WorldWideScience

Sample records for female house flies

  1. Procurement and persistence of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in male and female house flies exposed to cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are associated with animal manure and other microbe-rich substrates. Consequently, both sexes can acquire and potentially disseminate pathogenic bacteria to surrounding environments, including residential areas, via contaminated body parts and/or ...

  2. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  3. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  4. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  5. A Mathematic Model That Describes Modes of MdSGHV Transmission within House Fly Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed that one potential component by which the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV infects individual flies is through cuticular damage. Breaks in the cuticle allow entry of the virus into the hemocoel causing the infection. Male flies typically have a higher rate of infection and a higher rate of cuticular damage than females. A model for the transmission of MdSGHV was formulated assuming several potential and recognized means of transmission. The model yields results that are in agreement with field data that measured the infection rate in house flies on dairy farms in Florida. The results from this model indicate that MdSGHV will be maintained at a stable rate within house fly populations and support the future use of MdSGHV as a birth control agent in house fly management.

  6. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  7. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  8. Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Davey, Taira; Son, Jae Hak; Gerry, Alec C; Shono, Toshio; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra (D) ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M. We found the frequency and linkage of M in house flies collected in Chino, CA (USA) was relatively unchanged between 1982 and 2014. The frequency of females with Md-tra (D) in the 2014 collection was 33.6% (n = 140). Analysis of these results, plus previously published data, revealed a strong correlation between the frequencies of Md-tra (D) and multiple M males, and we find that these populations are expected to have balanced sex ratios. We also find that fitness values that allow for the invasion and maintenance of multiple sex determining loci suggest that sexually antagonistic selection could be responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in house fly populations. The stability over time and equilibrium frequencies within populations suggest the house fly polygenic sex determination system is not in transition, and provide guidance for future investigations on the factors responsible for the polymorphism.

  9. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-11-01

    The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every

  10. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  11. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  12. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  13. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  14. Do Permethrin-Treated Screens Repel Sand Flies from Entering Houses ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basimike, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of permethrin-treated screens on sand flies entering treated houses were evaluated in Marigat area of Baringo District, Kenya. Screens treated with 0.50 g/m2 a. i. of permethrin 20 % E.C. were fitted inside houses and retreated every 6 months from January 1992 to December 1993. In the treated village, 40.62 % sand flies were caught inside while 67.34 % sand flies were collected outside houses. In the control village, 32.66 % sand flies were collected inside while 59.38 % sand flies were caught outside houses. The number of sand flies collected outside houses in the treated village was higher than those collected inside houses in the same village (X2 = 30.97, df = 11, P = 0.001. Twelve species of sand flies were collected in the area, of which nine species of the Sergentomyia and three species of the Phlebotomus genera. Phlebotomus martini and P. duboscqi, vecfors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis respectively were collected inside houses in both treated and control villages. Permethrin-treated screens fitted inside houses were effective against sand flies as they reduced the number of flies entering houses. However, the treated screens did not seem to have any effect on sand fly species composition. Permethrin-treated screens are an important tool for controlling sand flies in the communities.

  15. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...

  16. Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can...

  17. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray absorption microscopy, we record in-vivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle di...

  18. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  19. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoids play an essential role in the control of house flies Musca domestica. The development of neonicotinoid resistance was found in two field populations. 766b was 130- and 140-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 17- and 28-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively....... 791a was 22- and 20-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 9- and 23-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively. Imidacloprid selection of 791a increased imidacloprid resistance to 75- and 150-fold in males and females, respectively, whereas selection with thiamethoxam had minimum...... impact. Neonicotinoid resistance was in all cases suppressed by PBO. The cytochrome P450 genes CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 were constitutively over-expressed in resistant strains and CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 differentially expressed between sexes. The highest level of CYP6A1 expression was observed in both gender...

  20. Selection for Resistance to Imidacloprid in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., continue to be a primary pest of livestock facilities worldwide. This pest also has shown a propensity for pesticide resistance development when under high selection pressures. In this study a house fly strain, FDm was created by a 20% contribution from each of fiv...

  1. Duration of the vector period of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni estimated by experimental infection series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    The house fly Musca domestica may act as a vector and transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We determined the duration of the vector period for C. jejuni at various temperatures and inoculation doses. For the temperature experiment, laboratory reared house flies (n = 375) were inoculated with...

  2. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report our recent findings on the identification of volatile compounds released from the ChiangKiang vinegar that is attractive to house flies, Musca domestica. The field trapping experiments showed that the traps baited with 50-ml of the vinegar captured the highest house flies in the diary farm...

  3. Global warming and house fly control: direct effects and biodiversity concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control. Effective fly management relies on a balance of sanitation, insecticide use, and biological control. Climate change could upset that balance in favor of the fly unless pro-activ...

  4. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  5. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and oth

  6. Vibrio cholerae laboratory infection of the adult house fly Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassiony, G M; Luizzi, V; Nguyen, D; Stoffolano, J G; Purdy, A E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that house flies may be capable of specifically harbouring ingested Vibrio cholerae in their digestive tracts. Flies were continuously fed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled, non-O1/non-O139 environmental strains of V. cholerae. Bacterial burdens were quantitatively measured using plate counts and localization was directly observed using confocal microscopy. Vibrio cholerae were present in the fly alimentary canal after just 4 h, and reached a plateau of ∼10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/fly after 5 days in those flies most tolerant of the pathogen. However, individual flies were resistant to the pathogen: one or more flies were found to carry cholerae CFU at each time-point examined. In flies carrying V. cholerae, the pathogen was predominantly localized to the midgut rather than the rectal space or crop. The proportion of house flies carrying V. cholerae in the midgut was dose-dependent: the continuous ingestion of a concentrated, freshly prepared dose of V. cholerae increased the likelihood that fluorescent cells would be observed. However, V. cholerae may be a transient inhabitant of the house fly. This work represents the first demonstration that V. cholerae can inhabit the house fly midgut, and provides a platform for future studies of host, pathogen and environmental mediators of the successful colonization of this disease vector. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Female Identity and Perplexity in Jeni Couzyn's House of Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ping

    2001-01-01

    In House of Changes, Jeni Couzyn, the British contemporary female poet, uses her poetic language, vividly representsdifferent images of the female in phallocentric society, and reveals the universal puzzle of female identity prescribed by patriarchal sys-tem, and at the same time, presents an authentic portrait of the female's perplexity.

  8. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.;

    2011-01-01

    and Florida isolates of MdSGHV was similar with three virus delivery protocols, as a liquid food bait (in sucrose, milk, or blood), sprayed onto the flies in a Potter spray tower, or by immersiion in a crude homogenate of infected house flies. The most effective delivery system was immersion in a homogenate...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  9. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  10. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  11. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  12. A Comparative Study on Different Baits Used to Attract House Fly in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available House flies are commonly found at homes and businesses in Malaysia. Many kinds of baits are used to attract and trap these flies either by mechanical or chemical means. But all these baits are not capable of attracting flies equally. The main goal of this study is to find out the best bait that can attract house fly effectively. Two baits made in abroad and four baits made in Malaysia were selected for conducting this study because these baits are commonly used in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out by using six selected baits in food industry, fish market and poultry farm in the east coast of Malaysia. Data were collected from the field experiments continuously for six days and analysed to determine the best bait that trap the house flies very effectively. Data analysis results show that the Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait is the best one for trapping house flies effectively compared to other baits. Further investigation is still underway to find the volatile compound used for this Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait, which will help to generate new bait with the same effect.

  13. Fungi isolated from house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on penned cattle in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musca domestica L. were collected from cattle diagnosed with bovine ringworm to evaluate the potential of the house fly to disseminate Trichophyton verrucosum E. Bodin, a fungal dermatophyte that is the causative agent for ringworm in cattle. Fungal isolates were cultured from 45 individual flies on...

  14. Diversity of knockdown resistance alleles in a single house fly population facilitates adaptation to pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, S; Sun, H; Scott, J G

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide use exerts a tremendous selection force on house fly populations, but the frequencies of the initial resistance mutations may not reach high levels if they have a significant fitness cost in the absence of insecticides. However, with the continued use of the same (or similar) insecticides, it is expected that new mutations (conferring equal or greater resistance, but less of a fitness cost) will evolve. Pyrethroid insecticides target the insect voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and have been widely used for control of house flies at animal production facilities for more than three decades. There are three Vssc mutations known that cause resistance to pyrethroids in house flies: knockdown resistance (kdr, L1014F), kdr-his (L1014H) and super-kdr (M918T + L1014F). Whether or not there are any new mutations in house fly populations has not been examined for decades. We collected house flies from a dairy in Kansas (USA) and selected this population for three generations. We discovered multiple new Vssc alleles, including two that give very high levels of resistance to most pyrethroids. The importance of these findings to understanding the evolution of insecticide resistance, designing appropriate resistance monitoring and management schemes, and the future of pyrethroids for house fly control are discussed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Female labor supply and housing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldershof, T.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the labor supply decisions of married and cohabiting women in relation to the housing tenure choice decision. The main motivation for a joint analysis has been the relaxation of the mortgage qualification constraint. Since 1992 households can take out a mortgage on the

  16. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  17. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  18. Evaluation of Commercial and Field-Expedient Baited Traps for House Flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    92507); 6) Advantage Flying Insect Trap (J.F. Oakes Sales and Marketing L.L.C., Yazoo City, MS 39194); 7) Fermone Big Boy Fly Trap (Troy Biosciences...synthesis. Science 174: 76-78. Frishman, A.M. and J.G. Matthysse. 1966. Olfactory responses of the face fly Musca autumnalis DeGeer and the house fly

  19. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Musca domestica L.: temporospatial examination of bacteria population dynamics and house fly antimicrobial responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies associate with microbes throughout their life history. Bacteria ingested by adult flies enter the alimentary canal and face a hostile environment including antimicrobial defenses. Because the outcome of this interaction impacts bacterial survival and dissemination, our primary objective ...

  1. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-E. coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas where humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. We investigated ...

  2. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Reid, William R; Zhang, Lee;

    2013-01-01

    generated from the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 6159 (43%) of the contigs contained coding regions, among which 1316 genes were identified as being co-up-regulated in ALHF in comparison to both aabys and CS. The majority of these up-regulated genes fell within the SCOP categories of metabolism...... recessive markers) and CS (wild type) to gain valuable insights into the gene interaction and complex regulation in insecticide resistance of house flies, Musca domestica. Results Over 56 million reads were used to assemble the adult female M. domestica transcriptome reference and 14488 contigs were...

  3. Infanticide by male house sparrows: gaining time or manipulating females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, José P

    2003-08-07

    The killing of genetically unrelated young by males has been viewed as a strategy that forces victimized females to advance the onset of their next fertile period, thus infanticidal males gain a time advantage that may be crucial to maximize reproductive success. Among females that may raise several broods in a year, a failure occurring relatively earlier in the time-course of the previous breeding attempt may result in an increased investment in the next breeding attempt. This female strategy may be exploited by males in their own interest, and may strongly select for male infanticidal behaviour. I demonstrate that, in the house sparrow, females mated with infanticidal males re-laid earlier, initiated more breeding attempts and fledged more offspring than females mated with non-infanticidal males. These results suggest that both the time saving and the manipulation of female investment are independent mechanisms conferring advantages that may have selected for male infanticide in the studied population.

  4. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus in the house fly: temporospatial fate of bacteria and expression of the antimicrobial peptide defensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies disseminate numerous species of bacteria acquired during feeding and breeding activities in microbe-rich habitats. Previous house fly surveys have detected the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which causes cutaneous and septic infections in mammals and enterotoxic food poisoning. We asses...

  6. Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Jeffrey G; Warren, Wesley C; Beukeboom, Leo W; Bopp, Daniel; Clark, Andrew G; Giers, Sarah D; Hediger, Monika; Jones, Andrew K; Kasai, Shinji; Leichter, Cheryl A; Li, Ming; Meisel, Richard P; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Terence D; Nelson, David R; Reid, William R; Rinkevich, Frank D; Robertson, Hugh M; Sackton, Timothy B; Sattelle, David B; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tomlinson, Chad; Jacobus Mgn Van De Zande, Louis; Walden, Kimberly; Wilson, Richard K; Liu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathog

  7. House of Flying Daggers: Zhang Yimou's New Mega Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenBaoguang

    2004-01-01

    Set in the year 859 in the waning days of the now-corrupt Tang Dynasty,the central force in the film is a shadowy revolutionary alliance known as the House of Flying Daggers. Their leader has been assassinated, but a mysterious new leader has already replaced him.

  8. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from house flies (Musca domestica) in kitchens, farms, hospitals and slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Izadi, Morteza; Hafshejani, Taghi T; Khamesipour, Faham

    2016-01-01

    Identifying disease vectors and pathogens is one of the key steps in controlling vector-borne diseases. This study investigated the possible role of house flies (Musca domestica) as vectors in the transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces of Iran. House flies were captured from household kitchens, cattle farms, chicken farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals and slaughterhouses. Isolation of K. pneumoniae from external surfaces and guts of the flies was performed using MacConkey agar (MA) and thioglycollate broth (TGB). Identification of the isolates was performed with phenotypic techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 600 house flies were sampled during the study period from different locations in four different seasons. Overall, 11.3% of the captured house flies were positive for K. pneumoniae. In Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari province, the prevalence was 12.7%, while in Isfahan province, 10.0% of the sampled house flies were infected with K. pneumoniae. Season-wise, the highest prevalence of infections among the house flies was in summer. The organisms were highly resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime and piperacillin. A lowest level of resistance was observed for imipenem/cilastatin. The findings of this study demonstrated that house flies are potential vectors of antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae in Isfahan and Chaharmahal provinces, Iran. Control efforts for infections caused by this particular bacterium should take M. domestica into account.

  9. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N H V; Nayduch, D

    2016-06-01

    The adult house fly Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) can disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas in which humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of bacteria in house flies. Flies were fed four different 'doses' of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP E. coli) (very low, low, medium, high) and survival was determined at 1, 4, 10 and 22 h post-ingestion by culture and epifluorescent microscopy. Over 22 h, the decline in GFP E. coli was significant in all treatments (P house flies, may exist and is likely to be immune-mediated. Understanding dose-dependent bacterial survival in flies can help in predicting bacteria transmission potential.

  10. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  11. Macrochelid Mite, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae as a Biological Control Agent Against House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of macrochelids (Acarina: Mesostigmata have shown capability to attack housefly larvae and eggs but it is presumed that only a few of them play a significant role in the control of flies in nature. Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli is one of several mites that feeds on eggs, newly hatched and small larvae of house fly Musca domestica L. This study provide avidence that macrochelid mite is attacking not only housefly larvae and eggs but also on housefly adults. Macrocheles muscaedomesticae mite was reared in the laboratory on house fly frozen eggs and first instar of larvae at constant conditions of 28°C±1 and 90% relative humidity using sterilized artificial diet. The mean incubation period of eggs, total immatures, female longevity were 0.7, 4.0 and 25.2 days, respectively when fed on frozen eggs meanwhile means were 0.8, 7.0 and 22.6 days when fed on first instar larvae of M. domestica. The total consumption of female was 131.1 eggs/female or 82.7 larvae. Results of the present study showed that the mean mortality percentages of eggs due to predation of three levels of predator 2, 5 and 10 individuals were 57.2, 74.9 and 96.5 after 5, 4, 2 days, respectively. Also, the larval stage of M. domestica was introduced with three levels of 10, 20 and 25 individuals for each level of predatory mite 2, 5 and 10 adults, respectively. Results revealed that the best results were recorded at the level of 5 mites, where the mean mortality percentage of larvae was 100% after one day when introduced with 10 housefly’s larvae but it was 96% after two days when introduced with 20 housefly’s larvae and 76.2% after three days when introduced with 25 houseflies larvae at level of 5. In addition, the present study provide evidence that mites can consume the housefly adult stage. Our findings indicated that the best results were recorded at the level of 10 mites where the mean mortality percentages of adults were 83.55%, the fly died after

  12. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on selected fitness parameters of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [L.]) was examined in the laboratory. Virus-injected stable flies of both genders suffered substantially higher mortality than control flies. By day 9, female...

  13. Comparative repellent properties of certain chemicals against mosquitoes, house flies and cockroaches using modified techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, P H; Tungikar, V B; Sharma, R N

    1994-09-01

    Several terpenoids were assessed for their repellent/toxic properties against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house flies (Musca domestica) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Impregnated wide mesh netting was used in the case of the Dipterans, while treated filtered paper was employed for the bioassays with cockroaches. Persistence of the repellent chemicals was studied. Doses ranged from 5-20 gm/M2 for the Dipterans and 25-100 mg per 4 x 4 cm filter paper for the cockroaches. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) offered the maximum protection of the chemicals tested against mosquitoes but was not so effective against house flies and cockroaches. Citral and Eugenol were effective against all the three test insects. Other test compounds afforded varying degrees of protection. Application strategy and utility of the findings are discussed.

  14. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species.

  15. Isolation and identification of house fly,Musca domestica L., repellents from pepper tree,Schinus molle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, P D; Slessor, K N; Borden, J H; Chong, L J; Abate, T

    1996-01-01

    Foliage from the pepper tree,Schinus molle L., is traditionally used in Ethiopia to "repel" house flies,Musca domestica L. The volatile extracts of pepper tree leaves were shown to have repellent and feeding-deterrent activity against house flies in a two-choice laboratory bioassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic fractionation of steam-distilled volatiles from leaves, monitored by laboratory bioassays, demonstrated that bioactivity is associated with two compounds,cis-menth-2-en-1-ol andtrans-piperitol. The absolute configuration of the latter was established as (1S,6S)-piperitol by comparison of acetyl lactate derivatives. Racemic compounds were synthesized from piperitone, and bioassays with house flies indicatedtrans-piperitol to be the most active house fly repellent.

  16. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  17. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  18. The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites caught in a pig-pen in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Maike; Klimpel, Sven; Sievert, Kai

    2009-03-09

    In the present study a total of 224 specimens of the synanthropic house fly (Musca domestica) were caught in a pig-pen of an organic farmer in Dormagen (Germany). The flies were examined for their potential as a carrier of metazoan parasites. On the exoskeletons and in the intestines of the flies the eggs and/or larvae of four endoparasite nematode species of domestic pigs (Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Metastrongylus sp., undetermined Strongylida) were isolated. Also one ectoparasite species, the hog louse (Haematopinus suis), was detected on the exoskeleton of one fly. The analysis of the pig faeces as potential source revealed many eggs and larvae of nematodes. A high number of A. suum eggs (62.0% of all found nematode eggs), many eggs of strongylid nematodes (21.0%), some eggs of S. ransomi and few eggs of Trichuris suis were detected. However Metastrongylus sp. could not be identified in the faeces. Further laboratory experiments verified the potential of the house fly as a transmitter of the pig parasites A. suum and T. suis. In the intestines of 59 flies (49.2%) from 120 experimentally used house flies, nematode eggs of both nematode species were detected. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of the house fly as a vector of metazoan pig parasites.

  19. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2% overall. None of the ...

