use for enhancing the facial features has become a commonly accepted form of aesthetic intervention. This study conducted a self-report survey of female BT users in order to explore the motivating factors in its use (cost-benefit analysis. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Materials and Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 41 consecutive clients attending an independent medical practice for BT injections for cosmetic purposes. All the participants were females and represented a range of age groups from the 20s to above 60s. Items in the nonstandardized questionnaire elicited questions relating to the reasons for and against BT use. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was used rather than inferential statistics, and involved ranking the responses according to the most likely reasons for using BT and disadvantages of its use. Results: In general, the primary motivating factor for BT use was to improve self-esteem, and the greatest disadvantage involved financial costs associated with the procedure. Conclusions: The main findings of this study suggest that females who use BT for aesthetic purposes are motivated by personal psychological gains (intrapersonal attributes rather than social gains (interpersonal factors. In other words, they do not believe that having BT will equate to being treated any better by other people but would rather provide them with confidence and satisfaction regarding their self-image.
Horrocks, Emma; Iyer, Jay; Askern, Althea; Becuzzi, Nadine; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Rane, Ajay
Australian Medicare data show that the rates of cosmetic labiaplasty have tripled over the last decade; however, there is little understanding about the social factors that contribute to the popularity of female genital cosmetic surgeries (FGCS). The aim of this study was to investigate male perception of female genitalia and to assess men's awareness of FGCS and whether these surgeries are viewed as a positive and acceptable option. A cross-sectional study of male adults in the Townsville region was conducted via an online questionnaire. A total of 500 online surveys were sent out and 248 respondents were included in the study; 49.2 % of participants do not have a preferred appearance of labia minora and 70.4 % of men are aware of FGCS, but 53.8 % do not believe that FGCS is a good option for women. Only 14 % of men supported genital cosmetic surgery, while 29.6 % are undecided about the practice. The most common preferred pubic hair appearance is completely hairless (45 %). This study indicates that the majority of men do not have a preferred appearance for female genitalia, nor do they support FGCS or consider discussing genital surgery with their partner. The major limitation of the study is that the participants' age distribution was skewed heavily towards the younger demographic, with 18- to 24-year-old men comprising 81.5 % of respondents.
Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Afolabi, Bosede B; Bello, Oluwasomidoyin O; Adeyanju, Ayodeji S
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal. FGM/C is often performed by a nonmedical practitioner with the aim of fulfilling religious or cultural rites and sometimes for economic benefits with the resultant acute, intermediate and late complications. It is sometimes performed by medical practitioners when it is speciously believed that its medicalization reduces the complications associated with the practice. The sensitivity of FGM/C is amplified when compared to male circumcision and voluntary alterations of the female external genitalia like piercing and tattooing as similar practices. The magnitude of the physical and psychosocial consequences of FGM/C outweighs the presumed benefits of the procedures highlighting the need for improvement of the multiple preventive measures by all the stakeholders and in all the sectors.
McKiernan, Paul J
During the course of certain inflammatory lung diseases, SLPI (secretory leucoprotease inhibitor) plays a number of important roles. As a serine antiprotease it functions to protect the airways from proteolytic damage due to neutrophil and other immune cell-derived serine proteases. With respect to infection it has known antimicrobial and anti-viral properties that are likely to contribute to host defence. Another of its properties is the ability to control inflammation within the lung where it can interfere with the transcriptional induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression induced by NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB). Thus, factors that regulate the expression of SLPI in the airways can impact on disease severity and outcome. Gender represents once such idiosyncratic factor. In females with CF (cystic fibrosis), it is now thought that circulating oestrogen contributes, in part, to the observed gender gap whereby females have worse disease and poorer prognosis than males. Conversely, in asthma, sufferers who are females have more frequent exacerbations at times of low-circulating oestrogen. In the present paper, we discuss how SLPI participates in these events and speculate on whether regulatory mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modulation by miRNAs (microRNAs) are important in the control of SLPI expression in inflammatory lung disease.
Chan, William F N; Gurnot, Cécile; Montine, Thomas J; Sonnen, Joshua A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Nelson, J Lee
In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus). Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26), or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33). We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59) tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03) and concentration (p=0.06) of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.
Bauer, Irmgard L
Love, sex and the female traveller: romance tourism or female sex tourism? The phenomenon of women travelling in search of relationships with local men in developing countries has been studied for the last 20 years. However, it appears little known in travel medicine. Relevant literature was found through PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest and Google Scholar. The reference lists of selected articles identified further sources. Historical records of women travellers to far-away countries abound. Then, as now, women not only searched for the erotic 'other' but made romance and sex the purpose of their trip. Today, increasing numbers of women travel to destinations in developing countries where sex with local men is the main attraction. This pastime raises concerns not only for the women themselves but for the local men involved as well as their sex partners and the local communities. Although more research is necessary, comparing the criteria that describe men travelling for sex and relationships and women travelling for sex and relationships appears to suggest that there is very little difference between the two, regardless of what the pursuit is called. Women looking for sex with local men are sex tourists, too. Recognition of this fact needs to influence the pre and post travel care of female travellers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montebarocci, O; Codispoti, M; Surcinelli, P; Franzoni, E; Baldaro, B; Rossi, N
Previous studies indicate that patients with eating disorders have alexithymic characteristics, as revealed by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of negative affect (anxiety and depression) in the relationship between eating disorders and alexithymia. In addition, we have evaluated whether the relationship between negative affect and alexithymia varies according to the type of eating disorder (anorexia and bulimia). Eighteen female patients and 16 female patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for restrictive anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, respectively, and 18 healthy female controls matched by age and education were submitted to Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess depression and anxiety and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) to evaluate alexithymic characteristics. The findings indicated that, although anorexic and bulimic patients showed higher alexithymia scores compared to controls, this result could be mainly related to negative affect. In fact, taking negative affect into account, anorexic and bulimic patients did not show higher TAS-20 and BVAQ scores compared to controls. The only variable useful to discriminate among anorexics, bulimics and controls is the perceived inability to experience emotional feelings, which is higher in anorexic patients compared to the other two groups.
Mariana da Silva Figueiredo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pyometra is a common disease in intact female dogs and can cause glomerulopathy and tubular injury. This study aimed to evaluate kidney injury in female dogs with pyometra, as well as progression of the injury during treatment and the markers of this condition. This study analyzed 20 intact female dogs with both clinical and sonographic diagnosis of pyometra. Dogs were treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and an ovariohysterectomy was performed. The following parameters were assessed at eight separate time points: blood pressure; serum creatinine, phosphorus, and urea levels; urinalysis and urinary biochemical parameters [urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase (uGGT and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR]; glomerular filtration rate (GFR; and urine output. All dogs showed some degree of kidney injury at the time of pyometra diagnosis. This was transient in most animals, resolving with treatment of the pyometra. Measurement of uGGT and UPCR identified renal parenchymal injury, helping to determine the prognosis of the animals analyzed in the present study.
Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu
Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.
Studd, John; Schwenkhagen, Anneliese
In the past, medical attitudes to female sexuality were grotesque, reflecting the anxiety and hypocrisy of the times. In the medieval world, the population feared hunger, the devil, and women, being particularly outraged and threatened by normal female sexuality. The 19th century attitude was no better as academics confirmed the lower intellectual status of women, particularly if they ventured into education. The medical contribution to this prejudice was shocking, with gynaecologists and psychiatrists leading the way designing operations for the cure of the apparently serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynaecologist, Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873), and the distinguished endocrinologist, Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-1867, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with "a past" survives to the end. The wheel has turned full circle and in the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided a greater understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment.
Jacqueline M Coyle
Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.
Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P
We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.
Abd El-Bagi, M.E.; Al-Mutairi, M.S.; Al-Thagafi, M.A.; Al-Masri, N.M.; Al-Sasi, O.
Objectives: To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women of childbearing age at a multispecialty tertiary hospital. Setting: Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Results: Response was 95 (100%). Fifty-seven (60%) were males and 38 (40%) were females. The majority 50 (53%) were Saudis, 16 (17%) Western and 29 (30%) were other nationals. Sixty-two (65%) followed the old rule '10-day rule'; 17 (18%) followed the new '28-day rule' and 16 (17%) didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the '28-day rule' indicated hospital policy as their reference. Conclusions: The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners. (author)
Burnett, D; Smith, K; Smeltzer, C; Young, K; Burns, S
The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at -15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85% of their VO2 peak prior to DHR (baseline economy runs), as well as, immediately following and 4 successive days after the DHR. Subjective response related to perceived muscle soreness increased significantly from a mean of 2 (pre DHR) to 62 (2 days post DHR) on a scale of 1-100. Creatine kinase levels and oxygen consumption increased post DHR compared to pre DHR. Rating of perceived exertion did not change between the economy runs performed prior to or at any point after the DHR. Perceived muscle soreness is a better tool than the RPE scale to monitor exercise intensity for recreational female runners during periods of DOMS and running economy is adversely affected by DOMS.
Sekiya, Yuko; Karino, Kenji
Males of the small gobiid fish Eviota prasina have longer dorsal fins than females and use their dorsal fins for courtship displays and male-male competition. We examined the influence of male dorsal fin length as well as the frequency of courtship displays on female mate preference using sequential choice experiments. Females responded more frequently to courting males with longer dorsal fins than males with shorter dorsal fins. This indicates female mate preference on the basis of male dorsal fin length in this goby. In addition, the logistic regression analysis showed that male courtship frequency positively influenced female mate preference. Since males incur costs to produce and maintain longer dorsal fins and to perform frequent courtship displays, these secondary sexual traits may indicate the quality of physical characteristics. In E. prasina, only males conducted parental care for eggs in their nests. Therefore, females may be able to ensure greater survival rates as well as higher genetic quality of their offspring by choosing males with better qualities based on these male traits.
