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Sample records for female camels camelus

  1. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 d...

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  3. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  4. Trypanosomosis of The Dromedary Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caught more arthropod vectors than similarly baited black/grey biconical and black/grey NITSE traps. From the foregoing, the results showed that mixed trypanosome infections occur commonly among camels in the arid zone of northeastern Nigeria. Secondly, haematophagus arthropods vectors may be involved in the ...

  5. Management of tendon haemangiosarcoma in a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus – a case report

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    Pavel Kvapil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old intact female Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus was suffering from lameness due to a mass on the right dorsal metacarpal region that caused acute swelling and local skin necrosis. Histology examination and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy material of a mass revealed haemangiosarcoma of the extensor tendons. Three weeks after the biopsy, the tumour was enlarged to 6 cm in diameter and the animal became disabled. The tumour with its associated tendon were resected and the tendon’s edges were bridged with a synthetic polytape graft. The camel was fully weight-bearing after the surgery. Two weeks later, the graft was removed due to widespread necrosis. Since the wound was positive for Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter iwoffii, Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus sp., the post-operative antibiotic treatment was prolonged for 28 days. Four months later, the wound healed using daily irrigation and bandaging and the camel walked normally. Nine months after diagnosis, the camel suddenly died without any clinical signs. Metastases of the haemangiosarcoma were found in the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, meninges, and mediastinum. Exsanguination due to rupture of a liver metastasis was determined as the cause of the death. Haemangiosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from endothelial cells of blood vessels and tends to be very aggressive. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of a metastasizing haemangiosarcoma arising from the lateral extensor tendon in a Bactrian camel.

  6. Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

  7. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

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    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  8. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  9. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined three times (beginning, mid and end) in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the me...

  10. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

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    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  11. Brucellosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Darfur, Western Sudan.

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    Musa, M T; Eisa, M Z M; El Sanousi, E M; Abdel Wahab, M B; Perrett, L

    2008-01-01

    In a field outbreak of brucellosis in 21 camels mixed with cattle, sheep and goats, five camels, three of which showed clinical signs, were serologically positive. In a subsequent abattoir survey of apparently healthy camels, six animals were seropositive, albeit with titres that tended to be lower than those found in the field outbreak. Of the six seropositive slaughtered camels, five were shown to have lymph nodes (prescapular and supramammary) infected with brucellae (Brucella melitensis biovar 3, two camels; Brucella abortus biovar 6, three camels). Infection of camels with B. abortus biovar 6 had not previously been reported. Infection of the supramammary lymph nodes presents a potential hazard to those who consume raw camels' milk, a common practice in nomadic camel owners.

  12. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L

    2017-11-01

    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

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    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  14. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  15. Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel ( Camelus dromedarius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 112 individual camel milk samples were collected during the period from. December 2004 to June 2005 to evaluate the hygienic quality of raw camel milk in two locations of Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve this the following microbiological counts were done: total bacterial counts, mesophilic counts, ...

  16. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  17. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmud, T.; Rehman, R.; Anwar, J.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  18. Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiome in the forestomach fluid from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Dande, Suchitra S; Patil, Nitin V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-04-01

    Rumen microorganisms play an important role in ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients and have great potential applications in the field of rumen adjusting, food fermentation and biomass utilization etc. In order to investigate the composition of microorganisms in the rumen of camel (Camelus dromedarius), this study delves in the microbial diversity by culture-independent approach. It includes comparison of rumen samples investigated in the present study to other currently available metagenomes to reveal potential differences in rumen microbial systems. Pyrosequencing based metagenomics was applied to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by MG-RAST, a web based tool. Pyrosequencing of camel rumen sample yielded 8,979,755 nucleotides assembled to 41,905 sequence reads with an average read length of 214 nucleotides. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Bacteroidetes (55.5 %), Firmicutes (22.7 %) and Proteobacteria (9.2 %) phyla as predominant camel rumen taxa. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Bacteroides species dominated the camel rumen metagenome. Functional analysis revealed that clustering-based subsystem and carbohydrate metabolism were the most abundant SEED subsystem representing 17 and 13 % of camel metagenome, respectively. A high taxonomic and functional similarity of camel rumen was found with the cow metagenome which is not surprising given the fact that both are mammalian herbivores with similar digestive tract structures and functions. Combined pyrosequencing approach and subsystems-based annotations available in the SEED database allowed us access to understand the metabolic potential of these microbiomes. Altogether, these data suggest that agricultural and animal husbandry practices can impose significant selective pressures on the rumen microbiota regardless of rumen type. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the complexity of camel rumen microbial ecology while also highlighting striking

  19. Anatomical subdivisions of the stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

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    Wang, J L; Lan, G; Wang, G X; Li, H Y; Xie, Z M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty stomachs of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) were studied by gross dissection. Based on the configuration of the stomach and the structure of the mucous membrane, the stomach was divided into three ventricles that differ from the arrangement described for ox and sheep. The first and second ventricles of the proventriculus of camel form one stomach rather than two different stomachs. These ventricles of the proventriculus do not correspond to the rumen and reticulum of ox and sheep. The third ventricle appears to be the abomasum. One part of the abomasum has reticular mucosal folds that indicate it is not the reticulum. A second part of the abomasum has longitudinal mucosal folds suggesting it is not the omasum. Three glandular sac areas associated with the preventriculus and abomasum are also described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Ali, Ibtisam A; Elamin, Fatima M; Grobusch, Martin P; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-25

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

  1. Transabdominal ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy camels (Camelus dromedaries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Ali, Ahmed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic picture of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). For this purpose, 22 camels were examined. The rumen and its glandular sacs were filling most of the left side of the abdomen. The rumen wall was smooth and echogenic. The ventral part of the reticulum could be best imaged in 17 (77%) camels from the left and right paramedian region just behind to the sternal pad. The reticulum in these animals had a thick wall (1.17±0.27 cm) that appeared as a half-moon-shaped structure with a biphasic contraction. The omasum was best viewed through the right 8th to 6th intercostal spaces in 18 (82%) camels. In the remaining 4 (18%), it was visualized through four consecutive intercostal spaces (right 9th to 6th). It had a wall thickness of 1.1±0.7 cm and a transverse diameter of 8.74±3.4 cm. The abomasum could be best visualized from the right 9th and 8th intercostal spaces in 14 (64%) camels, while it was observed in the 9th intercostal space in 3 (14%) animals and in the 8th and 7th intercostal space in 5 (22%) camels. Small intestinal structures were best seen low in the right paralumbar fossa. It was thin-walled (0.43±0.14 cm) and had a diameter of 2.62±0.47 cm. The cecum was imaged chiefly in the caudal right flank. It was thin-walled (0.37±0.05 cm), had a diameter of 13.8±1.6 cm. The proximal loop of the large colon appeared as thick, echogenic, continuous and slightly curved lines. It was thin-walled (0.51±0.08 cm) and had a diameter of 3.5±0.8 cm. The spiral colon was confined in all camels to the caudal ventral half of the abdomen. It appeared as structures with thick echoic lateral walls with a number of echogenic arched lines next to each other. Free peritoneal fluid pockets were imaged in two locations in 19 (86%) camels. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was successful in 15 (68%) of the examined camels. This study provides the ultrasonographic appearance of the

  2. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  3. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

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    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  4. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  5. A comparative study of ketone body metabolism between the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, L G; Emmanuel, B; Hamar, D W; Howard, B R

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate (AcAc) have been measured in camels (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries). The activity of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BHB-deH2) (E.C. 1.1.1.30) was studied in the rumen epithelium and the liver of these animals. 2. Concentrations of plasma BHB and AcAc in the camel were in respective order 33 and 4 times lower than that of the sheep. The ratios of BHB to AcAc were 0.61 and 4.8 for the camel and sheep, respectively. 3. The activity of BHB-deH2 in the rumen epithelium of the camel and sheep were 7.15 and 66 mumol/hr/g wet wt tissue, respectively. The activity in both species was higher in the rumen epithelium than in the liver.

  6. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    A. Benkirane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3 and B (n=3 consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10 consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12 composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 x 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels.

  7. Special cutaneous vascular elements in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Mohammad Rashad Fath-Elbab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphological structure and functional significance of various special regulatory devices of the vascular terminal branches of the skin in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Materials and methods: Skin samples from different body parts (e.g., front, neck and shoulder, back, belly, chest, thigh, flank and tail of camel were used in this study. The samples were stained with Harris hematoxylin and trichrome stain. Semithin sections were also prepared from these samples. Results: The vascular elements demonstrated in the current study included- throttle arteries within the dermis on the level of the hair papillae, glomus bodies within the dermis on the level mid-length of the hair follicles, medium-sized arteries on the level of the secretory end-pieces of the epitrichial sweat glands, and tufts of spirally-oriented arterioles in the nearby of the hair follicles. Conclusions: These vascular elements are either designed to control blood pressure (Hemo-dynamic mechanism or patterned to control body temperature (Thermo-regulatory mechanism. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 106-111

  8. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dipetalonema evansi (LEWIS, 1882) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

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    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Despite the economic importance of camels, the parasites that affect them have not received adequate attention so far and molecular studies are scarce compared to other livestock. In this study, we characterized peripheral blood microfilariae in 200 healthy one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) from south-east Iran by microscopy and molecular tools to receive a more detailed insight into prevalence and species that affect them. Moreover, adult specimens of the filarial nematode Dipetalonema evansi were collected from the carcass of an infected animal. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and blood was also spotted on Whatman FTA(®) cards for DNA analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR was carried out for the detection of filaroid helminths, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. Four samples were positive for microfilariae by microscopy, while 16 animals (8 %) were positive by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed D. evansi in all cases. Phylogenetic analysis of a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of filaroid nematodes showed that most species in a single genus cluster in the same clade; however, D. evansi and D. gracile are not monophyletic and branch rather at the base of the tree. Further studies on the life cycle of D. evansi, specifically the identification of intermediate host(s), have become feasible with the provision of the first specific COI sequences in this study.

  9. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan.

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    Suliman, Hajer M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Shamseldin I; Abdelaziz, Sanaa A; Haroun, Eltahir M; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2017-08-03

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. A total of 361 camels selected randomly from six localities were employed in the study. Sera sampled were tested for the presence of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CCHFV seropositivity was recorded in 77 out of 361 animals accounting for a prevalence rate of 21.3%. Age (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.72-7.79, p-value = 0.026); locality (OR = 5.85, CI = 1.81-18.83, p- value = 0.003), tick number (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.37-9.81, P-value 0.04); tick control (OR = 2.2, CI, 1.11-4.35, P-value = 0.023) and breed (OR = 6.60, CI = 2.38-18.36, P-value = 0.001) were recorded as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. The prevalence of CCHF is significantly high among camels in Khartoum State, Sudan. Age, breed, locality and tick control are considered as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. This study would be expected to reduce the impact on the livelihood of pastoral communities and ultimately avoid disease spread in human.

  10. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

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    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  11. Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Billah, M; Skidmore, Julian A

    2015-01-15

    The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. Sperm pellets were resuspended (120 million/mL) in fresh TALP and incubated (15 minutes; 37 °C) with 0, 1.5, or 4.5 mg CLC/mL. Sperm suspensions were then centrifuged and reconstituted in INRA-96 containing 20% (v:v) egg yolk and 2.5% (v:v) methylformamide, loaded in 0.5-mL plastic straws, sealed, and cooled for 20 minutes at 4 °C. Straws were frozen over liquid nitrogen (4 cm above liquid; 15 minutes), plunged, and stored. Sperm motility, forward progressive status, and acrosomal integrity were recorded at 0 and 3 hours after thawing and compared with these same parameters before freezing. Aliquots also were stained with chlortetracycline hydrochloride to assess spontaneous sperm capacitation status before freezing and post-thaw. Pretreatment with CLC (1.5 and 4.5 mg/mL) enhanced cryosurvival. Post-thaw sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 1.5 mg CLC/mL immediately after thawing (44%) and after 3 hours incubation at room temperature (34%). Highest post-thaw sperm progressive status was also achieved in the presence of 1.5 CLC. Greater proportions of spermatozoa retained acrosomal membrane integrity when cryopreserved in the presence of CLC, but there was no difference between 1.5 and 4.5 CLC. Although thawed spermatozoa underwent spontaneous

  12. Composition, Quality and Health Aspects of the Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius and Bactrian (Camelus bacterianus Camel Meats: A Review

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    Isam T. Kadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary and bactrian camels are good sources of high quality protein especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the survival of other livestock. The camel has unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high and low temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. Camels are mostly produced under traditional systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at old ages after completing a career in work, racing or milk production. In general, camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore-quarters (cranial to rib 13 significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for growing human populations. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than other meat animals, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisciplinary research into efficient production systems and improved meat technology and marketing.

  13. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettical, Binoy S.; Hong, Seung B.

    2017-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and Llama (Llama glama) as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05) of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using dromedary camel

  14. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

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    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  15. Effect of dystocia on some hormonal and biochemical parameters in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Al-Eknah, M M; Al-Raja'a, A

    2016-08-01

    The present study compared some of the hormonal and biochemical constituents of serum from eutocic and dystocic one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sera were harvested from eutocic (n = 9) and dystocic (n = 20) camels within the first 15 minutes after delivery. Although there were no differences in the concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) between the eutocic and the dystocic animals, the level of progesterone (P4) and cortisol was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had a normal birth. There were no differences between the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, or magnesium (Mg) in eutocic and dystocic animals. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had normal births. By contrast, the serum concentrations of glucose, phosphorus (P), and triglycerides were significantly lower (P dystocia. Moreover, stress and hormonal changes may affect the metabolic traits in dystocia camels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

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    Ajamaluddin Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100% followed by testis (45%, kidney (13%, lung (11% and spleen (10%, using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%, Sus scrofa (88%, Cavia porcellus (88%, Mus musculus (88%, Macaca mulatta (87%, Pan troglodytes (87%, Homo sapiens (87%, Canis familiaris (86%, Bos taurus (86%, Pongo abelii (85% and Equus caballus (82%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc SOD from the camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataya, Farid S; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  1. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquim; Belenguer, Alvaro; Nolan, John

    2004-08-01

    Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction, and also the purine:protein ratio in bacteria determined in experiment 5, we predicted the net microbial outflow from the rumen. In experiment 4, with increasing food intake, the rate of PD excretion in the urine increased linearly by about 11.1 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), equivalent to 95 g microbial protein/kg DOMI.

  2. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  3. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius of Iran

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    Alireza SAZMAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools.Methods: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples.Results: One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi.Conclusion: Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi, the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  4. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  5. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools. From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA ® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi . Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi , the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  6. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  7. The association between glutamine repeats in the androgen receptor gene and personality traits in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Sherif; Nowier, Amira M; Hori, Yusuke; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-01-01

    Temperament traits such as fearfulness are important as they define an animal's responses to its environment and handling. The increasing automation of daily tasks and growing population limits contact between camels and humans. Such limitations contribute to fear of humans and changes in physical environment. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes are important candidates associated with mammal personality. In our analysis, MAOA exon 15 showed no polymorphism but a novel polymorphism was seen in the camel AR exon 1; 16, 17, 18, and 19 glutamine repeats were detected. We genotyped 138 camels belonging to four Egyptian breeds: Maghrabi (n = 90), Sudani (n = 15), Somali (n = 23), and Baladi (n = 10) for AR. Out of the 90 genotyped Maghrabi camels, we evaluated responses of 33 and 32 mature females to a novel object and exposure to an unfamiliar person, respectively. AR gene showed a significant association based on the principal component (PC) score, which indicated the fear of human touch, and the PC score indicates fear during interaction with novel objects. Individuals carrying a shorter genotype in homozygote (S/S) were found to be more fearful. Furthermore, we found that Sudani and Somali breeds had a higher frequency of shorter genotype (S/S), which was associated with increased fearfulness. These findings reflect the behavioral tendency and consequently, affect the use of this breed. This is the first report showing the role of AR glutamine repeats influencing a behavioral trait in dromedary camels and leading to inter-breed differences. Fear-related traits reported here are important because camels cope with various types of stresses and fear, resulting from the demands of intensive production systems and racing events. However, further studies, employing functional genomics and linkage analysis are necessary for confirming the relationship between fearfulness and genetic variation.

  8. The association between glutamine repeats in the androgen receptor gene and personality traits in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius.

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    Sherif Ramadan

    Full Text Available Temperament traits such as fearfulness are important as they define an animal's responses to its environment and handling. The increasing automation of daily tasks and growing population limits contact between camels and humans. Such limitations contribute to fear of humans and changes in physical environment. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA and androgen receptor (AR genes are important candidates associated with mammal personality. In our analysis, MAOA exon 15 showed no polymorphism but a novel polymorphism was seen in the camel AR exon 1; 16, 17, 18, and 19 glutamine repeats were detected. We genotyped 138 camels belonging to four Egyptian breeds: Maghrabi (n = 90, Sudani (n = 15, Somali (n = 23, and Baladi (n = 10 for AR. Out of the 90 genotyped Maghrabi camels, we evaluated responses of 33 and 32 mature females to a novel object and exposure to an unfamiliar person, respectively. AR gene showed a significant association based on the principal component (PC score, which indicated the fear of human touch, and the PC score indicates fear during interaction with novel objects. Individuals carrying a shorter genotype in homozygote (S/S were found to be more fearful. Furthermore, we found that Sudani and Somali breeds had a higher frequency of shorter genotype (S/S, which was associated with increased fearfulness. These findings reflect the behavioral tendency and consequently, affect the use of this breed. This is the first report showing the role of AR glutamine repeats influencing a behavioral trait in dromedary camels and leading to inter-breed differences. Fear-related traits reported here are important because camels cope with various types of stresses and fear, resulting from the demands of intensive production systems and racing events. However, further studies, employing functional genomics and linkage analysis are necessary for confirming the relationship between fearfulness and genetic variation.

  9. Observations on the clinical examination of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, M

    2004-07-01

    Camels usually inhabit remote areas, where diagnostic facilities and laboratories are very scarce. The species differences between the camel and other domestic animals necessitate some specific examination techniques. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical examination methods and sources of common errors that require special consideration in the camel. Young camels are examined in the standing position, while adults require restraint. Restraining procedures, both standing and in sternal recumbency, are described. New equipment and a crush were designed. The body temperature of the camels examined fluctuated from 35.7 to 38.9 degrees C, being lowest in the morning and highest in the afternoon; high temperature in the morning is indicative of fever, while high afternoon temperatures could be hyperthermia. It was difficult to take the pulse rate for routine procedures. The heart rate ranged from 35 to 50 per min; there was no difference between the heart rate in the morning and in the afternoon. The mean respiratory rate was 11 per min and respiration was of thoracol-lumbar type. The mucous membranes of the eye were an important site for appreciating signs of discoloration, while those of the mouth, rectum and vagina were unsuitable. The left flank was the best site for determining the rate of rumen contractions, which was 3+/-1.2 every 5 min, as determined by auscultation; counting the contractions by the application of the fist was difficult. The palpable external lymph nodes were the parotid, maxillary, prescapular, inferior cervical, thoracic, cubital, ilial and popiteal; they are large and can be seen on inspection in healthy animals, so that was not indicative of disease. A list of diagnostic indicators for the rapid diagnosis of ten endemic camel diseases was generated from the empirical signs.