  20. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  1. Insecticidal properties of several essential oils on the house fly (Musca domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2008-02-01

    The insecticidal activity of 34 essential oils, extracted from plants, was screened against the house fly, Musca domestica L. under laboratory conditions. Essential oils from Pogostemon cablin proved to be the most efficient at a lethal dose of 3 microg/fly after topical application. Eight oils (P. roseum, O. vulgare, O. compactum, M. pulegium, O. basilicum, O. majorana, T. vulgaris and P. graveolens) were lethal in doses ranging from 10 to 20 microg (10, 13, 13, 13, 15, 17, 18 and 19 microg/fly, respectively). The lethal doses of another 13 oils were ascertained in the range 20-50 microg/fly, nine oils had lethal doses of 50-100 microg. For two oils, the lethal dose could not be for the topical application. In the fumigant test, the most efficient proved to be Mentha pulegium oil (4.7 microg/cm(2)). For 10 oils, a lethal dose between 5 and 10 microg/cm(2) was ascertained (T. bipinata, C. aurantifolia, T. occidentalis, T. matschiana, S. officinalis, T. vulgaris, M. quinquenervia, O. compactum, C. limonum and R. officinalis, respectively). For the other 10 oils a lethal dose from 10 but to 80 microg/cm(2) was ascertained, and for 13 oils the lethal dose was higher than the highest dose in the tests.

  2. Effect of some botanical materials on certain biological aspects of the house fly, Musca domestica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabawy A. I. Elkattan, Khalafalla S. Ahmed, Saadya M. Elbermawy and Rabab

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lantana camara (leaves, Pelargonium zonale (leaves, Cupressus macrocarpa (leaves, Cyperus rotundus (whole plant and Acacia nilotica (seeds powders on some biological aspects of house fly, M. domestica L. were tested. The effects of three lethal concentrations LC25, LC50 and LC75 on the larval duration, pupation percent, pupal weight, pupal duration, adult emergence percent, sex ratio, adult longevity, and fecundity were determined. The induced malformed larvae, pupae and adults were recorded and photographed. The powders of the five plants were found to have promising effects in controlling this insect.

  3. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  4. Evaluation of cold shock-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the house fly Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mishra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low temperature affects the survival, growth and development of invertebrates, especially insects, based on the severity of cold and the duration of exposure. Although the effects of cold shock or direct chilling were previously analysed in terms of development patterns and defects, morphological changes, cold hardiness, cryopreservation and diapause in insects, very little information is available regarding the effects of cold shock at the chromosomal level. Material and Methods: Late third instar larvae of the house fly Musca domestica were exposed to low temperatures (10, 4, 0 and -5°C for different durations, in order to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the present study. The chromosomal aberration assay and micronucleus test were used as genotoxic end points. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage was observed using the Trypan blue staining method. Results: A significant (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001 increase in chromosome aberrations and micronucleus frequency was observed in all of the exposed groups compared to the control. The mitotic index showed a dose-dependent increase; however, it was lower in comparison to the control. The developmental patterns in exposed larvae exhibited an increase in larval mortality and a delay in adult emergence. Extensive tissue damage was observed at -5°C by Trypan blue staining. Conclusions: The present work suggests that cold shock induces chromosome aberrations and cytotoxicity and affects the developmental pattern in house fly, M. domestica.

  5. Multiple origins of kdr-type resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Hedtke, Shannon M; Leichter, Cheryl A; Harris, Sarah A; Su, Cathy; Brady, Seán G; Taskin, Vatan; Qiu, Xinghui; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide resistance is a model phenotype that can be used to investigate evolutionary processes underlying the spread of alleles across a global landscape, while offering valuable insights into solving the problems that resistant pests present to human health and agriculture. Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides world-wide and they exert their toxic effects through interactions with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc). Specific mutations in Vssc (kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr) are known to cause resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in house flies. In order to determine the number of evolutionary origins of kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr, we sequenced a region of Vssc from house flies collected in the USA, Turkey and China. Our phylogenetic analysis of Vssc unequivocally supports the hypothesis of multiple independent origins of kdr, super-kdr and kdr-his on an unprecedented geographic scale. The implications of these evolutionary processes on pest management are discussed.

  6. Multiple origins of kdr-type resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank D Rinkevich

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance is a model phenotype that can be used to investigate evolutionary processes underlying the spread of alleles across a global landscape, while offering valuable insights into solving the problems that resistant pests present to human health and agriculture. Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides world-wide and they exert their toxic effects through interactions with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc. Specific mutations in Vssc (kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr are known to cause resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in house flies. In order to determine the number of evolutionary origins of kdr, kdr-his and super-kdr, we sequenced a region of Vssc from house flies collected in the USA, Turkey and China. Our phylogenetic analysis of Vssc unequivocally supports the hypothesis of multiple independent origins of kdr, super-kdr and kdr-his on an unprecedented geographic scale. The implications of these evolutionary processes on pest management are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  8. Evaluation of the House Fly Musca domestica as a Mechanical Vector for an Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Antonio; Scasciamacchia, Silvia; Garofolo, Giuliano; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Tarsitano, Elvira; Adone, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus) was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs. PMID:20808920

  9. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been inges...

  10. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to spinach by house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasala, Lakmini; Talley, Justin L; Desilva, Udaya; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Wayadande, Astri

    2013-04-01

    Filth flies are known mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in hospital and restaurant settings, but their role as vectors for disseminating microbes to plants has not been demonstrated. Escherichia coli O157:H7 deposition by flies onto spinach was studied using molecular, microbiological, and microscopy techniques. Relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies showed that bacteria acquired by flies from contaminated cattle manure and deposited in regurgitation spots on leaves survived and multiplied. Scanning electron microscopy of the regurgitation spots of flies exposed to manure inoculated with E. coli suggested the multiplication of bacteria-like organisms within the spots. This finding implies that the bacteria were active and is consistent with a hypothesis that regurgitation spots serve as a nutrition source allowing E. coli O157:H7 to survive on the spinach phylloplane. E. coli O157:H7 persisted on fly body surfaces up to 13 days after exposure to acquisition sources, suggesting that fly cuticular surfaces are conducive to the growth of this pathogen. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of bioenhanced transmission of human pathogens by house flies and suggest that filth flies may affect the microbial safety of fresh produce.

  11. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  12. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  13. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in

  14. Experimental demonstration of possible cryptic female choice on male tsetse fly genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, W G

    2009-11-01

    A possible explanation for one of the most general trends in animal evolution - rapid divergent evolution of animal genitalia - is that male genitalia are used as courtship devices that influence cryptic female choice. But experimental demonstrations of stimulatory effects of male genitalia on female reproductive processes have generally been lacking. Previous studies of female reproductive physiology in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans suggested that stimulation during copulation triggers ovulation and resistance to remating. In this study we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in G. morsitans centralis and induced, as predicted, cryptic female choice against the male: sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments in which we altered the female sensory abilities at the site contacted by these male structures during copulation, and severely altered or eliminated the stimuli the male received from this portion of his genitalia, suggested that the effects of genital alteration on sperm storage were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female, rather than altered male behavior. These data support the hypothesis that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has been responsible for the rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia in Glossina; limitations of this support are discussed. It appears that a complex combination of stimuli trigger female ovulation, sperm storage, and remating, and different stimuli affect different processes in G. morsitans, and that the same processes are controlled differently in G. pallidipes. This puzzling diversity in female triggering mechanisms may be due to the action of sexual selection.

  15. Cryptic female choice in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P I

    2000-10-01

    Both female choice and male-male competition may take place during reproduction in many species. Female choice tends to be less obvious than male-male competition and consequently has received less attention from researchers. The opportunity for cryptic female choice arises after multiple insemination. Through postcopulatory processes, a female could alter the pattern of paternity among her offspring so that it does not directly reflect the different contributions of sperm made by her mates. To be able to determine if a female alters the relative sperm contributions of her mates, the behaviors and influences of the males must therefore be first taken into account. The interest of each male is to father all the offspring, and the interest of each female is to maximize paternal quality. Female yellow dung flies have complex internal reproductive tracts that may give them considerable control over the fertilization success of stored sperm from different males. In laboratory trials to date, the last male to mate has usually been most successful. In the present study, cryptic choice occurred in Scathophaga stercoraria and the pattern of choice was consistent with previously reported results. The fertilization success of a female's second mate (P2) was substantially larger if a female was kept at constant temperature and if the second male was genetically similar to her at the phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) locus. Females from the field normally have three spermathecae, but some have four. Lines were bred to have either three or four spermathecae. Flies from the different lines were crossed to generate females with similar genetic backgrounds that had either three or four spermathecae. P2 was significantly lower for high-quality females, that is, those that laid larger-than-average-clutches, with four spermathecae than for low-quality females with four spermathecae; female quality had no influence on P2 for females with three spermathecae. The results suggest that only large

  16. Sperm survival in the female reproductive tract in the fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G; Hellriegel, B; Heyland, A; Ward, P I.

    2002-02-01

    While sperm competition risk favours males transferring many sperm to secure fertilizations, females of a variety of species actively reduce sperm numbers reaching their reproductive tract, e.g. by extrusion or killing. Potential benefits of spermicide to females include nutritional gains, influence over sperm storage and paternity, and the elimination of sperm bearing somatic mutations that would lower zygote fitness.We investigated changes in sperm viability after in vivo and in vitro exposure to the female tract in the polyandrous fly, Scathophaga stercoraria. Sperm viability was significantly lower in the females' spermathecae immediately after mating than in the experimental males' testes. Males also varied significantly in the proportion of live sperm found in storage in vivo. However, the exact mechanism of sperm degradation remains to be clarified. In vitro exposure to extracts of the female reproductive tract, including female accessory glands, failed to significantly lower sperm viability compared to controls. These results are consistent either with postcopulatory sperm mortality in vivo depending entirely on the male (with individual differences in sperm viability, motility or longevity) or with postcopulatory sperm mortality being subtly affected by female effects which were not detected by the in vitro experimental conditions. Importantly, we found no evidence in support of the hypothesis that female accessory glands contribute to sexual conflict via spermicide. Therefore, female muscular control remains to date the only ascertained mechanism of female influence on sperm storage in this species.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF PRE-WEANED FEMALE CALVES CONFINED IN HOUSING AND OPEN ENVIRONMENT HUTCHES IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, S. ABBAS, T. AL-MUTAWA AND M. BEDAIR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to compare the responses of Holstein Friesian pre-weaned female calves confined in elevated metallic crates in closed-type of housing and polyvinyl hutches in an open environment of Kuwait. A total of 176 newborn Holstein Friesian female calves were randomly distributed to conventional confinement in closed-type calf houses (control and individual calf hutch in open environment (treatment. These calves were monitored upto the weaning age of 90 days. The average daily live weight gain was significantly higher in calves housed in hutches than conventional housing system (413 versus 113 g/h/d; P≤0.0001. Mean risk rates (RR for mortality in hutch and conventional housing were 0.017 and 0.23, respectively. The results showed a significant positive impact of hutch housing with respect to growth, mortality and incidence of diseases in Kuwait’s intensive dairy farming system

  18. Infanticide by male house sparrows: gaining time or manipulating females?

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, José P

    2003-01-01

    The killing of genetically unrelated young by males has been viewed as a strategy that forces victimized females to advance the onset of their next fertile period, thus infanticidal males gain a time advantage that may be crucial to maximize reproductive success. Among females that may raise several broods in a year, a failure occurring relatively earlier in the time-course of the previous breeding attempt may result in an increased investment in the next breeding attempt. This female strateg...

  19. Speciation and reduced hybrid female fertility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Nachman, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, intrinsic postzygotic isolation has been well studied in males but has been less studied in females, despite the fact that female gametogenesis and pregnancy provide arenas for hybrid sterility or inviability that are absent in males. Here, we asked whether inviability or sterility is observed in female hybrids of Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus, taxa which hybridize in nature and for which male sterility has been well characterized. We looked for parent-of-origin growth phenotypes by measuring adult body weights in F1 hybrids. We evaluated hybrid female fertility by crossing F1 females to a tester male and comparing multiple reproductive parameters between intrasubspecific controls and intersubspecific hybrids. Hybrid females showed no evidence of parent-of-origin overgrowth or undergrowth, providing no evidence for reduced viability. However, hybrid females had smaller litter sizes, reduced embryo survival, fewer ovulations, and fewer small follicles relative to controls. Significant variation in reproductive parameters was seen among different hybrid genotypes, suggesting that hybrid incompatibilities are polymorphic within subspecies. Differences in reproductive phenotypes in reciprocal genotypes were observed and are consistent with cyto-nuclear incompatibilities or incompatibilities involving genomic imprinting. These findings highlight the potential importance of reduced hybrid female fertility in the early stages of speciation.

  20. Resistance to Conventional and New Insecticides in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Poultry Facilities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Ali Shad, Sarfraz; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are pests of poultry facilities and have the ability to develop resistance against different insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the resistance status of house flies to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and novel chemistry insecticides from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Five adult house fly populations were studied for their resistance status to selected conventional and novel chemistry insecticides. For four pyrethroids, the range of resistance ratios was 14-55-fold for cypermethrin, 11-45-fold for bifenthrin, 0.84-4.06-fold for deltamethrin, and 4.42-24-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin when compared with a susceptible population. Very low levels of resistance were found to deltamethrin compared with the other pyrethroids. For the three organophosphate insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.70-16-fold for profenofos, 7.50-60-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 4.37-53-fold for triazophos. Very low levels of resistance were found to profenofos compared with the other insecticides. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.20-16.00-fold for fipronil, 3.73-7.16-fold for spinosad, 3.06-23-fold for indoxacarb, 0.96-5.88-fold for abamectin, and 0.56-3.07-fold for emamectin benzoate. Rotation of insecticides with different modes of action showing no or very low resistance may prevent insecticide resistance in house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and integrated management plans on poultry farms are required to prevent resistance development, field control failures, and environmental pollution. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multiple gene up-regulation, but it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory factors. However, no regulatory factors in insecticide resistance have yet been identified, and there has been no examination of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple inse...

  2. Do female fruit flies (Drosophila serrata) copy the mate choice of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Heather L; Punzalan, David; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Rundle, Howard D

    2009-09-01

    Female mate-choice copying is a social learning phenomenon whereby a female's observation of a successful sexual interaction between a male and another female increases her likelihood of subsequently preferring that male. Although mate-choice copying has been documented in several vertebrate species, to our knowledge it has not yet been investigated in insects. Here, we investigated whether female mate-choice copying occurs in the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, a model system for the study of mate preferences and the sexual selection they generate. We used two complementary experiments in which focal females were given a choice between two males that differed in either their apparent (as determined visually by the focal female) or actual recent mating success. Mate-choice copying was evaluated by testing whether focal females mated more frequently with the 'preferred' male as opposed to the other male. In both experiments, however, we found no evidence for mate-choice copying. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent absence of mate-choice copying in this species.

  3. [Terahertz radiation influence on number and development dynamics of offspring F1 of fruit fly females under stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A I; Weĭsman, N Ia; Nemova, E F; Mamrashev, A A; Nikolaev, N A

    2013-01-01

    Virgin fruit fly females were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 2.5 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz radiation (0.1-2.2 THz) for the last 30 min. Then females were copulated with males. Offspring F1 from oocytes which were mature or immature at exposure (oviposition in 1-2 or 9-10 days after irradiation) was studied. Stress induces a rejection of the offspring maturation dynamics to imago from external control (offspring of flies which was maintained in standard conditions). In offsping from mature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of male maturation to imago was different from internal control (offspring of stressed unirradiated flies). The number of imago males decreased. The dynamics of female maturation to imago coincides with laboratory control. In offsping from immature oocytes of irradiated flies the dynamics of female and male maturation and the number of flies were not significantly different from the internal control. It was concluded that only mature oocytes are sensitive to THz radiation influence.

  4. Female-mediated differential sperm storage in a fly with complex spermathecae, Scatophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Hellriegel, Barbara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2009-01-01

    Multiple spermathecae potentially allow selective sperm use, provided that sperm from rival males are stored differentially, that is, in different proportions across storage compartments. In the yellow dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria, females have three spermathecae arranged as a doublet and singlet. To test whether females store the sperm of rival males actively and differentially, we mated fixed male pairs to three females. After copulation, females were (1) dissected immediately before th...

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2017-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been ingested by house flies in which viable C. jejuni colonies could be isolated from whole bodies, the vomitus and the excreta of adult M. domestica and evaluated the activation of innate immune responses of house flies to ingested C. jejuni over time. C. jejuni could be cultured from infected houseflies soon after ingestion but no countable C. jejuni colonies were observed > 24 h postingestion. We detected viable C. jejuni in house fly vomitus and excreta up to 4 h after ingestion, but no viable bacteria were detected ≥ 8 h. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified pathogen-induced gene expression in the intestinal tracts of adult house flies 4-24 h after ingesting C. jejuni. We measured the expression of immune regulatory (thor, JNK, and spheroide) and effector (cecropin, diptericin, attacin, defensing, and lysozyme) genes in C. jejuni-infected and -uninfected house flies using quantitative real time PCR. Some house fly factor, or combination of factors, eliminates C. jejuni within 24 h postingestion. Because C. jejuni is not amplified within the body of the housefly, this insect likely serves as a mechanical vector rather than as a true biological, amplifying vector for C. jejuni, and adds to our understanding of insect-pathogen interactions. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. A cost of cryptic female choice in the yellow dung fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul I; Wilson, Alastair J; Reim, Constanze

    2008-09-01

    Female dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria (L.) store sperm from several males in three or four spermathecae. Selection on the number of spermathecae was successful and the morphological intermediate stages in the evolution from three to four spermathecae are illustrated. The genetic quality of a male from a female's perspective depends on an interaction between their genotypes and the microhabitat in which the offspring will grow. Females influence the paternity pattern of their offspring, and do this differently in different microhabitats. Females with four spermathecae are better able to influence paternity than are those with three spermathecae. However, there must be a cost to building and maintaining an extra spermatheca. We estimate, using the animal model on pedigree data, that this cost is approximately five eggs per clutch, i.e. around 8% of the mean clutch size. This is a substantial cost and such costs should not be ignored in discussions of the benefits to females of assessing the genetic qualities of their mating partners. We suggest that the number of spermathecae in the study population is stable because the relative benefits in quality of offspring through cryptic female choice is balanced by the costs in total numbers of offspring.

  7. Experimental modifications imply a stimulatory function for male tsetse fly genitalia, supporting cryptic female choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, William G

    2009-07-01

    One of the most sweeping of all patterns in morphological evolution is that animal genitalia tend to diverge more rapidly than do other structures. Abundant indirect evidence supports the cryptic female choice (CFC) explanation of this pattern, which supposes that male genitalia often function to court females during copulation; but direct experimental demonstrations of a stimulatory function have been lacking. In this study, we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in Glossina pallidipes flies. As predicted by theory, this induced CFC against the male: ovulation and sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments showed that these effects were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female from the male's altered genitalia, and were not due to other possible changes in the males due to alteration of their genital form. Stimulation from male genital structures also induces females to permit copulation to occur. Together with previous studies of tsetse reproductive physiology, these data constitute the most complete experimental confirmation that sexual selection (probably by CFC) acts on the stimulatory properties of male genitalia.