Foldès, P; Droupy, S; Cuzin, B
This review studies rationale and outcome of vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery. Medline search of the existing literature utilizing terms labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, hymenoplasty, vaginoplasty, perineoplasty, female genital surgery, sexual satisfaction/body image, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy; references from bibliographies of papers found through the literature search and in the author's reading of available literature until January 2012. Clinicians who receive requests from patients for such procedures should discuss with the patient the reason for request and perform an evaluation for any physical signs or symptoms that may indicate the need for surgical intervention. A physical psychological and sexological evaluation is mandatory before a procedure of female cosmetic genital surgery. Perineoplasties in wide vagina sensations should be proposed after careful evaluation of patients, by trained surgeons, in part of a multidisciplinary approach especially sexologic, after attempt of conservative treatments (pelvic floor rehabilitation). Patients should be informed of results and complications. Female genital mutilation repair with surgery is possible and improve majority of patients. Improvement mechanism is complex and clinical trials are ongoing. Asking for this surgery, is more often result of a deep reflexion for patient who integrate his own story and those of her family. She should be listened to, respected and managed in a reference center. Sexotherapy should be systematically proposed. Concerning hymenoplasty, the procedure is considered as "legally" by medical doctors. Several techniques are available, few described, and there is no evidence-based publication. Labioplasty is a procedure whose patient expectations should be properly evaluated by surgeon and benefits risks should be informed. A preliminary discussion around "normality" and a psychotherapy should be tried, in order to not treat a dysmorphobia by surgery. Vaginal "rejuvenation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic
Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren
. Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale and four questions from Life Satisfaction-11 (Lisat-11). Results. Female Sexual Function Index indicated that obstructive sleep apnea patients were at a higher risk for having sexual difficulties. Female Sexual Distress Scale showed significantly...... more sexual distress in the obstructive sleep apnea group. Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction (combined data from Female Sexual Function Index and Female Sexual Distress Scale) showed that female patients with obstructive sleep apnea also had more sexual dysfunction. Severity of sleep apnea was......, however, not related to any of these indices but consumption of psychopharmaca was. In Lisat-11, we found that obstructive sleep apnea females scored lower than women in the population sample regarding life as a whole but not regarding domains of closeness. Conclusions. This study indicates that sexuality...
Jeronimo, F.; Rendon, P.; Villatoro, C.
Experiments were conducted from 1994 - 1998 to test the attractiveness of combinations of food-based chemicals for C. capitata (medfly) in Guatemala. Most studies were done in coffee. The 1995 studies, using the FA-2 attractants (ammonium acetate and putrescine) showed that this combination was attractive for females and had potential for use in conjunction with a SIT program. The 1996 studies at three elevations demonstrated that, in general, these attractants, when used in either the Open Bottom Dry Trap (OBDT), Closed Bottom Dry Trap (CBDT), or International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT) performed better than the Jumbo McPhail trap (JMT) baited with NuLure and borax (NU+B) for capture of feral females. At the high elevation (1400 m), the IPMT with FA-2 and OBDT with FA-2 were best; at the middle elevation (1100 m), the ORDT, IPMT, and CBDT with FA-2 were best; and at low elevations (659 m), the IPMT with FA-2, JMT with NU+B and ORDT with FA-2 were equal in performance. At the middle elevation, using sterile flies, the OBDT with FA-2 worked best. When experiments were carried out in pear, the traps using the FA-2 attractants captured more female flies than the JMT, NU+B, but not significantly more. During the 1997 trials, a third component, trimethylamine was added to the two component lure (FA-3). This attractant was tested in a number of locally produced traps using 2 I soft drink bottles with different color bottoms. The dry versions of the traps contained a yellow sticky insert. All study sites were at low elevation 600 - 650 m, in coffee, testing both sterile and feral flies. With the feral flies during the first phase of the study at finca San Carlos, there were no significant differences between treatments, at finca San Luis, the clear local trap with sticky insert and the green local trap with sticky insert were best, and at finca Valapraiso, the green local trap with yellow sticky insert and yellow local trap with sticky insert captured more flies
Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.
The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.
Noon, Megan; Hoch, Anne Z; McNamara, Laura; Schimke, Jane
To determine the type of Irish dance injuries requiring evaluation and treatment by a sports medicine physician. Cross-sectional retrospective chart review. Academic sports medicine center in the Midwest. Female Irish dancers who presented at an academic sports medicine center from June 2002 to September 2009. This was a retrospective chart review identifying injuries sustained to female Irish dancers in a single Irish dance company in a major metropolitan area. Dancers were evaluated and injuries were diagnosed by one sports medicine physician at an academic sports medicine center. Sixty-nine female Irish dancers, ages 8 to 23 years, sustained 217 recorded injuries. The top injuries included stress fractures (29.9%), patellofemoral pain syndrome (11.1%), Sever condition (6.0%), ankle sprains (5.1%), posterior tibialis tendonitis (4.6%), and plantar fasciitis (4.6%). The most common site for stress fractures were the sesamoids, comprising 27.7% of all stress fractures and 8.3% of total injuries. The majority of injuries were in the lower extremities (94.9%), remaining injuries involved the lumbosacral spine and pelvis (5.1%). Most dancers (79.7%) had multiple injuries. The number of injuries per dancer increased as the dancer's level increased. There was a trend for the average age of the dancers to decrease as the level of skill increased. Lower extremity injuries comprised the majority of Irish dance injuries. Stress fractures (29.9%), patellofemoral pain syndrome (11.1%), and Sever condition (6.0%) were the most common injuries. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hussain, N.; Ayaz, B.; Nadia, N.; Ali, Z.
The study was conducted to know the pattern of female breast diseases in Karachi. In this study there were a total of 307 breast biopsies and mastectomy specimens of which 67 were inflammatory, 166 benign and 74 malignant. Fibroadenoma was the commonest (35.179%) followed by invasive ductal carcinoma (21.824%),fibrocystic disease (16.286%), breast abscess (7.166%) and chronic mastitis (7.817%). Fibroadenoma was common in second decade and infiltrative ductal carcinoma in fifth decade. Breast carcinoma occurs at a younger age group in (Karachi - Pakistan) than in western countries. (author)
Ruddy, Kathryn J; Partridge, Ann H
The impact of oncologic treatments on fertility and menopausal symptoms is often significant for patients with cancer. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can all damage the reproductive organs or the hypothalamic pituitary axis that controls them, impairing fertility and causing hormonally mediated symptoms such as hot flashes. Understanding these risks and strategies to mitigate them may substantially improve cancer survivorship care. For both female and male patients who desire a future biologic child, there are a variety of fertility preservation techniques that should be considered. For cancer survivors who experience menopausal symptoms, lifestyle changes may be beneficial, and hormonal and nonhormonal pharmacologic agents are well proven to reduce symptom burden.
Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...
Herbert, Sarah E
This article focuses on considerations for natal females who present in the adolescent years with concerns related to their gender. They maybe individuals previously evaluated in their childhood years who have persisted with gender variance or gender identity disorder (GID) in DSM-IV, or they may be presenting for the first time in their adolescent years. The article discusses how to assess adolescents who come for evaluation and what treatments and other resources are available for them and their families. Where there seem to be differences between boys and girls with gender identity issues, they will be noted.
MacKnight, John M
Disorders of bone density are especially prevalent among athletic women. The severity of bone loss ranges from osteopenia to frank osteoporosis. In female athletes, a higher incidence of osteoporosis is due to a decreased rate of bone accretion in youth, often as a result of hormonal deficiency and/or excessive exercise. Low bone mass poses a particular challenge for athletes because it predisposes to stress-related bone injuries and increases the risk of osteoporosis and insufficiency fractures with aging. This article reviews the pathophysiology of bone thinning in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the impact of exercise, and the treatment options presently available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam
Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.
Leone, Janel M; Carroll, James M
To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Emotional victimization (odds ratio [OR] = 11.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.43, 57.19, p college women. Controlling for relevant psychological health-related variables, college women who reported any of the 3 types of victimization had more than 8 times the odds of suicidality compared with nonvictims.
Nik Nairan Abdullah
Full Text Available An ageing population is a public health challenge, affects most countries. Health screenings are able to detect diseases at the earliest stage. A cross-sectional study in December 2014 conducted among 643 older women who randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire from two urban governmental health centres in Malaysia. Aims of the study were to describe health screening services behaviour and health care accessibility among women aged 50 and above. Factors such as living arrangement and age played important roles in health screening execution among older female community dwellers. Advocacy on health screening is vital as to reduce the morbidity and mortality among them.
Chiang, Wen-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Shih-Hua
Profound hypokalemia with paralysis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a 28-y-old obese Chinese female presenting with sudden onset of flaccid quadriparesis upon awaking in the morning. There is no family history of hyperthyroidism. She experienced body weight loss of 7 kg in 2 months. The most conspicuous blood biochemistry is marked hypokalemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hypophosphatemia (0.5 mmol/l) associated with low urine K(+) and phosphate excretion. Surreptitious laxatives and/or diuretics abuse-related hypokalemic paralysis were tentatively made. However, her relatively normal blood acid-base status and the absence of low urine Na(+) and/or Cl(-) excretion made these diagnoses unlikely. Furthermore, she developed rebound hyperkalemia (5.7 mmol/l) after only 80 mmol K(+) supplementation. Thyroid function test confirmed hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. Control of the hyperthyroidism completely abolished her periodic paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) should be kept in mind as a cause of paralysis in female, even with obesity, despite its predominance in adult males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To compare variables related to sexual functioning, namely: sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, sexual satisfaction and sexual function in women during the pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive, quantitative study. A non-probability, convenience sample of 62 women in the first stage, and of 52 women in the second stage, was used. The two groups were not significantly different regarding socio-demographic aspects. The main outcome measures used were the female sexual function as assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a Socio-demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Results: The women presented higher mean levels of sexual satisfaction after birth, than during the pregnancy presenting statistically significant differences. Also they had lower mean levels of sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication after delivery. Regarding the orgasm, they presented higher mean levels in the postpartum period. The overall sexual function after childbirth did not present significant differences when comparing the pregnancy period to the postpartum, but presented higher mean levels during the pregnancy. Pain levels were higher during the pregnancy. Conclusion: We found no significant differences between the two groups, in most of the studied variables. However, Sexual Arousal and Sexual Satisfaction presented statistically significant differences.
Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380
Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki
The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)
Harmon, A C; Huhman, K L; Moore, T O; Albers, H E
Dominant subordinate relationships are formed as the result of social conflict and are maintained at least in part by communication. At this time, little is known about the neural mechanisms that are responsible for coordinating the social behaviours (e.g. aggression) that occur in association with the formation and maintenance of these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXT) within the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamic continuum (MPOA-AH) in the control of aggression in female hamsters. OXT injected into the MPOA-AH immediately before testing significantly reduced the duration of aggression in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of an OXT antagonist 30 min before testing significantly increased the duration of aggression. In contrast, the duration of aggression was not altered when hamsters were tested either 30 min after injection of OXT or immediately following injection of an OXT-antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that OXT release within the MPOA-AH regulates social behaviours important in the formation and maintenance of dominant subordinate relationships in female hamsters.
Morris, N M; Udry, J R; Khan-Dawood, F; Dawood, M Y
The purpose of the study was to attempt to replicate a finding of Persky et al. (1978) that midcycle peak values of testosterone (T) in women predicted differences in frequency of intercourse among married couples. Luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) values from 10 to 14 daily midcycle blood samples donated by 43 volunteering wives were analyzed against sexual activity patterns reported by the couples over a longer period of time. All couples were contracepting by means other than exogenous hormones or the rhythm method. Each morning through three menstrual cycles husbands and wives recorded independently and on separate forms answers to a series of questions concerning sexual activity in the previous 24 hr. Wives also recorded basal body temperatures (BBT). We designated midcycle values of TT and FT according to several definitions of midcycle. Total testosterone levels at the day of the BBT nadir and the day before the nadir correlated significantly with average intercourse frequency. Correlations with FT were statistically significant regardless of which midcycle measure was used; the day before the BBT nadir gave the highest correlation, 0.618, p = 0.01. Mean testosterone (TT or FT) values were not significantly related. We conclude that female midcycle total testosterone or free testosterone is indexing some unobserved event that affects the frequency of intercourse of couples. We speculate that this event affects the motivation of females, which influences the set point of the compromise frequency characteristic of couples.
Chou, Chen-Pin; Levenson, Robin B; Elsayes, Khaled M; Lin, Yih-Huie; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chiu, You-Shin; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Pan, Huay-Ben
Female urethral diverticulum is an uncommon pathologic entity and can manifest with a variety of symptoms involving the lower urinary tract. Selection of the appropriate imaging modality is critical in establishing the diagnosis. Urethrography has traditionally been used in the evaluation of urethral diverticulum but provides only intraluminal information. Ultrasonography is advantageous in that it does not involve ionizing radiation and has the capacity to help detect a diverticulum without contrast agent filling. Multidetector computed tomographic (CT) voiding urethrography yields urethral images during micturition. In addition, the diverticulum and diverticular orifice can be visualized on two- and three-dimensional reformatted CT images. Interactive virtual urethroscopy provides simulated visualization of the intraluminal anatomy and the diverticular orifice. New magnetic resonance imaging techniques that make use of a surface or endoluminal coil have higher diagnostic accuracy and can delineate the diverticular cavity and help detect related complications. Clinicians should consider the possibility of a urethral diverticulum in women with chronic or recurrent lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, because female urethral diverticulum is becoming more prevalent in clinical practice, radiologists should be familiar with its imaging features and with the imaging techniques that are optimal for its evaluation.
Vasyura, Svetlana A
The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.
Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración
Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Salem, O.A.; Hassan, M.A.
The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the knowledge and practice of breast self- examination (BSE) with the influencing factors on its compliance among female nurses. This study was conducted between January and December 2002 on 80 female nurses from Prince Rashid Military Hospital, Jordan. The questionnaire contained items on the demographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge of breast cancer, attitudes toward BSE and questions regarding the practice of BSE. The survey was conducted on a voluntary basis. Out of 80 subjects, 42 (52%) performed BSE. Approximately 30% of those who performed BSE said they learned BSE during their work experience. A significant relationship was found between higher levels in work experience and BSE practice. Except for age, no significant relation was found between the socio-demographic factors and BSE practice. The sample showed strong belief in breast lump as a causing factor of breast cancer and had significant correlation with BSE practice. Positive correlation was found between nursing work experience and their practice in BSE as working nurses. Studies like these can enhance the knowledge regarding BSE among nurses and other medical professionals. (author)
Hashikawa, Koichi; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Tremblay, Robin; Zhang, Jiaxing; Feng, James E; Sabol, Alexander; Piper, Walter T; Lee, Hyosang; Rudy, Bernardo; Lin, Dayu
As an essential means of resolving conflicts, aggression is expressed by both sexes but often at a higher level in males than in females. Recent studies suggest that cells in the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) that express estrogen receptor-α (Esr1) and progesterone receptor are essential for male but not female mouse aggression. In contrast, here we show that VMHvl Esr1+ cells are indispensable for female aggression. This population was active when females attacked naturally. Inactivation of these cells reduced female aggression whereas their activation elicited attack. Additionally, we found that female VMHvl contains two anatomically distinguishable subdivisions that showed differential gene expression, projection and activation patterns after mating and fighting. These results support an essential role of the VMHvl in both male and female aggression and reveal the existence of two previously unappreciated subdivisions in the female VMHvl that are involved in distinct social behaviors.
Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.
The female athlete triad, otherwise known as the inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is an area of increasing awareness in female athletes, which has not been explored in military women...
Choi, Serene H. -J.; Funk, Maren; Roelofs, Susan H.; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B.; Nieminen, Timo A.
International research work for young people is common in physics. However, work experience and career plan of female workers in physics are little studied. We explore them by interviewing three international female workers in physics.
Ahmed R. A. Ragab
According to each society's condition the ethical attitude of the individual may be colored by the attitude of the society. It is therefore not surprising to find what is ethical in one society might not be ethical in another. Female Genital Cutting, as an example, is seen in some societies as a must and something good for the whole community in general and for girls in particular, while in others, it is seen as mutilation and violation of human rights. The practice of female genital cutting ...
The author, a legal scholar, reviews academic literature regarding and otherwise relevant to the study of female entrepreneurship from across multiple disciplines. She reports that the legal academy has only minimally engaged in entrepreneurship scholarship and not at all as to female entrepreneurship. Author reviews the origins of female entrepreneurship literature and the compilations describing the emergence of female entrepreneurship as a business and social phenomenon, the women who unde...
Lückerath – Rovers, M.
The Dutch ‘Female Board Index 2008’ provides for the second year an overview of female representation on the Board of Directors and Supervisory Boards of 113 Dutch NV companies listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies are ranked according to the percentage of women present on their combined Board of Directors and Supervisory Boards. The Dutch ‘Female Board Index’ also analyses the differences between male and female executive directors and supervisors ('non-executive directors') and betwee...
Female urethral anomalies such as epispadias and hypospadias have been rarely reported in the literature. Clinical diagnosis of female urethral anomalies is significant for management. Diagnosis may be missed leading to mismanagement of the clinical condition. Herein, we report a case of female epispadias and ...
Wijkman, M.D.S.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Hendriks, J.
Little is known about the criminal careers of female sex offenders. A meta-analysis by Cortoni, Hanson and Coache revealed that about 1.5% of female sex offenders re-offend sexually. Even less is known about the extent to which female sex offenders' criminal careers contain sex offences as well as
B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); H.M. van den Boer-van den Berg; M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend)
textabstractThe dilemmas in counselling a mildly retarded female with the fragile X syndrome and her retarded partner are presented. The fragile X syndrome is an X linked mental retardation disorder that affects males and, often less severely, females. Affected females
Sands, Toni; Howard-Hamilton, Mary
Research on depression among gifted adolescent females is reviewed. A psychotherapeutic model drawing on established feminist therapy strategies is presented for counselors working with gifted adolescent females. The model emphasizes recognizing harmful effects of patriarchal society, supporting females in self-exploration, and pursuing nonsexist…
This study tried to establish if there is any relationship between promiscuity and FGM, if circumcised females suffer depression more than the uncircumcised females and, if circumcised females have less difficulty than their uncircumcised counterparts in becoming sexually aroused and attaining orgasm. Three null ...
This paper used the Discursive Approach to Language and Gender studies to examine all-female linguistic choices and how linguistic variation amongst female interlocutors is a representation of each female's individual and cultural identity and feminist ideology. The study revealed that linguistic variability abounds ...
Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune ...
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...
England, Paula; And Others
Uses regression substitution procedure to show skill differences between male and female occupations explain virtually none of the earning gap between the sexes. Female occupations systematically pay less than is predicted by their skill demands. Doing manual work, in which men predominate, has a negative effect on female earnings. (NEC)
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year.
Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane
Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years ...
Moller, L.M.; Harcourt, R.G.
Female bottle nose dolphins (genus Tursiops) usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottle nose dolphins (T. aduncus). We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves). This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottle nose dolphins
In some taxa, females choose their mates indirectly by using male combat. In the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai, adult males guard prereproductive quiescent females. In a dual choice experiment, more males first approached females already guarded by a conspecific male than approached
Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…
Female-sterile line can be used as a pollinator which has a great potential for hybrid seeds production. However, reports on female fertility are fewer than male fertility. Here, we characterized a recessive female fertility weakening mutant ff1(t) from rice. The spikelet fertility was seriously affected in the mutant. Reciprocal ...
Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob
Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…
Luciana M. Möller
Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.
The study challenges hindering female participation in politics as expressed by female politicians in the federal capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study was descriptive survey. The respondents were 210 female politicians selected from six Area Councils of the FCT using a proportionate ...
Rust, Dawnella M.
Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…
Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.
This article analyzes the motivations and recruitment of female suicide terrorists. Biographical accounts of 30 female and 30 male suicide terrorists were coded for method of recruitment, motivation for attack, and outcome of attack. A log-linear analysis found that female suicide terrorists were
Montague, Orinthia T.
The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported leadership styles of female Senior Student Affairs Officers at public and private 4-year institutions. This study sought to determine if (a) there is a dominant leadership frame usage among female SSAO's, (b) determine if leadership style varies significantly among females with less than 5…
... hatchability between the females. These results suggest a preference of certain males for specific females. This study shows that the process of differentiating between females and their eggs based on the egg weight is feasible and could contribute to better data structures for ostrich breeders during genetic evaluation.
Aramburu Alegría, C
This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Van Borsel, John; De Maesschalck, Dorothy
For clinicians treating transsexual clients it is important to address primarily those characteristics whose modification is most relevant to the creation of the desired gender presentation. The present study investigated the extent to which a modification of speech rate is warranted in male-to-female transsexuals. Comparison of speech rate…
Kruijver, F. P.; Zhou, J. N.; Pool, C. W.; Hofman, M. A.; Gooren, L. J.; Swaab, D. F.