  10. Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahim, S E

    1997-07-01

    Aspects of sexual development and attainment of sexual and breeding maturity were studied in two groups of Najdi camels (Mojaheem and Wadah), maintained in stalls under good nutritional conditions. Body weight, testes diameter and degree of penile freedom were recorded weekly. Sexual maturity was assessed by the examination of semen collected by an artificial vagina. Puberty was defined as the stage when the animal was able to produce viable sperms. Mating, followed by strong jerks and ejaculation of mature sperms, was taken to indicate onset of breeding maturity. Mojaheem camels reached sexual maturity at a significantly younger age and heavier weight (164 weeks and 360 kg) than Wadah camels (182 weeks and 336.5 kg) (P penis from preputial adhesions occurred at an average age of 138.6 weeks in both breeds. At the point of sexual maturity, the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was 65.1 +/- 5.2 while percentage of abnormal sperms was 17.6 +/- 2.2; total motility was 40 +/- 16% and progressive motility (48 +/- 2.2% (semen pH range 7.8-8.2). The percentage of live sperm was 65 +/- 1.5 (normal sperms 82 +/- 4). It is suggested that the encouragement of rapid growth during the pubertal period in camels managed under good nutritional and environmental conditions could assist early sexual development and breeding maturity.

  11. The First Record of Linguatula serrata Infection of Two-Humped Camel (Camelus bactrinus In Iran

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    B Hajimohammadi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nLinguatula serrata, is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasite. Adult of L. serrrata parasitize the nasopharynx of canids. Con­suming raw glandular material of infected intermediate hosts (camel, sheep, cattle, goat, etc. can infect human. In Iran, two-humped camel is merely found in cold regions (Ardabil and East Azarbijan provinces and is in danger of extinc­tion. A seven-year-old two-humped male camel, due to car accident injury was sent to slaughterhouse of Tabriz, Iran. In meat inspection practice, the visceral organs were taken out. A small red nodule having a white center was observed at the surface of the left lobe of lung. To study more, the whole of the left lobe of lung was sent to the parasitology labora­tory. One nymph of L. serrata was separated from the specimen. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of two-humped camel in Iran.

  12. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  13. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  15. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants.

  16. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  17. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  18. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bello; B.I. Onyeanusi; M.L. Sonfada; J.B. Adeyanju; M.A. Umaru

    2012-01-01

    A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg...

  19. Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Some Hemato-Biochemical Changes in Sub-Clinical Mastitic Dromedary She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Abdul Qayyum, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Zahid Iqbal and Mohammad Farooque Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary camels are considered as the best livestock animals in arid, semiarid and desert areas and camel milk is known as the valuable food source in these areas. The present study was aimed to investigate milk somatic cell counts and some biochemical changes in milk due to sub-clinical mastitis in camels. For this purpose milk samples were collected from 33 lactating animals and examined for sub clinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. The chi-square and frequency analysis did not show any significant association with age, lactation stage, parity and quarter involved. The results indicated significant (P<0.01 increase in milk electrical conductivity and milk pH while significantly lower values for milk proteins, lactose and fat contents were recorded. The results revealed that the total milk somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly increased while the lymphocytes and macrophages were decreased in infected animals. Moreover, milk enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in mastitic animals as compared to the non-infected animals. The results indicated that milk electrical conductivity and some milk enzymes can be screened to investigate the sub-clinical mastitis in Camelus dromedaries.

  20. COMPARATIVE GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF THE SKULL OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. U. Shahid and R. Kausar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The skull of camel when viewed from above was irregularly pentagonal in outline. It was widest in the frontal region and contained the orbits laterally. The occipital bone formed the entire nuchal surface and encroached upon the dorsal surface about 1.75 to 2 inches. It joined the parietal bone at transverse suture. A rough transverse ridge separated the parietal and nuchal surfaces. The mastoid foramen was very large and situated in a deep fossa in the occipital bone in contrast to ox, where it lay at the junction of occipital and temporal bones. The cornual processes were absent. The supraorbital foramen was in the form of a deep fissure, at the rostrolateral margin of the orbit. There was no maxillary tuberosity and facial crest. The pre maxilla had a dorsomedially concave and narrow pointed body. The nasal bones were notched rostromedially and nasal apertures were oval in outline. The body of mandible was long, narrow and concave dorsomedially. The intermandibular space was “V” shaped. The vertical ramus of mandible was thin and convex caudally and the angles were not pronounced, while the rostral border was thick and wide. The coronoid process was almost straight with caudal end slightly pointed. The condyliod process was large and its dorsal surface contained the extensive articular surfaces, which were convex. There was a shallow mandibular notch. The mandibular foramen was in the middle of the medial surface of the ramus of mandible.

  1. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

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    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  3. The effect of fibre source on the numbers of some fibre-degrading bacteria of Arabian camel's (Camelus dromedarius) foregut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Wright, André-Denis; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2014-10-01

    The total bacterial community of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in fibre-enriched culture of the foregut contents of 12 adult feral camels (Camelus dromedaries) fed on native vegetation in Australia was investigated using quantitative PCR. Foregut contents were collected postmortem, pooled and filtered before divided into two fractions. One fraction was used for extraction of DNA, while the other fraction was inoculated straight away into BM 10 contained filter paper (FP), cotton thread (CT) or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as the sole carbohydrate sources in Hungate tubes. The tubes were incubated anaerobically at 39 °C for 1 week. After a near complete degradation of the FP and CT and extensive turbidity in the NDF, media subculturing was carried out into fresh media tubes. This was repeated twice before genomic DNA was extracted and used for quantification of bacteria. Using an absolute quantification method, the numbers of cells in 1 ml of each sample ranged from 4.07 × 10(6) to 2.73 × 10(9) for total bacteria, 1.34 × 10(3) to 2.17 × 10(5) for F. succinogenes and 5.78 × 10(1) to 3.53 × 10(4) for R. flavefaciens. The mean cell number of F. succinogenes was highest in the FP enrichment medium at approximately 107-fold, whereas for the R. flavefaciens targeted primer, the NDF enrichment media had the highest mean cell number at approximately 4-fold when compared to the rumen content. The data presented here provide evidence of fibre type preference by the two main fibre-degrading bacteria and would help us understand the interaction between fibre type and fibre-degrading microorganisms, which has ramification on camel nutrition at different seasons and environments.

  4. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

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    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  5. Monensin poisoning in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, H M; Elsheikh, H A

    1992-11-01

    Four female fistulated camels (Camelus dromedarius), 4-5 years of age, were each given two grams of 10% monensin intraruminally daily for six days to study the effect of monensin on the rumen fermentation pattern. Signs of toxicity appeared on the sixth day, and included depression, anorexia, muscular weakness, inability to stand, salivation and regurgitation of ruminal contents. On the eighth day, two animals died. The ruminal contents were replaced in the survivors, but they died on the tenth and eleventh day from the start of the experiment.

  6. Identification of interleukin-26 in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): Evidence of alternative splicing and isolation of novel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, Avinash; Nautiyal, Binita; Aleyas, Abi G; Rasool, Thaha Jamal

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. Though conserved across vertebrates, the IL-26 gene is functionally inactivated in a few mammals like rat, mouse and horse. We report here the identification, isolation and cloning of the cDNA of IL-26 from the dromedary camel. The camel cDNA contains a 516 bp open reading frame encoding a 171 amino acid precursor protein, including a 21 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other mammalian IL-26 homologs and the conservation of IL-10 cytokine family domain structure including key amino acid residues. We also report the identification and cloning of four novel transcript variants produced by alternative splicing at the Exon 3-Exon 4 regions of the gene. Three of the alternative splice variants had premature termination codons and are predicted to code for truncated proteins. The transcript variant 4 (Tv4) having an insertion of an extra 120 bp nucleotides in the ORF was predicted to encode a full length protein product with 40 extra amino acid residues. The mRNA transcripts of all the variants were identified in lymph node, where as fewer variants were observed in other tissues like blood, liver and kidney. The expression of Tv2 and Tv3 were found to be up regulated in mitogen induced camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL-26-Tv2 expression was also induced in camel fibroblast cells infected with Camel pox virus in-vitro. The identification of the transcript variants of IL-26 from the dromedary camel is the first report of alternative splicing for IL-26 in a species in which the gene has not been inactivated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  8. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R; Youcef, N; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; Kheroua, O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  9. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

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    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  10. Morphologic observation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhaXi, Yingpai; Wang, Wenhui; Zhang, Wangdong; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Minggang; Jia, Shuai

    2014-07-01

    The structure and distribution of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) throughout the large intestine of 10 Bactrian camels were comparatively studied by anatomical and histological methods. The results showed that Peyer's patches (PPs) were mainly located on the mucosal surfaces of the entire ileocecal orifice, the beginning of the cecum and the first third of the colon. The shape of PPs gradually changed from "scrotiform" to "faviform" along the large intestine with the scrotiform PP as the major type in the ileocecal orifice. The distribution density also gradually decreased from the ileocecal orifice to the colon. The histological observations further revealed that the MALT in the form of PPs or isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and lamina propria lymphocytes was mainly present in the lamina propria and submucosa from the entire ileocecal orifice, where the muscularis mucosa is usually incomplete, to the colonic forepart. In addition, lymphoid tissue was much more abundant in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileocecal orifice as compared to the cecum and colon. Statistically, the MALT of the ileocecal orifice contained a higher number of lymphoid follicles (37.7/10 mm(2) ) than that of the cecum, colon, or rectum (P lymphoid follicles were clearly visible. Together, our data suggest that the ileocecal orifice constitutes the main inductive site for the mucosal immunity in the large intestine of the Bactrian camel; and that scrotiform PPs are likely to the result of long-term adaptation of the Bactrian camel to the harsh living environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  12. Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran

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    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76% and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.

  13. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    Bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with FMDV, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. To understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...... will be of importance in understanding the differences of integrins as FMDV receptors among dromedary camel and other species. Crown...

  14. Bioinformatics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitochondrial COX3 Gene in Iranian Camelus Dromedaries and Camelus Bactrianus

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    Tooba Abbassi-Daloii

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Camels belong to the family of Camelidae, suborder of Tylopoda, order of artiodactyla and class of mammalians. The family Camelidae has two old world species, double-humped camel (CAMELUS BACTRIANUS and single-humped camel (CAMELUS DROMEDARIES and four new world (tribe Lamini species, guanaco (LAMA GUANICOE, llama (LAMA GLAMA, alpaca (LAMA PACOS and vicuna (LAMA VICUGNA or VICUGNA VICUGNA at present time. The single-humped camel inhabits Afro-Arabia, Ethiopia and west Central Asia while the double-humped inhabits eastern Central Asia and China. Camel has been historically and economically an important species worldwide especially in the Africa and Asia. Camel has unique characteristics enable it to adapt its desert environment. The total worldwide camel population at present estimated to be about 23 million in the world. Somalia and Sudan together hold approximately 50% of the whole camel population. In the last 40 years, the number of camels has increased by almost 45%. Iranian native species are considered as part of the national capital so their preservation is so important. Due to severe decrease in their population in some areas, more attention to conservation genetics perspective of these species is very important. The aim of this study was to bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3 in Iranian Camelus dromedaries and Camelus bactrianus. Materials and Methods For this purpose 10 blood samples were collected from each species (totally 20 samples. After DNA extraction, the fragment with 979 bp length from mitochondrial DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing was performed by automated Sanger methods then the obtained sequences were compared with sequences from other studies. The nucleotide sequences obtained were edited using the PHRED software (http://www.phrap.org /phredphrapconsed.html. After editing, basic local alignment search tool

  15. Effect of Age on Fiber Characteristics of one-humped Female Camels of Semnan Province (Short article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ansari Renani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on fiber characteristics of one-humped female camels of Semnan province. 50 grams of wool samples from the left midside area were randomly collected from 28 camels of three different age groups: young, adult and old and fibre characteristics were measured. Statistical model used for this research was completely randomized design (CRD. Analysis of data and comparison of means were performed using Duncan's new multiple range test. The results showed that staple length and cashmere percent in young camels were significantly (P

  16. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the metatarsus and digits of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and buffalo ( Bos bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafey, A; Kassab, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed computed tomography (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic reference of the normal metatarsus and digits for the camel and buffalo, as well as to compare between metatarsus and digits in these animals to outstand a basis for diagnosis of their diseases. Advantages, including depiction of detailed cross-sectional anatomy, improved contrast resolution and computer reformatting, make it a potentially valuable diagnostic technique. The hind limbs of 12 healthy adult camel and buffalo were used. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level in the corresponding images (CT and anatomic slices). CT images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the metatarsus and digits. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the camel and buffalo metatarsus and digits would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of CT images in these species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Reproduction in Camel

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    A.V. Khanvilkar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Camelus has two species, one humped camel found in Africa, Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan and India and two-humped camel found in Central Asia reaching up to Mongolia and Western part of China. Camels have 70 chromosomes. Camels do not have sweat glands and can tolerate heat up to 49 oC to 50oC during the day time and 30oC during night time. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 72-73

  18. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

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    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro

  20. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and 3D Modeling of a Putative Lysosomal Acid Lipase from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

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    Farid Shokry Ataya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid lipase belongs to a family of enzymes that is mainly present in lysosomes of different organs and the stomach. It is characterized by its capacity to withstand acidic conditions while maintaining high lipolytic activity. We cloned for the first time the full coding sequence of camel’s lysosomal acid lipase, cLIPA using RT-PCR technique (Genbank accession numbers JF803951 and AEG75815, for the nucleotide and aminoacid sequences respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,197 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 399 aminoacids which was similar to that from other related mammalian species. Bioinformatic analysis was used to determine the aminoacid sequence, 3D structure and phylogeny of cLIPA. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the molecular weight of the translated protein to be 45.57 kDa, which could be decreased to 43.16 kDa after the removal of a signal peptide comprising the first 21 aminoacids. The deduced cLIPA sequences exhibited high identity with Equus caballus (86%, Numascus leucogenys (85%, Homo sapiens (84%, Sus scrofa (84%, Bos taurus (82% and Ovis aries (81%. cLIPA shows high aminoacid sequence identity with human and dog-gastric lipases (58%, and 59% respectively which makes it relevant to build a 3D structure model for cLIPA. The comparison confirms the presence of the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole in cLIPA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that camel cLIPA is grouped with monkey, human, pig, cow and goat. The level of expression of cLIPA in five camel tissues was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cLIPA transcript was found in the camel testis (162%, followed by spleen (129%, liver (100%, kidney (20.5% and lung (17.4%.

  1. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

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    Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State using microscopical (blood film and molecular technique (PCR. A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p=0.011 but not between the different sexes (p=0.515. PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended.

  3. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

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    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  4. Echography of clinically relevant disorders in the genital tract of female dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Alsamri, Ali; Al Sobayil, Fahd

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the clinically relevant genital tract disorders of dromedary camels. Reproductive tract examinations were performed via transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and vaginal exploration. The ultrasonic appearance of the reproductive pathology was described and compared with its morphology at laparotomy, after surgical removal, during postmortem examination or upon slaughter. Diagnosis was also confirmed by histopathology. The most frequently encountered follicular structures were larger than typical follicles (56/338, 16.6%) having three echo textures: 1) thin walls and clear hyperechogenic content (11.6%); 2) thick walls and few fibrous trabeculae (33.7%); and 3) thick walls and many echogenic transecting fibrinous strands (54.7%). Corpora lutea with non-echoic central cavity (5/31, 16.1%) were greater in diameter than those with no cavity (26/31, 83.9%) (P=0.03). A granulosa cell tumor (1/338, 0.3%) was multilocular and honeycombed in shape. Presence of a large, well-demarcated, hypoechogenic sac lateral to or beneath the uterine horn encasing the ovary was diagnostic for ovarian hydrobursitis (102/338, 30.2%). Hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx (6/338, 1.8%) were beaded in appearance, with the ovary located outside these structures. Clinical endometritis/cervicitis (122, 36.1%) was characterized by changes in the homogeneity in about half of the cases. A greatly dilated uterus with clear, hypoechogenic or echogenic contents with signs of hydrometra and pyometra, respectively, was another categorization of a reproductive pathology (24/338, 7.1%). Highly reflective, linear structures were observed in cases with intrauterine fetal bone retention (1/338, 0.3%). In conclusion, reproductive pathologies in dromedary camels can be efficiently imaged by use of ultrasonic technologies, thus familiarizing the practitioner with these disorders and facilitating application of these technologies so that suitable treatment can occur is important

  5. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

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    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  6. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

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    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  7. Piebald Camels

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    Gabriele Volpato

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal breeds are the diverse outcome of the thousands-year-long process of livestock domestication. Many of these breeds are piebald, resulting from the artificial selection by pastoralists of animals bearing a genetic condition known as leucism, and selected for their productive, behavioural, or aesthetical traits. Piebald dromedary camels have not been studied or discussed before, and their same existence is often overlooked. Based on fieldwork in Western Sahara, direct observations across Northern and East Africa and the Middle East, and a literature review, we address the morphological and behavioural traits, geographical distribution, taxonomy, and material and cultural importance of piebald (painted camels. They are a hundreds-year-old camel breed used for caravans, as mounts, and for aesthetical and cultural reasons across Sudan, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco. While they are increasingly bred out of a pastoral context for tourism and entertainment in the Canary Islands, mainland Europe, and the USA, in part of their original African range, piebald camels are under threat due to wars, droughts, and demise of pastoral livelihoods. More research is needed about these ‘beautiful and dignified’ animals.

  8. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Towards Understanding the Insulin-like Properties of Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed O Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1 and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2. Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  9. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    a firm consistency and was painful at palpation. Histopathology revealed dermal granulomatous inflammation with a necrotic centre, surrounded by plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and sparse fungal hyphae characterised by parallel cell walls, distinct septa, and dichotomous branching. Fungal culture...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  10. Variation of the platelet indices of dromedary camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological parameters showed breed, age and intersex differences in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Sex and agerelated differences were also found in red cell distribution width in addition to age-related differences in hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Platelet ...

  11. Want a Camel, Yes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    "Want a Camel, Yes?" takes us to the pyramids in Giza, Egypt. We are shown the interaction between camel drivers and tourists. Through price negotiations, conversations and interviews, we get an insight into how they imagine and understand each other and what they think constitute a good trip...... to the pyramids....