  8. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  9. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  10. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  11. Influence of housing on the consequences of chronic mild stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S; Bielajew, C

    2007-08-01

    The chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm was developed to model anhedonia in animals. The repeated administration of a series of unpredictable, mild stressors attempts to mimic the daily stress associated with the onset of clinical depression in humans. Male animals are predominantly used in these investigations despite significant, well-documented sex differences in human depression. In this study, the CMS procedure was modified to be more ecologically relevant to female animals. The effects of stress on sucrose preference, social interaction, rate of weight gain, and regularity of the estrous cycle in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were evaluated in both single- and paired-housed rats, during 3 weeks each of baseline, CMS, and post-CMS phases. The results indicate that only single-housed rats exposed to stressors have a reduced rate of weight gain, significantly attenuated sucrose preference levels, and increased social interaction scores during the CMS phase of the study. Housing condition more than exposure to stress appeared to contribute to the disruption of estrous cycling in some animals. These data suggest that housing affords some protection from the negative consequences of CMS, at least in female rats, and that lack of social interaction in the single-housing condition may render females more vulnerable to stress-related illnesses. The development of paradigms that model human depression should emphasize sex-specific differences.

  12. The function of female resistance behavior: Intromission by male coercion vs. female cooperation in sepsid flies (Diptera: Sepsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Eberhard

    2002-06-01

    coercion hypothesis, male and female are opposed in a physical battle which the female loses if copulation occurs. In species in which males are morphologically incapable of forcing intromission without active female cooperation (I argue here that this is probably a very common situation, data on the behavioral and ecological context in which resistance occurs can distinguish between the two possibilities. Partially congruent functions of resistance, seen from the female point of view, are female resistance to screen (male persuasion, and female resistance to avoid males non-selectively (male coercion. Sepsid flies illustrate these ideas. Females often struggle energetically in apparent attempts to dislodge mounted males and to prevent intromission, and males grasp females with powerful species-specific structures on their front legs and genitalia. This suggests the possibility of coerced intromission. But behavioral and morphological evidence demonstrate that active female cooperation occurs at the moment of intromission, and that males are probably dependent on this cooperation because they are not morphologically equipped to force their genitalia into those of an uncooperative female. Despite the impression from previous publications, male insects in general may seldom be able to achieve intromission by genitalic force. The species-specific forms of the grasping genitalia of male sepsids are probably not the result of an evolutionary arms race between coercive males and unselectively resistant females

  13. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit.

  14. Treatment of textile dye-house waste water by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalankilli, G.; Sunder, A.E. [S.S.M. Institute of Textile Technology and Polytechnic College, Komarapalayam (India). Dept. of Textile Processing

    2003-07-01

    The use of fly ash for the removal of dyes, one each from acid basic and reactive class dyes from aqueous solution at different concentration and pH, has been investigated. Dyes used were Methylene Blue (CI Basic Blue 9), Drimalan Orange FGL (CI Reactive Orange 53), and Erioxyl Yellow (CI Acid Yellow 127). Fly ash was from Mettur coal-fired power station. The adsorption and desorption studies confirm fly ash as an effective unconventional sorbent that can be explored in treating the effluent that contain these dyes. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Housing conditions and stimulus females: a robust social discrimination task for studying male rodent social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Edds, Jennifer Stepp; Young, W Scott

    2009-01-01

    Social recognition (SR) enables rodents to distinguish between familiar and novel conspecifics, largely through individual odor cues. SR tasks utilize the tendency for a male to sniff and interact with a novel individual more than a familiar individual. Many paradigms have been used to study the roles of the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in SR. However, inconsistencies in results have arisen within similar mouse strains, and across different paradigms and laboratories, making reliable testing of SR difficult. The current protocol details a novel approach that is replicable across investigators and in different strains of mice. We created a protocol that uses gonadally intact, singly housed females presented within corrals to group-housed males. Housing females singly before testing is particularly important for reliable discrimination. This methodology will be useful for studying short-term social memory in rodents, and may also be applicable for longer term studies.

  16. Female House Martin Delichon urbica provisions chicks at nests in two separate subcolonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-01

    An individually colour-ringed House Martin Delichon urbica, molecularly confirmed to be a female, after attending a first brood in early July 2007, became engaged with two second broods at the same time, one with the original mate of the first brood. The two nests were at opposite sides of the same

  17. Female House Martin Delichon urbica provisions chicks at nests in two separate subcolonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-01

    An individually colour-ringed House Martin Delichon urbica, molecularly confirmed to be a female, after attending a first brood in early July 2007, became engaged with two second broods at the same time, one with the original mate of the first brood. The two nests were at opposite sides of the same

  18. Stability of Field-Selected Resistance to Conventional and Newer Chemistry Insecticides in the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, N; Ijaz, M; Shad, S A; Khan, H

    2015-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a pest of livestock and has the ability to develop resistance to different insecticides. We assessed the fluctuations in seasonal stability of house fly resistance to insecticides from poultry facility populations in Pakistan. House fly populations were collected from poultry facilities located at Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan in three seasons (July, November, and March) to investigate the fluctuations in their resistance to conventional (organophosphate, pyrethroid) and novel chemistry (spinosyn, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid) insecticides. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions, and cotton pads dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results showed that all house fly populations had varying degrees of susceptibility to tested insecticides. Comparisons between populations at different seasons showed a significant fluctuation in susceptibility to organophosphate, pyrethroid, spinosyn, oxadiazine, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Highest resistant levels were found for organophosphate when compared with other tested insecticides. The resistance to conventional insecticides decreased significantly in March compared with July and November, while resistance to oxadiazine and avermectins decreased significantly in November. However, resistance to spinosad and imidacloprid remained stable throughout the seasons. All conventional and novel chemistry insecticides were significantly correlated with each other in all tested seasons except nitenpyram/lambda-cyhalothrin and nitenpyram/imidacloprid. Our data suggests that the variation in house fly resistance among seasons could be due to fitness costs or to the cessation of selection pressure in the off-season. These results have significant implications for the use of insecticides in house fly management.

  19. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Ogawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at −20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at −80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at −80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at –80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage.

  20. Genome-Wide Responses of Female Fruit Flies Subjected to Divergent Mating Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave T Gerrard

    Full Text Available Elevated rates of mating and reproduction cause decreased female survival and lifetime reproductive success across a wide range of taxa from flies to humans. These costs are fundamentally important to the evolution of life histories. Here we investigate the potential mechanistic basis of this classic life history component. We conducted 4 independent replicated experiments in which female Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to 'high' and 'low' mating regimes, resulting in highly significant differences in lifespan. We sampled females for transcriptomic analysis at day 10 of life, before the visible onset of ageing, and used Tiling expression arrays to detect differential gene expression in two body parts (abdomen versus head+thorax. The divergent mating regimes were associated with significant differential expression in a network of genes showing evidence for interactions with ecdysone receptor. Preliminary experimental manipulation of two genes in that network with roles in post-transcriptional modification (CG11486, eyegone tended to enhance sensitivity to mating costs. However, the subtle nature of those effects suggests substantial functional redundancy or parallelism in this gene network, which could buffer females against excessive responses. There was also evidence for differential expression in genes involved in germline maintenance, cell proliferation and in gustation / odorant reception. Interestingly, we detected differential expression in three specific genes (EcR, keap1, lbk1 and one class of genes (gustation / odorant receptors with previously reported roles in determining lifespan. Our results suggest that high and low mating regimes that lead to divergence in lifespan are associated with changes in the expression of genes such as reproductive hormones, that influence resource allocation to the germ line, and that may modify post-translational gene expression. This predicts that the correct signalling of nutrient levels to the

  1. Genome-Wide Responses of Female Fruit Flies Subjected to Divergent Mating Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Dave T.; Fricke, Claudia; Edward, Dominic A.; Edwards, Dylan R.; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Elevated rates of mating and reproduction cause decreased female survival and lifetime reproductive success across a wide range of taxa from flies to humans. These costs are fundamentally important to the evolution of life histories. Here we investigate the potential mechanistic basis of this classic life history component. We conducted 4 independent replicated experiments in which female Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to ‘high’ and ‘low’ mating regimes, resulting in highly significant differences in lifespan. We sampled females for transcriptomic analysis at day 10 of life, before the visible onset of ageing, and used Tiling expression arrays to detect differential gene expression in two body parts (abdomen versus head+thorax). The divergent mating regimes were associated with significant differential expression in a network of genes showing evidence for interactions with ecdysone receptor. Preliminary experimental manipulation of two genes in that network with roles in post-transcriptional modification (CG11486, eyegone) tended to enhance sensitivity to mating costs. However, the subtle nature of those effects suggests substantial functional redundancy or parallelism in this gene network, which could buffer females against excessive responses. There was also evidence for differential expression in genes involved in germline maintenance, cell proliferation and in gustation / odorant reception. Interestingly, we detected differential expression in three specific genes (EcR, keap1, lbk1) and one class of genes (gustation / odorant receptors) with previously reported roles in determining lifespan. Our results suggest that high and low mating regimes that lead to divergence in lifespan are associated with changes in the expression of genes such as reproductive hormones, that influence resource allocation to the germ line, and that may modify post-translational gene expression. This predicts that the correct signalling of nutrient levels to the

  2. Isolation of Pathogenic Bacteria on the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera:Muscidae), Body Surface in Ahwaz Hospitals, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Anvar Ghaderi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is abundant opportunity for house fly, Musca domestica, to become contaminated and, in turn, to contaminate the patient environment. This study has been conducted with the aim of isolating and identifying the probable pathogenic inoculations of the flies in three hospitals in Ahwaz County, Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. Methods: Adult flies were collected by means of insect net and then transferrs to lab for microbiological process.Results:Totally on all house fly samples the bacteria genus Pseudomonas and Esherichia coli had the significantly highest rate of infection (P<0.05). The genera Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Diphtroid has significant lowest rate of infection. Hot and humid weather of the Khuzestan province which is host of patients coming from far localities for hospitalization, provide suitable conditions for housefly activities during the year. Conclusions: Thus suitable and applicable control methods such as environmental sanitations should be implemented for hospital environment in Ahwaz County.

  3. After infection with Leishmania infantum, Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) become more attractive to female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevatte, T M; Ward, R D; Sedda, L; Hamilton, J G C

    2017-07-21

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania infantum, a Protist parasite transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine if the odour of hamsters, infected with Le. infantum, was more attractive than the odour of the same hamsters, before they were infected. The attractiveness of odour collected from individual hamsters (n = 13), before they were infected, was compared in a longitudinal study, with the attractiveness of the odour of the same hamster in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, at a late stage of infection. The odour of six of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 50% of the female sand flies at the end of infection compared to before infection and the odour of four of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 75% of the female sand flies at the end of infection. These results strongly indicate that hamsters infected with Le. infantum become significantly more attractive to a greater proportion of female sand flies as the infection progresses.

  4. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible, the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF and piperonyl butoxide (PBO produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively. In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE and mixed function oxidase (MFO in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  5. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  7. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium Anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca Domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharififard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spino­sad against housefly.Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µg (A.I. per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combina­tion of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 µg (AI per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treat­ments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interac­tion was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treat­ments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spino­sad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.

  8. Homology modeling of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABA receptor channels and Surflex-docking of fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Gen-Yan

    2009-09-01

    To further explore the mechanism of selective binding of the representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) fipronil to insect over mammalian GABARs, three-dimensional models of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABAR were generated by homology modeling, using the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo marmorata as a template. Fipronil was docked into the putative binding site of the human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 receptors by Surflex-docking, and the calculated docking energies are in agreement with experimental results. The GABA receptor antagonist fipronil exhibited higher potency with house fly beta 3 GABAR than with human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAR. Furthermore, analyses of Surflex-docking suggest that the H-bond interaction of fipronil with Ala2 and Thr6 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of these GABARs plays a relatively important role in ligand selective binding. The different subunit assemblies of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABARs may result in differential selectivity for fipronil.

  9. Effect of host decoys on the ability of the parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni to parasitize house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...

  10. Persistence of low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N7 and H7N1 subtypes in house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Skovgård, Henrik; Stockmarr, Anders; Handberg, Kurt Jensen; Jørgensen, Poul H

    2011-05-01

    Avian influenza caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) has a negative impact on poultry production. Low-pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) is naturally present in wild birds, and the introduction of the virus into domestic poultry is assumed to occur through contact with wild birds and by human activity, including the movement of live and dead poultry, and fomites such as clothing and vehicles. At present, the possible role of insects in the spread of AIV is dubious. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential transmission of LPAIV by persistence of the virus in the alimentary tract of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Flies were fed three virus concentrations of two AIV strains and then incubated at different temperatures for up to 24 h. The persistence of the two virus strains in the flies declined with increasing incubation temperatures and incubation periods. Similarly, increased virus uptake by the flies increased the persistence of virus. Persistence of infective AIV in flies differed significantly between the two virus strains. The laboratory experiments of the present study indicate that the house fly can be a potential carrier of AIV.

  11. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    pestiferous insects that benefit from human colonization, and are readily found on all continents, except Antarctica. These insects are vectors for many...sugar, and powdered egg at a ratio of 6:6:1, v/v/v); an average of 362 flies/cage emerged from the pupae. After approx- imately 24 h of feeding ad...syrup [27] and processed cocoa beans [28,29], while trimethylpyrazine and not 2,5-dimethylpyrazine was found in dark chocolate [30], and roasted peanuts

  12. Floral volatiles in a sapromyiophilous plant and their importance in attracting house fly pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Dötterl, Stefan; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Floral scent in sapromyiophilous plants often consists of complex blends with not only fetid (e.g., sulfides) but also sweet (e.g., terpenoids) volatile organic compounds, and a recent study suggests that both groups of compounds are involved in pollinator attraction. However, little is known about the number and identity of compounds involved in pollinator attraction in these deceptive plants that mimic breeding sites of fly pollinators. In the present paper, we studied flower volatiles of sapromyiophilous Periploca laevigata and their capability to elicit biological responses in one of the pollinator species, Musca domestica. Floral volatiles were collected by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and electrophysiological (GC/EAD) and behavioral assays (two choice olfactometer) were conducted. In the floral scent of P. laevigata, we detected 44 compounds, of which indole, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D, as well as dimethyl trisulfide, which was present in trace amounts, were electrophysiologically active in the antennae of M. domestica. However, when we evaluated in behavioral experiments the attractiveness of the electrophysiologically active compounds (complete mixture against partial mixtures or against single compounds), we found that indole was the only attractive compound for the flies.

  13. Efficacy of the Suterra biolure individual female fruit fly attractant packages vs. the Unipak version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of putrescine with ammonium acetate into one unit had no significant effect on the attractance of Caribbean fruit fly to trap(s) when compared with the individual BioLure dispseners. Additionally, there were no significant differences in attractancy to the Mediterranean fruit fly wh...

  14. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  15. Extra-pair young in house wren broods are more likely to be male than female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L Scott; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K; Neuhäuser, Markus; Johnson, Bonnie G P; Soukup, Sheryl Swartz; Forsythe, Shannon Janota; Masters, Brian S

    2009-06-22

    Sex-allocation theory predicts that females should preferentially produce offspring of the sex with greater fitness potential. In socially monogamous animal species, extra-pair mating often increases the variance in fitness of sons relative to daughters. Thus, in situations where offspring sired by a female's extra-pair mate(s) will typically have greater fitness potential than offspring sired by the within-pair mate, sex-allocation theory predicts that females will bias the sex of offspring sired by extra-pair mates towards male. We examined the relationship between offspring sex and paternity over six breeding seasons in an Illinois population of the house wren (Troglodytes aedon), a cavity-nesting songbird. Out of the 2345 nestlings that had both sex and paternity assigned, 350 (15%) were sired by extra-pair males. The sex ratio of extra-pair offspring, 0.534, was significantly greater than the sex ratio of within-pair offspring, 0.492, representing an increase of 8.5 per cent in the proportion of sons produced. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of female birds increasing their production of sons in association with extra-pair fertilization. Our results are consistent with the oft-mentioned hypothesis that females engage in extra-pair mating to increase offspring quality.

  16. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods.

  17. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  18. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernando Pardo

    Full Text Available The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142 than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52; similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105 than at the rear side (n = 37. Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2% of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%. Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  19. Persistence of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N7 and H7N1 Subtypes in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Skovgård, Henrik; Stockmarr, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) has a negative impact on poultry production. Low-pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) is naturally present in wild birds, and the introduction of the virus into domestic poultry is assumed to occur through contact with wild birds and by human activity......, including the movement of live and dead poultry, and fomites such as clothing and vehicles. At present, the possible role of insects in the spread of AIV is dubious. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential transmission of LPAIV by persistence of the virus in the alimentary tract...... of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Flies were fed three virus concentrations of two AIV strains and then incubated at different temperatures for up to 24 h. The persistence of the two virus strains in the flies declined with increasing incubation temperatures and incubation periods...

  20. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  1. Estrogen levels influence medullary bone quantity and density in female house finches and pine siskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Maria E; Veglia, Megan K; Drucker, Kevin A; Brazeal, Kathleen R; Hahn, Thomas P; Watts, Heather E

    2017-05-15

    Medullary bone, a non-structural osseous tissue, serves as a temporary storage site for calcium that is needed for eggshell production in a number of avian species. Previous research focusing primarily on domesticated species belonging to the Anseriformes, Galliformes, and Columbiformes has indicated that rising estrogen levels are a key signal stimulating medullary bone formation; Passeriformes (which constitute over half of extant bird species and are generally small) have received little attention. In the current study, we examined the influence of estrogen on medullary bone and cortical bone in two species of Passeriformes: the Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus) and the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus). Females of these species received either an estradiol implant or were untreated as a control. After 4.5-5months, reproductive condition was assessed and leg (femora) and wing (humeri) bones were collected for analysis using high-resolution (10μm) micro-computed tomography scanning. We found that in both species estradiol-treated females had significantly greater medullary bone quantity in comparison to untreated females, but we found no differences in cortical bone quantity or microarchitecture. We were also able to examine medullary bone density in the pine siskins and found that estradiol treatment significantly increased medullary bone density. Furthermore, beyond the effect of the estradiol treatment, we observed a relationship between medullary bone quantity and ovarian condition that suggests that the timing of medullary bone formation may be related to the onset of yolk deposition in these species. Further research is needed to better understand the precise timing and endocrine regulation of medullary bone formation in Passerines and to determine the extent to which female Passerines rely on medullary bone calcium during the formation of calcified eggshells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  3. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera Muscidae) Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L.) (Díptera Muscidae) en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S; Claudio Salas F

    2008-01-01

    Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, l...

  4. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  5. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  6. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Communal nursing in wild house mice is not a by-product of group living: Females choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, Andrea; Lindholm, Anna K.; König, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Communal nursing, the provision of milk to non-offspring, has been argued to be a non-adaptive by-product of group living. We used 2 years of field data from a wild house mouse population to investigate this question. Communal nursing never occurred among females that previously lacked overlap in nest box use. Females nursed communally in only 33 % of cases in which there was a communal nursing partner available from the same social group. Solitarily nursing females were not socially isolated in their group; nevertheless, high spatial associations prior to reproduction predict which potential female partner was chosen for communal nursing. An increase in partner availability increased the probability of communal nursing, but population density itself had a negative effect, which may reflect increased female reproductive competition during summer. These results argue that females are selective in their choice of nursing partners and provide further support that communal nursing with the right partner is adaptive.

  9. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica, that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.

  10. Experimental demonstration of possible cryptic female choice on male tsetse fly genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Briceño-Lobo, Daniel; Eberhard-Chabtree, William

    2009-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, 2009. Este documento es privado debido a restricciones de derechos de autor del publicador. A possible explanation for one of the most general trends in animal evolution – rapid divergent evolution of animal genitalia – is that male genitalia are used as courtship devices that influence cryptic female choice. But experimental demonstrations of stimulatory effects of male genitalia on female reproductive processes have gen...