Transsexuals experience themselves as being of the opposite sex, despite having the biological characteristics of one sex. A crucial question resulting from a previous brain study in male-to-female transsexuals was whether the reported difference according to gender identity in the central part of
Martín, Marta; Blasco, Esther; Fargueta, María; Olcina, Rafael; Monleón, Cristina
there are few studies about the professional Motorcycle. the aim of this work is to analyze the training habits of 18 female motorcyclists of international level and to know the history about the practice of sport, the medical history of injuries and their ailments. data collection was performed using a 20-item instrument designed for women riders. It was collected about age, performance level of motor sport, frequency, duration and type of training, injuries and muscle pain. the results show that despite a few hours of training, the riders conceived that they have a normal or even a good physical condition. Particularly striking are the absence of mental or tactical training and the lack of medical checks and reviews. Positive correlations were found in the variables of pain. the motorcycling requires a specific, controlled and planned training and medical monitoring and dietetic through multidisciplinary team training. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Megan M. Mahoney
Full Text Available Circadian rhythms and “clock gene” expression are involved in successful reproductive cycles, mating, and pregnancy. Alterations or disruptions of biological rhythms, as commonly occurs in shift work, jet lag, sleep deprivation, or clock gene knock out models, are linked to significant disruptions in reproductive function. These impairments include altered hormonal secretion patterns, reduced conception rates, increased miscarriage rates and an increased risk of breast cancer. Female health may be particularly susceptible to the impact of desynchronizing work schedules as perturbed hormonal rhythms can further influence the expression patterns of clock genes. Estrogen modifies clock gene expression in the uterus, ovaries, and suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the primary circadian clock mechanism. Further work investigating clock genes, light exposure, ovarian hormones, and reproductive function will be critical for indentifying how these factors interact to impact health and susceptibility to disease.
Hricak, H.; Secaf, E.; Buckley, D.; Brown, J.J.; McAninch, J.W.; Tanagho, E.A.
This paper evaluates the appearance of the female urethra on noncontrast and contrast-enhanced MR images and to evaluate the potential of MR imaging in the diagnosis of various urethral conditions and the staging of urethral tumors. Sixty-four patients (mean age, 54.6 years) were studied. Normal urethra was assessed in 36 patients, and urethral pathology (including urethral diverticula, inflammatory granuloma, and primary and metastatic neoplasms) in 28. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T magnet (General Electric Signa). T1-weighted (500/20) and T2-weighted (2,500/80) images were obtained, with a section thickness of 5 mm (20% gap), a 192 x 256 matrix, and two excitations. In 27 patients, T1-weighted images were repeated after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA
"This article shows that a family perspective is especially important for the analysis of female migration because: (1) women are major participants in 'family migration' as defined by governments and, although they benefit from family reunification provisions, they are also constrained by them; (2) migrant women are important economic actors and their participation in economic activity is closely related to the needs of their families, so that the choices that migrant women make regarding work cannot be understood without taking into account the situation of their families and women's roles within them; (3) women are increasingly becoming migrant workers in order to improve the economic status of their families; and (4) women rely on their families to provide various types of support that both make migration possible and condition its outcome. A review of the literature provides evidence supporting each of these observations."
Lorenz, Tierney; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie
Because 1 in 6 women in the United States takes antidepressants and a substantial proportion of patients report some disturbance of sexual function while taking these medications, it is a near certainty that the practicing clinician will need to know how to assess and manage antidepressant-related female sexual dysfunction. Adverse sexual effects can be complex because there are several potentially overlapping etiologies, including sexual dysfunction associated with the underlying mood disorder. As such, careful assessment of sexual function at the premedication visit followed by monitoring at subsequent visits is critical. Treatment of adverse sexual effects can be pharmacological (dose reduction, drug discontinuation or switching, augmentation, or using medications with lower adverse effect profiles), behavioral (exercising before sexual activity, scheduling sexual activity, vibratory stimulation, psychotherapy), complementary and integrative (acupuncture, nutraceuticals), or some combination of these modalities. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gayle, Claudine; Rymer, Janice
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that has no medical benefit and severe health consequences for girls and women. This article discusses the risks to patients who are pregnant and have had FGM. It will describe urinary tract infections caused by FGM, and how this condition increases the risk of preterm labour and delivery. It will also address the difficulty in vaginal examinations that can be caused by FGM and instances when this can delay diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it will explore a number of intrapartum risks caused by FGM and the role of deinfibulation in pregnancy. Finally, it will look at the link between maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and FGM.
In some Muslim countries where FGM/C is prevalent it is often wrongly quoted that the basis for performing FGM/C is religious instruction. FGM/C has no religious basis what so ever and has been condemned by Al-Azhar based on several verses in the Holy Quraan that relates explicitly or implicitly to female circumcision. The use of the gender term “Sunna circumcision” is nothing but a form of deceit used to misguide people and give the impression that this act is one of the Islamic practices. As for the traditions attributed to Prophet Mohamed (PBUH, scholars of the past and present have agreed that none of these traditions are authentic and therefore should not be attributed to the Prophet (PBUH.
Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.
Juan Carlos Zuluaga Díaz
Full Text Available The article proposes a critical reflection, if you want to subordinate, in front of the hegemonic discourse both in the field of health sciences as in the prevailing political-economic field, around the process of medicalization and Pharmaceuticalization in western societies, emphasizing what has been called «disease mongering», exemplified in the case of female sexual dysfunction. From the review and analysis of current scientific articles and sociological criticism, it is argued abaut the socio-historical contemporary process that has become a «pharmaceutical culture» as well as agents, devices and strategies that allow their production and reproduction. The issues problematized in the document have to do with the production of meaning and practices associated with the processes of health and disease, as well as its orientation and definition from the field of power established by the medical establishment, the pharmaceutical industry and its lucrative drug business.
Pragya A Nair
Full Text Available Chromhidrosis is a rare disorder in which there is pigmentation of sweat in a variety of colors. It can be classified into apocrine, pseudoeccrine, and true eccrine chromhidrosis. Pseudochromhidrosis is a condition in which the excreted sweat is colorless, but later acquires color due to contact with chromogenic chemicals. Systemic and topical antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Although it does not constitute a major health issue, it causes psychological stress and social embarrassment. A 20-year-old female presented to us with yellow-colored sweat and discoloration of clothes since 1 month. Routine laboratory investigations were normal. Skin scrapings were negative for fungus and bacteria. Skin biopsy was also normal. She was labelled as a case of pseudochromhidrosis, and oral and topical antibiotics were prescribed, to which she responded well.
Shahhosseini, Z; Simbar, M; Ramezankhani, A; Alavi Majd, H; Moslemizadeh, Narges
Due to adolescents' future crucial roles, their health needs should be included in the national health system policy. In this cross-sectional study 2010 female adolescents were recruited from randomly selected schools in Iran. To obtain their health needs, the participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire. It was revealed that emotional needs were the most important health needs of adolescents. Furthermore, there was a meaningful relationship between health needs' score with the adolescents' age and their mothers' education level. Finally, the mean score of health needs was significantly higher in urban adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested that adolescents' emotional health needs to be paid attention; otherwise irrecoverable serious problems may occur in the next generation's health.
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de
Full Text Available Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22. The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group.
Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto
Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82-349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28-348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28-95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63-94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group.
Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor
Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.
Islam, M Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M
The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman's first marriage. The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20-44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women's average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women's age at marriage. The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults.
Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.
Jangouk, Parastoo; Zackowski, Kathleen M; Naidu, Sakkubai; Raymond, Gerald V
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from mutations in the gene ABCD1 and alterations in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. As it has been frequently discussed, it manifests a wide range of phenotypes in male, with progressive myelopathy being the most common. Even though the gene is localized to the X-chromosome and a region subject to X-inactivation, female carriers still are affected significantly by this condition. It has been stated that between 20 and 50% of women who are carriers may manifest some symptoms and recent evidence has suggested the differences in disease manifestations and relative rates of progression between men and women. However there have been only limited studies specifically addressing this and to date there has been no comprehensive review discussing the different phenotypes in female carriers, as well as the differences in disease onset, progression, disability, nervous system pathology and neuroimaging patterns compared to affected males. This is of key importance as similarities and differences between genders will assist in determining how best to target therapies in all affected individuals as opportunities for treatment present themselves. As will be further addressed in this review, we need to improve our understanding of the associations of emergent neuroimaging techniques to physical disability in this population. We reviewed the clinical presentations in the carrier population, the distinct disability profile and neuroimaging findings in order to put together pieces of this neglected segment in X-ALD and give direction to further studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.
Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Green, R.S.; Wiggins, P.
Because female veterinarians are exposed to several known reproductive hazards, the authors conducted a reproductive survey of all female graduates of a US veterinary school (n = 537) and law school (comparison group, n = 794). Analysis was confined to pregnancies completed after the second year of professional school and from 1966 to 1986. Based on one randomly chosen eligible pregnancy per woman (veterinarians, n = 176; lawyers, n = 229), spontaneous abortion rates, adjusted for elective abortions, were 13.3% for the veterinarians and 15.1% for the lawyers; these did not differ significantly. A Cox life table regression model controlling for age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortion also showed no significant difference in spontaneous abortion rates between the two populations. Using all pregnancies, veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week had a marginally elevated risk of spontaneous abortion, but the statistical significance disappeared when analysis was limited to one random pregnancy per woman. For one random eligible birth per woman, the mean birth weight did not differ significantly between the veterinarians and lawyers, even after controlling for possible confounders in regression analyses. A higher rate of reportable birth defects was observed among the veterinarians than among the lawyers (relative risk = 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.1), but this unexpected result must be considered hypothesis-generating. The authors did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion or low birth weight infants among veterinarians compared with lawyers, but veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week may have been at increased risk for spontaneous abortion
Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.
Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Yujiao; Zhang, Qinglin
To investigate the neural processes of decision-makings between attractive females and money, we recorded 18 male participants' brain event-related potentials (ERPs) when they performed a novel task of deciding between viewing an attractive female's fuzzy picture in clear and gaining a certain amount of money. Two types of attractive females were included: sexy females and beautiful females. Several new electrophysiological discoveries were obtained as following. First, the beautiful females vs. money task (task B) elicited a larger positive ERP deflection (P2) than the sexy females vs. money task (task S) between 290 and 340 ms, and this probably related to the perception matching process between a visual input and an internal representation or expectation. Second, task S evoked greater negative ERP waves (N2) than task B during the time window of 340-390 ms, and this might relate to response conflict and cognitive monitoring for impulsive tendency. Third, the ERP positivity in task S was larger than task B in the time interval of 550-1000 ms, reflecting that sexy female images may have higher decision value for males than beautiful female images. Fourth, compared with choosing to gain money, choosing to view an attractive female evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) during the same time window, possibly because attractive females are more direct and evolutionarily earlier rewards for males than money amounts.
Rucklidge, J J; Tannock, R
To characterize the psychiatric, psychosocial, and cognitive functioning of female adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with female controls and males with ADHD. Female controls were also compared with male controls to verify gender differences in a nonclinical sample. One hundred seven adolescents from Southern Ontario aged 13 to 16 were included: 24 females with ADHD, 35 males with ADHD, 28 control females, and 20 control males. All were assessed with semistructured interviews, questionnaires, and tests of achievement and intellectual functioning. After controlling for parental education and estimated Full Scale IQ, females with ADHD were more impaired than control females in depression, anxiety, distress, teacher relationships, stress, attributional styles, and locus of control and on all cognitive and achievement measures. Females with ADHD were more impaired than males with ADHD in self-reported anxiety, distress, depression, locus of control, and vocabulary scores. These group differences were confirmed by higher ratings by parents and teachers in symptoms of psychopathology. Males with ADHD were more impaired in processing speed. Some gender differences (locus of control and vocabulary scores) were eliminated when controlling for ADHD severity. The absence of any differences between male and female controls indicates gender differences were specific to the clinical groups. Females with ADHD are at high risk for more psychological impairment than both males with ADHD and control females. The identified psychosocial problems point to areas for intervention.
Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys
Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swierk, Lindsey; Langkilde, Tracy
A central assumption in evolutionary biology is that females of sexually dimorphic species suffer costs when bearing male secondary sexual traits, such as ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is common in nature to observe females bearing rudimentary versions of male ornaments (e.g. 'bearded ladies'), as ornaments can be under similar genetic control in both sexes. Here, we provide evidence that masculinized females incur both social and reproductive costs in nature. Male fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) discriminated against ornamented females during mate choice. Ornamented females had lower reproductive output, and produced eggs that were laid and hatched later than those of non-ornamented females. These findings support established theories of the evolution of sexual dimorphism and intralocus sexual conflict, and raise questions regarding the persistence of masculinizing ornamentation in females.
Male pigeons, Columba livia, employ intense mate guarding and frequent copulation apparently as strategies to ensure their paternity. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits to females of mate guarding by males and frequent copulation. Field observations showed that females initiated the majority of copulations and females that solicited copulations more frequently were guarded more closely by their partner. Experimental removal of guarding male partners showed that: (1) unguarded, fertile females suffered increased harassment from extrapair males which reduced their foraging efficiency; and (2) unguarded, fertile females did not seek copulations with extrapair males. Various explanations for frequent pair copulation initiated by females are discussed and we conclude that female pigeons trade pair copulations for protection (mate guarding) against sexual harassment from other males. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify whether body somatotype was indicative of competitive success in female utsal (indoor soccer players. One hundred and twelve players (22.1 ± 5.4 years; 58.4 ± 6.9 kg; 161.8 ± 6.2 cm, from ten teams and seven different states, had participated in a national competition. The anthropometric date was analyzed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. The somatotype dispersion distance was applied to compare somatotypes between the champion team (reference and the other teams (from 2nd to 10th position. Anthropometric characteristics didnot differ signifi cantly among teams. The results showed that the endomorphic component was predominant in relation to the mesomorphic and ectomorphic component, irrespective of a team’s ranking at the end of the competition. Therefore, the body somatotypes of female futsal teams cannot be considered as indicative of their competitive success. Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar se o somatotipo corporal pode ser considerado um indicador de desempenho em atletas de futsal feminino, levando em consideração a classifi cação das equipes em uma competição ofi cial. A população foi constituída de 112 jogadoras (22,1 ± 5,4 anos; 58,4 ± 6,9 kg; 161,8 ± 6,2 cm, pertencentes a dez equipes de sete estados que disputavam a competição. Os dados antropométricos foram analisados mediante ANOVA one-way para medidas repetidas. Para comparar o somatotipo da campeã (referência com o das demais classificadas (2ª a 10ª colocação na competição, recorreu-se ao cálculo da distância de dispersão do somatotipo. As características antropométricas das equipes não diferiram estatisticamente. Os resultados revelaram que a endomorfia foi predominante em relação à mesomorfia e ectomorfia, independente da classificação das equipes na competição. Neste caso, a classifi cação somatotipológico apresentada pela equipe vencedora, ou qualquer outra neste
Atsalis, Sylvia; Margulis, Susan W
As our closest living relatives, great apes likely experience physiological patterns associated with reproductive aging that are similar to humans. We present results from a nationwide zoo-based study on female western lowland gorillas during which we evaluated concentrations of progestogens via daily fecal sampling in 30 gorillas, 22 of whom were geriatric (>or=30). Whereas control females cycled regularly, ca. 23% of geriatric females were acyclic (menopausal), and approximately 1/3 showed variable hormonal patterns suggestive of perimenopause. Patterns included increased cycle variability, low luteal phase rises of progestogens - possibly indicative of anovulatory cycling - and peak height variability of progestogens in the luteal phase of the cycle. We discovered a progressive trend toward increased variability in estrous cycle length and toward decreased concentrations of fecal progestogens when we compared control to geriatric cycling and to geriatric noncycling females. Noncycling females had significantly lower overall progestogen concentrations than the cycling females, though differences were not significant when cycle phase was incorporated. Preliminary analyses of follow-up data on 10 perimenopausal females indicated that subjects experienced age-related changes in reproductive function that mirrored those observed in aging human females including a female who transitioned from perimenopause to menopause. To date, maximum longevity in captive female gorillas is 52 years, with poor reproductive prognosis beginning from the age of 37 suggesting a postreproductive lifespan of >25%. Continued study of aging apes is warranted, with emphasis on longitudinal monitoring of aged subjects.
Emile van Lieshout
Full Text Available Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.
Garba, I D; Muhammed, Z; Abubakar, I S; Yakasai, I A
To determine the prevalence and type of female genital mutilation (FGM) among female infants, reasons and attitude of the mothers to the practice. A cross sectional descriptive study. Tertiary centre in Kano Northern Nigeria. A Pretested questionnaire was administered for mothers of female infants presenting for routine immunization in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH). A total of 250 questionnaires were administered, but only 200 were properly filled and this was used for the analysis. Prevalence and type of FGM, reason for and attitude of mothers towards FGM. Twenty-six infants had FGM during the period of study, giving a prevalence rate of 13 %. The mean age at cutting was 8 days ± 7.3. The commonest type of FGM was type I accounting for 96.2 % of the cases. Tradition/culture was the commonest reason for mutilation accounting for 73.1 %, other reasons included; religious in 11.5 %, hygienic in 11.5 % and to preserve virginity in 3.8 %. Traditional barbers were the commonest operators in 80.8 % of cases, followed by the nurse/midwife in 15.4 % of cases. The fathers were the main decision makers in 46.2 %, followed by both parents in 26.9 % and grandparents in 15.4 % of the cases. 84 % of mothers were not in support of the practice. Thirteen percent of the clients would circumcise all their daughters. Forty-eight percent of the clients were of the opinion that FGM cause harm to the victims. Four percent of those whose daughters were yet to be circumcised will do so later. Female genital cutting is still practiced in our environment. Educational enlightenment is fundamental in changing public opinion as well as in offering reasonable alternative to FGM. Campaign against the practice of FGM should be encouraged to eradicate its practice.
Full Text Available A 23-year-old female presented with a reddish-brown dome-shaped hyperkeratotic nodule of 11 × 10 mm on the left lower leg. Dermoscopic examination demonstrated a prominent whitish scaly area with ring-like appearance, pinkish-white structureless areas, a few milia-like cysts, dotted and glomerular vessels, and light brown globules. The lesion was completely excised under the diagnosis of verruca vulgaris or dermatofibroma. Histopathological examination revealed a well-circumscribed symmetric lesion with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and pseudohorn cysts. The lesion was composed of spindle-shaped and epithelioid melanocytes with large cytoplasm arranged in confluent nests surrounded by stromal fibrosis. Mitotic figures and Kamino bodies were absent. Moderate proliferation of capillaries was found in the papillary dermis. Immunohistochemical staining with melan-A or S-100 was positive for tumor cells, but the staining with HMB-45 was negative. Melan-A staining was weaker in the deeply situated cells than in the superficial ones, which is known as stratification. Finally, we made a diagnosis of verrucous Spitz nevus based on these findings. We should have been aware of the entity of verrucous Spitz nevus as a variant of Spitz nevus and its dermoscopic features in order to reach a correct diagnosis before excision.
Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi
To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (Passessment (Psatisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (Psatisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.
Tovée, M J; Maisey, D S; Emery, J L; Cornelissen, P L
Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass index (BMI)) is the primary determinant of sexual attractiveness rather than WHR. BMI is also strongly linked to health and reproductive potential. Furthermore, we show how covariation of apparent BMI and WHR in previous studies led to the overestimation of the importance of WHR in the perception of female attractiveness. Finally, we show how visual cues, such as the perimeter-area ratio (PAR), can provide an accurate and reliable index of an individual's BMI and could be used by an observer to differentiate between potential partners.
Baldelli, S.; Giovagnoni, A.; Bichi Secchi, E.; Argaglia, G.; Caraceni, E.; Muzzonigro, G.