  12. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  13. Revision of the camel spider genus Eremocosta Roewer and a description of the female Eremocosta gigas Roewer (Arachnida, Solifugae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Paula E; Channiago, Felix; Brookhart, Jack O

    2018-03-29

    A recent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the solifuge genus Eremocosta (Eremobatidae), although not monophyletic, formed a strongly supported group, rendered paraphyletic by the exclusion of E. acuitlapanensis, which we herein determine is misplaced in this genus. We revise the taxonomy of the genus Eremocosta. Nine species of the 13 currently placed in the genus are retained, E. bajaensis (Muma 1986), E. calexicensis (Muma 1951), E. formidabilus (Simon 1879), E. gigas Roewer 1934, E. gigasella (Muma 1970), E. spinipalpis (Kraepelin 1899), E. striata (Putnam 1883), and E. titania (Muma 1951). Eremocosta fusca (Muma 1986) and E. montezuma (Roewer 1934) are returned to the genus Eremorhax along with E. arenarum. Eremocosta hystrix and Eremocosta acuitlapanensis (Vázquez Gaviño-Rojas 2000) are transferred to Eremobates. We re-evaluated E. nigrimana (Pocock 1895) and determined that, since the type shows the ventrodistal concavity (VDC) diagnostic for the genus Eremocosta, it should be retained in that genus; however, because the type locality is identified as Afghanistan, far outside the range of any Eremobatidae, its status and placement remain uncertain. Eremocosta robusta (Roewer 1934) was designated nomen dubium by Muma and we maintain this designation. We provide a key to the species of Eremocosta and provide a description of the female of E. gigas.

  14. Comparative evolution of some minerals, osteocalcin, 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D in the female camel and its newborn in South Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Khasmi

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum kinetics of plasma minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na and K, osteocalcin, 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D were observed in the lactating camel (n = 5 and its newborn (n = 5 in South Morocco. Ca and P plasma levels (mg/l were higher in camel calves than in dams from birth up to day 30 of life. At birth, Mg, Na and K plasma levels (mg/l were lower in camel calves than in dams. OC plasma levels (ng/ml were higher in camel calves than in their mothers from birth (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 0.7 ± 0.3, P < 0.05 up to day 30 of life (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.7 ± 0.3. These levels reached their maximum at day 3 after birth in camel calves (6.8 ± 0.5 and at day 4 postpartum in dams (2.3 ± 0.4. Plasma levels (pg/ml for 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D in newborn calves were lower at birth than those in dams (58.2 ± 12.4 vs. 480 ± 59.7, P < 0.05, and 834.8 ± 61.5 vs. 1301 ± 209, P < 0.05, respectively. These neonatal levels became significantly higher compared to those of the dams as early as day 15 after birth for 25(OHD (176.4 ± 19.6 vs. 116.1 ± 30.4, P < 0.05, and day 7 after birth for 1,25(OH2D (1215 ± 248 vs. 571 ± 64, P < 0.05. These results show that OC could be a reliable biomarker for neonatal bone growth in camel and that 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D might play a major role in calcium homeostasis regulation in newborn calves and their lactating dams.

  15. Serological, molecular detection and potential risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Khan, Iahtasham; Nasir, Amar; Younus, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Melzer, Falk; Neubauer, Heinrich; El-Adawy, Hosny

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in developing countries and was considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Brucellosis was reported in camels and has been reported from all camel-keeping countries.The present study was performed in three districts (Jhang, Chiniot, and Bhakkar) of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 200 camel (Camelus bactrianus) sera were collected using random and multistage cluster sampling from different areas. Fifty samples were collected from one organized governmental farm. One hundred fifty samples were collected randomly from nomadic/pastoral production systems. All sera were tested with Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and confirmed by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted from all serum samples and tested by real-time PCR. Various potential risk factors (season, rearing with other animals, and abortion or orchitis history) recorded through questionnaires were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test.In total, 5 % of investigated sera were positive by RBPT. Only 2 % of the camel sera were CELISA positive. Brucella abortus DNA was detected in 1.5 % of the investigated animals. Season, rearing of camels with other ruminants, abortion, and orchitis history were found to be statistically significant (p brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in the Pakistani Punjab with various risk factors maintaining and perpetuating its spread. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and raising public health awareness in prevention of brucellosis in Pakistan.

  16. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  17. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  19. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  20. Dromedary camels and the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, Maged G; Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Al-Hizab, Fahad; Alnaeem, Abdulmohsen; Almathen, Faisal; Faye, Bernard; Chu, Daniel KW; Perera, Ranawaka A; Peiris, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an existential threat to global public health. The virus has been repeatedly detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Adult animals in many countries in the Middle East as well as in North and East Africa showed high (>90%) sero-prevalence to the virus. MERS-CoV isolated from dromedaries is genetically and phenotypically similar to viruses from humans. We summarise current understanding of the ecology of MERS-CoV in animals and transmission at the animal-human interface. We review aspects of husbandry, animal movements and trade and the use and consumption of camel dairy and meat products in the Middle East that may be relevant to the epidemiology of MERS. We also highlight the gaps in understanding the transmission of this virus in animals and from animals to humans. PMID:26256102

  1. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  2. Fertility of female ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irek Malecki

    Fertilisation rate in ostrich eggs is high because most eggs contain excessive ... The ostrich breeding system is complex and a “breeding unit” can range from a .... commercial ostrich farm in Western Australia and brought to the Field Station at ...

  3. Camel enterprise integration cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style with short recipes showing developers how to effectively implement EIP without breaking everything in the process. It is concise and to the point, and it helps developers get their data flowing between different components without the need to read through page upon page of theory, while also enabling the reader to learn how to create exciting new projects.Camel Enterprise Integration Cookbook is intended for developers who have some familiarity with Apache Camel and who want a quick lookup reference to practical, proven tips on how to perform common tas

  4. No Serologic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Among Camel Farmers Exposed to Highly Seropositive Camel Herds: A Household Linked Study, Kenya, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyua, Peninah; Corman, Victor Max; Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Lattwein, Erik; Thumbi, S M; Murithi, Rees; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Drosten, Christian; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2017-06-01

    AbstractHigh seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among camels has been reported in Kenya and other countries in Africa. To date, the only report of MERS-CoV seropositivity among humans in Kenya is of two livestock keepers with no known contact with camels. We assessed whether persons exposed to seropositive camels at household level had serological evidence of infection. In 2013, 760 human and 879 camel sera were collected from 275 and 85 households respectively in Marsabit County. Data on human and animal demographics and type of contact with camels were collected. Human and camel sera were tested for anti-MERS-CoV IgG using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Human samples were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. The median age of persons sampled was 30 years (range: 5-90) and 50% were males. A quarter (197/760) of the participants reported having had contact with camels defined as milking, feeding, watering, slaughtering, or herding. Of the human sera, 18 (2.4%) were positive on ELISA but negative by PRNT. Of the camel sera, 791 (90%) were positive on ELISA. On univariate analysis, higher prevalence was observed in female and older camels over 4 years of age ( P MERS-CoV infection among camel pastoralists in Marsabit County. The high seropositivity suggests that MERS-CoV or other closely related virus continues to circulate in camels and highlights ongoing potential for animal-to-human transmission.

  5. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  6. RJR Nabisco's cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Richards, J W; Paulman, P M; Wolf-Gillespie, N; Fletcher, C; Jaffe, R D; Murray, D

    1991-12-11

    To determine if RJR Nabisco's cartoon-theme advertising is more effective in promoting Camel cigarettes to children or to adults. To determine if children see, remember, and are influenced by cigarette advertising. Use of four standard marketing measures to compare the effects of Camel's Old Joe cartoon advertising on children and adults. High school students, grades 9 through 12, from five regions of the United States, and adults, aged 21 years and over, from Massachusetts. Recognition of Camel's Old Joe cartoon character, product and brand name recall, brand preference, appeal of advertising themes. Children were more likely to report prior exposure to the Old Joe cartoon character (97.7% vs 72.2%; P less than .0001). Children were better able to identify the type of product being advertised (97.5% vs 67.0%; P less than .0001) and the the Camel cigarette brand name (93.6% vs 57.7%; P less than .0001). Children also found the Camel cigarette advertisements more appealing (P less than .0001). Camel's share of the illegal children's cigarette market segment has increased from 0.5% to 32.8%, representing sales estimated at $476 million per year. Old Joe Camel cartoon advertisements are far more successful at marketing Camel cigarettes to children than to adults. This finding is consistent with tobacco industry documents that indicate that a major function of tobacco advertising is to promote and maintain tobacco addiction among children.

  7. Polina Fedorova, About Camel Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the Kalmyks ate beef and horse meat. The poor ate camel meat. People who ate camel meat had pimples on their faces. The camel’s pelt and humps were used to make vessels. The intestines were cleaned, stretched and dried. It was used to make strings for dombra instruments. Arcadia

  8. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Frei S; Dittmann MT; Reutlinger C; Ortmann S; Hatt J-M; Kreuzer M; Clauss M

    2015-01-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports however claimed a very low methane emission from ostricheswhichwould be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed ostrich meatwould represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant—and generally mammalian—meat by representing a particularly low emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured by...

  9. Quantification of camel DNA from three camel types 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaddad, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    This poster is a summary of comparisons of the quantity DNA extracted from blood, saliva, and hair and from three camel types Majaheem, Sufor, Wadh. The poster was presented at Kuwait University-research sector poster day 2017

  10. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  11. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  12. A transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Noé F; Joseph, Sunitha; González-Barrio, David; Cabezón, Oscar; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian; Boadella, Mariana

    2013-12-27

    The Canary Islands contain the most important dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the European Union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental Europe and Latin America. We investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 Canarian camel sera. Selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against Bluetongue virus (BTV; 0%), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV; 0%), Camelpox virus (CPV; 8% by serum neutralization, 16% by ELISA), Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV, 0%), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV; 0%) and West Nile Fever virus (WNV; 3%), the bacterial pathogens Anaplasma sp. (3%), Brucella sp. (1%), Coxiella burnetii (19%), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP; 22%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC; 10%) and Rickettsia sp. (83%), and the parasites Toxoplasma gondii (36%) and Neospora caninum (86%). The most remarkable findings were the detection of antibodies against CPV and the high antibody prevalence against C. burnetii, Rickettsia sp., T. gondii and N. caninum. By PCR, we found no C. burnetii, N. caninum and Anaplasma sp. DNA in the tested samples. However, Rickettsia sp. DNA was detected in six antibody positive tested samples. These results should be taken into consideration in order to implement adequate control measures and avoid a potential dissemination of infections to other territories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Eltom, Kamal H.; Musa, Nasreen O.; Ali, Ibtisam A.; Elamin, Fatima M.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic

  14. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  15. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Parasitic Infections on Erythrocyte Indices of Camels in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalailudeen Lawal Rabana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and effect of parasitic infection on erythrocyte indices in trade camels slaughtered in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Two hundred adult one humped camels comprised of 87 (43.5 % males and 113 (56.5 % females were examined for helminths and hemoparasites at their slaughter time according to the standard procedures. An overall prevalence of 79 % for single and mixed infections was observed. Examination of faecal samples from camels shows 82 (41 % were harbouring different nematodes, mostly Strongyle, Strongyloides and Hemonchus species. Buffy coat and thin smear examination of blood samples showed Babesia and Anaplasma species. More females (44.5 % than males (34.5 % were positive for various parasitic infections. But the percentage was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Packed cell volume (PCV, mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red blood cell counts were significantly (P < 0.01 affected in the infected camels compared to the non-infected ones. Parasite infection in camels leads to macrocytic anaemia.

  17. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  18. ( Camelus dromedarius ) of North east sahel region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and erythrocyte indices were similar to those obtained from camels in Sokoto (North West Region) Nigeria; and also in accord with values published in the literature for Indian camels. Total leucocyte counts were relatively higher but within ...

  19. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Trichuris globulosa Von Linstow, 1901 from camels. A review of Trichuris species parasitizing herbivorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Gutiérrez-Avilés, L; Halajian, A; Zurita, A; de Rojas, M; Cutillas, C

    2015-08-01

    At the present work, we carried out a morph-biometrical and molecular study of Trichuris species isolated from Camelus dromedarius from Iran and from Ovis aries from South Africa comparatively with other species of Trichuris from different herbivorous hosts and geographical regions. The population from camels from Iran was identified as Trichuris globulosa. Two different morphometrically populations of Trichuris sp. from sheep from South Africa were identified: Trichuris ovis and Trichuris skrjabini. Ribosomal data did not reveal significate differences in the ITS2 sequences between T. ovis and T. globulosa to assess a specific determination. The mitochondrial data suggest that T. globulosa constitute a different genetic lineage to T. ovis. Cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences corroborated the existence of a different genetic lineage of T. ovis from sheep of South Africa that would be closely related to the populations of T. globulosa from camels from Iran. The cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences of T. globulosa have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Instant Apache Camel messaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.

  2. Determination of certain elements in camel`s milk by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejey, M A; Markus, W M; Etwir, R H [Tajoura Nuclear research Center, P.O. Box 30878, Tajoura, (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    Natural milk samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Rb, Br, I). These samples were collected from different regions of libya co-operation with camel,s research center in tripoli. In our laboratories trace elements in human and milk powder samples have been, also determined using the (INAA) technique. The concentration level of the elements of interest of interest are in agreement to within 10% with obtained values for human and powder milk, except for the concentration of Br, I, and Rb which were found to be higher in camel`s milk results of this investigation will be presented. 6 figs.

  3. Digital angiography of camel foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, S.N.; Kohkiloyehzadeh, M.; Sazmand, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, angiography of normal digits of camel has been accomplished, and the vessels of digits and its distribution have been evaluated to be compared with abnormal digits in the future studies. The thoracic and pelvic limb of 16 camels were collected immediately following slaughter. The palmar and plantar arteries were isolated and catheterised by 18-gauge angiocatheter needle; perfused by 40Ð’–50 ml of iodinated compound injected into each vessel. Angiograms were obtained using dorsopalmer, dorsoplanter and latero-medial projections. In the pelvic limb, above the fetlock joint, the deep palmar arch communicates with the median artery via the anastomotic branch, forming the superfcial palmar arch, from which two branches were clear, 1-palmar common digital artery IV that divides into palmar proper digital arteries IV and V, close to the lateral accessory (ffth) digit. 2-Palmar common digital artery III, produces the first branch and continues distally near the middle of the proximal phalanx, it gives off two palmar branches of the proximal phalanx. Vascular distribution of the pelvic limb was similar to thoracic limb, carrying the name of plantar instead of palmar

  4. Purification of camel liver catalase by zinc chelate affinity chromatography and pH gradient elution: An enzyme with interesting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, Abdelbasset; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Çelik, Safinur Yildirim; Mavi, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and increasing temperatures are global concerns. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) lives most of its life under high environmental stress in the desert and represent ideal model for studying desert adaptation among mammals. Catalase plays a key role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. For the first time, catalase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by zinc chelate affinity chromatography using pH gradient elution, a better separation was obtained. A purification fold of 201.81 with 1.17% yield and a high specific activity of 1132539.37U/mg were obtained. The native enzyme had a molecular weight of 268kDa and was composed of four subunits of equal size (65kDa). The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 45°C and pH 7.2. Thiol reagents, β-Mercaptoethanol and D,L-Dithiothreitol, inhibited the enzyme activity. The enzyme was inhibited by Al 3+ , Cd 2+ and Mg 2+ , whereas Ca 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ stimulated the catalase activity. Reduced glutathione has no effect on catalase activity. The K m and V max of the enzyme for hydrogen peroxide were 37.31mM and 6185157U/mg, respectively. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with K i value of 14.43μM, the IC 50 was found to be 16.71μM. The properties of camel catalase were different comparing to those of mammalian species. Relatively higher molecular weight, higher optimum temperature, protection of reduced glutathione from hydrogen peroxide oxidation and higher affinity for hydrogen peroxide and sodium azide, these could be explained by the fact that camel is able to live in the intense environmental stress in the desert. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and morphological characterizations of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels in Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Javdani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata, well known as tongue worm; is an aberrant cosmopolitan parasite, which inhabits the canine respiratory system (final host. The discharged eggs infect many plant feeder animals including human causing visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is known as “Marrara syndrome”. In current study, the prevalence of infection with L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of slaughtered camels was investigated in Isfahan Province, Iran. The MLNs of 232 slaughtered camels, including 115 females and 117 males, were examined for L. serrata nymphs. Camels were categorized into four age groups, namely under six months, six months to two years, two to four years and greater than four years. Also, the morphometrics of the nymphs were measured using the classic parasitology methods. Results showed that 21.12% of examined camels were infected with L. serrata. Age and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence of this parasite in camels. The size of the different parts of nymphs’ body were recorded and evaluated. The infection rate to the nymphs of parasite in hemorrhagic and black-colored lymph nodes were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher than the infection rate in normal-colored nodes. Also, results showed that in soft lymph nodes, the infection rate was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more than those of normal and hard nodes. A high prevalence of infection in camels suggests possibility of similar high rate of infection in other animals, and people in the investigated area. This, in turn, emphasizes the need for more preventive measures to reduce the risk of zoonotic outbreaks.

  6. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Camel Milk, Serum glucose, Lipid profile, Diabetes. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is ... all products of Randox Laboratories, Switzerland. Fresh camel milk samples .... Abbott, R.D., Wilson, P.W., Kannel, W.B. and. Castelli, W.P. (1988).

  7. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...

  8. Camel Mastitis, associated Bacterial Pathogens and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted between September 2006 and April 2007 with the aim of assessing the occurrence of camel mastitis and bacterial causes associated with it and evaluating Fat and Protein content of camel milk in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia. Lactating camels which are ...

  9. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  10. The Canarian Camel: A Traditional Dromedary Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The domestic camel (dromedary is the most important livestock species in the Canary Islands and the most important autochthonous European camel population. After six centuries of a successful adaptation process to the particular environment of the Canary Islands, the abandonment of traditional agriculture has led this population to a major bottleneck. Along with a lack of foreign genetic interchanges, this could lead the population to the brink of extinction. Genetic analysis using 13 microsatellites showed the closest genetic proximity to the North African (Tindouf, Algeria camel population and a certain degree of sub-division, with significant genetic differences among breeders. An important level of genetic differentiation among the different populations analyzed was found with a global FST value of 0.116.

  11. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-01-01

    The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be traine...

  12. The superior colliculus of the camel: a neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and neuropeptide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Brown, E P K; Garey, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the superior colliculus of the midbrain of the one-humped (dromedary) camel, Camelus dromedarius, using Nissl staining and anti-neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunohistochemistry for total neuronal population as well as for the enkephalins, somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP). It was found that, unlike in most mammals, the superior colliculus is much larger than the inferior colliculus. The superior colliculus is concerned with visual reflexes and the co-ordination of head, neck and eye movements, which are certainly of importance to this animal with large eyes, head and neck, and apparently good vision. The basic neuronal architecture and lamination of the superior colliculus are similar to that in other mammals. However, we describe for the first time an unusually large content of neurons in the superior colliculus with strong immunoreactivity for met-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid. We classified the majority of these neurons as small (perimeters of 40–50 µm), and localized diffusely throughout the superficial grey and stratum opticum. In addition, large pyramidal-like neurons with perimeters of 100 µm and above were present in the intermediate grey layer. Large unipolar cells were located immediately dorsal to the deep grey layer. By contrast, small neurons (perimeters of 40–50 µm) immunopositive to SOM and SP were located exclusively in the superficial grey layer. We propose that this system may be associated with a pain-inhibiting pathway that has been described from the periaqueductal grey matter, juxtaposing the deep layers of the superior colliculus, to the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Such pain inhibition could be important in relation to the camel's life in the harsh environment of its native deserts, often living in very high temperatures with no shade and a diet consisting largely of thorny branches. PMID:16441568

  13. Economic Importance of Camel: A Unique Alternative under Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad*, M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi1, S. Ahmad2, M. A. Zaman3 and M. Tariq

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security. In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products. Dromedary camel is found in Pakistan and its population is highest in Baluchistan (41%. In Pakistan, there are 21 breeds of camel. The main two types are riverine and mountainous. Camels are of vital socio-economic importance in the country as people use it for drawing water from wells, ploughing and leveling land, working mini-mills for oil extraction, grinding wheat, corn and other grains and for crushing sugarcane, and pulling carts for the transportation of goods as well as people. Well-fed camel can yield 10-15L milk per day. Camel milk can also be used for making yogurt, kurth, butter, ghee, rabbri and khoa. Meat, hides and hair are useful by-products of camel. Camel farming will be beneficial for farmers when proper marketing infrastructure is established. Also, standard procedures for the classification and identification of camel breeds for different purposes need more attention. Camel ranching schemes and collaborative research approach are need of the hour. These measures can lead us to utilize this novel animal as a natural resource for coping food demand of ever increasing population.