  11. Short-term individual housing induced social deficits in female Mongolian gerbils: attenuation by chronic but not acute imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A R; Hagan, J J; Jones, D N C; Hendrie, C A

    2012-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils are highly sensitive to manipulations of their social environments. Housing females individually for short periods (in the order of 7-21 days) has been shown to produce robust and reliable impairments of their subsequent social behaviour. These effects are typified by a marked reduction in the social investigation of an unfamiliar male in a neutral arena and/or a marked increases in levels of freezing whilst and only whilst they are being socially investigated (Immobile in contact). These responses demonstrate housing induced impaired motivation to socially interact. These effects have also been shown to be sensitive to treatment with chronic (but not acute) administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. It was therefore of interest to know if similar effects would be produced by treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant Imipramine. This mixed NA/5-HT reuptake inhibitor first developed in the 1950's is a commonly used standard in animal models of depression and remains in clinical use today. Female gerbils were individually housed for 7 days or maintained in single-sex groups of 4 for the same period. All animals were then randomly allocated to be administered with either 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine. Acute administration did not reverse the social impairments produced by the individual housing but did produce non-specific stimulant effects on locomotion in both housing conditions. These social impairments were however reduced after a further 14 days chronic treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine and stimulant effects were no longer seen. Following chronic administration in group-housed animals locomotor stimulation was replaced with sedation, which resulted in a reduction in social behaviour. That is, opposite to the effect seen in Individual housed animals. It is therefore concluded that chronic treatment with imipramine serves to increase social behaviour but only in those animals with a pre-existing social

  12. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations, which has been improved for larval pests by development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we de...

  13. The Effects of a DNA Virus Infection on the Reproductive Potential of Female Tsetse Flies, Glossina morsitans centralis and Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Rosemary C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive anomalies associated with the tsetse DNA virus infection in the female tsetse hosts, Glossina morsitans centralis Machado and Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, inoculated with the virus during the 3rd instar larval stage were studied and the data compared to those obtained from the control females injected with sterile physiological saline. Virus infected flies had significantly longer first and second pregnancy cycles (P<0.0001 and produced pupae that were of significantly less weight in milligrams (P<0.0001 compared to controls. Transmission of the virus to progeny was not absolute and only 21% of G. m. centralis and 48% of G. m. morsitans first progeny flies from infected females developed salivary gland hypertrophy as a result of transmission from mother to progeny. The virus infected females produced significantly fewere pupae compared to the controls during the experimental period (P<0.00001.

  14. Housing for Female Factory Workers: The Association between Renting Accommodation and Satisfaction with Income and Living Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Thuy Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has experienced a strong wave of migrants to urban and industrialized areas. This is a challenge for both local and national governments, which need to address the problems of the poor and socially marginalized, including providing housing for rural-to-urban migrants. Poor housing and the economic burden of house renting are increasingly recognized as determinants of both physical and mental health. Objectives: This paper examined the association between renting accommodation and income satisfaction and living conditions of female workers in light manufacturing industries in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented with quantitative survey of 2,818 female workers in 10 light manufacturing factories in 3 industrial zones by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Over 38% of female workers had to rent accommodation. The average expense for accommodation, water and electricity accounted for 30.1% of renters’ income, which is 7.2% (CI 95%, 5.3–9.3% higher than for non-renters. A higher proportion of renters than non-renters considered their income was unstable and insufficient for living costs. In addition, only 7.2% of renters reported that their living conditions were suitable, notably lower than non-renters (22.4%. Conclusion: The study showed the economic burden of renting accommodation on workers’ income satisfaction and living conditions. The findings have implications for an adequate housing access strategy for workers including the integration of housing development in the planning and development of industrial zones and factories.

  15. Evaluation of sexual behavior of housed male camels (Camelus dromedarius) through female parades: correlation with climatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    Camels are seasonal breeders, and their sexual behavior is influenced by environmental conditions, but the relationship between climatic factors and sexual behavior has been poorly described in the available literature. Nowadays, the male camel living habit is shifting towards captivity; thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the sexual behavior of housed male dromedary camel through female's parades and to correlate it with climatic parameters. Four housed sires, reared for semen collection, and one dam were used and the trial lasted 8 weeks, considering the first week as control. Six days per week and during evenings, the female was brought near each males' boxes, while two observers filled a behavioral sampling ethogram and scored the male sexual behavior. After this parade, blood samples were taken from the female to evaluate the estradiol concentration. In addition, the following meteorological parameters were recorded, everyday, at 9:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m.: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, and H-index. The correlation between sexual behavioral score and female estradiol concentration and climate parameters was analyzed. All the behavioral parameters showed a significant upward trend; female estradiol concentration varied during the period and picked at week 5. Male sexual behavior was negatively correlated with morning H-index, wind, and temperature, and positively correlated with pressure and evening humidity, whereas it was not correlated with estrogen. In conclusion, female parade was a successful method to evaluate and stimulate the occurrence of housed male dromedary camel sexual activity that resulted to be negatively affected by hot temperature, warm wind, and lack of rain.

  16. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  17. RNA sequencing to characterize transcriptional changes of sexual maturation and mating in the female oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Luo, Deye; Wu, Fangyu; Wang, Jialu; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-03-05

    Female reproductive potential plays a significant role in the survival and stability of species, and sexual maturation and mating processes are crucial. However, our knowledge of the reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and mating has been largely limited to model organisms. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest, known to cause major economic losses; thus, it is of great value to understand the transcriptional changes involved in sexual maturation and mating processes as well as the related genes. Here, we used a high-throughput sequencing method to identify multiple genes potentially involved in sexual maturation and mating in female B. dorsalis. We sequenced 39,999 unique genes with an average length of 883 bp. In total, 3264 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between mature virgin and immature Bactrocera dorsalis libraries, whereas only 83 DEGs were identified between flies that had mated or were mature virgins. These DEGs were functionally annotated using the GO and KEGG pathway annotation tools. Results showed that the main GO terms associated with the DEGs from the mature virgin vs. immature groups were primarily assigned to the metabolic and developmental processes, which we focused on, whereas those from the mated vs. mature virgin group largely belonged to the response to stimulus and immune system processes. Additionally, we identified multiple DEGs during sexual maturation that are involved in reproduction, and expression pattern analysis revealed that the majority DEGs detected were highly enriched in those linked to the ovaries or fat bodies. Several mating responsive genes differentially expressed after mating were also identified, and all antimicrobial peptides detected were highly enriched in fat body and significantly up-regulated approximately 2- to 10-fold at 24 h after mating. This study supplied female reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and the post

  18. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Insecticides for Use Against the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Determination of Resistance Levels on a Malaysian Poultry Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Jaal, Zairi; Rus, Adanan Che

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicology of two commercial larvicides--cyromazine (Neporex 50SP) and ChCy (combination of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, Naga 505)--and five commercial adulticides--thiamethoxam (Agita 10WG), cyfluthrin (Responsar WP), lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon 2.8EC), fipronil (Regent 50SC), and imidacloprid (Toxilat 10WP)--was examined against the WHO/VCRU (World Health Organization/ Vector Control Research Unit) susceptible strain and the AYTW (Ayer Tawar) field strain of house fly, Musca domestica L. These pesticides were administered topically, in the diet, or as a dry residue treatment on plywood. Probit analysis using at least five concentrations and the concentration that was lethal to 50% (LC(50)) of the organisms was applied to compare the toxicology and resistance levels of the AYTW population to different insecticides. In the larvicide laboratory study, ChCy was more effective than cyromazine, with a significantly lower LC(50) value when administered topically or in the diet, although the AYTW population was susceptible to both larvicides with a resistance ratio (RR) activity, which significantly reduced adult fly numbers compared with the control group. Cyfluthrin and fipronil were also confirmed to be effective, with a significant reduction in adult fly numbers compared with the control group.

  20. Female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) increase the size, but not immunocompetence, of their offspring through extra-pair mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna M; Vogel, Laura A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Johnson, Bonnie G; Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Thompson, Charles F

    2008-08-01

    House wrens are typically socially monogamous, but frequently engage in extra-pair matings leading to multisired broods. Because females do not appear to acquire direct material benefits from their extra-pair mates, we tested the hypothesis that female house wrens derive indirect genetic benefits, such as enhanced immunocompetence (cutaneous immune activity, humoral immunity, and plasma bactericidal activity) and condition (size and haematoserological traits) for their offspring, by mating polyandrously. We predicted that extra-pair young (EPY) should show greater immune responsiveness and better body condition than their within-pair maternal half-siblings (WPY). Contrary to our prediction, WPY had higher cutaneous immune activity than their EPY brood-mates in two of three years, and EPY and WPY did not differ in measures of innate and humoral immunity. WPY also had higher albumin to gamma-globulin ratios than EPY; however, they were not in better condition based on other measures. EPY had consistently longer tarsi (a measure of long-bone size) than their WPY half-siblings, suggesting that females engage in extra-pair copulations with larger males. The benefits of large structural size in the study population is unknown, but based on evidence from other passerines, we suggest that structural size may be an important fitness-related trait in house wrens. We conclude that our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that females gain immune-related benefits for their offspring by engaging in extra-pair matings. Further study of the fitness consequences of differences in tarsus length is needed to determine whether females acquire size-related benefits for their offspring from extra-pair mates.

  1. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Yannick; König, Barbara; Lindholm, Anna K

    2013-01-01

    According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t) are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+). As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  2. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Auclair

    Full Text Available According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+. As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  3. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst

    2014-01-01

    higher content of the persistent organic environmental contaminants dioxins and PCB than eggs from conventional hens held indoor in cages. 1,2 The elevated levels of dioxins and PCB are most likely due to the hens picking in soils contaminated by industrial activities, burning of waste, chemical spillage......A challenging aspect of organic egg and meat production is provision of a balanced nutrient supply. Some essential amino acids are difficult to provide in sufficient quantities in organic feed and undersupply may lead tolower egg production, slower growth and even cannibalism. Due to these problems...... it is accepted in EU regulations to balance the feed formula by use of synthetic amino acids in the organic production until improved organic sources of amino acids can be provided. In nature insects and insect larvae are important food sources for poultry and the larva of the common house fly (Musca domestica...

  4. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    realized in climatized chambers at seven temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 14 h of photophase. In each chamber 200 house fly pupae (24 to 48 h old were exposed to 40 partenogenetic female parasitoids (0 to 24 h old for 24 h. The temperature influenced the development and reproduction of M. uniraptor. The lowest value of the egg-adult period was 17 days, and occurred for 30°C and the parasitism and progeny emergence were highest at 28°C (87 and 63.5%, respectively. The lowest temperature threshold for the parasitoid females was 9.43°C, with a thermal constant of 366.62 degree-days. The temperature elevation reduces the duration of the egg to adult period (between 18 and 30°C and increases the parasitism (between 18 and 28°C of M. uniraptor. Temperatures between 28 and 30°C are the most adequated for rearing M. uniraptor on house fly pupae.

  5. Spotlighting a Silent Category of Young Females: The Life Experiences of "House Girls" in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kezban; Lukuslu, Demet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the everyday life experiences of young women in Turkey known as "ev kizi" or "house girls." The article explores how traditional gender roles and family structure in Turkish society limit their full participation in political, economic, and public life. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted…

  6. Spotlighting a Silent Category of Young Females: The Life Experiences of "House Girls" in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kezban; Lukuslu, Demet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the everyday life experiences of young women in Turkey known as "ev kizi" or "house girls." The article explores how traditional gender roles and family structure in Turkish society limit their full participation in political, economic, and public life. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted with a total of 30…

  7. Solidification Coal Fly Ash on A Textile Factory as Allelochemi to Alternative Portland Cement Wall House Anti-Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabang Setyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research for the application of coal waste as fly ash for mixture cement the stonewall anti moss which hypothesis upon which Allelochemi. Using the coal waste  represent one of program of environment conservation which is in the form of 3R ( Reuse, Recycle And Reduce, so this research can be made pilot project in development and substance invention of anti moss and make friends with the environment. The research target is identifying moss type in region Surakarta, knowing mixture concentration having technical eligibility of construction and TCLP test ( Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure and justification of  LC50 and LD50. Research was carried out in laboratory by in phases following: casting of Mixture cement and fly ash: test of mechanic strength, test of resilience to moss growth, test of ability adhesive to wall paint, making solid Matrix. Continued by a test Depress to use the Technotest Modena Italy then Test the assimilated: Chemical Ekstraksi in step by step. Fraction 1 until Faction 5, TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Standard, TCLP ( Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Progressive and TCLP (Toxycity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Modification. The Allelochemi form be observed by means of  Microscopic observation. The results revealed that moss type found in region of Surakarta:  Dicranella heteromalla, Funaria hygrometrica  ( Hedwig., Rhodobryum giganteum ( Schwaegr. Par., Pogonatum contortum ( Brid.. Mixture prosentase of  fly ash which still fulfill the technical standard of concrete building construction is 20 - 40 %. Value LC 50 to animal test the goldfish 8950 ppm and  the LD 50 value to animal test the mencit 30,35 mg / kg BB so that near no toxic. The resistance process  of  moss growing at coat cement also got concentration 20 - 40 % through allelochemi mechanism. Ever greater of  fly ash prosentase at growth media the moss hence assess the heavy metal accumulation of  Pb, Cr

  8. Dispersal of Triatoma infestans and other Triatominae species in the arid Chaco of Argentina: flying, walking or passive carriage? The importance of walking females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahan, Luciana Beatriz; Gorla, David Eladio; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyse the active dispersal of Triatoma infestans and the role of chickens as passive carriers of this insect in peridomestic areas of La Rioja, Argentina. To measure active dispersal, monthly catches were made on six consecutive nights for five months (in the warm season) using light traps (for flying insects) and sticky dispersal barriers (for walking insects). The nutritional and reproductive states of adults were evaluated. Over the course of the sampling period, a total of eight flying adults, six walking nymphs and 10 walking adults of the species T. infestans were captured, as well as specimens of Triatoma guasayana, Triatoma eratyrusiformis and Triatoma platensis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that females of T. infestans can disperse by walking. This may be an adaptive strategy because it allows them to move with eggs and/or with good blood reserves, which are not possible when flying. All flying and walking individuals of both genders were of an appropriate physiological state that would allow for colonisation of the target habitat. However, manual inspection of 122 chickens suggests that it is unlikely that these animals passively transport T. infestans. Finally, the dispersal activity of T. infestans was compared with other triatomines using a dispersion index.

  9. Dispersal of Triatoma infestans and other Triatominae species in the arid Chaco of Argentina: Flying, walking or passive carriage? The importance of walking females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Beatriz Abrahan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyse the active dispersal of Triatoma infestans and the role of chickens as passive carriers of this insect in peridomestic areas of La Rioja, Argentina. To measure active dispersal, monthly catches were made on six consecutive nights for five months (in the warm season using light traps (for flying insects and sticky dispersal barriers (for walking insects. The nutritional and reproductive states of adults were evaluated. Over the course of the sampling period, a total of eight flying adults, six walking nymphs and 10 walking adults of the species T. infestans were captured, as well as specimens of Triatoma guasayana, Triatoma eratyrusiformis and Triatoma platensis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that females of T. infestans can disperse by walking. This may be an adaptive strategy because it allows them to move with eggs and/or with good blood reserves, which are not possible when flying. All flying and walking individuals of both genders were of an appropriate physiological state that would allow for colonisation of the target habitat. However, manual inspection of 122 chickens suggests that it is unlikely that these animals passively transport T. infestans. Finally, the dispersal activity of T. infestans was compared with other triatomines using a dispersion index.

  10. I’d like to have a house like that : Female players of The Sims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vosmeer (Mirjam); J. Jansz (Jeroen); E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This qualitative interview study explores the practices of adult female gamers who play the videogame The Sims, focusing on the motivations they have for playing and how playing a video game might influence their digital competence. We address the wider context of leisure and

  11. Interacting effects of aromatic plants and female age on nest-dwelling ectoparasites and blood-sucking flies in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, G; Merino, S; Martínez-de la Puente, J; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Rivero-de Aguilar, J; Del Cerro, S

    2012-06-01

    Some avian species incorporate aromatic plants to their nests. The "nest protection hypothesis", which posits that volatile secondary compounds contained in these plants may have antiparasite properties, has not received full support. All previous tests of this hypothesis have only considered effects on nest-dwelling ectoparasites, but not on blood-sucking flies. The "drug hypothesis" posits that aromatic plants may stimulate nestling immune system, development, or condition. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in wild blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, a species that adds aromatic plants to their nests. We supplemented aromatic plants to half of a sample of nests, while adding grass to the other half of nests. We quantified abundance of two groups of blood-sucking flies (blackflies and biting midges) at two different stages of the reproductive period, and abundance of three nest-dwelling ectoparasites (fleas, mites, and blowflies). Experimental supplementation of aromatic plants reduced abundance of fleas only in nests of yearling females and not in nests of older females. Blackflies and biting midges were both more numerous in nests of yearling females than in nests of older females. Mass of aromatic plants added by females was negatively related with abundance of fleas in control nests but not in experimental nests supplied with aromatic plants. Mass of plants added by females was also positively related with abundance of blackflies during the nestling stage. Finally, aromatic plants did not affect nestling growth or immune responses. We conclude that several factors such as female experience and their ability to add plants to the nest interact to explain effects of aromatic plants on different parasites.

  12. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino;

    2012-01-01

    -red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period...

  13. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  14. Room temperature housing results in premature cancellous bone loss in growing female mice: implications for the mouse as a preclinical model for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, U T; Philbrick, K A; Wong, C P; Gordon, J L; Kahler-Quesada, A M; Olson, D A; Branscum, A J; Sargent, J L; DeMambro, V E; Rosen, C J; Turner, R T

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies

  15. [Effectiveness of 2,6-dihalogenbenzoyl urea derivatives as potential inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis regarding the house fly Musca domestica L. and cockroach Blatella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczyńska, B; Krzemińska, A; Sobótka, W; Balicki, R

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity was determined of 20 compounds from the group of asymmetrically substituted urea derivatives. They were derivatives of 1-(hetero)-aryl-3(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea, compounds in Table 1, (1-12) which represented three groups of compounds: a) monochlorine or trifluoromethyl derivatives of benzene, b) monomethyl-substituted 2-pyridine derivatives, c) a derivative of 5-bromo-3-pyridine, and symmetrical derivates (Table 2 compounds 1-8) 2.2; 3.3; 4.4 groupings: a) N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea derivatives, and b) N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzoyl)urea derivatives. The experiment was carried out on larvae and adult forms of M. domestica L. and Blatella germanica L. The tested substances were administered in food to the insects. Of the tested compounds complete inhibition of the development of flies was caused by the compound designated with the symbol AG 6. Compounds AG 13, AG 15 and AG 17 given to larvae inhibited the development of the insects by 33 to 100% acting mainly in later phases of the development (pupation). Compound AG 5 was found to be a very strong inhibitor of the development of cockroaches acting on larvae and adult females Of 800 tested larvae exposed to concentrations 0.001 to 1% none reached the adult phase. The exposed adult females formed cocoons but no larvae hatched from them.