This work is aimed at demonstrating the validity of conventional radiological procedures, correlated with urodynamics, in the study of female urinary stress incontinence. In a study population of 110 patients with a clinical-urodynamic diagnosis of stress incontinence, radiological evaluation was performed by means of retrograde cystography, bead chain cystourethrography, and voiding cystourethrography. Radiographic findings were correlated with urodynamic data, and in particular with urethral pressure profile (fuctional lenght of the urethra, maximum closing pressure, maximum urethral pressure). In all patients the posterior urethro-vesical angle values were higher than 100 grade centigrades; moreover, a correlation was proven to exist between an increase in the angle of front urethral inclination, the lowering and mobility of the urethro-vesical junction, and the severeness of urodynamic findings. Furtheremore, in the different stages of urodynamic severeness, urethral funnelling was most frequent, and the flattening of the posterior vesical floor in voiding cystourethrography. The high reliability of the radiographic findings, although obtained by means of conventional techniques, and the variability of the morphodynamic results confirm the importance of a combined radiographic and urodynamic study in the evaluation of stress incontinence
Otero, Paula; Marcos, Cecilia; Ferrero, Fernando
The participation of women in science increases every day. Here we estimated their participation in authorship in three Latin American pediatric journals indexed in PubMed. All articles published in 2015 in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, the Jornal de Pediatría and the Revista Chilena de Pediatría were identified, and the first and last authors and the total number of authors by sex were determined. A total of 329 articles were identified. Out of 1432 authors, 59.9% were women. Also, 54.4% of all first authors and 48% of last authors were women. No significant difference was observed in female authorship ratio among the three journals. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría had a significantly lower number of women as first and last authors. Women authorship ratio across three Latin American pediatric journals reached 59.9%. Their role as first or last authors was significantly lower in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría
Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S; Fiedler, Nancy; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; Fischetti, Natalie
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between sleep and psychomotor vigilance in female nurses and the changes in these variables over time. Participants comprised 16 staff registered nurses (10 day, 6 night; aged 30-65 years [M = 47.6; SD = 8.1]) who wore wrist actigraphs continuously and completed a 10-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-192, Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, New York) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) in their homes before and after work for three consecutive 24-hr periods. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that night nurses slept significantly less than day nurses, F(1, 15) = 26.06, p ≤ .001; M = 227.88 ± 37.03 min versus M = 365.75 ± 59.01 min, respectively, daily for three consecutive days. Night nurses napped more frequently and had more changes in the length of their main sleep periods than day nurses. Day nurses reported more wake episodes during main sleep periods. Night nurses were sleepier after work than day nurses; both groups had increased sleepiness after work for the first 2 days and similar psychomotor vigilance test results. These findings suggest that sleep deprivation, irregular sleep patterns, and sleepiness are significant issues for shiftworking nurses. Future study of the characteristics of sleep and sleepiness in a larger sample would be useful to evaluate the focus for interventions to improve sleep and alertness in shiftworking nurses.
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate sleep quality of hospital staff nurses, both by subjective questionnaire and objective measures. Methods. Female staff nurses at a regional teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited. The Chinese version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (C-PSQI was used to assess subjective sleep quality, and an electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC technique was used to analyze objective sleep stability. Work stress was assessed using questionnaire on medical worker’s stress. Results. A total of 156 staff nurses completed the study. Among the staff nurses, 75.8% (117 had a PSQI score of ≥5 and 39.8% had an inadequate stable sleep ratio on subjective measures. Nurses with a high school or lower educational degree had a much higher risk of sleep disturbance when compared to nurses with a college or higher level degree. Conclusions. Both subjective and objective measures demonstrated that poor sleep quality is a common health problem among hospital staff nurses. More studies are warranted on this important issue to discover possible factors and therefore to develop a systemic strategy to cope with the problem.
Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin
Providing information and education to women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) could be an important influence on their healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare providers also need adequate knowledge and skills to provide good quality care to this population. Recent WHO guidelines on managing health complications from FGM contain best practice statements for health education and information interventions for women and providers. This qualitative evidence synthesis summarizes the values and preferences of girls and women living with FGM, and healthcare providers, together with other evidence on the context and conditions of these interventions. The synthesis highlights that healthcare providers lack skills and training to manage women, and women are concerned about the lack of discussion about FGM with providers. There is a need for more training for providers, and further research to understand how health information interventions may be perceived or experienced by women living with FGM in different contexts. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe
The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to r...... both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.......The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...
Bauer, Thomas K; Stroka, Magdalena A
Long term care in Germany is provided in nursing homes, by professional ambulatory services and by the patient's relatives at home, with the latter being predominantly provided by women. Given an increasing labour market participation of women, long term care at home by female relatives might become less frequent in the future which in turn may result in rising demand for and hence rising prices for long term care services. This paper builds upon the existing literature on the determinants of nursing home prices and investigates whether the labour market participation and the education level of women are correlated with the prices of nursing homes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using panel data approaches in this field of research. Based on a full sample of nursing homes in Germany for the years 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007, our empirical results suggest that a high share of full-time employed women aged 50-65 at the district level is not associated with higher prices of nursing homes. Furthermore, we find only weak evidence for a positive correlation of prices with the local average of women's educational level and a negative correlation with part-time employment indicating that price levels are lower in regions with higher shares of part-time employed women.
Full Text Available The preference for a son continues to be a prevalent norm in the traditional Indian household. This is evident from the declining sex ratio which has dropped to alarming levels, especially in the northern states according to Census 2001 reports. The proliferation and abuse of advanced technologies coupled with social factors contributing to the low status of women such as dowry, concerns with family name and looking up to the son as a breadwinner has made the evil practice of female feticide to become common in the middle and higher socioeconomic households, especially in the northern states. Despite the existence of the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act, there is a dire need to strengthen this law since the number of convictions is despairingly low as compared to the burden posed by this crime. Moreover, it is necessary to gear efforts against the cultural, economic and religious roots of this social malady by woman empowerment and intensive Information, Education and Communication campaigns. The medical colleges and professional bodies have a vital role to play by sensitizing medical students who are the doctors of tomorrow.
Basel, Paul S; Reschke, Daniel; April, Michael D
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a common diagnosis in the emergency department (ED), the most severe manifestation of which is ST elevation on electrocardiogram (ECG). ST elevation reflects obstruction of flow through the coronary arteries, most commonly due to coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture. However, alternative causes of coronary obstruction causing ST elevation are possible. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an unusual cause of ST elevation in ED patients which providers may encounter in patients without traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. Patients presenting with SCAD as a cause of ST elevation require unique management from traditional ACS. Here we report a case of a 43 year old female presenting with chest pain and unusual ECG findings including accelerated idioventricular rhythm followed by subtle ST segment elevation and resolution of abnormalities. This case illustrates subtle clinical and ECG findings suggestive of SCAD which emergency physicians should consider when evaluating patients for ACS in the absence of traditional clinical presentations. Such considerations may prompt physicians to avoid therapy for coronary plaque rupture which is not indicated in patients with SCAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of around 17/100,000. It is often difficult to diagnose and treat AIHA, especially in elderly. A 60-year-old female was admitted with the complaints of low grade fever, on-off for 6 months, progressive fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. She was transfused with three units of blood within these 6 months. Examination revealed pallor, edema, hemic murmur, and palpable liver. Hb was 2.9 gm%, T Bil 5.2 mg/dl, ESR 160 mm, and reticulocyte count 44.05%. Direct Coombs test was positive, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA and Anti ds DNA were positive. A diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with AIHA was considered and patient was transfused with two units of packed red cells and put on steroid (prednisolone at 1 mg/kg body weight daily. After 3 weeks, her Hb had increased to 10.4 gm% with gross clinical improvement.
Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.
Full Text Available The text presents the work of Vanda, a group based in the Milan Polytechnic where it was founded by three professors and a researcher of the Faculty of Architecture. Vanda has been researching about “theories and women’s work in architecture”. The group started its activities with a seminar entitled “Dare to think the city female.” During a decade (I990-2000 the team developed many research directions involving students and researchers, working also with local municipalities in time oriented policies.The history of architecture has long been taught only as great masters history. Only recently the historians highlighted the late nineteenth century work of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Mothers work of architecture. In this way new figures emerged like the “architettrici” of the fascist period, the decorators and the futurist in the thirties, up to the figures of the great professionals like Margarete Shutte Lihotsky or Charlotte Perriand.Vanda reconstructed the history of living according women point of view, and addressed important study topics as the care and time in the city. The latter, after producing the new Regulatory Plan of hours to improve public times of shops, tram, schools, relapsed space in a system of small architectural devices called the everyday micro-architecture.
Full Text Available This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated. Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.
Full Text Available Background: During the past several decades an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported especially among women in very many parts of the world including Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: Based on thyroid cancer data (and demographic data following incidence rates were estimated: age-specific rates (for 5-year age groups, ie. 0–4, 5–9, etc. up until the age of 85+, crude rates (for all ages and age standardized rates (ASR – with the application of M. Spiegelman’s direct method as well as age structure of “world population “ for direct comparison. Results: Thyroid cancer age-adjusted rates (ASR among Silesia females have increased by about 20% from 1999 to 2008. The incidence of thyroid cancer has been estimated taking into account histopathological types (carcinoma papillare, carcinoma folliculare and others and time-trends according to age groups (20–44 years of age, 45–59 years of age and ‡60 years of age. Conclusion: The observation is being made of distinct increase of thyroid papilloma cancer and other types of cancer particularly among young women.
Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T; Tran, Ninh Duy; Livesey, Jonathan R
There has been no published research on muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in speakers who use a tonal language. Using a sample of 47 Northern Vietnamese female primary school teachers with MTD, we aimed to discover whether professional voice users of tonal languages presented with the same symptoms of MTD as speakers of nontonal languages and whether they presented with additional symptoms as a result of speaking a tonal language. The vocal characteristics were assessed by use of a questionnaire and expert perceptual evaluation. Laryngeal features were assessed by photolaryngoscopy. The results showed that MTD was associated with a larger number of vocal symptoms than previously reported. However, the participants did not have the same vocal symptoms reported in English speakers, for example, hard glottal attack, pitch breaks, unusual speech rate, and glottal fry. Factor analysis of the vocal symptoms revealed three factors: "vocal fatigue/hyperfunction," "physical discomfort," and "voice quality," all of which demonstrated high reliability. The major laryngeal characteristic was a glottal gap. The glottal shapes observed included: 44.7% had an incomplete closure, 29.8% a posterior gap, 12.8% an hourglass-shaped gap, 8.5% a spindle-shaped gap, and 4.3% had complete glottal closure. The findings implied a potential contribution of linguistic-specific factors and teaching-related factors to the presentation of this voice disorder in this group of teachers.