  14. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in laikipia county, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Deem (Sharon L.); E.M. Fèvre (Eric); M. Kinnaird (Margaret); A.S. Browne (A. Springer); D. Muloi (Dishon); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently identified virus causing severe viral respiratory illness in people. Little is known about the reservoir in the Horn of Africa. In Kenya, where no human MERS cases have been reported, our survey of 335 dromedary

  15. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar...... to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...... result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent...

  16. Factors influencing the gelation and rennetability of camel milk using camel chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, concentration of camel chymosin and addition of CaCl2 on the hydrolysis of κ-casein (κ-CN) and the coagulation kinetics of camel milk were investigated. The rate of κ-CN hydrolysis was higher at 40 °C than at 30 °C and with increasing addition of chymosin...... and decreasing pH. For all samples gelation was initiated at levels of camel milk κ-CN hydrolysis >95%. The gelation time (Tg) of camel milk was significantly reduced (from 717 to 526 s) at 30 °C when the concentration of chymosin was increased, but was independent of chymosin concentration at 40 °C. Reducing p......H also reduced Tg. The gel firmness increased at 40 °C (58 Pa) compared with 30 °C (44 Pa) and effect of CaCl2 addition on the gelation properties of camel milk was found to be dependent on pH; a significant improvement was only found at pH 6.3....

  17. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  18. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals.

  19. Botanical composition of feed of camels and nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the feeding of camel herds was carried in the pastoral area of Agadez in Niger. The aim of the study was to describe the botanical composition of daily feed of camels on rangeland during three seasons (hot dry season, cold dry season and rainy season) and to assess the chemical composition and nutritional ...

  20. Purification and characterization of camel liver L-asparaginase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-asparaginase from camel liver was isolated and purified by heat denaturation followed by QAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and SP-Sepharose column chromatography. The purified camel liver L-asparaginase had a molecular weight of 180 kDa (consistent with a homotetramer) and a pI value of 8.6.

  1. Antibacterial activity of papain hydrolysed camel whey and its fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Goda, Hanan A.; De Gobba, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Camel whey (ON) was hydrolysed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial activity of the CW, camel whey hydrolysate (CWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The CWH exhibited significantly...

  2. Camel spider (Solifugae) use of prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solifugids (camel spiders) are widespread throughout arid regions of western North America and are thought to be important in structuring desert arthropod communities. Despite the ubiquity of camel spiders, little is known about their ecology. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are als...

  3. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfemariam Berhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties.

  4. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and evaluation of risk factors in camels of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Al-Maawali, Mahir Gharib; Al-Makhladi, Salim; Al-Zadjali, Mohammed Somar; Al-Sidairi, Talal; Asubaihi, Saud; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid

    2015-02-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a World Animal Health Organization (OIE)-listed disease of ruminants including camels with serious economic impacts worldwide. A cross-sectional serological survey involving multistage simple random sampling was conducted to investigate the prevalence of JD in camels of Oman. In total, 2255 camels (254 males and 2001 females) and different ages from 553 geographically marked holdings were bled for serum. The samples were analyzed by a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with protein 'G' as conjugate (LSI VET Ruminant Serum Paratuberculosis Advanced, France). Results indicated a widespread herd and individual level seroprevalence, respectively of 9.2 % (95 % CI = 0.7-50) and 2.6 % (95 % CI = 2.0-3.4) in Oman. Differences (p  0.05) seroprevalence was observed in females (2.8 %), and their odds for testing positive were 3.69 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-15.23) times higher as compared to males (0.8 %). Seropositivity increased with the age of camels, and the highest prevalence (4.4 %) was observed in camels of more than 10 years of age (p = 0.03). Large and medium size herds (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95 % CI = 0.96-3.24) where camels were kept as single species (OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 0.84-2.84) and confined (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.05-3.54) were found more likely to test positive. This is the first record of seroprevalence of JD among the camels in the country which highlights their potential as an important host of the disease. The results advocate that a comprehensive control program based upon further risk analysis and molecular study should be devised in Oman.

  5. Experimental study of camel powered electricity generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, O. P.; Choudhary, Rahul Raj; Budaniya, Mukesh; Kumar, Ashish

    2018-05-01

    Developing nations are facing a huge gap in generation and demand of electricity across the world. In present scenario the demand of electricity is increasing day by day and the shortfall of electricity has become one of the major obstructions in the development of rural areas. There is a big gap between electricity supply and demand. In India it is very difficult that to give twenty four hours electric supply in rural areas. The traditional use of camel as draught animal, for the purpose of transport of goods and agricultural work, has been drastically reduced during last few decades, due to advancements and cheaper availability of mechanical machineries. In this research paper we experimentally studied the camel powered electricity generation system at National Research Centre on Camels (NRCC) Bikaner. Camel Energy in form of high torque low speed can be converted into low torque high speed through motion converting system i.e. gear and pulley mechanism for high RPM output. This high RPM (more than 3000) output is used for electricity generation. The electricity generated can be used directly or stored in the battery and later may be used whenever it is required either for DC light or AC light using inverter. According to experimental study a camel can comfortably generate electricity up to 1KW by rotating shaft. The complete set up for electricity generation using camel power has been designed, developed and physically commissioned at National Research Centre on Camels (NRCC) Bikaner.

  6. Physical and lipids alterations of irradiated camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, F.A.; Shehata, M.I.; Abd-El-Baki, M.M.; Dessouki, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Camel meat is considered to be one of the toughest kind of meat. If camel meat could be tenderized, the demand on it may be increased. Aging oof camel meat is usually carried out at low temperature (Abd-El-Baki etal., 1957). Aging could be accelerated if storage temperature could be raised. Such condition enhances the microbial spoilage of meat (Sokolov, 1965). However, with the aid of ionizing radiation, preheating, and/or antibiotics the marked growth of microorganisms may be decreased during storage. It was also claimed that ionizing radiation affects the lipids, water holding capacity and color of meat (Lawrie, 1974). (author) 19 refs

  7. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  8. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... by Lactobacillales or by Enterobacteriaceae, depending on incubation temperature and the provider of the milk. Strains of species with a potential use as starter cultures i.e., Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici, were isolated. Fast acidifiers of camel milk have been isolated...

  9. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  10. of GH gene in camel breeds reared in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hend

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... M: 100-bp ladder marker. Lanes 1-6: 613-bp PCR product amplified from camel DNA. ... position 264^265, we can easily differentiate between .... Sustainable Agricultural Development Strategy Towards 2030 (SADS). (2009).

  11. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... structures, and the structure of bovine chymosin in complex with the inhibitor pepstatin was solved to 1.6 A resolution. The fold of camel chymosin differs with respect to the conformation of the N-terminal residues 1-16. The β-strand of the central sheet from the bovine enzyme is disrupted in camel chymosin...... matches previous studies suggesting that the domains move by a sliding mechanism inside their hydrophobic cores. A comparison of the surface charges show that camel chymosin contains additional positive charges, which may improve interaction with the negatively charged C-terminal of κ...

  12. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  13. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  14. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  15. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  16. Comparison of Three Techniques for Arthrocentesis of the Carpal Joint in Dromedary Camels: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adel M. Badawy; Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the appropriate approaches for arthrocentesis of the carpal joint in dromedary camels and to compare between these approaches with regard to their success rate, feasibility, accuracy and ease of performance. Twenty-two cadaveric camel forelimbs obtained from 11 camel cadavers, and 4 living camels (6 joints) underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, were used in this study. For studying gross anatomy of the suggested ap...

  17. Comparison of the acidification activities of commercial starter cultures in camel and bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Ipsen, Richard; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk has been reported to be difficult to ferment due to anti-microbial properties. The present study tested eight commercial starter cultures for their ability to grow in camel milk. All investigated cultures were able to acidify camel milk and reached a final pH at a level similar to what...

  18. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir .M. Osman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for milk and meat. The majority of camel owners kept breeding male camels from the same herd 90. the improvement methods of herd are based on three ways one of them is selection according to breeding history which practiced by 66.7 followed by productivity 25 and morphological features 8.3 . The improvement purposes focused on both milk meat about 78.3 .The concluded that most of the camels owner kept breeding male camels from the same herd. The priority of camel owners for improvement was a dual purpose meat and milk production.

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ariful; Rostal, Melinda K.; Islam, Shariful; Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Hossain, Mohammed Enayet; Uzzaman, Mohammed Salim; Munster, Vincent J.; Peiris, Malik; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Daszak, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Dromedary camels are bred domestically and imported into Bangladesh. In 2015, of 55 camels tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Dhaka, 17 (31%) were seropositive, including 1 bred locally. None were PCR positive. The potential for infected camels in urban markets could have public health implications and warrants further investigation. PMID:29664373

  20. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dia Mamadou Lamine [CNERV, Nouakchott (Mauritania)], E-mail: mldsb@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  1. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in camels in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisu, U S; Kudi, C A; Bale, J O O; Babashani, M; Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Asambe, A; Baba, A Y

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the status of Brucella infection in one-humped (Dromedary) camels in the North and Central senatorial districts of Katsina State, Nigeria. Nine hundred and eighty serum samples from live and slaughtered camels were tested. Modified Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (EDTA) were used as screening and standard tests, respectively. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies were 110 (11.2%) and 103 (10.5%) for RBPT and SAT, respectively. Of the 472 and 508 serum samples tested from the herds and abattoirs, respectively, 63 (13.3%) and 47 (9.3%) were positive by RBPT while 62 (13.1%) and 41 (8.1%) were positive by SAT, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that Brucella antibodies were present in camels in the study area. Poor management practices and mixing of camels with other species of livestock as well as unrestricted movement of camels were proposed to be the reasons for the prevalence of the disease in the study area. In view of the public health importance of the disease, it is recommended that there is the need to develop a strategic plan to decrease spread of brucellosis in the study area.

  2. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first

  3. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  4. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being...... processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences...... in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin...

  5. Assessment of Body Reserves in Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores manage their body reserves in a way that helps them respond to variations in the quality and accessibility of feed resources. Assessing these reserves provides farmers with a decision-making tool. Almost no data are available on these aspects of the camel. The present article summarizes several works on weight estimations that are used to assess the volume and weight of the hump (main location of fat reserves, relationships between hump measurements and carcass weight, and between hump weight and perirenal fat weight. Assessing the number and size of adipocytes is a means to test the relevance of these types of fat storage. There is in particular a positive relationship between the size and number of adipocytes in the hump and those in the perirenal fat. The age and sex effects were very pronounced for some of the criteria. A body condition score was established for this species based on the assessment of selected body parts. Results however showed that the hump was not a good bodycondition indicator because of variations in its weight as well as in the size of its adipocytes.

  6. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  7. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  8. A content analysis of Camel Snus advertisements in print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S; Pechmann, Cornelia; Tran, Sarah Y; Au, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    Researchers have questioned whether the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company is marketing Camel Snus as a product for nontobacco users, smokeless-tobacco users, or cigarette smokers. The objective of this study was to examine advertisements of Camel Snus in print media to determine the most likely audience of intent. A content analysis was conducted among Camel Snus advertisements printed in newspaper and consumer magazines between July 2007 and August 2010. The advertisements (n = 83 distinct; N = 458 total) were identified from a comprehensive search of a proprietary database maintained by TNS Media Intelligence. Results indicated that all advertisements, published between July 2007 and September 2009, were intended to promote a tobacco product for cigarette smokers. A shift in marketing strategy occurred from October 2009 to the present time with publication of the "Break Free" magazine advertisements, characterized by an ambiguous message that could conceivably appeal to any group, including nontobacco users (e.g., adolescents), smokeless-tobacco users, and/or cigarette smokers. However, an examination of the consumer magazines advertising Camel Snus indicated a demographically diverse readership in terms of gender, age, and education, suggesting that the advertisements are less likely to be intended for smokeless-tobacco users. These findings validate other reports and editorials, suggesting that Camel Snus was being marketed as a product for smokers at the time of the product's national debut. The recent shift to the "Break Free" marketing campaign may reflect an attempt to enhance the image of the Camel brand in order to attract a broader spectrum of consumers.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abubakr

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain is reported for the first time. Six genera of parasites were found. The nematodes observed were Haemonchus contortus (36.47%, Nematodirus spathiger (30.59% and Trichuris sp. (10.6%; the only cestode recorded was Moniezia expansa (2.4%. The incidence of Eimeria dromedarii was 20%. Single, double, triple and quadruple parasitic infestation occurred in 41.2, 33.5, 19.4 and 5.9% of the infected animals, respectively. Balantidium coli, a protozoan parasite, was occasionally seen in young camels suffering from diarrhea at the time of sampling.

  10. Evaluation of Modified Risk Claim Advertising Formats for Camel Snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Brian V.; Adkison, Sarah E.; O'Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority for modified risk tobacco product advertising claims. To guide future regulatory efforts, we investigated how variations in modified risk claim advertisements influence consumer perceptions of product risk claims for Camel Snus. Methods: Young people and adults (15-65),…

  11. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity of Camel Milk on Poloxamer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ameliorative and antioxidant effect of camel milk on poloxamer 407 (P407) induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Methods: Thirty male wistar rats were subdivided into six groups (Group 1-6) with each containing five animals (n=5). Group 1 served as normal control, while Groups 2-6 ...

  12. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid ...

  13. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  14. Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the organs inspected including the lungs (0.15%) the liver (0.06%) and the spleen (0.05%). It was concluded that the prevalence of the disease is low in cattle and camel slaughtered at the abattoir. Strategic deworming of the ruminants and dogs with antihelmintics ...

  15. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  16. STUDY OF YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CAMEL MILK IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEYLA HADEF

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield and composition of raw camel milk throughout the lactation period. For this purpose seventeen multiparous she-camels, kept under grazing and supplement farming system in South East of Algeria were used in this study. A total of 153 milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine yield and physicochemical parameters of milk such as pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids. The results demonstrated that the overall means of daily milk yield and composition of pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids (TS were 3.96 ± 1.24 L∙day-1, 6.55 ± 0.14, 0.17 ± 0.01 %, 1.032 ± 0.002 g∙cm-3, 3.72 ± 0.14%, 3.37 ± 0.18 %, 4.13 ± 0.29 %, 0.96 ± 0.22 % and 9.99 ± 1.82 %, respectively. Moreover, the milk yield was significantly (p 0.05. The results indicated that Algerian camel milk could provide a valuable nutritious food and energy source for population living in arid and semi arid zones and it was concluded that the stage of lactation had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and most physicochemical parameters of raw camel milk.

  17. Rift Valley Fever in Camels in Northern Burkina Faso | Boussini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations for systematic RVF investigation in camels and others domestic ruminants were made in order to improve the animal productivity. Habitual consumption of raw milk and close contact with infected animals signify possible zoonotic importance of RVF in the studied area. A risk assessment of the disease ...

  18. Protective effect of camel milk as anti-diabetic supplement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations.

  19. Knowledge and practices of food hygiene and safety among camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respondents showed low knowledge in answering questions regarding spoilage microorganisms and effective cleaning of containers. About 53% of women retailers used rejected/spoiled milk for household consumption. This could result in a high food safety risk. Therefore, training of actors along the camel milk value ...

  20. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption characteristics of camel foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitive performance of Camel foot (Piliostigma thonningii) leave extract was investigated on corrosion of mild steel in 1.5M hydrochloric at different temperature (25oC to 60oC) using weight loss and hydrogen evolution measurement. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the extract and characterized with Gas ...

  1. Prevalence of camel Trypanosomosis and its associated risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study coupled with questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis and assess associated risk factors in Moyale district, Borena Zone, Oromia region, southern Ethiopia from November 2014 to April 2015. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected ...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Zeinou, R.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analyses of camel meat were evaluated at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coli form of camel meat. Thus the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total acidity, pH vale and fatty acids (C14: 0; C16: 0; C18:0) of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. Both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in camel meat were effected by gamma irradiation. Immediately after treatment, VBN of irradiated camel meat increased and lipid oxidation values decreased. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and unirradiated camel meats. (author)

  3. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by camel milk. A variety of food can be preserved by lactic acid fermentation, so starter culture was prepared from strains which were isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo's milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and can coagulate the milk in less lime. Camel milk cheese was prepared and compared with buffalo's milk cheese. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  4. Comparison of Three Techniques for Arthrocentesis of the Carpal Joint in Dromedary Camels: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Badawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the appropriate approaches for arthrocentesis of the carpal joint in dromedary camels and to compare between these approaches with regard to their success rate, feasibility, accuracy and ease of performance. Twenty-two cadaveric camel forelimbs obtained from 11 camel cadavers, and 4 living camels (6 joints underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, were used in this study. For studying gross anatomy of the suggested approaches, 4 forelimbs were used. For CT anatomy 3 forelimbs (one/each technique were scanned before and after injection of iodinated contrast medium. For in-vitro evaluation of the techniques 15 forelimbs were used (5/each technique. To test the ease of performance in the living camels, arthrocentesis of 6 joints in 4 camels was performed by a single operator while the animal sited in kneeling position (3 camels and standing position (one camel. Based on the results, there were three feasible approaches for arthrocentesis of carpal joint in camel, the dorso-medial, dorso-lateral, and the lateral approaches. The dorso-medial approach was easily performed and more accurate than the other approaches. The dorso-medial approach was successful with accuracy index of 100% after the first attempts, whilst the dorso-lateral and the lateral approaches have lower rates of success. The procedure was well tolerated in all camels.

  5. Analysis on the contributions of and constraints to camel production in Shinile and Jijiga zones, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributions of the dromedary camel and constraints to camel production in Jijiga and Shinile zones of eastern Ethiopia were assessed. A total of 73 households were interviewed on the significance of the dromedary camel and constraints associated to camel production in the area using a single-visit-multiple-subject diagnostic survey. All the households interviewed owned camels and milk production was the primary reason for keeping camels in the area. The major contributions rendered by dromedary camels in the study area were milk production and transportation, while the major constraints associated with camel production in the area were feed shortage and prevalence of disease. Camels in these areas feed mainly on poor-quality natural vegetation. Cactus and acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by camels in the area. Camels were not given supplementary feed except salt and/or mineral soil. Dromedary camels play an important role to the livelihood and survival of nomadic pastoralists in the study areas. Thus, development interventions aimed at improving the productivity of camels in the study areas should take into account the major socio-economic contributions of camels and the prevailing problems in the area.