  16. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  17. Biodemography of a long-lived tephritid: Reproduction and longevity in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedoc, Pablo; Muüller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Senturke, Damla; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Age of sexual maturity, daily and lifetime reproductive rates, and life span were recorded in a laboratory cohort of Mexican fruit flies consisting of over 1100 females maintained individually. The results revealed that, relative to the medfly, the Mexfly is slower maturing (14 vs 17 days), more fecund (1400 vs 650–1100 eggs/female), and longer lived (50 vs 35 days). The results reinforced the generality of several earlier findings on the medfly including the deceleration of mortality at older ages and the weakness of the correlation between the rate of egg laying at early ages and both subsequent reproduction and remaining longevity. Discussion includes perspectives on the role of artificial selection in shaping the demographic traits of the mass-reared strain of Mexfly used in this study, as well as the overall significance of large scale biodemographic studies in understanding aging and longevity. PMID:16154309

  18. Negotiation of Gender Relations Meaning among Female Interpretation Community in Housing and Village Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Lestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sitcom of Husbands fearing Wives (SSTI-Suami-Suami Takut Istri, is one of the private television sitcoms which highlights violence as a joke to provoke laughter of its audiences. In SSTI, the joke involves the concept of gender, exchanging the role of women and men which has been socially and culturally constructed. One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the role of the interpretation community in understanding the gender relations in SSTI sitcom. The study aims to discover the media interpretation by a group of female audiences living in the village and sub-district of Tembalang, Semarang. The results show that the negotiation of interpretation community on SSTI sitcom is not in line with the goal of the media; because the nature of men and women roles that are exchanged is interpreted as an “abnormal” relation. Therefore, the hierarchical power relation between men and women which tends to disadvantage women, for interpretation community is regarded as a normal & natural.Tayangan sinetron komedi Suami-suami Takut Istri (SSTI, merupakan salah satu program televisi swasta yang menonjolkan kekerasan sebagai lelucon untuk tujuan memancing tawa. Dalam prakteknya SSTI melibatkan konsep jender, yang mempertukarkan sifat-sifat perempuan dan laki-laki  sebagai hasil kontruksi secara sosial maupun kultural. Salah satu tujuan penelitian ini ingin menganalisis peran komunitas interpretasi dalam pemaknaan tentang relasi jender pada tayangan sinetron SSTI. Penelitian ini berlangsung pada penonton perempuan yang tinggal di perumahan dan perkampungan wilayah kecamatan Tembalang, kota Semarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negosiasi komunitas interpretasi pada tayangan sinetron SSTI tidak sejalan dengan arahan media karena ternyata sifat laki-laki dan perempuan yang dipertuarkan dimaknai sebagai relasi yang tidak ‘normal’. Dengan demikian relasi kuasa hirarkis antara laki-laki dan perempuan  yang cenderung merugikan

  19. Pollination of Vietnamese Aspidistra xuansonensis (Asparagaceae) by female Cecidomyiidi flies: larvae of pollinator feed on fertile pollen in anthers of anthetic bisexual flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislobokov, Nikolay A; Galinskaya, Tatiana V; Degtjareva, Galina V; Valiejo-Roman, Carmen M; Samigullin, Tahir H; Kuznetsov, Andrey N; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2014-09-01

    • Aspidistra is a species-rich, herbaceous monocot genus of tropical Southeast Asia. Most species are recently discovered and apparently endangered, though virtually nothing is known about their biology. Species of the genus are primarily distinguished using flower morphology, which is enormously diverse. However, the pollination process has not been directly observed in the center of diversity of the genus (N Vietnam and S China). Indirect and partly direct data on the only widely cultivated species of the genus (A. elatior) placed it among angiosperms with the most unusual pollination biology, though these data are highly controversial, suggesting pollen transfer by mollusks, crustaceans, flies, or possibly tiny soil invertebrates such as collembolans.• Pollination of Aspidistra xuansonensis in the center of diversity of the genus was studied using visual observations and videos and light and scanning electron microscopy investigation of flowers and their pollinators. Pollinators and their larvae were molecularly barcoded.• Aspidistra xuansonensis is pollinated by female cecidomyiid flies (gall midges). They oviposit on anthers, and larvae develop among the pollen mass. Molecular barcoding proved taxonomic identity of the larvae and the flies. The larvae neither damage floral parts nor cause gall formation, but feed on pollen grains by sucking out their content. The larvae move out of the flowers before decomposition starts. Carebara ants steal developing larvae from flowers but do not contribute to pollination.• More than one kind of myiophily is present in Aspidistra. Brood site pollination was documented for the first time in Aspidistra. The pollination system of A. xuansonensis differs from other kinds of brood site pollination in the exit of the larvae prior to the decomposition of floral parts. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Correlation of male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts in New World sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The lengths of the male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts were measured in phlebotomine sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex and the ratios between these characters calculated. Ratios for L. intermedia s. s. from Northeast vs Southeast Brazil (Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo/Minas Gerais vs Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo and L. intermedia vs L. neivai were significantly different at P < 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 respectively when compared using ANOVA. The spermathecal ducts and genital filaments of L. intermedia were significantly longer than those of L. neivai (P < 0.01 and could be used to differentiate these species. The taxonomic and biological significance of these differences is discussed.

  1. Biological potential study of metal complexes of sulphonylurea glibenclamide on the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae): Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Abdallah, S. M.; Zayed, M. A.; Nassar, M. M. I.

    2009-10-01

    The ligatation behaviour of sulphonylurea glibenclamide drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of glibenclamide (GCA; H 3L) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, diffused reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formulae [M(H 3L)Cl n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (where M = Cr(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 3); Mn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1); Fe(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 0), Co(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 0); Ni(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 3); Cu(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 2) and Zn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 0). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that GCA is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner with OO donor sites of the amide- O and sulphone -O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral except Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes which have tetrahedral structure. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The GCA drug, in comparison to its metal complexes also is screened for its biological activity against house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae). Dose of 5 μg/insect of GCA is topically applied against 3 days old larval instar of M. domestica. Survival of pupal and adult stages has been affected by the complexes of GCA more than larval instars. Morphogenic abnormalities of larvae, pupae and adults are studied. On the other hand pupation and adult emergence program is deteriorated by the effect of different chemicals.

  2. Violence and vulnerability of female migrants in drop houses in Arizona: the predictable outcome of a chain reaction of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, William Paul; Menjívar, Cecilia; Téllez, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    This qualitative research study examines the experiences of immigrant women crossing the U.S./Mexico border and the proliferation of "drop houses" in Arizona as a new phenomenon, one that is often marked by kidnappings and sexual assault. Little research has been published on the violence women face on their journey, and the drop houses have almost completely escaped scholarly analysis. We argue that the drop houses must be seen as a consequence of a "state of emergency" declared by policy makers that led to changes in U.S. national and local immigration policies that fueled what we call a "chain reaction of violence."

  3. House Fly (Musca domestica L. (Diptera Muscidae Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L. (Díptera Muscidae en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L. and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, larva mortality, pupa size, and weight and time of development to the adult stage were assessed. Results show that swine, poultry and calf manure produced a significantly higher number of adult flies, shorter life cycles and larger and heavier pupae. Cow, dog, goat and horse manure follow in effectiviveness for fly production. Composted swine manure was totally ineffective for domestic fly development.En algunas comunas del Valle del Huasco, Región de Atacama, Chile, se encuentran diversas explotaciones pecuarias con diferentes sistemas de manejo, las cuales constituyen focos generadores de mosca doméstica, Musca domestica L., y otras especies de moscas con importancia sanitaria y médica. Estos insectos provocan pérdidas económicas en dichos planteles afectando además el bienestar de poblaciones urbanas cercanas. Con el objetivo de cuantificar la importancia de dichos focos en la generación de mosca doméstica, se realizó un ensayo de laboratorio donde se evaluó como sustrato de desarrollo del insecto estiércol de diferentes especies animales y estiércol de cerdo compostado. La calidad de estos sustratos en la producción del insecto se evaluó a través de los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo de larvas, mortalidad de larvas, tamaño y peso de pupas, y tiempo hasta la emergencia de moscas adultas. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol de cerdo, gallina y ternero produce significativamente más moscas adultas, con un

  4. "The House Is Still Named after Him": Exploring the Subjective Tensions of the Female Artist Inhabiting Cultural Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Andrea; Journeaux, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the problematic category of "things known" to be the masculine hegemony ("His House") through which we experience reality, and the challenging situation of inhabiting dichotomous frameworks of knowledge. Methods are defined within practice in work that is process led, that investigate the relationship…

  5. Mixed-strain housing for female C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c mice: validating a split-plot design that promotes refinement and reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Walker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation. We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. Methods The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were screened for a range of 26 commonly-measured behavioural, physiological and haematological variables. Results Living in mixed-strain trios did not compromise mouse welfare (assessed via corticosterone metabolite output, stereotypic behaviour, signs of aggression, and other variables. It also did not alter the direction or magnitude of any strain- or enrichment-typical difference across the 26 measured variables, or increase variance in the data: indeed variance was significantly decreased by mixed- strain housing. Furthermore, using Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the statistical power benefits of this approach over a conventional design demonstrated that for our effect sizes, the split- plot design would require significantly fewer mice (under half in most cases to achieve a power of 80 %. Conclusions Mixed-strain housing allows several strains to be tested at once, and potentially refines traditional marking practices

  6. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  7. Pointy Bras and Loose House Dresses: Female Dress in Hungary and the United States in the 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Medvedev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study of the social, ideological and economic differences between the United States and Hungary during the 1950s through the examination of the expressive features of female dress. It argues that dress served as a significant means of conveying the major divisions between the two countries and demonstrates that the female body became one of the crucial sites for waging the everyday battles of the Cold War opponents. Because less information is available about the construction of gender and the sartorial practices of women in Hungary in the 1950s this paper primarily focuses on Hungary. Data for this paper was collected through oral histories, archival sources and through the examination of contemporary photographic images.

  8. Low diversity bacterial community and the trapping activity of metabolites from cultivable bacteria species in the female reproductive system of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  9. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  10. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-11-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these 'yoyo' groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four 'yoyo' fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

  11. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  12. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population

  13. Male and female condition influence mating performance and sexual receptivity in two tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with contrasting life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiply and at identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a fema...

  14. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  15. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  16. A receiver operating characteristic analysis approach for the assessment of the separation of female Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Todd A; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2009-10-01

    Average fecundity rates and survival are the main components of fitness estimates in studies comparing performance of insect populations. Reproduction is inherently age related in most insect species, and age-specific offspring production is very important in determining fitness components. However, comparison of age-specific reproduction rates are not straight forward and most studies limit analyses to comparisons of average fecundity rates and survival as the main components of the performance of insect populations. We develop a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach to compare lifetime oviposition distributions. We use empirical data of a study of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, where each fly's lifetime oviposition distribution was recorded for samples studied in natural and artificial oviposition substrates. Currently, there exists no routinely used methodology for the comparison of oviposition distributions and assessment of their separation. ROC analysis is regularly used in two-sample problems in medical biostatistics when the main task is depiction and quantification of the separation of the empirical distributions from which the data arise. Adaptation of such an analysis to our data has shown that age-specific egg-laying distributions can differ, whereas average fecundity rates do not. Therefore, ROC analysis provides a method of gaining insight in the biological process of egg-laying patterns in relatively long-lived insects with many practical and theoretical implications in entomological experimentation.

  17. The role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in growth and reproduction in female brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, A M; Byars, D; Ford, N B; Bronikowski, A M

    2010-09-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone critically involved in the regulation of key life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Its structure and function are well-characterized among diverse mammal, fish, and bird species; however, little is known regarding the activities of IGF-1 in non-avian reptiles, particularly snakes and lizards. Nevertheless, several unique characteristics of reptiles, such as high metabolic flexibility and remarkable diversity in life-history strategy, suggest that they are of great interest in the study of endocrinological mechanisms underlying the regulation and evolution of life-history traits. Here we test for a relationship between IGF-1 and individual feeding rate, growth rate and reproductive stage in lab-reared female offspring of wild-caught oviparous house snakes, Lamprophis fuliginosus. We confirm a positive correlation between IGF-1 and both feeding and growth rates in sexually immature snakes, similar to that reported in other taxa. We also show a family effect on IGF-1, suggesting that IGF-1 levels may be heritable in these snakes, and serve as an important target of selection to produce divergent life-history strategies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that suggests that IGF-1 may peak rapidly after first mating, and subsequently decline prior to egg-laying, a phenomenon not previously reported in other taxa. These findings suggest that further comparative study of IGF-1 in snakes may reveal both the extent to which IGF-1 function is conserved across major taxonomic groups, as well as novel and intriguing roles for IGF-1 in the regulation of reproductive activities.

  18. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  20. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  1. Dispersive flight and house invasion by Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma sordida in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Wisnivesky Colli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Flight activity and invasion of houses by Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana were studied in the Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Spontaneous findings of both species in houses were recorded from 1982 to 1989. Light trap collections were performed in 1982, 1983 and 1984, at the woods surrounding the settlements of Amamá (43 houses and Trinidad (19 houses. Most of the 101 triatomines collected, were unfed and negative for Trypanosoma cruzi. T. guasayana predominated over T. sordida, and both appeared on the lighted screens between 19-31 min (mean 24 after dusk and the catch time was 30-45 min. Although entomological evaluation of 41 houses at Amamá performed in September 1985, just before insecticidal spraying, showed that Triatoma infestans predominated, adults of T. guasayana were collected in sleeping places, in 7 houses (17%. Most triatomines invading houses from then up to 1990 were flying T. guasayana (20/27 and females outnumbered males. Three non infected T. guasayana females were fed on man and two T. guasayana males positive for "T. cruzi like" trypanosomes were unfed. Therefore, visiting hungry adults could transmit T. cruzi to people and introduce wild parasites to the domestic cycle. T. guasayana stands as the main potential substitute of T. infestans in the studied area, and it might play there the same role as T. sordida in Brazil.

  2. Carrion mimicry in a South African orchid: flowers attract a narrow subset of the fly assemblage on animal carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Hansen, Dennis M.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Although pollination of plants that attract flies by resembling their carrion brood and food sites has been reported in several angiosperm families, there has been very little work done on the level of specificity in carrion mimicry systems and the importance of plant cues in mediating such specialization. Specificity may be expected, as carrion-frequenting flies often exploit different niches, which has been interpreted as avoidance of interspecific competition. Interactions between the orchid Satyrium pumilum and a local assemblage of carrion flies were investigated, and the functional significance of floral traits, especially scent, tested. Pollination success and the incidence of pollinator-mediated self-pollination were measured and these were compared with values for orchids with sexual- and food-deceptive pollination systems. Methods and Key Results Observations of insect visitation to animal carcasses and to flowers showed that the local assemblage of carrion flies was dominated by blow flies (Calliphoridae), house flies (Muscidae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), but flowers of the orchid were pollinated exclusively by flesh flies, with a strong bias towards females that sometimes deposited live larvae on flowers. A trend towards similar partitioning of fly taxa was found in an experiment that tested the effect of large versus small carrion quantities on fly attraction. GC-MS analysis showed that floral scent is dominated by oligosulfides, 2-heptanone, p-cresol and indole, compounds that also dominate carrion scent. Flesh flies did not distinguish between floral and carrion scent in a choice experiment using olfactory cues only, which also showed that scent alone is responsible for fly attraction. Pollination success was relatively high (31·5 % of flowers), but tracking of stained pollinia also revealed that a relatively high percentage (46 %) of pollen deposited on stigmas originates from the same plant. Conclusions Satyrium pumilum

  3. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  5. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  6. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  7. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  8. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2010-05-22

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew.

  9. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  11. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  12. Expression patterns of sex-determination genes in single male and female embryos of two Bactrocera fruit fly species during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J L; Riegler, M; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A

    2014-12-01

    In tephritids, the sex-determination pathway follows the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) mRNA, and the cooperation of tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) to effect the sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx), the genetic double-switch responsible for male or female somatic development. The Dominant Male Determiner (M) is the primary signal that controls this pathway. M, as yet uncharacterized, is Y-chromosome linked, expressed in the zygote and directly or indirectly diminishes active TRA protein in male embryos. Here we first demonstrated the high conservation of tra, tra-2 and dsx in two Australian tephritids, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera jarvisi. We then used quantitative reverse transcription PCR on single, sexed embryos to examine expression of the key sex-determination genes during early embryogenesis. Individual embryos were sexed using molecular markers located on the B. jarvisi Y-chromosome that was also introgressed into a B. tryoni line. In B. jarvisi, sex-specific expression of tra transcripts occurred between 3 to 6 h after egg laying, and the dsx isoform was established by 7 h. These milestones were delayed in B. tryoni lines. The results provide a time frame for transcriptomic analyses to identify M and its direct targets, plus information on genes that may be targeted for the development of male-only lines for pest management.

  13. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  14. Lethal effects of the insect growth regulator cyromazine against three species of filth flies, Musca domestica L., Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and Fannia canicularis (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) in cattle, swine, and chicken manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various species of so-called filth flies are a widespread problem where livestock, including poultry, is maintained and where manure accumulates. The house fly, Musca domestica L.; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.); and the little house fly, Fannia canicularis (L.) (each Diptera: Muscidae), t...

  15. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  16. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carina Margonari de; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Costa, Daniela Carmargos; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2004-12-01

    A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7%) were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  17. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Margonari de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7% were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  18. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...

  19. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  20. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  1. Controle de mosca doméstica em área de disposição de resíduos sólidos no Brasil House fly control in solid waste disposal area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Ferreira Motta Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma metodologia de controle de Musca domestica (L. em áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos. Dois mosquicidas à base de azametifós foram aplicados em diferentes superfícies: nas verticais, a formulação pó molhável foi aplicada com rolos de pintura e, através de pulverização, na superfície de leiras; nas horizontais, foi empregado o mosquicida na formulação granulada. O nível de infestação de moscas foi avaliado por meio do monitoramento em placas (Scudder Fly Grill. Nas áreas das leiras, reduções de 98,5% e 100% foram atingidas em 18 e 30 dias, respectivamente, após a aplicação do produto. Na estação de transferência do lixo, observaram-se reduções de 85,6% e 98,7% no mesmo período de tempo. A aplicação de azametifós em diferentes formulações mostrou ser eficiente no controle da Musca domestica por um período de 30 dias.A Musca domestica (L. control method in solid waste disposal areas was developed. Two fly control products based on azamethiphos were applied to different surfaces: on vertical surfaces, the wettable powder was used as spray or paint-on and on windrows, as spray; on horizontal surfaces granular bait was used. Fly infestation was evaluated by Scudder Fly Grills. In the windrows areas, reductions of 98,5% and 100 % were achieved 18 and 30 days respectively after application. In the waste transfer station 85,6% and 98,7 % reductions were achieved over the same period of time. Application of azamethiphos in different formulations was effective against M. domestica for 30 days.

  2. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  3. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  4. A Study of Female Identity Construction in A House on the Mango Street%《芒果街上的小屋》中女性身份构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉

    2012-01-01

    美国墨西哥裔女作家桑德拉.希斯内罗丝的代表作《芒果街上的小屋》试图用一种独特的文化视角为生活在困境中的少数族裔女性群体提供一个理想的社会政治范式。在解构女性传统身份、思索女性新身份构建的途径、和展望未来的过程中,希斯内罗丝借用一个小女孩的精神领悟来引领广大女性同胞勇敢地从过去的束缚中挣脱出来,做自己真正的主人。%A House on the Mango Street, the representative work of Mexican - American woman writer, Sandra Cisneros, attempts to offer an ideal sociopolitical paradigm for the minority women in sad straits from a unique cultural perspective. Through deconstructing traditional female identity, exploring a new female identity and looking forward to the future, with the help of a little girl's spiritual experience, Cisneros intends to help all women to break through the traditional restraints and to be the real masters of themselves.