Bayad, M.A.; Fahmy, N.M.
Circulating levels of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), and rostenedione (A) estradial 17-B (E 2 ), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteninzing hormone (LH) and cortisol (C) were estimated by RIA proccdures in the serum of two groups of athletic female runners. An eumenorrheic group (n=10), and an oligomenorrheic group (n=10), and in a healthy regularly menstruating group as control(n=20). The athletes were subjected to a stadardized Ergometer testing aiming at achieving maximal O 2 consumption. Blood samples were with drawn at rest and immediately after exercise in the eumenorrheic and oligomenorrheic groups. Samples from eumenorrheic athletes and control group were at midfollicular phase of the cycle; and randomly in the oligomenorrheicat athlets. Results revealed a state of hypercortisolism in resting eumenorrheic athletes in comparison with control, whereas the oligomenorrheic athletes showed a state of hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism. The estimated perameters showed remrakable significant increase after the bicycle Ergometer testing, with the exception of SHBG and DHEA-S in the athletic groups
Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.
Full Text Available One hundred female patients, in the age range of 14-60 years suffering from diffuse hair loss were studied for pattern of aiopecia and probable causes. Pattern of hair loss was of telogen effluvium in 92% patients, androgenetic alopecia in 7% and anagen defluvium in 1%. The probable causes of diffuse alopecia were found to be psychological stress in 30%, fever in 33%, abortion and delivery in 21%, trauma and surgical operation in 13%, and hypothyroidism in 10%. In 57% patients more than two fac-tors, while in 6% no probable cause could be found on the basis of history. Routine laboratory investiga-tions revealed Hb level less than 12gm% in 96% patients, hypochromic picture on PBF examination in 57% patients, GIT parasites in 13% patients on stool examination, T 3 value less than 70 p gm/dl in 7% and TSH more than 7IU in 8 % cases. Mircoscopic examination of hairs in all the cases showed (telogen club root except in one case which showed broken and tapered root end (anagen.
Ahmed R. A. Ragab
Full Text Available According to each society's condition the ethical attitude of the individual may be colored by the attitude of the society. It is therefore not surprising to find what is ethical in one society might not be ethical in another. Female Genital Cutting, as an example, is seen in some societies as a must and something good for the whole community in general and for girls in particular, while in others, it is seen as mutilation and violation of human rights. The practice of female genital cutting is a complex issue that ties the traditional gender roles, superstition, local concepts on health and sexuality, as well as several other social relations. Worldwide, an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone FGC. The current paper examines medicalization of female genital cutting from ethical point of view. The paper discusses the issue in the following themes: definition of the practice, the justifications of the practice, the complications and lastly the ethical reflections. The paper argues that laws that prohibit the practice would not work, without wide socio-cultural change; any effort to eradicate the practice would not succeed.
Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez
Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.
Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey
Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the morphosyntactic properties of female names and the ways in which female first names and surnames are used, as well as on adjectives derived from them in the Croatian language. The collected examples indicate that independent use of female surnames, compared to the independent use of male surnames, demonstrates a great degree of variability because their use has still not been standardized. Due to the fact that female surnames are highly marked when compared to the majority of nouns that can undergo declension, female surnames are frequently modified by word formation procedures, even though this is in stark contrast with the norm. Female surnames that can undergo declension are also used in highly formal contexts due to pragmatic and morphosyntactic reasons.
contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...behavioral factors associated with consistent use of effective contraceptive methods (consistent-effective use) in male and female soldiers in training
1174 female live births to 413 women were included in the analysis. 52.4% of all females were circumcised. The prevalence dropped from 64.9% during the period 1933-60 to 25.7% for the period 2000–2003. For first order births, the corresponding rates were 58.8% and 25.0%. The decline for first-born females comes a ...
Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo
The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...
Rubenstein, Dustin R; Lovette, Irby J
Male animals are typically more elaborately ornamented than females. Classic sexual selection theory notes that because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs, and because males generally compete more intensely for reproductive opportunities and invest less in parental care than females, males can obtain greater fitness benefits from mating multiply. Therefore, sexual selection typically results in male-biased sex differences in secondary sexual characters. This generality has recently been questioned, because in cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the strength of selection on traits used in intrasexual competition for access to mates (sexual selection) or other resources linked to reproduction (social selection) is similar in males and females. Because selection is acting with comparable intensity in both sexes in cooperatively breeding species, the degree of sexual dimorphism in traits used in intrasexual competition should be reduced in cooperative breeders. Here we use the socially diverse African starlings (Sturnidae) to demonstrate that the degree of sexual dimorphism in plumage and body size is reduced in cooperatively breeding species as a result of increased selection on females for traits that increase access to reproductive opportunities, other resources, or higher social status. In cooperative breeders such as these, where there is unequal sharing of reproduction (reproductive skew) among females, and where female dominance rank influences access to mates and other resources, intrasexual competition among females may be intense and ultimately select for female trait elaboration. Selection is thereby acting with different intensities on males and females in cooperatively versus non-cooperatively breeding species, and female-female interactions in group-living vertebrates will have important consequences for the evolution of female morphological, physiological and behavioural traits.
Lo Choitung; Sun Hongyi; Law Kris
Women business ownership contributes to entrepreneurship quality and diversity. However, the new venture creation rate of females lags far behind that of males. How to increase female entrepreneurship by entrepreneurship education is an important topic in the field. It has been reported that students’ entrepreneurial intention is a key to their future entrepreneurial behaviors. This paper aims to empirically compare the entrepreneurial intentions between female and male engineering students w...
Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.
Sampaio, C M S; Silva, R R; Santos, J A; Sales, S P
Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W(T)), carapace length (L( C)) and abdomen+telson length (L(A+T)) and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF) and ovigerous females (OF). Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L(T)) of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4%) and 824 females (61.6%). The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7%) did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF) and 332 (40.3%) carried eggs in their abdomens (OF). There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM), rudimentary (RU), intermediary (IN) and mature (M). M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.
Remarkably few females hold the position of superintendent; although, there are capable women in the educational field who are qualified and interested. Researchers proposed many reasons for this disparity including the lack of studies regarding females in the superintendency. This void has made it difficult to determine a clear picture of what leadership behaviors female superintendents employ. Research questions included: (1) What leadership assumptions appear to form the basis for the lead...
Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat
Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.
Ke Shen; Ping Yan; Yi Zeng
Background: The female labor force participation rate in China has experienced a significant decline over the past two decades. Existing studies attribute this decline to the retreat of government protection of female employment and growing gender discrimination in the labor market, while overlooking other factors such as changing living arrangements. Objective: This paper aims to explore the causal effect of coresidence or nearby residence with parents on female labor supply in China. ...
Febriasistari, Atika Hersa; Wirman, Welly
Female Disc Jockey becomes a phenomenon that thriving nowadays. Female Disc Jockey comes from different circle such student and even housewife. Until now the phenomenon of Female Disc Jockey is getting more develop marked by increasing the number of their performance on many event such night club in Pekanbaru. On their performance they often wearing sexy clothes. Meanwhile their work place is close to some kind of negative such alcohol, drugs, freesex and led to a negative stigma from many pe...
Paul E. Micevych
Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.
Iaisuklang, Marboh Goretti; Ali, Arif
Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India. In the present study, 100 FCSWs were selected. For the recruitment of sample, simple random sampling procedure was followed; sociodemographic data sheet and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were administered. In the study, it was found that 9% of the respondents reported having major depressive episode (current), 25% of the respondents reported major depressive episode (past), 3% were having major depressive episode with melancholic features (current), 21% of the respondents reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 8% of the respondents reported to have alcohol dependence, 3% of the respondents reported to have nonalcohol psychoactive substance use disorder, 8% of the respondents were found to have generalized anxiety disorder, and 9% of the respondents were found to have antisocial personality disorder. There is a prevalence of mental health problems in the FCSW. Assessment of the psychiatric morbidity in FCSW is significant in developing health policy and interventions to reduce their impact on their well-being. It is the immediate need that the governmental and nongovernmental agencies, mental health professionals, and workers in this area need to be sensitized to the issue of mental health status of the commercial sex workers.
Mettler, L; Scheidel, P; Shirwani, D
A review of the immunological implications in reproductive physiology is presented. Although attempts have been made to ascribe the antigenicity of semen to individual components, it has not been possible to isolate the human semen antigen responsible for infertility. In monkeys total ejaculates and seminal plasma have shown higher antigenicity than washed spermatozoa. In bulls some evidence of such antigens have been found in the seminal plasma. They are iron-binding proteins resembling lactoferrin. Most investigators have found no evidence for any participation of the ABO blood group antigens in cases of sterility. On the surface of human spermatozoa histo-incompatibility antigens have been detected. Transplantation antigens may be related to sterility. However, an immulogic tolerance of the maternal organism exists against the genetically foreign fetal tissue. Autoimmune spermagglutinating antibodies have been detected in the sera and in the seminal plasma of males with sterility. An obstruction of the seminal pathways may facilitate the production of such antibodies against retained sperm. Isoimmunity in females against seminal components has been shown in cases of sterility; however, fertile women have also been shown to have such conditions. In a group of infertile women spermagglutination activity was detected in 7.5% of cases. In another series of 46 cases with primary unexplained infertility agglutinating antibodies were found in 17.4%. Other investigators have also reported higher rates than the authors. The sperm immobilization test seems to be more sensitive than the agglutination test. No sera were found positive with both tests. With immunofluorescent techniques humoral sperm antibodies have been found to be the IgM and IgG fractions. Each acts on a different part of the spermatozoa. The only promising therapy against humoral sperm antibodies is avoidance of sperm contact over a long period of time. Reported results have been conflicting. Cortisone
Cho, Jin Han; Koo, Bong Sik; Nam, Ki Dong; Choi, Jong Cheol; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kweon, Heon Young
The purpose of the study was to explore the role of sonography for women with a suspected urethral diverticulum and to evaluate the transperineal ultrasonographic findings of female urethral diverticulum. Eight women (mean age, 44 years) who presented with urethral symptoms and clinically suspected urethral diverticula underwent transperineal ultrasonography; sagittal and coronal images were obtained. Sonography was done with either a 7-5 MHz curved array transducer or 10-5 MHz linear transducer, placed on the perineum at the level of the urethra. Ultrasonograms were assessed for the presence, size, location, shape, echogenicity, and septum. Five patients underwent voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). Results of the sonograms and VCUGs were compared with each other and with surgical findings. Longitudinally, all lesions were located in a middle third of the urethra. In axial plane, 4 diverticula wrapped around 50-100% of the urethra. 3 cases located posteriorly, and 1 case laterally. Seven diverticula contained echogenic debris. Three cases have septa in the diverticulum. The outer margin of the diverticula was smooth in 2 patients and was lobulated in 6 patients. In 3 of 5 cases who underwent VCUG, diverticula were filled with contrast, and appeared to be smaller than those of ultrasonography. In addition, all were single diverticulum in VCUG. Most urethral diverticulum were located in a middle third of the urethra, wrapped around the urethra or round posteriorly. Many cases appear unilocular or multilocular with echogenic debris. Transperineal ultrasonography is easy to operate and accurate for showing urethral diverticulum, and it may be useful for diagnosing this group of women with urethral symptoms and suspected urethral diverticulum. It provides information on the extent and location of the diverticulum, which are important in surgical excision.
Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles
As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.
Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J
Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.
Full Text Available Background: Kathak is a very complex dance form in which greater emphasis is laid on foot work thus putting substantial amount of stress over the feet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot postural deviations amongst the Kathak dancers. Methods: Screening of 40 Female Kathak Dancers was done for the study from Department of Dance, Punjabi University, Patiala on the basis of inclusion criteria. Subjects were assessed for Postural deviations via. Foot Posture Index, Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle, Navicular Drop, Rearfoot angle and Forefoot angle. Results: Percentile analysis of Foot Posture index scores suggested that a large population of kathak dancers (approx 92.5 % have pronated feet. Most of the Kathak dancers showed increase in Rearfoot angle (approx. 90%, Forefoot angle (approx.75% and Navicular drop (approx. 97% and decrease in Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (approx. 95%. Analysis of Coefficient of Correlation suggested a significant positive relationship of Foot Posture Index scores with Rearfoot angle (r = 0.40, p= 0.0087, Navicular Drop (r = 0.62, p= < 0.0001 and Forefoot angle (r = 0.51, p=0.0007 and a significant negative correlation with Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (r = -0.42, p= 0.0059. Conclusion: From the observations, it can be concluded that with time kathak dancers start developing certain Postural Deviations at Foot which can lead to hyperpronation. These changes if not treated on time may lead to various degenerative changes in the Foot and Ankle thus leading to the instabilities and can also make them susceptible to foot and ankle injuries, shin pain, etc. Thus, the study recommends that the dancers should be educated and trained about the foot problems associated with kathak dance and their prevention.
Rotberg, T; Segovia, E; Gorodezky, M
1). In 1001 patients with acute myocardial infarction 403 cases were found (40.2%) showing possible relapse. A study was made of 125 cases (12.5%) with positive diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction relapse, and among them, 12 were found to be occurring for the third time. Is possible for the real frequency of the iterative infarction to be even higher, because many cases were dismissed (27.7%) for lacking of conclusive electrocardiographic data pointing to myocardial transmural infarction. 2). Investigations were conducted about the evolutive condition of the danger factors in the coronary profile as well in the male as in the female group. Besides, a comparative study was made about symptoms, complications, morbidity and mortality. Clinical, enzimatic and electrocardiographic proofs were found, in every case, of a new myocardial transmural necrosis which was in evolution, with waves of injury and ischemia. Thirty eight deaths were registered in hospitals (30.4%) and in 25 of these, a necropsic study was conducted. 3). This illness is more frequent among men than among women, in a 3.5 to 1 proportion. The recurrent myocardial necrosis tends to be more frequently present during the first year following the first episode. In women, the first myocardial infarction as well as the iterative infarction occur at an older age than in men. 4). The influence of personality and stress is a very important factor of danger in the iterative infarction. Familiar antecedents of ischemic cardiopathy constitute a danger factor in patients presenting a single episode of myocardial infarction; nevertheless they don't seem to have a determining influence in this group of relapsing infarction. Although this study confirms with statistics that smoking has a decisive influence in the first myocardial infarction, neither frequency nor mortality of the relapsing infarction are in any way modified by the diminishing or suppression of the smoking habit.
Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine
Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Rohina S. Aggarwal
Results: In our study 170 (63.67% patients in the infertile group (n = 267 had female sexual dysfunction as compared to108 (46.35% in the fertile group (n = 233, which is statistically significant (P 0.0001. Most common dysfunction observed was arousal (70% in infertile patients. Common dysfunctions observed in fertile females were desire (40% and orgasm (40%. FSD was significantly higher in infertile females of the 31–37 years age group (P 0.002, while more common in fertile females of >42 years of age (P < 0.0001. Higher female sexual dysfunction was observed in illiterate infertile females (P 0.039. Among the pathological factors endometriosis was the statistically significant factor associated with female sexual dysfunction and infertility (P < 0.0001. No significant correlation in duration of infertility or type of infertility was observed with female sexual dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction as the cause or the effect should be ascertained in infertility.
.... Fifty active duty female soldiers with exercise induced urinary incontinence and ten asymptomatic controls underwent conventional multi-channel cystometry and then ambulatory monitoring during work or exercise...
Tervo, Outi; Christoffersen, Mads; FØrasier, Timothy
% males (n=1)). These data clearly demonstrate that female bowhead whales sing, however more samples are necessary to assess whether male bowhead whales also sing. The suggested functions of female song for other species include territorial defense, mate guarding, coordination of breeding activities......, and more rarely mate attraction. In the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, a closely related species to the bowhead whale, the female produces simple calls during sexual interactions that attract other males to mating groups. We suggest that our results may indicate that the elaborate songs...... of female bowhead whales may function for mate attraction and represent a novel example of partial courtship role reversal in mammals....
Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.
Bailey, Nathan W; Zuk, Marlene
Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: a morphological mutation has rendered over 90 per cent of males on the Hawaiian island of Kauai silent in fewer than 20 generations, impeding females' abilities to locate potential mates. Females reared in silent conditions mimicking Kauai were less discriminating of male calling song and more responsive to playbacks, compared with females that experienced song during rearing. Our results to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of long-term effects of acoustic experience in an arthropod, and suggest that female T. oceanicus may be able to compensate for the reduced availability of long-range male sexual signals by increasing their responsiveness to the few remaining signallers. Understanding the adaptive significance of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice provides insight into processes that facilitate rapid evolutionary change and shape sexual selection pressure in natural populations. PMID:18700205
Male nutrient provisioning is widespread in insects. Females of some species use male-derived nutrients for increased longevity and reproductive output. Despite much research into the consequences of paternal nutrient investment for male and female fitness, the heritability, and therefore the potential of this trait to respond to selection, has rarely been examined. Males of several butterfly species provide the female with nutrients in the spermatophore at mating. Females of the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) use male donations both for developing eggs (resulting in higher lifetime fecundity of multiply mated females), but also for their somatic maintenance (increasing longevity). Using half-sib, father-son regression and full-sib analyses, I showed that paternal nutrient investment is heritable, both in terms of the absolute but also the relative size of the spermatophore (controlling for body size). Male size and spermatophore size were also genetically correlated. Furthermore, a separate study showed male genotype had a significant effect on female longevity and lifetime fecundity. In contrast, male genotype had no influence on the immediate egg-laying rate of females following mating, suggesting limited scope for male manipulation of immediate female oviposition. These results indicate that females may derive both direct (increased lifetime fecundity and longevity) and indirect (sons with greater reproductive success) fitness benefits from paternal nutrient donations in this species.
Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.
The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...
Currently in Korea’s Nuclear Power Plants (KHNP), the number of the female staffs has been increased as planned construction of new NPPs. However the role of the female staffs in NPPs is still limited as before. Because there is the prejudice which the operating and the maintenance work is unsuitable for female owing to the risk of the radiation exposure and the physical weakness. So female staffs mostly belong to the supporting departments. In particular, the proportion of the female staffs is significantly higher in the radiation safety department among those. The ratio is 15% and is twice higher, whereas the total percentage of the female workers in KHNP is 8%. In the past, the women staffs in the radiation safety department were usually charge of the non-technical duties like the radiation exposure dose management and the education for radiation workers. Although the ratio of the women about that is still higher, nowadays, the role of the female workers tends to diversify to technical supports like the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management while increased the proportion of female employees. This trend is expected to continue for many years to come. Thus, in Korea’s NPPs, it is expected that many women will demonstrate their professionalism especially in the radiation safety department than any other departments. This presentation contains the detailed duty and trend about female staffs in the radiation safety department in Korea’s NPPs. (author)
Hagan, Teresa L; Cohen, Susan M
Females' experiences of identity, health, and equity share similar features around the world. This literary analysis describes the narratives of 4 female protagonists from popular fiction novels to identify similarities between their personal and contextualized experiences. The impact these private realities and public structures have on female health will be used to demonstrate the universal ecological threats to women's health. In conclusion, we offer suggestions on how to incorporate the shared female movement from domination and separation toward liberation and connection into modern health care practices that emphasize shared decision making, open communication, and social activism.
Full Text Available Infrared thermal imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in veterinary medicine, in particular for evaluating reproductive processes. Here, we explored differences in skin temperature of twenty female chimpanzees in Budongo Forest, Uganda, four of which were pregnant during data collection. Based on previous literature in other mammals, we predicted increased skin temperature of maximally swollen reproductive organs of non-pregnant females when approaching peak fertility. For pregnant females, we made the same prediction because it has been argued that female chimpanzees have evolved mechanisms to conceal pregnancy, including swellings of the reproductive organs, conspicuous copulation calling, and solicitation of male mating behaviour, to decrease the infanticidal tendencies of resident males by confusing paternity. For non-pregnant females, we found slight temperature increases towards the end of the swelling cycles but no significant change between the fertile and non-fertile phases. Despite their different reproductive state, pregnant females had very similar skin temperature patterns compared to non-pregnant females, suggesting little potential for males to use skin temperature to recognise pregnancies, especially during maximal swelling, when ovulation is most likely to occur in non-pregnant females. We discuss this pattern in light of the concealment hypothesis, i.e., that female chimpanzees have evolved physiological means to conceal their reproductive state during pregnancy.