  6. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  7. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M M; Abd-Elnaeim, M

    2012-01-01

    To describe a technique for arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel, and the problems that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Seven animals (4 cadaveric limbs and 3 living camels) were used in this study. Two dorsal arthroscopic portals (lateral and medial) and one palmaro-lateral portal were used. Distension of the joint capsule was effected by injecting Ringer´s lactate solution into the joint cavity. Landmarks for the dorsal arthroscopic portals were located at the centre of the groove bounded by the lateral branch of the suspensory ligament and the large metacarpus at a point 1 cm proximal to the joint. The palmaro-lateral portal was located in a triangular area between the branch of the suspensory ligament, the large metacarpus, and the sesamoid bone, with insertion of the arthroscope in a 45° joint flexion angle. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint via the dorso-lateral portal allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx of the fourth digit. Arthroscopy via a dorso-medial approach allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx and the distal end of the third digit. The palmaro-lateral portal allowed examination of the sesamoid bones, the synovial membrane, and the synovial villi. The main complications recorded during arthroscopy were iatrogenic articular surface injury as well as obstruction of vision with the synovial villi. This is the first work to describe the normal arthroscopy of the fetlock joint in the dromedary camel, the arthroscopic portals, and the complications that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Further studies are required for diagnosis of pathological changes in the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel and for arthroscopy of other joints in the dromedary camel.

  8. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  9. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  10. Field trial about occurrence and relevance of streptococcus agalactiae in Mauritanian camels

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Habiboullah, Habiboullah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae in Mauritanian camels. Twenty seven camel herds from 8 Mauritanian regions were included in the study, whereby a total of 276 milk samples and 104 udder skin swaps were investigated for S. agalactiae. S. agalactiae was isolated from 25 out of 27 investigated camel herds. A total of 41 S. agalactiae strains where isolated, 29 isolates from the milk samples and 12 isolates from the udd...

  11. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Physico-chemical quality of Bactrian camel milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Gansaikhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the quality of camel milk. A wide variation was observed in the quality of raw camel milk. Specific gravity ranged between 1.014 and 1.017 (1.015±0.001, pH 6.53 and 6.77. Total solids, fat, protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals contents ranged between 14.23 and 12.13, 5.56 and 8.29, 1.8 and 5.0, 1.8 and 3.2, 0.78 and 2.76, 2.9 and 4.12, 0.85 to 1.00 0.20 and 0.28 g per 100 g, respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.171 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 50-52

  13. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aljameel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan.

  14. Tritiated water metabolism during dehydration and rehydration in the camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzion, Z.; Meyerstein, N.; Yagil, R.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of tritiated water in the camel was compared in two 10-day periods, one when water was readily available and the second during dehydration. There was a radically depressed metabolism after 2 days of dehydration. Two other experiments examined the absorption rate of drinking water. In one experiment drinking water was labeled with tritium, and in the second experiment dilution of tritium-labeled blood was examined. In both experiments there was a rapid uptake and dilution of the blood, which continued for 4 h. Following this only slight changes were observed up to 24 h after drinking. The results are in accord with other data showing changes in erythrocyte shape 4 h after rapid rehydration. It is concluded that there is a rapid absorption of water in the rehydrating camel

  15. Nutritive value of some herbages for dromedary camel in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towhidi, A

    2007-01-01

    To prepare standard tables of chemical composition of feedstuffs and to determine digestibility and palatability of different plant species in dromedary camel, this research was carried out by considering the most consuming herbages of Iranian desert rages. The plant species were included Atriplex lentiformis, Alhagi persarum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Saueda fruticosa, Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix kotschyi, Hammada salicornica, Salsola yazdiana, Salsola tomentosa, Tamarix aphylla and Artemisia sieberi. Thirty samples of the browsing parts were collected from the rangelands of Yazd province in autumn. Chemical composition of samples including Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Ether Extract (EE), Total Ash (TA), macro elements (Ca, P, Mg, K), micro elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn)and gross energy (GE) were analyzed. The in vitro digestibility was determined by camel rumen liquor in Tilley and Terry method. Palatability of the plants were measured by three mature camels in cafeteria trials. The camels voluntarily fed 11 plant species during one hour for six days. Data were analyzed by GLM method in SAS software. The highest CP (18.3%) and the lowest NDF (40.4%) and ADF (35.4%) were related to Tamarix aphylla. The lowest CP (5.5%) and the highest NDF (72.8%) and ADF (59.6%) were related to Artemisia sieberi. The highest organic matter digestibility in dry matter was related to Haloxylon ammodendron. The results also indicated that Atriplex lentiformis, Alhagi persarum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Saueda fruticosa, Haloxylon ammodendron, Salsola tomentosa, Hammada salicornica, Tamarix kotschyi, Salsola yazdiana, Tamarix aphylla and Artemisia sieberi were more pleasure feed, respectively. It was not observed any correlation between %DOMD and chemical composition. Moreover, There was not a consistent relationship between the palatability of herbages with %DOMD or chemical composition.

  16. [Screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dengdi; Zhu, Yanlei; Tang, Jing; Ye, Yongxia; Zeng, Xianchun

    2010-08-01

    Peganum harmala, a famous traditional Chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. Camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms. Camel rumen content was used as the inoculant to inoculate medium M98-5 which contains 100 mg x L(-1) harmin and cultivated for 5 days. Upto 5 subculturings, strains that could degrading or tolerant harmine were isolated. Their conversion activity was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The taxonomic position of the strains were identified based on 16S rRNA sequences analysis. 15 out of the 29 isolates have harmine degrading activity. Most of the isolates are identified as the members of the Genera Lactobacillus (16 strains, 55%), Shigella (7 strains, 24%) and Bacillus (4 strains, 13.8%). Only one strain belong to genus Enterococcus and one belong to genus Megasphaera. The results indicated that the harmine tolerance/degrading communities of camel rumen are limited and only Lactobacillus have harmine-degrading activity.

  17. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  18. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vyas

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  19. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat

  20. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: An outbreak investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. Haagmans (Bart); S.H.S. Al Dhahiry (Said); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Galiano (Monica); R.H. Myers (Richard); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M. Jonges (Marcel); E. Farag (Elmoubasher); A. Diab (Ayman); H. Ghobashy (Hazem); F. Alhajri (Farhoud); M. Al-Thani (Mohamed); S.A. Al-Marri (Salih); H.E. Al Romaihi (Hamad); A. Al Khal (Abdullatif); A. Bermingham (Alison); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.M. AlHajri (Mohd); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in people. Previous studies suggested dromedary camels were a reservoir for this virus. We tested for the presence of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels from a farm in Qatar

  2. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia abortus in camel in the western region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Elzlitne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings signify the C. abortus as a potential agent to cause abortion in Libyan camel (C. dromedarius. Besides, the persons who handle camels in Libya are at risk of infecting with C. abortus. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 178-183

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Zeinou, R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat was irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated meat was kept in a refrigerator (1-4 C ). General composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat was done two days after irradiation, whereas, microbiological and chemical analysis was done immediately after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total mesophilic aerobic plate counts (TPCs) and total coliforms of camel meat. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, total acidity and fatty acids of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. There were slight effects of gamma irradiation in both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation values in camel meat. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated camel meats. (author)

  4. Camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries: a report of three cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zidan, F M; Hefny, A F; Mousa, H; Torab, F C; Hassan, I

    2013-09-01

    Human pancreatico-duodenal injuries caused by camels are extremely rare. We report three patients who sustained camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and review the literature on this topic. A 32-year camel caregiver was kicked by a camel which then stepped on his abdomen trying to kill him. The patient's abdomen was soft and lax. CT scan of the abdomen showed free retroperitoneal air. Laparotomy revealed a complete tear of the anterior wall of the second part of duodenum which was primarily repaired. A 40-year camel caregiver was directly kicked into his abdomen by a camel. He developed traumatic pancreatitis which was treated conservatively. A 31-year-old male fell down on his abdomen while riding a camel. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness and guarding. Abdominal CT Scan showed complete transection of the neck of the pancreas which was confirmed by laparotomy. The patient had distal pancreatectomy with preservation of the spleen. All patients were discharged home in good condition. These cases demonstrate the misleading presentation of the camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and their unique mechanism of injury.

  5. Potential Health Benefits and Metabolomics of Camel Milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-02-01

    None of the research reports reveals the metabolomics and elemental studies on camel milk. Recent studies showed that camel milk possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Metabolomics and elemental studies were carried out in camel milk which showed us the pathways and composition that are responsible for the key biological role of camel milk. Camel milk was dissolved in methanol and chloroform fraction and then vortexed and centrifuged. Both the fractions were derivatized by N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and TMCS after nitrogen purging and analyzed by GC-MS. Camel milk was also analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. We found that higher alkanes and fatty acids are present in the chloroform fraction and amino acids, sugars and fatty acid derivatives are present in aqueous fractions. All the heavy metals like As, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, and Ni were in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. Na, K, Mg, and Ca were also present in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. These results suggested that the camel milk drinking is safe and there is no health hazard. The present data of GC-MS and ICP-MS correlate the activities related to camel milk.

  6. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Harboe, Marianne Kirsten; Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  7. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  8. Rumen ciliate protozoal fauna of native sheep, friesian cattle and dromedary camel in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, H M; Imai, S; el Sheik, A K; Attia, H; Okamoto, E; Miyagawa, E; Maede, Y

    1999-03-01

    Rumen ciliate species and composition were surveyed on the native sheep, Friesian-cattle and dromedary (one-humped) camels kept in Libya. As a result of survey, 5 genera including 14 species with 5 formae in native sheep, 9 genera including 27 species with 6 formae in Friesian-cattle and 6 genera including 13 species and 7 formae in dromedary camels were identified. All of the ciliate species and their percentage composition detected from the Libyan sheep and cattle in this examination were similar to those found from corresponding animals in the other countries. Libyan camels lacked some peculiar ciliate species found from camels in the other countries, but had many cosmopolitan species common with those in the domestic ruminants, suggesting that ciliate faunae of camel are easily affected by the other domestic ruminants kept together. The ciliate density was estimated as 105/ml in every host species.

  9. Camel Milk as a Potential Therapy as an Antioxidant in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Y. AL-Ayadhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD; those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (. These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.

  10. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  11. Evolution of camel CYP2E1 and its associated power of binding toxic industrial chemicals and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Altaher, Abdullah; Kitade, Yukio; Abdelaziz, Magdi; Alnazawi, Mohamed; Elshazli, Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Camels are raised in harsh desert environment for hundreds of years ago. By modernization of live and the growing industrial revolution in camels rearing areas, camels are exposed to considerable amount of chemicals, industrial waste, environmental pollutions and drugs. Furthermore, camels have unique gene evolution of some genes to withstand living in harsh environments. In this work, the camel cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is compromised to detect its evolution rate and its power to bind with various chemicals, protoxins, procarcinogens, industrial toxins and drugs. In comparison with human CYP2E1, camel CYP2E1 more efficiently binds to small toxins as aniline, benzene, catechol, amides, butadiene, toluene and acrylamide. Larger compounds were more preferentially bound to the human CYP2E1 in comparison with camel CYP2E1. The binding of inhalant anesthetics was almost similar in both camel and human CYP2E1 coinciding with similar anesthetic effect as well as toxicity profiles. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis indicated the high evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 in comparison with human, farm and companion animals. The evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 was among the highest evolution rate in a subset of 57 different organisms. These results indicate rapid evolution and potent toxin binding power of camel CYP2E1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Camel Diseases and Conditions in a Non-traditional Camel Keeping Area: A case study of Kajiado District With Special Emphasis on Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemuliti, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Camels in Kenya are raised in the lowlands of Semi-arid to arid areas of Northern Kenya. Some NGO's (PHI and Farm Africa) introduced some camels into the wetter Southern rangelands of Kenya, specifically in Kajiado in 1989. There is no information so far on the productivity of these animals in this new environment. The objective of this study was to collect data on disease and conditions in Kajiado district with special emphasis on trypanosomosis. Twenty-four herds of camels in three divisions of Kajiado, comprising of 324 animals, were clinically examined and blood as well as faecal samples collected for laboratory examination for haemoparasites, anaemia and helminths as well as other infections and ectoparasites. The mean trypanosome point prevalence was 7.2% although Magadi had the biggest prevalence of 26.4%, while the central division had the least, 1.3% PCV values were proportion to magnitude of infection. T. brucei/T. evansi were shown to be present in varying degrees. Tick infestation comprised of Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma in about 53% of the camels. Helminth infection was observed in about 51% of the camels comprising mainly Haemonchus, Trichosrongylus, Strongyloides and Oesophagostomum. There were also cases of Abscesses, diarrhoea, mange eye infections, wounds and mastitis. It was concluded that new management strategies for the camel in southern rangelands is desirable to counter possible new diseases as well as other challenges of productivity

  13. KINERJA BANK DENGAN RASIO CAMEL TERHADAP PRAKTIK MANAJEMEN LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransina Wattimena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the performance of the bank by using camel ratio to earnings managementpractices. This research objects used cluster danamon bank ambon total of 14 samples of banks consisting of 2banks conventional danamon and 12 savings and loan business unit danamon using data for 2006-2011. Theresults of studies using T test showed that there had no significant effect between the performance of the bankto the practice of earnings management measured using discretionary accruals in Danamon banks. The resultby using multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant negative impact on earnings managementpractices. Thus cluster ambon danamon bank had to use earnings management practices.

  14. Dystocia in dromedary camels: Prevalence, forms, risks and hematobiochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Tharwat, Mohamed; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Alsobyil, Fahd A

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of dystocia in camel herds, its forms in primi- and multipara, the risks to fetus and dam, and the associated hematobiochemical changes. A total of 1890 calvings were surveyed for the prevalence of dystocia. Cases with dystocia (n=107) were examined for causes and treated with traction, fetotomy or Cesarean section. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors. The dependent variables were the fetal and maternal mortality, while the independent variables were parity, duration of dystocia, causes of dystocia, and method of treatment. Blood samples were collected from all dystocia camels and six controls for hematology and concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), estradiol-17β (E2), progesterone (P4), total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The overall prevalence of dystocia was 8.6%. Risk of dystocia was higher in camels managed in an intensive system than in those in a free system (Odds ratio=1.9, P=0.0003) and higher in primipara than in multipara (Odds ratio 1.7, P=0.005). Abnormal posture was the most important cause of dystocia (51.4%). Uterine torsion was the second most important cause (23.4%) and was mainly observed in multipara (P=0.0006). Dystocia was linked to high fetal mortality (87.9%). A significant relationship was found between fetal death and duration of dystocia (Odds ratio=8.04, P=0.005). The percentage of dam mortality was 17.8%. Significant associations were detected between dam mortality rate and the duration of dystocia (Odds ratio=4.74, P=0.03) and fetal viability (Odds ratio=5.82, P=0.02). Increasing duration of dystocia was associated with significant increases in SAA, Hp, BUN and AST, but with decreases in E2 (Pdystocia in dromedary camels, and fetal and maternal deaths were mainly associated with the duration of dystocia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  15. Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Gordo, F; Martínez Díaz, R A; Herrera, S

    2004-02-06

    In the present work we identify the species of Entamoeba from ostriches (Struthio camelus). The complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. These results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other Entamoeba species. Taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostriches is a new species whose proposed name is Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. This species probably infects rheas (Rhea americana), but genetic analysis of isolates from this host should be performed to confirm morphological data. Also, comparison of gene sequences with data from other authors on cysts recovered from human stool samples showed the possibility that this amoeba may affect humans. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of transmission of this new species to humans.

  16. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  17. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S. S.; Ramesh, P.; Sivakumar, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin. Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P 5 ) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P 4 ) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemoglobin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å

  19. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca 2+ -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other existing methods for interaction and binding site prediction. We have also found that the whole sequence of a protein, rather than just its binding site, is important for predicting its interaction with CaM. Using the machine learning model in CaMELS, we have identified important features of protein sequences for CaM interaction prediction as well as characteristic amino acid sub-sequences and their relative position for identifying CaM binding sites. Python code for training and evaluating CaMELS together with a webserver implementation is available at the URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#camels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Determination of certain elements in camel's milk by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejey, M.A.; Markus, W.M.; Etwir, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural milk samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Rb, Br, I). These samples were collected from different regions of libya co-operation with camel,s research center in tripoli. In our laboratories trace elements in human and milk powder samples have been, also determined using the (INAA) technique. The concentration level of the elements of interest of interest are in agreement to within 10% with obtained values for human and powder milk, except for the concentration of Br, I, and Rb which were found to be higher in camel's milk results of this investigation will be presented. 6 figs

  1. Influence of pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten B.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Retained coagulant in cheese initiates casein breakdown and influences cheese structure and flavour formation. This study investigated the influence of milk pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd and compared it with bovine chymosin. Milk at five different pH levels was coagulated with same...... coagulation activity. The retention of camel chymosin in curd was rather constant at ∼20% between pH 6.65 and 6.00, while it increased almost linear from 2 to 21% for bovine chymosin. The lower pH dependence for retention of camel chymosin than of bovine chymosin may be explained by a lower negative charge...

  2. Preparation of goat and rabbit anti-camel immunoglobulin G whole molecule labeled with horseradish peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Hussein Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As the labeled anti-camel immunoglobulins (Igs with enzymes for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA are unavailable in the Egyptian market, the present investigation was directed for developing local labeled anti-camel IgG with horseradish peroxidase (HRP to save hard curacy. Materials and Methods: For purification of camel IgG whole molecule, camel sera was preliminary precipitated with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and dialyzed against 15 mM phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.2 then concentrated. This preparation was further purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. The purity of the eluted camel IgG was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresi. Anti-camel IgG was prepared by immunization of goats and rabbits separately, with purified camel IgG. The anti-camel IgG was purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. Whole molecule anti-camel IgG was conjugated with HRP using glutraldehyde based assay. Sensitivity and specificity of prepared conjugated secondary antibodies were detected using positive and negative camel serum samples reacted with different antigens in ELISA, respectively. The potency of prepared conjugated antibodies was evaluated compared with protein A HRP. The stability of the conjugate at −20°C during 1 year was assessed by ELISA. Results: The electrophoretic profile of camel IgG showed four bands of molecular weight 63, 52, 40 and 33 kDa. The recorded sensitivity and specificity of the product are 100%. Its potency is also 100% compared to 58-75% of commercial protein A HRP. The conjugates are stable for 1 year at −20°C as proved by ELISA. Conclusion: Collectively, this study introduces goat and rabbit anti-camel IgG whole molecules with simple, inexpensive method, with 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and stability up to 1 year at −20°C. The important facet of the current study is saving hard curacy. Future investigations are necessary for

  3. Study on the prevalence of blood parasites in camels of Zabol in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ranjbar Bahadori

    2009-08-01

    30.09% of studied camels were infected by blood parasites with the greatest infection rate of 19.47% belonging Trypanosoma evansi and then infection rates of 6.20% by Theileria sp., 3.54% by bacteria sp. and 88% by blood microfilaria were also observed. Statistical analysis did not show significant relationship between infection to blood parasites and age and sex of the studied camels. With regard to presence of blood parasites in the camels of the region and the importance of arthropods in their transmission, apart from treatment of infected animals, arthropod control measures should also be conducted in other to control these infections.