  5. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  6. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  7. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  8. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  9. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  10. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  11. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, C J; Johnson, D M; Kaufman, P E; Boohene, C K

    2014-12-01

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) using house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Muscidifurax raptor had a significant impact on M. raptorellus when hosts were limiting in sequential parasitism tests. Fewer than six M. raptorellus adult progeny emerged from groups of 50 fly pupae that were parasitized by M. raptor at the same time or when M. raptor parasitism preceded M. raptorellus by 48 h, respectively, compared with 42-55 M. raptorellus progeny produced when this species was tested alone. Production of M. raptor was significantly lower when parasitism by this species was preceded by M. raptorellus (25) than when M. raptor was tested alone (43). When the two species parasitized hosts at the same time in different proportions at low host:parasitoid densities (5:1), M. raptorellus produced 13 progeny per parent female when it was the sole species present and fewer than two when M. raptor was present. No negative impact of M. raptorellus on M. raptor was observed. Neither species had a substantial effect on the success of the other at higher host:parasitoid densities.

  12. A 10-gram Vision-based Flying Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Klaptocz, Adam; Beyeler, Antoine; Nicoud, Jean-Daniel; Floreano, Dario

    2007-01-01

    We aim at developing ultralight autonomous microflyers capable of freely flying within houses or small built environments while avoiding collisions. Our latest prototype is a fixed-wing aircraft weighing a mere 10 g, flying around 1.5 m/s and carrying the necessary electronics for airspeed regulation and lateral collision avoidance. This microflyer is equipped with two tiny camera modules, two rate gyroscopes, an anemometer, a small microcontroller, and a Bluetooth rad...

  13. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  14. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value...... as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms, yet recent research has suggested that fly relationships have been...... (including the wingless Braulidae) of bees and other insects. Furthermore, we use micro-RNAs to resolve a node with implications for the evolution of embryonic development in Diptera. We demonstrate that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma...

  15. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  16. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  17. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  18. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  19. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  20. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  1. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive...

  2. House While Woman Grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Öymen Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on woman/space relations boomed in the 90s. The fundamental reason was to give support to the Feminist Movement. This trend which has had feeble effect on architectural design remained controversial. The comprehensive research expounded in this article which was based on an open-ended questionnaire that targeted at determining the gender roles at home, applied to female subjects who simulated the national demographics, clearly demonstrated that the home experience of an average Turkish woman basically consists of kitchens; the female who runs the house does not really have a place for herself at home. However she does not perceive her restrained, secondary role an issue worthy of struggling to change and she grants spaces for recreation and study to the male. The well-established civil laws conducive for equality has not changed this disturbing situation and do not seem to do so in the near future.

  3. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  4. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  5. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  6. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  7. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  8. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  9. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Do, Kim-Anh; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  10. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  11. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SEASONALITY OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN SATUN PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthawong, Amonrat; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2015-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is prevalent mainly in the southern provinces of Thailand where sand flies are considered to be an important vector. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps in Satun Province from June 2013 to July 2014. A total of 1,982 sand flies (1,228 females and 754 males) were collected. Only female sand flies were identified to the species level and were tested for Leishmania infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Morphological identification revealed 2 genera and 9 species: Phlebotomus stantoni, P. argentipes, Sergentomyia gemmea, S. indica, S. barraudi, S. iyengari, S. bailyi, S. perturbans, and S. silvatica. S. gemmea (57.2%) was the most abundant species. The diversity of sand flies was highest in Thung Wa District. The sand flies were most abundant late in the hot season and early in the rainy season (April to June). The highest number of sand flies was collected in June. Significant correlations between the number of female sand flies and rainfall and between S. gemmea and rainfall were found. Of the female sand flies tested, none were positive for Leishmania spp.

  12. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  13. Population and Species of Fruit Fly (Bactrocera spp.) In Atractant Sticky Yellow Trap Formulation (ASYTA) From Natural Plant Product

    OpenAIRE

    Sjam, Sylvia; Zulfitriany; Sulaeha

    2011-01-01

    ASYTA is formulated as sticky attractant from natural plant product Andropogon nardus where use for attract fruit fly in the field The experiment was aimed to know the ability of ASYTA to attract fruit fly (Batrocera spp.) .The experiment was conducted in the laboratory and field at mango, matermelon and chili . The results indicated that ASYTA had potency to attract of fruit fly population not only attract male fruit fly but also female. ASYTA was able to attract 1.241 fruit ...

  14. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Tracey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because

  15. Comparison of host-seeking behavior of the filth fly pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, are often sold together for biological control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking b...

  16. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  17. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  18. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  19. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  20. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  1. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  2. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  3. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  4. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  6. Caspar-like gene depletion reduces Leishmania infection in sand fly host Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R V; Ortigão-Farias, João R; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Viv M; Bates, Paul A; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Dillon, Rod J

    2012-04-13

    Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly.

  7. Caspar-like Gene Depletion Reduces Leishmania Infection in Sand Fly Host Lutzomyia longipalpis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L.; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Ortigão-Farias, João R.; Pitaluga, André N.; Dillon, Viv M.; Bates, Paul A.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.; Dillon, Rod J.

    2012-01-01

    Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly. PMID:22375009

  8. The forensically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is more likely to walk than fly to carrion at low light levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua L; Palermo, Nicholas A; Theobald, Jamie C; Wells, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-01

    One factor that influences estimates of time since death using entomological evidence is whether or not blow flies nocturnally oviposit. Field studies focusing on egg laying have found it occurs on an inconsistent basis. A key but poorly understood factor in nocturnal oviposition is a blow fly's ability to locate carrion under low light levels. It has been speculated that blow flies are more likely to walk than fly to carrion during the night, but this has not been empirically tested. We directly compared guided walking versus flying using infrared sensors under low light levels in laboratory conditions for Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a blow fly previously described to be nocturnal. We found C. megacephala is more likely to walk than fly toward carrion under low light levels (p=0.016). We did not, however, find differences between males and females for walking (p=0.48) or flying (p=0.42) despite male C. megacephala possessing eyes better suited for increased light capture. These results demonstrate the need to better understand where blow flies go at night, as bodies found within a fly's walking distance are more likely to be colonized.

  9. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  10. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  11. A QMRA for the Transmission of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter from Poultry Farms to Humans Through Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eric G; Blaak, Hetty; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Jonge, Rob; Schets, Franciska M

    2016-02-01

    The public health significance of transmission of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter from poultry farms to humans through flies was investigated using a worst-case risk model. Human exposure was modeled by the fraction of contaminated flies, the number of specific bacteria per fly, the number of flies leaving the poultry farm, and the number of positive poultry houses in the Netherlands. Simplified risk calculations for transmission through consumption of chicken fillet were used for comparison, in terms of the number of human exposures, the total human exposure, and, for Campylobacter only, the number of human cases of illness. Comparing estimates of the worst-case risk of transmission through flies with estimates of the real risk of chicken fillet consumption, the number of human exposures to ESBL-producing E. coli was higher for chicken fillet as compared with flies, but the total level of exposure was higher for flies. For Campylobacter, risk values were nearly consistently higher for transmission through flies than for chicken fillet consumption. This indicates that the public health risk of transmission of both ESBL-producing E. coli and Campylobacter to humans through flies might be of importance. It justifies further modeling of transmission through flies for which additional data (fly emigration, human exposure) are required. Similar analyses of other environmental transmission routes from poultry farms are suggested to precede further investigations into flies.

  12. Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Broce, A; Zurek, L

    2006-03-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly-bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management.

  13. Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the sheep and cattle industries (Laughlin et al. 1979, Meegan 1979). The detection of RVFV on the Arabian Peninsula (Jupp et al. 2002, Shoemaker et...serum in Medium 199 with Earle’s salts [Invitrogen Inc., Carlsbad, CA] and antibiotics ) and then frozen at 270uC until tested for infectious virus by a...laboratory characteris- tics. Clin Infect Dis 37:1084–1092. McIntosh BM, Dickinson DB, Dos Santos I. 1973a. Rift Valley fever. 3. Viremia in cattle and

  14. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  15. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...... as the significant protective factor (P=0.0002). The fly screens were more effective towards the end of the rotations, where the influx of flies increases with increased need for ventilation. The statistical model predicts the prevalence of Campylobacter positive broiler flocks during summer in Danish broiler...

  16. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  17. Women leadership in Oxford House: examining their strengths and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret I; Dziekan, Marta M; Horin, Elizabeth V; Jason, Leonard A; Ferrari, Joseph R; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives and definition of leadership by women and mothers with children (n = 40) affiliated with Oxford Houses, a communal mutual-help recovery setting. Participants were asked questions relating to their experiences living in an Oxford House including the strengths and challenges encountered and how leadership impacted the stability in their house. Results illustrated the value of female leadership and highlighted the characteristics deemed important for women leaders in Oxford House, as well as some differences between these women's perception of leadership and the standard definition of leadership. The implications of the findings and how they may be useful to women's and mothers' with children houses are discussed.

  18. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  19. Attraction of Drosophila melanogaster males to food-related and fly odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Becher, Paul G; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a model for olfaction and odour-mediated behaviour. In the wild, Drosophila flies aggregate on decaying fruit where they mate and oviposit and a strategy to find mates would be to locate fruit which has already been colonized by other flies. We therefore developed a bioassay to investigate attraction of males to food and fly odours. We showed that upwind flights are initiated by food odours. At shorter distances, males are attracted by volatiles produced by conspecifics. However, only odours produced by copulating flies attract males. This suggests either a synergistic effect of both male and female odours or changes in pheromone release during mating, that indicate the presence of sexually receptive females. Our findings demonstrate the essential role of food odours and pheromones for mate location in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attraction of the sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to chemical compounds in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vicente Estevam; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalves; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Silva, Flávia Benini da Rocha; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2015-03-07

    Similar to other hematophagous insects, male and female sand flies must feed on plants to obtain sugar and, subsequently, energy to complete their life cycles. A large number of compounds emitted by plants may act as volatile signals to these insects. Primary alcohols have been detected in some plants, but in small amounts. In a previous report, the attractiveness of saturated primary alcohols with 7 to 9 carbons was evaluated for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, with positive results. In the present study, a wide range of primary alcohols, 3 to 10 carbons, were tested to investigate their attractiveness to another sand fly species, Nyssomyia neivai, a putative vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mixture of compounds that induced the best sand fly response was also evaluated. Of the eight compounds evaluated, hexanol and octanol elicited the best attractive responses for sand fly females. Phytochemicals may be an interesting source of search for new sand fly attractants.

  1. Behavioral analysis of tiger night housing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela; Leighty, Katherine A; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    The systematic evaluation of changes in animal management practices is critical to ensuring the best possible welfare. Here, we examined the behavioral impacts of intermittently housing our six adult female tigers, who have been housed socially for much of their lives, individually overnight to allow for specialized care required by their advancing age. We looked for behavioral changes indicative of both positive and negative changes in welfare by monitoring time spent asleep, sleeping position, body position while awake, as well as pacing, door pounding, self-grooming, roaring, and chuffing while housed socially as compared to individually overnight. Housing condition did not affect time spent asleep, sleeping positions assumed or the more preferred body positions while awake. Further, pacing, door-pounding, and roaring were infrequent and not altered by housing condition. Self-grooming did increase when housed individually but no evidence of over-grooming was present and chuffing, a close proximity social vocalization, was more likely to occur when socially housed. Taken together, these findings support the notion that transitioning to individual housing as needed is a viable option for managing cats accustomed to being maintained in a social group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  3. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S

    1998-12-16

    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  4. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the trace element rubidium (Rb) as a long-lasting systemic biomarker for bloodfeeding females of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Baits containing Rb chloride were found to be palatable to hamsters in this study. We were able to detect Rb using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in all sand flies that fed on Rb-treated hamsters for at least 14 d postbloodmeal. We also detected Rb in sand flies that took a bloodmeal from hamsters up to 10 d after the hamsters were withdrawn from a Rb-treated diet. Results of this study constitute proof of concept for the incorporation of Rb chloride into rodent baits for marking bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that Rb marking could be used as a technique for evaluating rodent-targeted sand fly control methods and in ecological studies on sand flies.

  5. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    percentage of the people living in these estates are tenants and cannot afford to pay for the ... developments, prospective house occupiers should be determined first in order to obtain relevant ... researchers putting the figure for housing ... materials to type of building design (Adedeji & ... schemes have become profit driven.

  6. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  7. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  8. Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguya K. Maniania

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The number of conidia picked up by a single fruit fly was determined in C. cosyra. The initial uptake (Day 0 of conidia by a single fly was approx. 1.1 × 106 conidia after exposure to the treated substrate. However, the number of conidia dropped from 7.2 × 105 to 4.1 × 105 conidia after 2 and 8 h post-exposure, respectively. The number of conidia picked up by a single fungus-treated fly (“donor” varied between 3.8 × 105 and 1.0 × 106 in the three fruit fly species, resulting in 100% mortality 5–6 days post-exposure. When fungus-free flies of both sexes (“recipient” flies were allowed to mate with “donor” flies, the number of conidia picked up by a single fly varied between 1.0 × 105 and 2.5 × 105, resulting in a mortality of 83–100% in C. capitata, 72–85% in C. cosyra and 71–93% in C. fasciventris 10–15 days post-inoculation. There was an effect of fungal infection on female egg laying in the three species of fruit flies as control flies laid more eggs than fungus-treated females. The percentage reduction in fecundity in flies infected with M. anisopliae was 82, 73 and 37% in C. capitata, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, respectively. The results are discussed with regard to application in autodissemination techniques.

  9. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  10. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  11. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  12. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  13. How to Teach Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  14. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  15. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  16. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  17. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  18. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  19. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  20. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  1. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferreira, Jonatas B C; Santana, Daniella B; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2008-08-01

    Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus), secondary vectors with limited epidemiological significance, occur naturally south of the Brazilian Amazon. The specific status of Rhodnius specimens found inside houses in central Brazil is therefore an epidemiologically important (and still debated) issue. We used wing and head geometric morphometrics to investigate the taxonomic status of 230 adult specimens representing all four 'R. prolixus group' species (19 populations from palm trees, domiciles, and reference laboratory colonies). Discriminant analyses of shape variation allowed for an almost perfect reclassification of individuals to their putative species. Shape patterning revealed no consistent differences between most specimens collected inside houses in central Brazil and R. neglectus, and showed that R. robustus and R. neglectus occur sympatrically (and fly into houses) in southern Amazonia. Furthermore, all Brazilian specimens clearly differed from our reference R. prolixus population. Using geometric morphometrics, we confidently ascribed individual triatomines to their species within the problematic 'R. prolixus group', illustrating the potential value of this approach in entomological surveillance. Our results strongly support the idea that R. neglectus, and not R. prolixus, is the species invading houses in central Brazil.

  2. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  3. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  4. Life history parameters of two geographically separated populations of Spalangia cameroni, a microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Skovgård, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is used as a biological control agent against house flies and stable flies in livestock farms in Northern Europe. In the present study, the juvenile development, survival, and sex ratio of one Danish and one Norwegian population of S. cameron...... the populations were small, but might still be important for inundative release programs...

  5. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  6. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the fertility and fecundity of two species of fruit flies and horizontal transmission of mycotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookar, P; Bhagwant, S; Allymamod, M N

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius.

  7. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  8. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  9. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  10. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  11. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... (Adedayo, 2013). It was the expectation of ... factor responsible for the increase in housing demand in the city centres as .... many architects simply discuss with the client.

  12. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  13. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  14. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  15. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  17. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  18. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  19. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  20. Courtship dances in the flies of the genus Lispe (Diptera: Muscidae): from the fly's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav

    2006-05-01

    Two predatory fly species, Lispe consanguinea Loew, 1858 and L. tentaculata DeGeer, 1776, inhabit the supralittoral zone at the shore of a fresh-water reservoir. Both species look alike and possess similar "badges," reflective concave silvery scales on the face. Flies occupy different lek habitats. Males of the first species patrol the bare wet sand on the beach just above the surf. Males of the second species reside on the more textured heaps of algae and stones. Courtship and aggressive behaviour of males was video-recorded and analysed frame by frame. Visual stimuli provided by the conspecific partner were computed in the body-fixed space of a fly observer. Males of L. consanguinea perform long pedestrian dances of pendulating circular arcs (frequency 2 s(-1), median radius 2.5 cm, linear velocity 0.130 m/s). Right and left side runs are equally probable. Circular runs are interrupted by standby intervals of average duration 0.35 s. The female views the male as a target covering 2 by 2 ommatidia, moving abruptly with the angular velocity over 200 degrees/s in a horizontal direction down the path of about 50 degrees till the next standpoint. Dancing is evenly distributed around the female. On the contrary, the male fixates the image of the female within the narrow front sector (median +/-10 degrees); the target in his view has 6-7 times less angular velocity and angular span of oscillations, and its image in profile overlays 6-8 by 2 ommatidia. If the female walks, the male combines tracking with voluntary circular dances. Rival males circle about one another at a distance shorter than 15 mm, but not in close contact. Males of L. tentaculata are capable of similar circular courting dances, but do so rarely. Usually they try to mount any partner immediately. In the latter species, male combat consists of fierce wrestling. Flies of both species often walk sideward and observe the partner not in front but at the side.

  1. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  2. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  3. The teaching house officer.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although medical students on clinical ward rotations receive a large part of their education from house officers, very often house officers themselves have had little formal preparation as teachers. Because students and teachers work closely together under special conditions, unique educational situations are created where much more than factual information is conveyed. Although some house officers are "natural" teachers, others find such activities uncomfortable or burdensome. Most people, h...

  4. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  5. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings for every......The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...

  6. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  7. Natural infection of the sand fly Phlebotomus kazeruni by Trypanosoma species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania parasites was surveyed in a desert area of Pakistan where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Out of 220 female sand flies dissected, one sand fly, Phlebotomus kazeruni, was positive for flagellates in the hindgut. Analyses of cytochrome b (cyt b, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences identified the parasite as a Trypanosoma species of probably a reptile or amphibian. This is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with a Trypanosoma species in Pakistan. The possible infection of sand flies with Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  8. Housing Satisfaction Related to Health and Importance of Services in Urban Slums: Evidence from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzdana, Arina; Khan, Mobarak; Kraemer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Quality of housing plays one of the key roles in a public health research, since inadequate housing may have direct or indirect negative impact on health. Higher satisfaction with housing was shown to be associated with higher income, higher age, a smaller family, higher education, being female and being an owner of a dwelling. The aim of our…

  9. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos de floresta ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. I. Estratificação Vertical Sand flies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. I. Vertical Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a agosto de 1999 foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em duas áreas de floresta residual (Estrada do Turismo e Cidade de Deus, na periferia da cidade de Manaus (AM, tendo o objetivo de verificar as espécies e a estratificação vertical. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, colocadas nos fragmentos de florestas a um e dez metros de altura. Foram capturados 7.516 flebotomíneos distribuídos em 45 espécies; 4.836 espécimes, de 36 espécies, na estrada de Turismo e 2.680 exemplares, de 40 espécies, na Cidade de Deus. Predominaram na Estrada do Turismo Lutzomyia umbratilis e L. ubiquitalis e na Cidade de Deus, L. umbratilis e L. anduzei. A presença de algumas espécies, apenas em certas áreas, indica a adaptabilidade destes flebotomíneos em áreas sobre ação antrópica.Between January and August of 1999, a study was carried out on the phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae sand flies occurrence in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus, in the periphery of Manaus, AM. The objective of this study was to verify the Phlebotominae sand fly fauna and vertical stratification. CDC light traps were placed in the forests, one to ten meters in height. A total of 7.516 sand flies, distributed in 45 species, were captured: 4.836 specimens of 36 species in the Estrada do Turismo and 2.680 individuals of 40 species in the Cidade de Deus.Predominant in the Estrada do Turismo were the species Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. ubiquitalis were as L. umbratilis and L. anduzei prevailed in the Cidade de Deus. Different Phlebotominae sand fly species in certain areas, showed an adaptation of these sand flies to areas of human activity.