  4. Structure elucidation of a novel oligosaccharide (Medalose) from camel milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Lata; Singh, Rinku; Deepak, Desh

    2018-02-01

    Free oligosaccharides are the third most abundant solid component in milk after lactose and lipids. The study of milk oligosaccharides indicate that nutrients are not only benefits the infant's gut but also perform a number of other functions which include stimulation of growth, receptor analogues to inhibit binding of pathogens and substances that promote postnatal brain development. Surveys reveal that camel milk oligosaccharides possess varied biological activities that help in the treatment of diabetes, asthma, anaemia, piles and also a food supplement to milking mothers. In this research, camel milk was selected for its oligosaccharide contents, which was then processed by Kobata and Ginsburg method followed by the HPLC and CC techniques. Structure elucidation of isolated compound was done by the chemical degradation, chemical transformation and comparison of chemical shift of NMR data of natural and acetylated oligosaccharide structure reporter group theory, the 1H, 13C NMR, 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY and HSQC) techniques, and mass spectrometry. The structure was elucidated as under: MEDALOSE

  5. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. S.; Hashem, A. L.S.; Azamel, A. A. [Department of Animal Physiology, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Farghaly, H. A.M., [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76{+-}0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d{sub 7} post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d{sub 7} post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d{sub 0}) on d{sub 14} post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by

  6. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  7. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  8. Characterizing the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract segments of the Bactrian camel

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jing; Yi, Li; Hai, Le; Ming, Liang; Gao, Wanting; Ji, Rimutu

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmic...

  9. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  10. Biochemical Studies on Camel Milk as a Radioprotector in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    This work, was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of camel milk, as a radioprotector in irradiated (4.0 Gy) rats. Two examinations were performed after two and four weeks post irradiation. γ-irradiation caused significant disorders in hematological, physiological parameters and liver cellular aspects. Drinking of camel milk induced no adverse effect on the tested parameters. Moreover, it minimized and ameliorated the radiation disorders

  11. Characterization of the camel skin cell line Dubca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopries, M; Wernery, U; Kaaden, O R

    1995-01-01

    A skin fibroblast cell culture was established from a 2-month-old dromedary foetus. The cells were transformed by infection with SV40 and cloned in soft agar. The established cell line is now designated Dubca cells (Dubai camel) and has been in permanent culture for 95 passages. The cell culture was examined morphologically, chromosome preparations made and DNA fingerprinting performed by hybridization with the oligonucleotide probe (GTG)5. SV40 large T antigen was detected by western blotting. The viral host range was determined by infection with viruses of different families. Camelpox virus (CaPV) bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and border disease virus (BDV) could be propagated in these cells.

  12. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  13. Epidemiological study of clinical and subclinical mastitis in she- camel in Samawah desert / Al Muthanna governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sahab

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available She-camel mastitis is relatively not well studied in camel-rearing areas worldwide. In Iraq, few reports have been done on the camelids in general and on mastitis in particular in compare to other livestock such as cattle, sheep and goat. This study intends to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis and its etiological agents in shecamels in Samawah desert / Al Muthanna governorate. Thirty milk samples were collected from apparently clinical normal shecamels from 3 camelids herds during December 2016 to March 2017. The milk samples were aseptically collected from each quarter after stimulation milking process in she-camel. Each milk sample was subjected to physical and bacteriological examination and mastitis screening tests including (somatic cell count SCC and California mastitis test (CMT. The pH of fresh camel milk was varied from 6.1 to 6.5. All milk samples revealed a bright white color with upper thick creamy layer. No any signs of clinical mastitis were observed in all examined she-camels. Meanwhile, keratosis of the teats and udder due to severe tick infestation was observed in 83.33% percentage (25 out of 30. The subclinical mastitis was determined in 30% percentage (9 out of 30 lactating she-camels using SCC, CMT and revealed various bacterial growth. These bacteria were the Enterobacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp moreover, the percentage of isolates was 55.55% (5 out of 9, 33.33% (3 out of 9 and 11.11% (1 out of 9 respectively. In conclusion, this study confirmed the correlation between SCC and CMT in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in 30% of the examined she-camel. Moreover, it approved the absence of clinical mastitis due to the nature of the milk production. The authors recommend to perform another future studies that including large number of the animals, in addition to study the natural physiological phenomena of milk production in shecamels.

  14. Characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the rumen of the dromedary camel and Rusa deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, M B; Scott, P T; Al Jassim, R A M

    2004-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer. Bacteria were isolated from the rumen contents of four camels and two deer fed lucerne hay by culturing on the semi-selective medium MRS agar. Based on Gram morphology and RFLP analysis seven isolates, MPR1, MPR2, MPR3, MPR4, MPR5, RD09 and RD11 were selected and putatively identified as Streptococcus. The identity of these isolates was later confirmed by comparative DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene with the homologous sequence from S. bovis strains, JB1, C14b1, NCFB2476, SbR1, SbR7 and Sb5, from cattle and sheep, and the Streptococcus equinus strain NCD01037T. The percentage similarity amongst all strains was >99%, confirming the identification of the camel isolates as S. bovis. The strains were further characterized by their ability to utilize a range of carbohydrates, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate and the determination of the doubling time in basal medium 10 supplemented with glucose. All the isolates produced l-lactate as a major fermentation end product, while four of five camel isolates produced VFA. The range of carbohydrates utilized by all the strains tested, including those from cattle and sheep were identical, except that all camel isolates and the deer isolate RD11 were additionally able to utilize arabinose. Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated from the rumen of camels and deer, and shown by molecular and biochemical characterization to be almost identical to S. bovis isolates from cattle and sheep. Streptococcus bovis is considered a key lactic acid producing bacterium from the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, and has been implicated as a causative agent of lactic acidosis. This study is the first report of the isolation and characterization of S. bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer, and suggests a major contributive role of this bacterium to fermentative acidosis.

  15. Camelus dromedarius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a plate of blood agar (5% defibrinated sheep blood) (Oxoid, Hampshire, Eng- land). ... tracts from the roots, leaves, seeds and exudates of different plant species to ... Herd size (mean ± SD), milking procedure, tick infestation and traditional.

  16. Quest for the piroplasms in camels: Identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Jordanian dromedaries by PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Dwairi, S.; Amr, Z. S.; Hořín, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3/4 (2012), s. 456-460 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia * Theileria * Camelus * Jordan * Host specificity * Diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  17. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  18. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  19. Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides in camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Paolella, Sara; Mudgil, Priti; Maqsood, Sajid; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Nine novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides (FLQY, FQLGASPY, ILDKEGIDY, ILELA, LLQLEAIR, LPVP, LQALHQGQIV, MPVQA and SPVVPF) were identified in camel milk proteins hydrolysed with trypsin. This was achieved using a sequential approach combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), qualitative/quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The most potent camel milk protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, LPVP and MPVQA, had DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 87.0 ± 3.2 and 93.3 ± 8.0 µM, respectively. DPP-IV inhibitory peptide sequences identified within camel and bovine milk protein hydrolysates generated under the same hydrolysis conditions differ. This was linked to differences in enzyme selectivity for peptide bond cleavage of camel and bovine milk proteins as well as dissimilarities in their amino acid sequences. Camel milk proteins contain novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides which may play a role in the regulation of glycaemia in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, N A; El-Somany, I; Mansour, A; Maghraby, A M; Eissa, H; Wieser, A

    2018-03-01

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH pp ) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry.

  1. Qualitative analysis of Camel Snus' website message board--users' product perceptions, insights and online interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia Ann; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, RJ Reynolds began test-marketing Camel Snus, a new smokeless tobacco (SLT) product. Promotion included use of a brand website, a relatively new marketing channel used by tobacco companies, which allowed visitors to learn about the product and discuss it with others on the website's message board. Our study aimed to examine early experiences with and perceptions of Camel Snus as described by board contributors and also to consider the use and benefits of the message board for both consumers and the company. We conducted a qualitative analysis, coding each message in Atlas.Ti and analysing it for emerging themes and patterns. Messages were also coded for demographic information where evident, such as tobacco use status and geographical location. Descriptive data and illustrative quotes are presented. Board participants described being introduced to Camel Snus through free samples. Favourable evaluations were posted by current smokers who had never tried SLT before as well as current users of other SLT brands. Messages indicated both initiation of dual product use among smokers and product substitution. Participants used the board to advise each other on how to use the product, where to get more, suggest ways RJ Reynolds could improve the product and to encourage RJ Reynolds to release it nationally. Camel Snus has appeal for at least some smokers and SLT users. Camel Snus' website message board may have been a doubly beneficial marketing feature in both connecting product users and providing product feedback to the company during test-marketing.

  2. Cinnamomum verum improved the functional properties of bioyogurts made from camel and cow milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Shori

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cinnamomum verum on the changes in antioxidant activities, proteolysis, total phenolic content and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase of bioyogurts prepared from cow- and camel-milks during 21 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The result shows that pH of cow-milk bioyogurt (cow-MY decreased more than camel-milk bioyogurt (camel-MY whereas, total titratable acidity increased to similar extent in both types of bioyogurts. The addition of C. verum in both type of bioyogurts enhanced the total phenolic content during the entire storage period. The antioxidant capacity of C. verum-bioyogurts was higher than plain-bioyogurts. Proteolysis was higher in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The inhibition of α-amylase in fresh bioyogurts was stronger in camel-milk bioyogurt than cow-milk bioyogurt. The reverse was true for α-glucosidase. Conclusively, C. verum can enhance bioyogurt functional properties with potential therapeutic values for the diabetics.

  3. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  4. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Faramawy, N.A.; El-Somany, I. [Ain Shams University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Mansour, A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Maghraby, A.M.; Eissa, H. [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Giza (Egypt); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH{sub pp}) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of camel milk in strychnine-induced seizure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humera Khatoon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discover the use of camel milk as an alternate medicine for the treatment and prevention of convulsions using strychnine-induced seizure model. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into three equal groups. Group I was on distilled water, Group II was on camel milk for 15 days prior to experiment and Group III was on reference drug diazepam. On the day of experiment, strychnine was administered in all treatment groups after distilled water, camel milk and diazepam treatments respectively. Animals were observed for 30 min for latency of seizure onset, frequency of convulsions and duration of jerks. The mortality rate was also evaluated for each group. Results: Camel milk treatment showed significant seizure protection as observed by delayed seizure onset (P ≤ 0.001, decreased total duration of convulsions (P ≤ 0.001 and mortality rate (P ≤ 0.001 when compared with Group I. Conclusions: Anticonvulsant activity of camel milk could be due to potentiation of glycinergic and GABAergic activities both. Antioxidant activity can also amplify its antiepileptic activity. Further studies are required to confirm the exact mechanism of action.

  6. Meat production and quality two unique properties of young camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Bakkar

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen one-hump black (Majaheem young camels were used to study growth rate and carcass percentage. The animals were selected and bought of similar age (about six months and weight (around 150 kg. They were assigned randomly into three feeding groups. Each group was fed two types of rations: (A concentrated pellets 18% crude protein at the rate of 1.5% CWT; and (B one of three types of roughage: (a alfalfa hay, (b Rhodes grass hay, or (c wheat straw treated with ammonia gas. Roughage was weighed and fed ad libitum. The experiment was ended when anirnals were about 14 months of age. Average body weights were 315, 298.8 and 291.4 kg for the three groups, respectively. Average daily gains for the three respective groups were 932, 803 and 767 g per day. Average carcass weights/kg (and carcass percentages of each group were 180.6 (57.3% for alfalfa, 170.7 (57.1% for Rhodes and 168.1 (57.7% for treated straw. Average forequarters weights/kg (and percentages to the carcass were 98.9 (54.8%, 95.6 (56% and 88.1 (52.4% for the three groups, respectively. The hindquarters average weights/kg (and percentages for the three respective groups were: 81,7 (45.2%, 75.1 (44% and 80 (47.6%. Eight-year records (1986-1994 on carcasses of carnels, cattle and sheep were obtained from Riyadh Modem Slaughterhouse. The total number of animals killed was 3,891,301. Comparisons were made between the number of anirnals killed and the number of carcasses destroyed for each of the three species. It was found that on average for every carnel carcass destroyed 12 carcasses of cattle and 19 carcasses of sheep were destroyed. These results show clearly that camels produce the most hygienic meat for human consumption in comparison with cattle and sheep.

  7. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  8. Anti-infectivity of camel polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Huh7.5 hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Fakharany Esmail M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To extend the study of the camel milk proteins which have antiviral activity against HCV, camel naïve polyclonal IgGs, α-lactalbumin were purified from camel milk and their anti-HCV effect was examined using PBMCs and Huh7.5 cell-lines. They were compared with the activity of human polyclonal IgGs and camel lactoferrin and casein. Material and methods Three types of experiments were performed on PBMCs and HuH7.5 cell. HCV was directly incubated with the purified proteins and then mixed with both cell types, or the proteins were incubated with the cells and then exposed to HCV, or the HCV pre-infected cells were treated with the proteins to inhibit intracellular replication. The proteins were added to cells or virus at different concentrations and time intervals. Results Pretreated PBMCs and Huh7.5 cells with milk proteins were not protected when exposed to HCV infection. The direct interaction between HCV and camel IgGs and camel lactoferrin (cLf led to a complete inhibition of HCV entry into cells, while casein, α-lactalbumin and human IgGs failed to inhibit HCV entry at any tested concentration. Camel IgGs showed ability to recognize HCV peptides with a significant titer (12 × 103 in comparison with human IgGs which failed to do it. Camel lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting the intracellular HCV replication at concentrations of 0.25-1.25 mg/ml. Conclusion Camel milk naïve polyclonal IgGs isolated from camel milk could inhibit the HCV infectivity and demonstrated strong signal against its synthetic peptides. Lactoferrin inhibit the HCV infectivity started from 0.25 mg/ml. However, α-lactalbumin, human IgGs and casein failed to demonstrate any activity against HCV infectivity.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Buettner, M.; Rziha, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification and differentiation of camel pox (CMP) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) were achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that distinguish Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapovirus (PPV). Forty scab specimens collected from sick camels and sheep were treated by 3 different DNA extraction procedures and examined by PCR. The sensitivity of the PCR was compared with that of electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture. Procedure 1, in which viral DNA was extracted directly from scab specimens followed by PCR, proved to be superior and more sensitive. Procedure 2 enables a fast specific diagnosis of PPV and OPV infections directly from scab materials without the need for DNA extraction. These assays provide a rapid and feasible alternative to electron microscopy and virus isolation. (author)

  10. Comparative study of some hormones during rutting season in dromedary camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa S. Ibrahim et al

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of age on steroids, cortisol and thyroids hormones during rutting seasons in camels. Blood serum were taken from 103 healthy camels from Al-Najaf province slaughterhouse, samples were divided according to age into two categories: pre-pubertal animals 1-4 years and mature 5-8 years. The estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 hormones were tests by using Gamma counter. The recent results indicated that the age had an effect on estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 and there were a significant differences (P<0.01 between mature and pre-pubertal ages. There were also increases in those hormones during rutting season in both age groups. We conclude that the age and rutting season had an effect on steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones levels in dromedary male camels.

  11. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  12. MEMPREDIKSI KESEHATAN BANK DENGAN RASIO CAMELS PADA BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Laksito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Research was empirically retest analyses financial performance under CAMELSratios on degree of bank health. The research model was test financial statements underfinancial ratios on degree of bank health. The purpose of research was to analyze financialratios such as Capitals, Assets, Management, Earnings, Liquidity and sensitivity on degree ofbank health. The population was BPR residing in Pati Sub-Province. According to StatisticCenter Board on 2006, there were 68 BPR residing in Pati Sub-Province. Selection of samplesused purposive sampling with special characteristics suitable with research scopes. So, thesamples of research are 61 Bank Perkreditan Rakyat.Tools of analyses used Regression Logistic.The result of research was from all CAMELS ratios which effect on degree of bank health,Capital which was measured with CAR ratio had level of significance 0.011, Assets which wasmeasured with Assets utilization ratio had level of significance 0.022, Management whichwas measured with OPM ratio had level of significance 0.009, and Earning which was measuredwith ROE ratio had level of significance 0.009.

  13. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  14. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Mulugojjam Adugna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety of camel milk was assessed along the value chain in Erer, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 24 camel milk samples were aseptically collected from producers in Erer (n=12, and wholesalers and retailers (n=12 along the chain. Milk quality parameters were analyzed following standard procedures. The mean (±SD total bacteria (TBC, Enterobacteriaceae (EC, coliform (CC, spore-forming bacteria (SFBC and yeast and mould (YMC counts of the milk samples analyzed were 5.2 ± 1.90, 3.2 ± 2.30, 2.9 ± 2.27, 2.1 ± 2.41 and 2.7 ± 1.61 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. The TBC, EC, CC and SFBC of milk samples obtained from retailers in the final marketing sites were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those obtained from producers and wholesalers in Erer. Salmonella spp. was detected in milk samples collected from all sites. Other microorganisms isolated from camel milk samples include Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%, Entrobacter spp. (14.9%, Streptococcus spp. (13.5%,Escherichia coli (8.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (7.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.8%, Klebsiella spp. (6.1%, Bacillus spp. (5.4%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.4%, Micrococcus spp. (4.7%, Lactobacillus spp. (4.1%, Listeria spp. (4.1%, Pseudomonas spp. (2% and Shigella spp. (1.4% . The quality of camel milk produced in the study area was generally poor and microbial contamination of camel milk occurs along the value chain while it is transported from the production site to the market. This calls for strict hygienic measures along the entire value chain in order to improve the quality and safety of camel milk produced in the area evaluated.

  16. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

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    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  17. Artérias das glândulas adrenais em avestruzes (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p125 O crescimento da criação racional de avestruz e seus subprodutos têm despertado interesse dos pesquisadores em ampliar os estudos com esse animal. Assim, áreas de pesquisa básicas, como a morfologia, tornam-se necessárias para dar subsídios às áreas aplicadas. Com o intuito de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares das glândulas adrenais, utilizaram-se 30 avestruzes (Struthio camelus, de quatro dias de vida, tendo seus contingentes arteriais marcados com solução aquosa corada de Neoprene Látex “450” a 50% e fixados em solução diluída de formol a 10%. A cavidade celomática foi exposta para a identificação das referidas glândulas, que são órgãos pares e encontram-se recobertas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo, disposto simetricamente nos dois antímeros, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e cranio-medialmente aos lobos craniais dos rins. O aporte sanguíneo arterial, em ambos os antímeros, é proveniente das artérias adrenais direita e esquerda, dos ramos das artérias renais craniais direita e esquerda e dos ramos diretos da aorta descendente. Independentemente da origem, os números de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variaram de um a dois e de um a três respectivamente para os antímeros esquerdo e direito.