  10. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  11. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  12. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  13. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  14. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  15. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  16. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  17. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  18. Comparative efficacy of three suction traps for collecting phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Roy; Cuño, Ruben; Warburg, Alon

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the updraft orientation only. Both updraft traps (iCDC and MMX) were deployed with their opening ∼10 cm from the ground while the opening of the downdraft (CDC) trap was ∼40 cm above ground. Comparisons were conducted in two arid locations where different sand fly species prevail. In the Jordan Valley, 3,367 sand flies were caught, 2,370 of which were females. The predominant species was Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, Scopoli 1786 (>99%). The updraft-type traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 118 and 67.1 sand flies per trap night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 32.9 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. In the Judean desert, traps were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. A total of 565 sand flies were caught, 345 of which were females. The predominant species was P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot 1917 (87%). The updraft traps iCDC and MMX caught an average of 25.6 and 17.9 sand flies per trap per night, respectively. The CDC trap caught 7.8 sand flies on average per night, significantly less than the iCDC traps. The female to male ratio was 1.7 on average for all trap types. In conclusion, updraft traps deployed with their opening close to the ground are clearly more effective for trapping sand flies than downdraft CDC traps in open habitats.

  19. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brian; Hash, John; Hartop, Emily; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema h...

  20. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  1. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None

  2. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  3. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  4. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None o

  5. Current Status of House Fire Deaths among the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors leading to house fire deaths among elderly individuals. Fire damage and autopsy results for 66 house fire victims (40 males, 26 females) aged 65 years or more were analyzed. Thirty-nine of these elderly individuals (26 males, 13 females) had lived alone, and 27 (14 males, 13 females) had lived with a spouse or family member. Mean CO-Hb saturation was 52.0% (range: 0-93.0%). In 53 cases, the buildings in which the deaths took place were on...

  6. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  7. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  8. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...

  9. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  10. Natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in a semiarid region of bahia state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides.

  11. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  12. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  13. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  14. DNA barcoding for the identification of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vivero, Rafael J; Vélez, Iván D; Porter, Charles H; Uribe, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was sand flies from Colombia.

  15. Evaluation of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Rhodamine B-treated hamsters were visibly marked for up to 8 wk, and their feces were fluorescent when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The development and survival of sand fly larvae fed feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters were not significantly different from control sand flies. Adult male and female sand flies, that had been fed as larvae the feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters, were fluorescent when examined using fluorescent microscopy and could be distinguished from control sand flies. Adult female sand flies that took bloodmeals from rhodamine B-treated hamsters were fluorescent when examined immediately after feeding. Rhodamine B incorporated rodent baits could be used to detect adult male and female sand flies that fed on the feces of baited rodents as larvae, or adult female sand flies that have taken a bloodmeal from bait-fed rodents. This would allow the delineation of specific foci with rodent-sand fly associations that would be susceptible to control by using feed-through or systemic insecticides.

  16. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  17. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  18. National Center for Healthy Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Search NCHH Resources Ask NCHH Blog Building Materials and Products Consumer Survey Healthcare Financing How Can We Help You? Additional Resources Healthy Housing Clearinghouse Healthy Housing Links Healthy Housing Videos Lead ...

  19. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  20. Women in Upper Houses: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neiva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In analyses of female representation in lower houses, the adoption of quotas, the electoral system and the religious aspect have been identified as the main explanatory variables. In the case of upper houses, I see a relationship between their political strength and women’s presence in them: when they are weak, the presence of female representatives tends to be larger, when they are strong, women’s presence is smaller. Furthermore, the article shows that an analysis based solely on the number of seats held by women is insufficient for one to gather the true dimensions of their participation in politics. Evaluating the role and expressiveness of the institutions in which they are present is also necessary.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE) IN LIMESTONE CAVES, KHAO PATHAWI, UTHAI THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polseela, R; Vitta, A; Apiwathnasorn, C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the species composition and density of the sand flies found inside four limestone caves at Khao Pathawi, Thap Than District, Uthai Thani Province. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps from October 2012 to September 2013. The sand flies were captured between 06:00 PM - 06:00 AM. A total of 11,817 sand flies were collected with a male:female ratio of 1.0:1.2 (5,325:6,492). The specimens were identified as eight species belonging to three genera Phlebotomus, Sergentomyia, Chinius, and comprised of S. anodontis, P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. barraudi, S. silvatica, S. gemmea, S. indica, and C. barbazani. Sergentomyia anodontis (55.0%) was the predominant species followed by P. argentipes (33.6%) and others. Five species of sand fly were found throughout the year in this area: P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. anodontis, S. barraudi and S. gemmea. The highest average density of sand flies was found in Ratree cave (35.0 sand flies per trap per night) and lowest in Bandai cave (29.0 sand flies per trap per night). The population of sand fly fluctuated from the highest peak in December (28.5%) to the lowest peak in May (2.3%). The distribution of sand fly species in attraction areas is important for the control program of infection risk of leishmaniasis.

  2. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  3. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  4. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  6. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  7. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  8. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  9. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  10. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  11. Myiasis with Lund's fly (Cordylobia rodhaini) in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Jeremy; Haik, J; Schwartz, Eli

    2003-01-01

    Myiasis is an infestation of human tissue by the larvae of certain flies. There are many forms of myiasis, including localized furuncular myiasis, creeping dermal myiasis and wound and body cavity myiasis.1 Cordylobia anthropophaga (the Tumbu fly) and Dermatobia hominis (the human botfly) are the most common causes of myiasis in Africa and tropical America respectively. The genus Cordylobia also contains two less common species, C. ruandae and C. rodhaini. The usual hosts of C. rodhaini are various mammals (particularly rodents), and and humans are accidentally infested. Figure 1 shows the life cycle of C. rodhaini, which occurs over 55 to -67 days.3 The female fly deposits her eggs on dry sand polluted with the excrement of animals or on human clothing. In about 3 days, the larva is activated by the warm body of the host, hatches and invades the skin. As the larva matures, it induces a furuncular swelling. In 12 to -15 days, the larva reaches a length of about 23 mm, exits the skin and falls to the ground to pupate. The adult fly emerges in 23 to -26 days, and the life cycle resumes. In humans, the skin lesion starts as a red papule that gradually enlarges and develops into a furuncle. In the center of the lesion an opening forms, through which the larva breaths and discharges its serosanguinous feces. The lesion is associated with increasing pain until the larva exits the skin. The disease is usually uncomplicated and self-limiting.

  12. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  13. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  14. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  15. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  16. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  17. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  18. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  19. Spread Across Liquids Continues to Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fletcher J.

    2001-01-01

    The physics and behavior of a flame spreading across a flammable liquid is an active area of research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Spills of fuels and other liquids often result in considerable fire hazards, and much remains unknown about the details of how a flame, once ignited, moves across a pool. The depth of the liquid or size of the spill, the temperature, and wind, if any, can all complicate the combustion processes. In addition, with the advent of the International Space Station there may be fire hazards associated with cleaning, laboratory, or other fluids in space, and it is essential to understand the role that gravity plays in such situations. The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment is an experimental and computational effort dedicated to understanding the detailed mechanisms of flame spread across a flammable liquid initially below its flashpoint temperature. The experimental research is being carried out in-house by a team of researchers from Glenn, the National Center for Microgravity Combustion, and Zin Technologies, with computer modeling being provided via a grant with the University of California, Irvine. Glenn's Zero Gravity Facility is used to achieve short microgravity periods, and normal gravity testing is done in the Space Experiments Laboratory. To achieve longer periods of microgravity, the showcase SAL hardware flies aboard a sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, approximately once per year. In addition to extended microgravity, this carrier allows the use of detailed diagnostics that cannot be employed in a drop tower.

  20. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  1. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  2. The reproductive ecology of the house mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1979-09-01

    previously in laboratory mice probably play no meaningful role in wild populations. The remaining pheromonal phenomena can be conceptualized as a single cueing system that has three components: (a) urinary cues of socially dominant males can accelerate ovulation in females, adult or prepubertal; (b) female urinary cues may elevate pheromonal potency in adult males, thereby forming a feedback loop by which the females elicit their own ovulation; and (c) the male's action on prepubertal females can be blocked by urinary cues emanating from other females. When all of the above is viewed in toto, the reproductive biology of the house mouse seems uniquely suited to support ecological opportunism. The relatively few environmental inhibitors of reproduction in this species should enhance the ability of dispersing young to colonize an exceptionally wide variety of habitats and climates...

  3. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  4. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2014-12-01

    Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit—a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)—a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew—two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Identification of the Ubiquitous Antioxidant Tripeptide Glutathione as a Fruit Fly Semiochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndung'u, Mary; Teal, Peter E A; Beck, John J; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-10-04

    Many insects mark their oviposition sites with a host marking pheromone (HMP) to deter other females from overexploiting these sites. Previous studies have identified and used HMPs to manage certain fruit fly species; however, few are known for African indigenous fruit flies. The HMP of the African fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra, was identified as the ubiquitous plant and animal antioxidant tripeptide, glutathione (GSH). GSH was isolated from the aqueous extract of adult female fecal matter and characterized by LC-QTOF-MS. GSH level increased with increasing age of female fecal matter, with highest concentration detected from 2-week-old adult females. Additionally, GSH levels were 5-10-times higher in fecal matter than in the ovipositor or hemolymph extracts of females. In bioassays, synthetic GSH reduced oviposition responses in conspecifics of C. cosyra and the heterospecific species C. rosa, C. fasciventris, C. capitata, and Zeugodacus cucurbitae. These results represent the first report of a ubiquitous antioxidant as a semiochemical in insects and its potential use in fruit fly management.

  6. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  7. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  8. Effects of social housing on hippocampal dendrites and behavior in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedy, Gail M; Barrows, Lorraine F; Clark, Suzanne

    2013-03-01

    Social stress is both species and gender specific. For female rats, individual housing and social instability housing conditions are associated with behavioral indicators of stress and depression. The present study directly compared the effects of six weeks of individual housing, social instability and mixed sex, semi-crowded housing in a visible burrow system (VBS) on ovariectomized female rats. Paired, stable housing was used as the control. Behavioral tests were conducted two, four and six weeks into the housing manipulations and included sucrose consumption, social interest, and activity in the open field. Following a series of four behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Basal dendrites of CA3 hippocampal neurons were measured. Results indicate that the individual housing and social instability groups were comparable to the control group for all measures. In contrast, the rats housed in the VBS exhibited reduced activity in open field testing, and alterations in social interest. Dendritic lengths were also reduced in those animals living in the VBS in comparison to the animals housed in pairs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioral and neural effects of VBS housing on female rats. Further research is necessary to determine what facets of the VBS housing are responsible for the behavioral and neural changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'.

  9. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  10. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  11. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  12. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  13. Toxicity of naturally occurring Bio-fly and chitosan compounds to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, E I; Nasr, H M; Badawy, M E I; El-Gendy, I R

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of five compounds of a biopolymer chitosan and Bio-fly (Beauveria bassiana fungus) as biopesticide was evaluated on Ceratitis capitata under laboratory conditions. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) as biochemical indicators were also determined in vivo. The results indicated that B. bassiana based Bio-fly exhibited significant toxicity against C. capitata (LC50 = 3008 and 3126 mg/L after 48 h in females and males, respectively) followed by the derivatives of chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan. Bio-fly displayed remarkable inhibition of AChE activity (IC50 = 2220 mg/L) while N-(2-chloro,6-flourobenzyl)chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) chitosan had no significant difference in inhibitory action. In adult males, N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan exhibited the highest inhibitory action (IC50 = 6569 mg/L). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on the activity of ATPase indicated that highly significant inhibition was found with N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan with an IC50 of 8194 and 8035 mg/L, in females and males, respectively.

  14. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  15. True polyandry and pseudopolyandry: why does a monandrous fly remate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N; Doff, Rowan J; Price, Tom A R

    2013-07-25

    The rate of female remating can have important impacts on a species, from affecting conflict and cooperation within families, to population viability and gene flow. However, determining the level of polyandry in a species can be difficult, with information on the mating system of many species being based on a single experiment, or completely absent. Here we investigate the mating system of the fruit fly Drosophila subobscura. Reports from England, Spain and Canada suggest D. subobscura is entirely monandrous, with no females remating. However, work in Greece suggests that 23% of females remate. We examine the willingness of female D. subobscura to remate in the laboratory in a range of conditions, using flies from both Greece and England. We make a distinction between pseudopolyandry, where a female remates after an ineffective first mating that is incapable of fertilising her eggs, and true polyandry, where a female remates even though she has received suitable sperm from a previous mating. We find a low rate of true polyandry by females (4%), with no difference between populations. The rate of true polyandry is affected by temperature, but not starvation. Pseudopolyandry is three times as common as true polyandry, and most females showing pseudopolyandry mated at their first opportunity after their first failed mating. However, despite the lack of differences in polyandry between the populations, we do find differences in the way males respond to exposure to other males prior to mating. In line with previous work, English flies responded to one or more rivals by increasing their copulation duration, a response previously thought to be driven by sperm competition. Greek males only show increased copulation duration when exposed to four or more rival males. This suggests that the response to rivals in D. subobscura is not related to sperm competition, because sperm competition is rare, and there is no correlation of response to rivals and mating system across the

  16. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  17. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  18. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  19. Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on 'honest' female ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBas, Natasha R; Hockham, Leon R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2003-10-22

    Female ornamentation has long been overlooked because of the greater prevalence of elaborate displays in males. However, the circumstances under which females would benefit from honestly signalling their quality are limited. Females are not expected to invest in ornamentation unless the fitness benefits of the ornament exceed those derived from investing the resources directly into offspring. It has been proposed that when females gain direct benefits from mating, females may instead be selected for ornamentation that deceives males about their reproductive state. In the empidid dance flies, males frequently provide nuptial gifts and it is usually only the female that is ornamented. Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been proposed to 'deceive' males into matings by disguising egg maturity. We quantified sexual selection in the dance fly Rhamphomyia tarsata and found escalating, quadratic selection on pinnate scales and that pinnate scales honestly reflect female fecundity. Mated females had a larger total number and more mature eggs than unmated females, highlighting a potential benefit rather than a cost of male mate choice. We also show correlational selection on female pinnate scales and fecundity. Correlational selection, equivalent investment patterns or increased nutrition from nuptial gifts may all maintain honesty in female ornamentation.

  20. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  1. Daily fecal sex steroid hormonal changes and mating success in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Ohazama, M; Ishida, R; Kusunoki, H

    2011-05-01

    Daily fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in five female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) for 4-6 months. The animals were housed under different conditions: (1) a female always housed in a group including one or more males; (2) two females isolated individually for short or long periods; (3) the other two females housed together. These females were separately housed with males for mating around the time of the estrogen peaks. The hormone profiles were similar in all five females regardless of the housing conditions. However, only the female that had been isolated from other cheetahs for over a year mated and reproduce cubs successfully, whereas the remaining four did not (one was isolated for only 6 weeks, another was always housed with males and the other two were housed together). In all females, the estrogen peaks were obtained at regular intervals of approximately 8-15 days. Unlike estrogen, the progestin concentrations were always low in all females except during pregnancy and they did not increase following the estrogen surges. These results showed that female cheetahs are typically reflex ovulators and female receptiveness may not be reflected to her hormonal states. It was also suspected that individual housing and long-term separation are advantageous for breeding this wild cat in captivity, mimicking the ecological/behavioral patterns in the wild, though housing condition might have no effect on the estrous cycle.

  2. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Vargas, Franklin; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kento; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Velez, Lenin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-05-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was studied in the Andean areas of Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured by human bait and Center for Disease Control (CDC) light trap catches at Nambuque and Padregual, Department of La Libertad, Peru, and morphologically identified. Among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 flies) and Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) caballeroi (151 flies). Another sand fly species captured by light trap was Warileya phlebotomanica (15 flies). The natural infection of sand flies by flagellates was detected in 1.4% of Lu. (H.) peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods. The results indicated that the vector species responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the study areas is Lu. (H.) peruensis. In addition, the presence of Trypanosoma in man-biting sand fly species means that more careful consideration is necessary for vector research in areas of Andean Peru where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  3. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  4. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  5. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  6. Characterization of a behaviorally active, gender-specific volatile compound from the male asparagus fly Plioreocepta poeciloptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibout, E; Arnault, I; Auger, J; Petersen, K S; Oliver, J E

    2005-04-01

    Adult male asparagus flies exhibit typical calling behaviors (suggestive of pheromone production) during which they emit a single volatile compound that was identified as isopropyl (S)-5-hydroxyhexanoate. In laboratory bioassays, synthetic samples elicited an arrestant response in females, but did not appear to attract females. On the other hand, the synthetic material attracted conspecific males in olfactometer bioassays.

  7. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  8. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  9. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... personal furnishing and zoning as well as interviews. The study is also based on analyses of the architectural configurations of space, light and materiality. Our main question is: can the goal of architectural quality be maintained together with greater possibilities for individual development...... research results will be employed to create a categorization of housing suitable for changing life conditions and with a strong emphasis on high architectural quality...

  10. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  11. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  12. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  13. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  14. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  15. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  16. Adult fruit fly attraction to larvae biases experience and mediates social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.

  17. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  18. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  19. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhahianambi Palavesam

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  20. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  1. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  2. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  3. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  4. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  5. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  8. Schuepfen house, Schuepfen, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.

    1999-07-01

    This row (terrace) house, incorporates a PV-powered closed-loop solar system constructed in 1985. It was rebuilt 10 years later to incorporate a water storage tank for domestic hot water production in the summer. The system delivers 2600 kWh of heat per year, saving approximately 450 kg of wood and 1200 kWh of electricity. (author)

  9. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  10. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  11. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  12. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  13. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  14. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  15. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  16. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  17. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  18. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  19. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  20. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  1. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  2. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  3. New species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae recorded from caves in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry Disney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Nevada, USA, namely Aenigmatias bakerae Disney, Megaselia excuniculus Disney, M. krejcae Disney, M. folliculorum Disney, M. necpleuralis Disney and a female Megaselia that can not be named until linked to its male.

  4. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  5. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  6. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  7. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  8. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab

    2007-01-01

    Nuptial feeding can evolve as sensory traps where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context. The nuptial prey gift of the nursery-web spider Pisaura mirabilis is wrapped in white silk, and it has been suggested that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct...... by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female's eggsac. In mating experiments we examined whether males exploit the female's foraging motivation or the female's maternal care instinct. We carried out a gift-switching experiment, where males presented an eggsac, a wrapped fly or an unwrapped fly...

  9. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  10. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  11. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Meiotically driven sex chromosomes can quickly spread to fixation and cause population extinction unless balanced by selection or suppressed by genetic modifiers. We report results of genetic analyses that demonstrate that extreme female-biased sex ratios in two sister species of stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and C. whitei, are due to a meiotic drive element on the X chromosome (X(d)). Relatively high frequencies of X(d) in C. dalmanni and C. whitei (13-17% and 29%, respectively) ca...

  12. Evaluation of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) between persistently infected and naive cattle by the horn fly (Haematobia irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Passler, Thomas; Givens, M Daniel; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Walz, Paul H

    2011-02-01

    Identifying reservoirs and transmission routes for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are important in developing biosecurity programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate BVDV transmission by the hematophagous horn fly (Haematobia irritans). Flies collected from four persistently infected cattle were placed in fly cages attached to principal (n = 4) and control (n = 4) BVDV-naïve calves housed individually in isolation rooms. Flies were able to feed on principal calves, but a barrier prevented fly feeding from control calves. Flies were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR and virus isolation at time of collection from PI cattle and after 48 h of exposure on BVDV-naïve calves. Blood samples were collected from calves and tested for BVDV infection. Virus was isolated from fly homogenates at collection from PI animals and at removal from control and principal calves. All calves remained negative for BVDV by virus isolation and serology throughout the study. Bovine viral diarrhea virus may be detected in horn flies collected from PI cattle, but horn flies do not appear to be an important vector for BVDV transmission.

  13. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  14. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  15. Allergy-Proof Your House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vent moisture outside. Temperature and humidity. Hot, humid houses are breeding grounds for dust mites and mold. ... Smoking. Don't allow smoking anywhere inside your house. References Allergens and irritants. National Institute of Environmental ...

  16. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  17. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  18. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  19. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  20. Flies cope with uncontrollable stress by learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenghong; Bertolucci, Franco; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2013-05-06

    In a wide range of animals, uncontrollable stressful events can induce a condition called "learned helplessness." In mammals it is associated with low general activity, poor learning, disorders of sleep and feeding, ulcers, and reduced immune status, as well as with increased serotonin in parts of the brain. It is considered an animal model of depression in humans. Here we investigate learned helplessness in Drosophila, showing that this behavioral state consists of a cognitive and a modulatory, possibly mood-like, component. A fly, getting heated as soon as it stops walking, reliably resumes walking to escape the heat. If, in contrast, the fly is not in control of the heat, it learns that its behavior has no effect and quits responding. In this state, the fly walks slowly and takes longer and more frequent rests, as if it were "depressed." This downregulation of walking behavior is more pronounced in females than in males. Learned helplessness in Drosophila is an example of how, in a certain situation, behavior is organized according to its expected consequences.

  1. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  2. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    Effects of different concentrations of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait on attraction and feeding responses, mortality, and control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In the laboratory, flies that had been exposed to sugar and yeast extract and then deprived of all food for 16-20 h were attracted to 40.0% GF-120, but not to 0.6 and 4.8% GF-120 (vol:vol). Nonstarved flies were not attracted to any concentration. Flies in the field were not attracted to 55.6% GF-120 on cherry leaves, and few flies fed on the bait. In the laboratory, males fed for shorter durations on and ingested lower amounts of 0.6% than 4.8 or 40.0% GF-120, but females fed equally on all concentrations. Spinosad in GF-120 was highly toxic to flies. Lethal concentrations50 (LC50 values) of spinosad for starved flies at 1-4 d were 1.5-0.7 ppm. When gravid flies were exposed to cherries treated with 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120, mortality was greater at each higher concentration, but none prevented oviposition. Field spray tests comparing 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120 in 225 ml of spray per cherry tree resulted in 79-94% lower larval infestations than in controls, but no differences were seen among the concentrations. Evidence from this study indicates that fresh 40.0% GF-120 was attractive in the laboratory but that flies were not attracted to fresh GF-120 from far distances within trees, suggesting that suppression of populations is caused in large part by flies finding the bait through normal movement over large areas.

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  4. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  5. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  6. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    an understanding of the built environment as a spatial continuum that is in constant alteration. When we engage in the renovation of a building, we inevitably enter into a dialogue with this continuum. The motivation to alter an existing building may be decay and change in the use, or, as has been the case...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  7. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    and flow of trade acrosss the Indian Ocean. Today the regional port is in Nacala, provincial capital is Nampula, and the only economic future for Ilha, currently a small sleepy city of ca 18.000 people on the island and 45.000 in the municipal district, seems to be tourism development. The little island...... for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... "Moçambicanidade", an official cultural policy of strengthening a national identity. Now parts of "the community" in Ilha with cultural links northwards, may see new tourism routes along old trading routes and a new academic interest in the Indian Ocean as a cultural space, as an opportunity to redefine themselves...

  8. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  9. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  10. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  11. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  12. Neuronal encoding of sound, gravity, and wind in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Eriko; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Exposure to male courtship songs results in reduced locomotion in females, whereas males begin to chase each other. When agitated, fruit flies tend to move against gravity. When faced with air currents, they 'freeze' in place. Based on recent studies, Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a sensor for all of these mechanosensory stimuli. Compartmentalization of sense cells in Johnston's organ into vibration-sensitive and deflection-sensitive neural groups allows this single organ to mediate such varied functions. Sound and gravity/wind signals sensed by these two neuronal groups travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways reminiscent of the auditory and vestibular pathways in the human brain. Studies of the similarities between mammals and flies will lead to a better understanding of the principles of how sound and gravity information is encoded in the brain. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these principles and discuss the advantages of the fruit fly as a model system to explore the fundamental principles of how neural circuits and their ensembles process and integrate sensory information in the brain.

  13. Seasonal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polseela, R; Apiwathnasorn, C; Samung, Y

    2011-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies have long been incriminated as vectors of leishmaniasis in various parts of both the Old and New World. Prompted by recent indigenous cases of leishmaniasis in Thailand, a bionomic study of sand flies was undertaken in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province. In this study, sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, to clarify the activity patterns and species composition of the sand flies. Traps were laid from August 2005 to July 2006. The insects were collected monthly between 1800-0600 hours. A total of 8,131 sand flies were collected with a female:male ratio of 1.9:1. Sixteen species were identified, of which 5 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus, 9 to Sergentomyia and 1 to Chinius. Species comprised the abundant species (Sergentomyia silvatica 35.6%, Sergentomyia barraudi 18.1%, Sergentomyia anodontis, 17.1%, Sergentomyia iyengari 11.9%, and Sergentomyia gemmea 11.2%); the less common species (sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6).

  14. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with

  15. Efficacy of cyantraniliprole fly bait against housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q F; Li, X; Hunag, J B; Zhang, D M; Yuan, J Z

    2015-09-01

    Novel and effective baits are needed to manage pest housefly populations and avoid the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we bioassayed the efficacy of Zyrox®, a novel fly bait containing a novel 0.5 % cyantraniliprole insecticide, to kill adult houseflies under laboratory conditions. We found that Zyrox® killed a significantly greater proportion of flies than the current competing fly bait, QuickBayt®, after a 24-h exposure. The cumulative mortalities of houseflies were up to 96.36 % and 92.57 % for Zyrox® and 78.88 % and 68.76 % for QuickBayt® in no-choice and choice tests, respectively. Our results suggested that there was negligible behavioral resistance to both fly baits but revealed that Zyrox® appeared to work slower than QuickBayt® (at a 3-h exposure, proportionally fewer flies were killed by Zyrox® than by QuickBayt®). Importantly, we found that the efficacy of Zyrox® did not diminish with the age of the bait (up to 90 days old). In actual knockdown time (KDT) feeding bioassay, the results showed that Zyrox® knocked down flies significantly slower (11.97 min for females; 12.30 min for males) than QuickBayt® (1.89 min for females; 2.24 min for males). These results reveal the high efficacy of Zyrox® bait to kill adult flies and suggest that it is a promising slow-action bait for management of houseflies.

  16. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  17. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  18. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  19. Breeding season-specific sex diagnostics in the monomorphic House Martin Delichon urbicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Van Der Velde, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Capsule Breeding adult females show a bare brood patch and a smaller cloacal protuberance than males. Aims To examine the degree of sexual dimorphism in various phenotypic traits in House Martins. Methods In the summers of 2005-07 in the northern Netherlands, 160 House Martins were captured. We meas

  20. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  1. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  2. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment.

  3. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  4. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  5. Bot fly parasitism of the red-backed vole: host survival, infection risk, and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jérôme; Fortin, Daniel; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Darveau, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    Parasites can play an important role in the dynamics of host populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. We investigated the role of bot fly (Cuterebra spp.) parasitism in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) by first assessing the impacts of the parasite on the probability of vole survival under stressful conditions as well as on the reproductive activity of females. We then identified the main factors driving both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies inside red-backed voles. Finally, we evaluated the impacts of bot fly prevalence on the growth rate of vole populations between mid-July and mid-August. Thirty-six populations of red-backed voles were sampled in the boreal forest of Québec, Canada. The presence and the abundance of parasites in voles, two host life history traits (sex and body condition), three indices of habitat complexity (tree basal area, sapling basal area, coarse woody debris volume), and vole abundance were considered in models evaluating the effects of bot flies on host populations. We found that the probability of survival of red-backed voles in live traps decreased with bot fly infection. Both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies in red-backed voles were driven mainly by vole abundance rather than by the two host life history traits or the three variables of habitat complexity. Parasitism had population consequences: bot fly prevalence was linked to a decrease in short-term growth rate of vole populations over the summer. We found that bot flies have the potential to reduce survival of red-backed voles, an effect that may apply to large portions of populations.

  6. Detrimental effects of cement mortar and fly ash mortar on asthma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ara; Jang, Hong-Seok; Roh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hee Jin; Talha, A F S M; So, Seung-Young; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2013-11-01

    Currently, concrete additive materials are used worldwide to improve properties of concrete production and to reduce the total cost of the materials used in the concrete. However, the effects of exposure to various gases emitted from mortar mixed with additive materials are poorly understood. To evaluate the pattern of gas emission from cement mortar and additives, the emission levels of gas including ammonia (NH3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from two different mortar types, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), and OPC with fly ash on various time points after manufacture. On days 1, 3, 10 and 30 after manufacture, moderate concentrations of NH3 (4, 9, 12 and 5 ppm) were measured in OPC mortar (24h, 150 mm × 150 mm × 50 mm), whereas higher concentrations of NH3 (73, 55, 20 and 5 ppm) were measured in OPC mortar with fly ash (24h, 150 mm × 150 mm × 50 mm). Furthermore, the concentration of VOCs was more than 10 ppm on 1, 3, and 10 days of age in OPC and OPC with fly ash mortars. To examine the mortars' allergic effects on the respiratory system, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and divided into four groups: normal, asthma control, OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash. The mice were housed in corresponding group cage for 10 days with OVA challenges to induce asthma. Histopathologically, increased infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the lung perivascular area of mice housed in OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash cages compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Moreover, severe bronchial lumen obstruction and increased hypertrophy of bronchial epithelial cells (pmortar with fly ash group compared to OPC mortar or asthma control groups. Lungs of the two mortar groups generally expressed higher levels of genes related with asthma, including IL-4, eotaxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Additionally, the OPC mortar with fly ash group showed higher expression of IL-5, 13 and monocyte

  7. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  8. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  9. Fly pollination in Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae): biogeographic and phylogenetic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Masinde, Siro; Meve, Ulrich; Picker, Mike; Whittington, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Ceropegia (Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) is a large, Old World genus of >180 species, all of which possess distinctive flask-shaped flowers that temporarily trap pollinators. The taxonomic diversity of pollinators, biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of pollinator exploitation, and the level of specificity of interactions were assessed in order to begin to understand the role of pollinators in promoting diversification within the genus. Flower visitor and pollinator data for approx. 60 Ceropegia taxa were analysed with reference to the main centres of diversity of the genus and to a cpDNA-nrDNA molecular phylogeny of the genus. Ceropegia spp. interact with flower-visiting Diptera from at least 26 genera in 20 families, of which 11 genera and 11 families are pollinators. Size range of flies was 0.5-4.0 mm and approx. 94 % were females. Ceropegia from particular regions do not use specific fly genera or families, though Arabian Peninsula species are pollinated by a wider range of Diptera families than those in other regions. The basal-most clade interacts with the highest diversity of Diptera families and genera, largely due to one hyper-generalist taxon, C. aristolochioides subsp. deflersiana. Species in the more-derived clades interact with a smaller diversity of Diptera. Approximately 60 % of taxa are so far recorded as interacting with only a single genus of pollinators, the remaining 40 % being less conservative in their interactions. Ceropegia spp. can therefore be ecological specialists or generalists. The genus Ceropegia has largely radiated without evolutionary shifts in pollinator functional specialization, maintaining its interactions with small Diptera. Intriguing biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns may reflect processes of regional dispersal, diversification and subsequent specialization onto a narrower range of pollinators, though some of the findings may be caused by inconsistent sampling. Comparisons are made with other plant genera

  10. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  11. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  12. Vigander house, Stavanger, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty solar buildings have been constructed in the Stavanger region, the majority with facade or roof- integrated solar air systems for space heating and/or heating of domestic hot water. The Vigander house is a typical example of architectural integration of a solar facade collector coupled to a hollow concrete floor heat distribution system. The concrete floor is 44 m{sup 2}. The system has been in uninterrupted service since 1989. The total additional costs for the whole system were US $2500 (ECU 2270). The occupants are extremely positive about the system. (author)

  13. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  14. Influence of habitat pattern on orientation during host fruit location in the tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brévault, T; Quilici, S

    2007-12-01

    Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.

  15. Small object detection neurons in female hoverflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Karin; O'Carroll, David C

    2006-05-22

    While predators such as dragonflies are dependent on visual detection of moving prey, social interactions make conspecific detection equally important for many non-predatory insects. Specialized 'acute zones' associated with target detection have evolved in several insect groups and are a prominent male-specific feature in many dipteran flies. The physiology of target selective neurons associated with these specialized eye regions has previously been described only from male flies. We show here that female hoverflies (Eristalis tenax) have several classes of neurons within the third optic ganglion (lobula) capable of detecting moving objects smaller than 1 degrees . These neurons have frontal receptive fields covering a large part of the ipsilateral world and are tuned to a broad range of target speeds and sizes. This could make them suitable for detecting targets under a range of natural conditions such as required during predator avoidance or conspecific interactions.

  16. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  17. Allying health care and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  18. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  19. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  20. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  1. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  2. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  3. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  4. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  5. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  6. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  7. Hsp90 is important for fecundity, longevity, and buffering of cryptic deleterious variation in wild fly populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein Hsp90 can buffer the phenotypic effects of genetic variation. Laboratory experiments either manipulate Hsp90 activity pharmacologically, or they induce mutations with strong effects in the gene Hsp83, the single-copy fly gene encoding Hsp90. It is unknown whether observations from such laboratory experiments are relevant in the wild. Results We here study naturally occurring mutations in Hsp83, and their effects on fitness and phenotypic buffering in flies derived from wild populations. We examined more than 4500 flies from 42 Drosophila populations distributed world-wide for insertions or deletions of mobile DNA in or near the Hsp83 gene. The insertions we observed occur at low population frequencies, and reduce Hsp83 gene expression. In competition experiments, mutant flies performed much more poorly than wild-type flies. Mutant flies were also significantly less fecund and shorter-lived than wild-type flies, as well as less well buffered against cryptic deleterious variation, as we show through inbreeding experiments. Specifically, in Hsp83 mutant flies female fecundity dropped to much lower levels after inbreeding than in wild-type flies. At even slightly elevated temperatures, inbred mutant Hsp83 populations went extinct, whereas inbred wild-type populations persisted. Conclusions Our work shows that Hsp90, a regulator of the stress response and of signaling, helps buffer deleterious variation in fruit flies derived from wild population, and that its buffering role becomes even more important under heat stress.

  8. Sex and the housing: Effects on behavior, cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; de Melo, Gabriela Madalena; da Rosa, João Gabriel Dos Santos; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-08-16

    Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish. Four groups of animals were used: 1) segregated housed females (only females were kept in the tank); 2) segregated housed males (only males were kept in the tank); 3) mixed-sex housed females (only females were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex); 4) mixed-sex housed males (only males were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex). Males showed higher total distance travelled and mean speed when compared to females. In the inhibitory avoidance memory, sexually segregated animals had higher latencies than their mixed-sex counterparts in the 1day test and sexually segregated females presented a memory that persisted longer and was able to be reinstated. Whole-body cortisol levels were higher in mixed-sex animals while weight was lower in these fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that effects of sex and housing regarding sex were investigated in behavior and physiology of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  10. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  11. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  13. Molecular detection of Leishmania in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus atXakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area.

  14. Oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for feed-through and systemic control of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2013-01-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli is the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor), which is maintained in populations of burrowing rodents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a laboratory study to determine the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for control of sand flies that feed on rodent feces as larvae or on rodent blood as adults. We determined through larval bioassays that fipronil was eliminated in feces of orally-treated hamsters at a level that was significantly toxic to sand fly larvae for 21 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from a fipronil-treated diet. Through bloodfeeding bioassays, we also found that fipronil was present in the peripheral blood of hamsters at a concentration that was significantly toxic to bloodfeeding adult female sand flies for 49 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from their treated diet. The results of this study suggest that fipronil acts as well as or better than feed-through or systemic insecticides that previously have been measured against sand flies, and is particularly promising because this single compound acts against both larvae and bloodfeeding adults. An area-wide approach using rodent baits containing a fipronil could suppress vector populations that originate in the vicinity of rodent reservoirs, and could be used to eliminate the most epidemiologically important part of the vector population: female sand flies that take bloodmeals on rodent reservoirs.

  15. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  16. Evaluation of a metofluthrin fan vaporizer device against phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in the Judean Desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollner, Gabriela; Orshan, Laor

    2011-03-01

    The OFF! Clip-On fan vaporizer device releasing metofluthrin was evaluated against phletobomine sand flies in the Judean Desert, Israel, in October, 2009. A total of 76,400 sand flies was collected, with male flies representing 98.3%Phlebotomus sergenti and 1.7%P. papatasi. Females comprised 43.0% of the total catch and included 6.7% blood-fed females. Similar proportions of flies were collected in both suction and sticky traps. In trials with unbaited suction traps, similar numbers of sand flies were collected in traps with a metofluthrin device, blank device, or no device (i.e., suction only). In suction traps baited with CO(2) , higher numbers of P. sergenti males and blood-fed females were collected in traps with a blank device compared to traps with a metofluthrin device. In sticky traps baited with CO(2) , there were no significant differences between catches in traps with a metofluthrin device, blank device, or no device. The results suggest metofluthrin from the device is not repellent against sand flies in a field environment despite showing insecticidal activity against flies collected in suction traps.

  17. The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri's medium and identified using reliable keys.A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  18. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  19. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park.

  20. A Survey on Residential Areas Infestation to House Pests (Arthropods in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods city of Kashan in 2010. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests χP2P and fisher exact3T. Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen3T.3T Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.