  18. [Veterinary medicine comment on camel medicine in Fan-mu tsuan yen-fang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von den Driesch, A

    1997-01-01

    This short paragraph tries to identify the camel diseases compiled in the old chinese text according to modern veterinary terms. Due to the specific terminology of the camel treatise and its overall scarce symptomatology the diseases are difficult to evaluate. The majority of them obviously deal with acute infectious diseases which manifest themselves under such symptoms as high fever, depression, anorexia, cachexia, diarrhoea, general weakness, etc. But there are some diseases and ailments which can be interpreted in modern terms my means of the symptoms, descriptions and cures, e.g. mange, paradontosis and wry-neck syndrome.

  19. Comparative study of some hormones during rutting season in dromedary camel

    OpenAIRE

    Najlaa S. Ibrahim et al

    2017-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effect of age on steroids, cortisol and thyroids hormones during rutting seasons in camels. Blood serum were taken from 103 healthy camels from Al-Najaf province slaughterhouse, samples were divided according to age into two categories: pre-pubertal animals 1-4 years and mature 5-8 years. The estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 hormones were tests by using Gamma counter. The recent results indicated that the age had an effect on estrogen, progester...

  20. In Vitro Biodegradation of Hepatotoxic Indospicine in Indigofera spicata and Its Degradation Derivatives by Camel Foregut and Cattle Rumen Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2017-08-30

    The known accumulation of the hepatotoxin indospicine in tissues of camels and cattle grazing Indigofera pasture plants is unusual in that free amino acids would normally be expected to be degraded during the fermentation processes in these foregut fermenters. In this study, in vitro experiments were carried out to examine the degradability of indospicine of Indigofera spicata by camel and cattle foregut microbiota. In the first experiment, a 48 h in vitro incubation was carried out using foregut fluid samples that were collected from 15 feral camels and also a fistulated cow. Degradability of indospicine ranged between 97% and 99%, with the higher value of 99% for camels. A pooled sample of foregut fluids from three camels that were on a roughage diet was used in a second experiment to examine the time-dependent degradation of indospicine present in the plant materials. Results indicated that camels' foregut fluids have the ability to biodegrade ∼99% of the indospicine in I. spicata within 48 h of incubation and produced 2-aminopimelamic acid and 2-aminopimelic acid. The time-dependent degradation analysis showed rapid indospicine degradation (65 nmol/h) during the first 8-18 h of incubation followed by a slower degradation rate (12 nmol/h) between 18 and 48 h. Indospicine degradation products were also degraded toward the end of the experiment. The results of these in vitro degradation studies suggest that dietary indospicine may undergo extensive degradation in the foregut of the camel, resulting in trace levels after 48 h. The retention time for plant material in the camel foregut varies depending on feed quality, and the results of this study together with the observed accumulation of indospicine in camel tissues suggest that, although indospicine can be degraded by foregut fermentation, this degradation is not complete before the passage of the digesta into the intestine.

  1. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia.

  2. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

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    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  3. Fermented Camel Milk (Chal: Chemical, Microbial and Functional Properties

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    Maryam Salami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical, microbial properties and antioxidant activity of fermented camel milk (Chal and introduce it as a functional food. The protein content of the samples was determined using Kjeldahl method and total dry matter using oven drying method. The amount of fat content with Gerber method and pH was measured using a pH meter. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The mineral analysis was performed with atomic absorption spectroscopy and microbial count by pour plate method. Results revealed that fat, protein content and total solid determined 5.82±0.27%, 3.07±0.073%, and 12.24±0.16%, respectively. Acidity and pH determined 80±7 °D and 4.52±0.10, respectively. When a food has calcium by itself, this calcium is bonded with the protein of food, this calcium is more effective in our body than the calcium we add to food and they have not bonded any proteins. Adequate calcium consumption may support to decrease the risk of osteoporosis in life. Calcium ranged 103.29±3.87% and phosphorus 10.25±0.1% for Chal samples, respectively. The total counts were equal 6.54±0.19 log CFUmL -1; Coliform count was determined in the ranges of 2.34±0.23 logCFUmL -1 for Chal samples. The results showed that Chal was rich in antioxidant. The antioxidant inhibitory activity of Chal was obtained 45.38%. Diets rich in antioxidants, can inhibit LDL oxidation, influence the activities of immune-competent cells and inhibit the formation of cell-to-cell adhesion factors. Therefore, Chal is introduced as a traditional functional food.

  4. Open source marketing: Camel cigarette brand marketing in the "Web 2.0" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2009-06-01

    The international trend towards comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising has seen the tobacco industry become increasingly innovative in its approach to marketing. Further fuelling this innovation is the rapid evolution and accessibility of web-based technology. The internet, as a relatively unregulated marketing environment, provides many opportunities for tobacco companies to pursue their promotional ambitions. In this paper, "open source marketing" is considered as a vehicle that has been appropriated by the tobacco industry, through a case study of efforts to design the packaging for the Camel Signature Blends range of cigarettes. Four sources are used to explore this case study including a marketing literature search, a web-based content search via the Google search engine, interviews with advertising trade informants and an analysis of the Camel brand website. RJ Reynolds (RJR) has proven to be particularly innovative in designing cigarette packaging. RJR engaged with thousands of consumers through their Camel brand website to design four new cigarette flavours and packages. While the Camel Signature Blends packaging designs were subsequently modified for the retail market due to problems arising with their cartoon-like imagery, important lessons arise on how the internet blurs the line between marketing and market research. Open source marketing has the potential to exploit advertising ban loopholes and stretch legal definitions in order to generate positive word of mouth about tobacco products. There are also lessons in the open source marketing movement for more effective tobacco control measures including interactive social marketing campaigns and requiring plain packaging of tobacco products.

  5. Predicting Bank CAMELS and S&P Ratings. The Case of Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-101 ISSN 1540-496X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bank rating * CAMELS * ordered logit * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  6. MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor Max; Jores, Joerg; Meyer, Benjamin; Younan, Mario; Liljander, Anne; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Hilali, Mosaad; Musa, Bakri E; Bornstein, Set; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-seropositive dromedary camels in eastern Africa, we tested 189 archived serum samples accumulated during the past 30 years. We identified MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in 81.0% of samples from the main

  7. Comparative aspects of ruminants and camels grazing on a thornbush savannah pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Rutagwenda, T.; Lechner-Doll, M.; Kaske, M.; Schultka, W.

    1989-01-01

    A factor limiting animal production in a savannah pasture is the ability of the animals to adapt and survive during the harsh dry season. Survival strategies for the various species are different. Compared to cattle and sheep, camels, and to a lesser extent goats, have the advantage of being able to select high quality plant species. Camels and goats compete very little for forage that is predominantly grazed by cattle, donkeys and sheep. As a result, camels and goats are less subject to the grazing pressures experienced by other animals. During the harsh dry season, cattle, and also sheep, eat mostly low quality forage. When doing this, they are able to increase the retention time of feed particles in the forestomach by increasing forestomach volume. This strategy allows the digestion of poor quality, fibre rich diets to be improved. Camels are superior because they are able to use two different strategies. When fed a very poor quality diet they selectively retain feed particles in the forestomach for a considerable length of time. When grazing in the thornbush savannah, on the other hand, they select medium or high quality plants, which are not used by cattle, donkeys and sheep and are only partly used by goats. A multispecies grazing system may help to improve livestock productivity on a semiarid pasture because the available plant biomass is utilized more efficiently. At the same time overgrazing and its consequences are diminished. (author). 11 refs

  8. A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Lukešová, D.; Qablan, M.; Batsukh, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Horin, P.; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-3 (2011), 246-249 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Piroplasmosis * Babesia * Theileria * Horse * Bactrian camel * Dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  9. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  10. Camel milk inhibits murine hepatic carcinogenesis, initiated by diethylnitrosamine and promoted by phenobarbitone

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    Hala M.F. El Miniawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible inhibitory effect of camel milk (CM on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Twenty-eight male rats were assigned into 4 groups (7 rats per group. Group I served as control negative. Group II treated with camel milk. Group III was injected I/P with diethylnitrosamine (DENA (200 mg/kg as a single dose and after one week received 500 ppm phenobarbitone in drinking water. Group IV injected with DENA as group III and treated with camel milk. Estimation of AST, ALT, albumin, total protein and alpha fetoprotein (AFP in the serum of euthanized rats was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of AFP and placental glutathione s transferase of the liver were carried out. Biochemical result at 38th week revealed an increase in serum AFP and a decrease in serum albumin on group III although no significance was detected. Histopathologically, the size of altered hepatic foci was smaller in the milk treated group (group IV. The number of mitotic figures observed in group IV was lower than group III. Hepatocellular carcinoma developed only in group III but not group IV. Immunohistochemical staining of AFP demonstrated an intense positive staining in group III and a weak positive staining in group IV. Similarly, the area percent of preneoplastic P-GST positive foci in liver was higher in group III than group IV. In conclusion, camel milk halted the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Raw Camel Milk Properties on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

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    Kebir Nasr-Eddine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the most frequent and serious chronic diseases in humans all over the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of camel milk on serum glucose and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  12. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

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    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  13. Behavioral benefits of camel milk in subjects with autism spectrum disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadhi, L.Y.A.; Dress, A.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Study Design: Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Results: Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended. (author)

  14. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and

  15. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus from farms of different Brazilian regions

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    Amanda Brentano Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies againstToxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20 of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46 with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 forT. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.

  16. USING PCU-CAMEL, A WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, IN EVALUATING TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

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    Arlinah Imam Rahardjo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PCU-CAMEL (Petra Christian University-Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Department Learning Environment has been developed to integrate the use of this web-based learning environment into the traditional, face-to-face setting of class activities. This integrated learning method is designed as an effort to enrich and improve the teaching-learning process at Petra Christian University. A study was conducted to introduce the use of PCU-CAMEL as a tool in evaluating teaching learning process. The study on this method of evaluation was conducted by using a case analysis on the integration of PCU-CAMEL to the traditional face-to-face meetings of LIS (Library Information System class at the Informatics Engineering Department of Petra Christian University. Students’ responses documented in some features of PCU-CAMEL were measured and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this integrated system in developing intrinsic motivation of the LIS students of the first and second semester of 2004/2005 to learn. It is believed that intrinsic motivation can drive students to learn more. From the study conducted, it is concluded that besides its capability in developing intrinsic motivation, PCU-CAMEL as a web-based learning environment, can also serve as an effective tool for both students and instructors to evaluate the teaching-learning process. However, some weaknesses did exist in using this method of evaluating teaching-learning process. The free style and unstructured form of the documentation features of this web-based learning environment can lead to ineffective evaluation results

  17. The Combined ASTER MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL Part 2: Uncertainty and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Feltz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity project, a new global land surface emissivity dataset has been produced by the University of Wisconsin–Madison Space Science and Engineering Center and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL. This new dataset termed the Combined ASTER MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL, is created by the merging of the UW–Madison MODIS baseline-fit emissivity dataset (UWIREMIS and JPL’s ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset v4 (GEDv4. CAMEL consists of a monthly, 0.05° resolution emissivity for 13 hinge points within the 3.6–14.3 µm region and is extended to 417 infrared spectral channels using a principal component regression approach. An uncertainty product is provided for the 13 hinge point emissivities by combining temporal, spatial, and algorithm variability as part of a total uncertainty estimate. Part 1 of this paper series describes the methodology for creating the CAMEL emissivity product and the corresponding high spectral resolution algorithm. This paper, Part 2 of the series, details the methodology of the CAMEL uncertainty calculation and provides an assessment of the CAMEL emissivity product through comparisons with (1 ground site lab measurements; (2 a long-term Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI emissivity dataset derived from 8 years of data; and (3 forward-modeled IASI brightness temperatures using the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV radiative transfer model. Global monthly results are shown for different seasons and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme land classifications, and case study examples are shown for locations with different land surface types.

  18. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  19. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign......,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  20. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Mahboub, Faiza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  1. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  2. Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity database over Land (CAMEL) Emissivity Monthly Global 0.05Deg V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity database over Land (CAMEL) dataset provides...

  3. Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity database over Land (CAMEL) Coefficient Monthly Global 0.05Deg V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity database over Land (CAMEL) dataset provides...

  4. Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Lam, Tommy T-Y; Ahmed, Mohamed M M; Li, Lifeng; Shen, Yongyi; Abo-Aba, Salah E M; Qureshi, Muhammd I; Abu-Zeid, Mohamed; Zhang, Yu; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Alharbi, Njud S; Hajrah, Nahid H; Sabir, Meshaal J; Mutwakil, Mohammed H Z; Kabli, Saleh A; Alsulaimany, Faten A S; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Zhou, Boping; Smith, David K; Holmes, Edward C; Zhu, Huachen; Guan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) raise questions about the prevalence and evolution of the MERS coronavirus (CoV) in its animal reservoir. Our surveillance in Saudi Arabia in 2014 and 2015 showed that viruses of the MERS-CoV species and a human CoV 229E-related lineage co-circulated at high prevalence, with frequent co-infections in the upper respiratory tract of dromedary camels. viruses of the betacoronavirus 1 species, we found that dromedary camels share three CoV species with humans. Several MERS-CoV lineages were present in camels, including a recombinant lineage that has been dominant since December 2014 and that subsequently led to the human outbreaks in 2015. Camels therefore serve as an important reservoir for the maintenance and diversification of the MERS-CoVs and are the source of human infections with this virus. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Proteome Changes in biceps femoris Muscle of Iranian One-Humped Camel and Their Effect on Meat Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Javad Varidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p<0.05. Anatomical location of the muscle influenced the meat properties except for drip loss (p<0.05. Also, except for cooking loss, ageing influenced the physicochemical and quality properties of meat; during 14 days of storage, proteolysis resulted in an increase of L* and b* values, drip loss and myofibrillar fragmentation index, and the decrease of a* value, expressed juice, shear force and sarcomere length. Proteome changes (myofi brillar proteins during storage were investigated. Gel analysis revealed that 19 protein spots were signifi cantly changed during 24, 72 and 168 h post-mortem. Fifteen spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of actin, troponin T, capping protein, heat shock proteins (HSP and desmin with physicochemical and quality properties of meat (p<0.05. Actin might be a potential protein marker for colour, tenderness and water-holding capacity, and HSP27 and desmin are good candidate markers for colour and tenderness, respectively.

  6. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes during fermentation and storage of camel yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Osaili, Tareq M; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Jaradat, Ziad W; Shaker, Reyad; Al-Taani, Mahmoud; Holley, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    In addition to its nutritional and therapeutic properties, camel milk has the ability to suppress the growth of a wide range of foodborne pathogens, but there is a lack of information regarding the behavior of these pathogens in products such as yogurt produced from camel milk. The objective of the current study was to investigate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of camel yogurt. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was fermented at 43° C for 5h using freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and stored at 4 or 10 °C for 14 d. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 without starter culture was also prepared. During fermentation, the numbers of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 increased 0.3 and 1.6 log cfu/mL, respectively, in the presence of LAB, and by 0.3 and 2.7 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB. During storage at 4 or 10 °C, L. monocytogenes increased 0.8 to 1.2 log cfu/mL by 14 d in camel milk without LAB, but in the presence of LAB, the numbers of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 1.2 to 1.7 log cfu/mL by 14 d. Further, E. coli O157:H7 numbers in camel milk were reduced by 3.4 to 3.5 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB, but E. coli O157:H7 was not detected (6.3 log cfu/mL reduction) by 7d in camel yogurt made with LAB and stored at either temperature. Although camel milk contains high concentrations of natural antimicrobials, L. monocytogenes was able to tolerate these compounds in camel yogurt stored at refrigerator temperatures. Therefore, appropriate care should be taken during production of yogurt from camel milk to minimize the potential for postprocess contamination by this and other foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Mohammed F; Eltahir, Yassir M; Serhan, Wissam S; Hashem, Farouk M; Elsayed, Elsaeid A; Marzoug, Bahaaeldin A; Abdelazim, Assem Si; Bensalah, Oum Keltoum A; Al Muhairi, Salama S

    2015-06-01

    High seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels has been previously reported in United Arab Emirates (UAE). However, the molecular detection of the virus has never been reported before in UAE. Of the 7,803 nasal swabs tested in the epidemiological survey, MERS-CoV nucleic acid was detected by real-time PCR in a total of 126 (1.6 %) camels. Positive camels were detected at the borders with Saudi Arabia and Oman and in camels' slaughter houses. MERS-CoV partial sequences obtained from UAE camels were clustering with human- and camel-derived MERS-CoV sequences in the same geographic area. Results provide further evidence of MERS-CoV zoonosis.

  8. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p fracture significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  9. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. R...

  10. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu

    2016-05-26

    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P < 0.05). Around 38.9 % of TBCs and 88.2 % CCs in contaminated raw camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Camel's Milk and Nigella Sativa Oil against Thioacetamide-induced Hepatorenal Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Sadath, Saida; Ali, Soad Shaker; Abuzinadah, Mohammed F; Alhadrami, Hani A; Mohammad Alghamdi, Anwar Ali; Aseeri, Ali H; Khan, Shah Alam; Husain, Asif

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) and Nigella sativa (NS) have been traditionally claimed to cure wide range of diseases and used as medicine in different part of world, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Several research studies have been published that proved beneficial effects of CM and NS. This study was undertaken to investigate the antihepatotxic potential of CM and NS oil (NSO) against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepato and nephrotoxicity in rats. Thirty female Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided in to six groups having five rats in each group. A single subcutaneous injection of TAA (100 mg/kg b. w.) was administered to all the rats in Group-II to VI on 1 st day to induce hepatorenal damage. Group I served as a normal control while Group II served as toxic control for comparison purpose. Experimental animals in Group III, IV, and V were supplemented with fresh CM, (250 mL/24 h/cage), NSO (2 mL/kg/day p. o.), and NSO + fresh CM, respectively. Group VI was treated with a polyherbal hepatoprotective Unani medicine Jigreen (2 mL/kg/day p. o.) for 21 days. TAA-induced hepatorenal damage and protective effects of CM and NSO were assessed by analyzing liver and kidney function tests in the serum. Histopathology of liver and kidney tissues was also carried out to corroborate the findings of biochemical investigation. The results indicated that the TAA intoxicated rats showed significant increase in the alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium levels in serum. Treatment of rats with CM, NSO, and CM plus NSO combination and Jigreen significantly reversed the damage and brought down the serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile toward the normal levels. The histopathological studies also support the hepato and nephroprotective effects of CM and NSO. This study demonstrated the ameliorative effects of CM, NSO, and CM plus NSO combination against TAA

  12. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Alhaider, Abdul Qader; Raish, Mohammad; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP-MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC-MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC-MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  13. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  14. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of the Temporomandibular Joint in Two Normal Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arencibia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR image features of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and associated structures in two mature dromedary camels were obtained with a third-generation equipment CT and a superconducting magnet RM at 1.5 Tesla. Images were acquired in sagittal and transverse planes. Medical imaging processing with imaging software was applied to obtain postprocessing CT and MR images. Relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled. The resulting images provided excellent anatomic detail of the TMJ and associated structures. Annotated CT and MR images from this study are intended as an anatomical reference useful in the interpretation for clinical CT and MR imaging studies of the TMJ of the dromedary camels.

  15. 'Acceptable rebellion': marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed 'hipsters') to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called 'hipsters'), and Camel's brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company's efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models.

  16. A Review of Observations Made on Select Parameters of the Camel Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene H. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the camel’s long historical interaction with man there is only a limited number of studies available pertaining to the immunobiology of this species. This is unfortunate as the camel has evolved into an animal capable of not only surviving under extreme environmental conditions but also into one that is relatively resistant to a great number of infectious diseases. Accordingly, it is of interest to understand the various components operative in the camel immune system, as a potential basis of manipulating the immune response of other domesticated animals to respond to disease-causing agents in a similarly effective fashion. Recent research endeavors on the complement and phagocytic system, as well as the unique antibody types found in camelids that have seen an explosion of interest in recent times have been reviewed and their potential use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools highlighted.

  17. In-depth diversity analysis of the bacterial community resident in the camel rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Javad; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    The rumen compartment of the ruminant digestive tract is an enlarged fermentation chamber which houses a diverse collection of symbiotic microorganisms that provide the host animal with a remarkable ability to digest plant lignocellulosic materials. Characterization of the ruminal microbial community provides opportunities to improve animal food digestion efficiency, mitigate methane emission, and develop efficient fermentation systems to convert plant biomasses into biofuels. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied in order to explore the structure of the bacterial community inhabiting the camel rumen. Using 76,333 quality-checked, chimera- and singleton-filtered reads, 4954 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at a 97% species level sequence identity. At the phylum level, more than 96% of the reads were affiliated to OTUs belonging to Bacteroidetes (51%), Firmicutes (31%), Proteobacteria (4.8%), Spirochaetes (3.5%), Fibrobacteres (3.1%), Verrucomicrobia (2.7%), and Tenericutes (0.95%). A total of 15% of the OTUs (746) that contained representative sequences from all major taxa were shared by all animals and they were considered as candidate members of the core camel rumen microbiome. Analysis of microbial composition through the solid and liquid fractions of rumen digesta revealed differential enrichment of members of Fibrobacter, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, and Treponema in the solid fraction, as well as members of Prevotella, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, and Succinivibrio in the liquid fraction. The results clearly showed that the camel rumen microbiome was structurally similar but compositionally distinct from that of other ruminants, such as the cow. The unique characteristic of the camel rumen microbiome that differentiated it from those of other ruminants was the significant enrichment for cellulolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with  White Spotting in the Arabian Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Holl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the typical Arabian camel is characterized by a single colored coat, there are rare populations with white spotting patterns. White spotting coat patterns are found in virtually all domesticated species, but are rare in wild species. Theories suggest that white spotting is linked to the domestication process, and is occasionally associated with health disorders. Though mutations have been found in a diverse array of species, fewer than 30 genes have been associated with spotting patterns, thus providing a key set of candidate genes for the Arabian camel. We obtained 26 spotted camels and 24 solid controls for candidate gene analysis. One spotted and eight solid camels were whole genome sequenced as part of a separate project. The spotted camel was heterozygous for a frameshift deletion in KIT (c.1842delG, named KITW1 for White spotting 1, whereas all other camels were wild‐type (KIT+/KIT+. No additional mutations unique to the spotted camel were detected in the EDNRB, EDN3, SOX10, KITLG, PDGFRA, MITF, and PAX3 candidate white spotting genes. Sanger sequencing of the study population identified an additional five kITW1/KIT+ spotted camels. The frameshift results in a premature stop codon five amino acids downstream, thus terminating KIT at the tyrosine kinase domain. An additional 13 spotted camels tested KIT+/KIT+, but due to phenotypic differences when compared to the KITW1/KIT+ camels, they likely represent an independent mutation. Our study suggests that there are at least two causes of white spotting in the Arabian camel, the newly described KITW1 allele and an uncharacterized mutation.

  19. Do Ostriches Struthio camelus reject parasitic eggs by making use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ostrich communal breeding system involves several females laying in a single nest. Only the 'major' female and the territorial male, however, provide parental care from incubation to fledging of chicks. Eggs are turned and displaced frequently upon the onset of incubation, and the major female evicts excess eggs out of ...

  20. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Wael M; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in camels. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 89 camels. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n = 74) and control camels (n = 15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed high number of RBCS and pus cells. The concentrations of serum and erythrocytic malondialdehyde (sMDA & eMDA), Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), Ceruloplasmin (Cp), fibrinogen (Fb), albumin, globulin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were higher in diseased camels when compared to healthy ones. Catalase, super oxide dismutase and glutathione levels were lower in diseased camels when compared with control group. Forty one of 74 camels with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, super oxide dismutase, glutathione, Hp, SAA, Fb, total protein, globulin and IL-6 were associated with the odds of treatment failure. The MDA showed a great sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) in predicting treatment failure (Se 85%/Sp 100%) as well as the SAA (Se 92%/Sp 87%) and globulin levels (Se 85%/Sp 100%) when using the cutoffs that maximizes the sum of Se + Sp. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that two models had a high accuracy to predict failure with the first model including sex, sMDA and Hp as covariates (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.92) and a second model using sex, SAA and Hp (AUC = 0.89). Conclusively, the oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in camel UTI management. Efforts should be forced to investigate such biomarkers in other species with UTI.

  1. Characterization and identification of novel antidiabetic and anti-obesity peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Priti; Kamal, Hina; Yuen, Gan Chee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-09-01

    In-vitro inhibitory properties of peptides released from camel milk proteins against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) were studied. Results revealed that upon hydrolysis by different enzymes, camel milk proteins displayed dramatic increase in inhibition of DPP-IV and PPL, but slight improvement in PPA inhibition was noticed. Peptide sequencing revealed a total of 20 and 3 peptides for A9 and B9 hydrolysates respectively, obtained the score of 0.8 or more on peptide ranker and were categorized as potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. KDLWDDFKGL in A9 and MPSKPPLL in B9 were identified as most potent PPA inhibitory peptide. For PPL inhibition only 7 and 2 peptides qualified as PPL inhibitory peptides from hydrolysates A9 and B9, respectively. The present study report for the first time PPA and PPL inhibitory and only second for DPP-IV inhibitory potential of protein hydrolysates from camel milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of recombinant Arabian camel lactoferricin-related peptide in Pichia pastoris and its antimicrobial identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahardooli, Mahmood; Niazi, Ali; Aram, Farzaneh; Sohrabi, Seyyed Mohsen

    2016-01-30

    Lactoferricin (LFcin) is a strong cationic peptide released from the N-terminus of lactoferrin by gastric pepsin digestion. LFcin has some important properties, including high antimicrobial activity. To date, lactoferricins have been isolated and characterised from various animal species, but not from camel. The aim of this study was to characterise and express recombinant camel lactoferricin (LFcinC) in Pichia pastoris and investigate its antimicrobial activity. After methanol induction, LFcinC was expressed and secreted into a culture broth medium and the results determined by concentrated supernatant culture medium showed high antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739), Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112 (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 (ATCC 9027), Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 (ATCC 6633), and Candida albicans PTCC 5027 (ATCC 10231). Thermal stability was clarified with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 (ATCC 8739). Results confirmed that camel lactoferricin had suitable antimicrobial activity and its production by Pichia pastoris can be used for recombinant production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Characterizing the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract segments of the Bactrian camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Yi, Li; Hai, Le; Ming, Liang; Gao, Wanting; Ji, Rimutu

    2018-01-12

    The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating. However, there were significant differences in microbial community composition between segments of the GIT. In particular, a greater proportion of Akkermansia and Unclassified Ruminococcaceae were found in the large intestine and faecal samples, while more Unclassified Clostridiales and Unclassified Bacteroidales were present in the in forestomach and small intestine. Comparative analysis of the microbiota from different GIT segments revealed that the microbial profile in the large intestine was like that in faeces. We also predicted the metagenomic profiles for the different GIT regions. In forestomach, there was enrichment associated with replication and repair and amino acid metabolism, while carbohydrate metabolism was enriched in the large intestine and faeces. These results provide profound insights into the GIT microbiota of Bactrian camels.

  4. Camel meat quality in the slaughterhouse of Ouargla in Algeria. II. Bacterial surface contamination of carcasses

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    A. Benaissa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess the microbiological quality of camel meat in the slaughterhouse of Ouargla District in Algeria, the bacterial surface contamination of 60 camel carcasses was investigated. Within an hour after slaughter, swabs were used to collect samples on three sites (thigh, flank and shoulder, just after skinning and before postmortem inspection. Germ rates varied depending on the carcasses and sampling sites. The predominant flora was the total aerobic mesophilic flora, whose contamination level was 2.8  log CFU/cm2 (i.e. 25% of the flora count, followed by enterobacteria with 2.4 log CFU/cm2 (21%, total coliforms with 2.2 log CFU/cm2 (20%, fecal coliforms with 2.0  log CFU/cm2 (18%, and staphylococci with 1.8 log CFU/cm2 (16%. Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected on all the sampled sites of the carcasses. The camel meat of Ouargla slaughterhouse showed a high level of contamination by pathogenic bacteria (salmonellae and staphylococci. A high fecal contamination (E. coli was also present. Good hygiene practices need to be implemented at slaughter to reduce contaminations.

  5. ANALISIS TINGKAT KESEHATAN PT. BANK BRISYARIAH PERIODE 2011-2014 DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMEL

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    Ari Kristin Prasetyoningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of banking as well as high levels of complexity influence the performance and increase the risk of a bank. Therefore, it is important for banks to maintain the trust because of activities related to public confidence. This study aims to determine the health level of PT. Bank BRISyariah in 2011-2014 by using CAMEL. This research used quantitative descriptive analysis aims to analyze the soundness of PT. Bank BRISyariah in 2011-2014 using the CAMEL factors include capital, asset quality, management, earnings and liquidity. Data used in this study a BRISyariah Annual Report 2011 to 2014 taken from www.brisyariah.co.id. and Quarterly Financial Report Bank BRISyariah published by Bank Indonesia was taken from www.bi.go.id. Based on the analysis of the Bank’s soundness BRISyariah using CAMEL ratio in 2011-2014 can be said that in general PT. Bank BRISyariah in conditions HEALTHY, the the first rank in the CAR, PPAP, ROA, NPM, and CR; The second rank in the KAP; BOPO ranked third; and LDR in the fourth.

  6. CAMELS-based Determinants for the Credit Rating of Turkish Deposit Banks

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    Serhat Yuksel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the relationship between CAMELS ratios and credit ratings of deposit banks in Turkey. Annual data was used for the period between 2004 and 2014 in this study. Moreover, 20 deposit banks of Turkey were analyzed and 21 different ratios of CAMELS components were used. In addition to that, credit ratings of these banks were provided from Moody’s corporation or annual activity reports of the banks. After that, we created multi nominal logistic regression analysis in order to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that three components (Asset Quality, Management Quality, and Sensitivity to Market Risk of CAMELS have effects on credit ratings whereas the ratios related to Capital Adequacy and Earnings are not effective. As a result, it was recommended that Turkish deposit banks should concentrate on the percentage of fixed assets and interest income to have a better rating. Moreover, having high market share with respect to total assets and lower interest expense are also other important points for this purpose. On the other hand, Turkish deposit banks should control the proportion of financial assets and increase the amount of FX liquid assets to prevent credit ratings to decrease. Additionally, market share of banks for loans should not reach at high level for this objective.

  7. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus specific antibodies in naturally exposed Israeli llamas, alpacas and camels

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    Dan David

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. A total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and 19 llamas' sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to MERS-CoV. Our findings indicate a lower MERS-CoV seropositivity among Israeli dromedaries than in the surrounding countries, and for the first time naturally infected llamas were identified. In addition, nasal swabs of 661 camels, alpacas and lamas, obtained from January 2015 to December 2017, were tested for the presence of MERS-CoV RNA. All nasal swabs were negative, indicating no evidence for MERS-CoV active circulation in these camelids during that time period. Keywords: MERS coronavirus, Antibodies, Israel, Dromedary camels, Llamas, Alpacas

  8. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of visual and electronic devices for individual identification of dromedary camels under different farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, G; Díaz-Medina, E; Salama, A A K; Salama, O A E; El-Shafie, M H; El-Metwaly, H A; Ayadi, M; Aljumaah, R S; Alshaikh, M A; Yahyahoui, M H; Seddik, M M; Hammadi, M; Khorchani, T; Amann, O; Cabrera, S

    2016-08-01

    The camel industry uses traditional (i.e., iron brands and ear tags) and modern (i.e., microchips) identification (ID) systems without having performance results of reference. Previously iron-branded ( = 45; 1 yr) and microchipped ( = 59; 7 yr) camels showed problems of healing (8.6% of brands) and reading (only 42.9% of brands and 69.5% of microchips were readable), which made their use inadvisable. With the aim of proposing suitable ID systems for different farming conditions, an on-field study was performed using a total of 528 dromedaries at 4 different locations (Egypt, = 83; Spain, = 304; Saudi Arabia, = 90; and Tunisia, = 51). The ID devices tested were visual (button ear tags, 28.5 mm diameter, = 178; double flag ear tags, 50 by 15 mm, = 83; both made of polyurethane) and electronic (ear tags, = 90, and rumen boluses, = 555). Electronic ear tags were polyurethane-loop type (75 by 9 mm) with a container in which a 22-mm transponder of full-duplex technology was lodged. Electronic boluses of 7 types, varying in dimensions (50 to 76 mm length, 11 to 21 mm width, and 12.7 to 82.1 g weight) and specific gravity (SG; 1.49 to 3.86) and each of them containing a 31-mm transponder of half-duplex technology, were all administered to the dromedaries at the beginning of the study. When a low-SG bolus was lost, a high-SG bolus was readministered. Readability rates of each ID system were evaluated during 1 to 3 yr, according to device and location, and yearly values were estimated for comparison. On a yearly basis, visual ear tag readability was not fully satisfactory; it was lower for rectangular ear tags (66.3%) than for button ear tags (80.9%). Yearly readability of electronic ear tags was 93.7%. Bolus readability dramatically varied according to their SG; the SG 3.0 boluses were efficiently retained (99.6 to 100%) at all locations. In conclusion, according to the expected long lifespan of camels, low ID performances were observed for iron brands, injectable

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, C B; Farag, E A; Jonges, M; Godeke, G J; El-Sayed, A M; Pas, S D; Raj, V S; Mohran, K A; Moussa, H A; Ghobashy, H; Alhajri, F; Ibrahim, A K; Bosch, B J; Pasha, S K; Al-Romaihi, H E; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; AlHajri, M M; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were detected in serum and milk collected according to local customs from 33 camels in Qatar, April 2014. At one location, evidence for active virus shedding in nasal secretions and/or faeces was observed for 7/12 camels; viral

  11. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P camels in the TMB2 group. These data indicate that TMB supplementation has positive effects on the growth performance and trace mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry.

  12. yahaya et al.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRAPHICS DEPT

    bones in Skull of the Camel (Camelus dromendarius) in Nigeria. SUMMARY. The morphological features of facial region of the camel skull were investigated. A total of 42 camel skulls. (30 mature and 12 immature) from three geographical locations. (Maiduguri, Kano and Sokoto) in. Nigeria were used in this study. The.

  13. Análise histológica do trato gastrintestinal de avestruzes jovens (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p149 Aspectos histológicos do trato gastrintestinal do avestruz (Struthio camelus são pouco estudados, portanto, é de interesse desta pesquisa ampliar tais estudos. Para isso foram obtidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório de cinco avestruzes jovens, com idade entre 20 a 30 dias. Com base nos resultados obtidos pudemos concluir que os diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório do avestruz jovem apresenta a mesma estrutura geral de outras aves e mamíferos domésticos, com pequenas diferenças, como ausência de inglúvio e vesícula biliar, intestino grosso maior que o intestino delgado e ceco com propriedades fisiológicas semelhantes ao estômago de ruminantes.  Estas variações são inerentes à espécie ou podem ser decorrentes da idade e hábito alimentar. Esperamos que esta análise contribua para uma melhor compreensão dos processos fisiológicos relacionados à nutrição e ao manejo do avestruz durante seu crescimento.

  14. Distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Li, P; Zhang, X T; Ye, L X

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-ip cells were found in both the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells were found in the pancreatic islets, and were primarily observed at the periphery of the islets; some ghrelin-ip cells were also located in the central portion of the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, from postnatal d 1 to d 90, there was a steady decrease in the number of ghrelin-ip cells in the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. These results clearly demonstrated that ghrelin-ip cells exist and decreased with age in the African ostrich pancreas from postnatal d 1 to d90. Thus, these findings indicated that ghrelin may be involved in the development of the pancreas in the African ostrich. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Epidemiological investigation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camel farms linked with human infection in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhairi, Salama Al; Hosani, Farida Al; Eltahir, Yassir M; Mulla, Mariam Al; Yusof, Mohammed F; Serhan, Wissam S; Hashem, Farouq M; Elsayed, Elsaeid A; Marzoug, Bahaaeldin A; Abdelazim, Assem S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection primarily in dromedary camel farms and the relationship of those infections with infections in humans in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Nasal swabs from 1113 dromedary camels (39 farms) and 34 sheep (1 farm) and sputum samples from 2 MERS-CoV-infected camel farm owners and 1 MERS-CoV-infected sheep farm owner were collected. Samples from camels and humans underwent real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR screening to detect MERS-CoV. In addition, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partially characterized MERS-CoV genome fragments obtained from camels were performed. Among the 40 farms, 6 camel farms were positive for MERS-CoV; the virus was not detected in the single sheep farm. The maximum duration of viral shedding from infected camels was 2 weeks after the first positive test result as detected in nasal swabs and in rectal swabs obtained from infected calves. Three partial camel sequences characterized in this study (open reading frames 1a and 1ab, Spike1, Spike2, and ORF4b) together with the corresponding regions of previously reported MERS-CoV sequence obtained from one farm owner were clustering together within the larger MERS-CoV sequences cluster containing human and camel isolates reported for the Arabian Peninsula. Data provided further evidence of the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV infection and strongly suggested that camels may have a role in the transmission of the virus to humans.

  16. CAMEL vs. discriminante, un análisis de riesgo al sistema financiero venezolano CAMEL vs discriminant, a risk analysis to the Venezuelan financial system

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    Jesús Yoel Crespo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  El artículo presentan las calificaciones de riesgo de las instituciones pertenecientes al sistema financiero venezolano al cierre del primer semestre del año 2010, obtenidas mediante la aplicación de dos metodologías: la primera conocida como CAMEL y la segunda a través de una técnica estadística denominada análisis discriminante, esta última permitirá clasificar a las instituciones financieras en categorías de riesgo, formar un perfil que muestre las característica más representativa de las categoría y cuantificar la probabilidad de pertenecer a una calificación. La investigación pretende establecer si un modelo es mejor que el otro, sino demostrar que se puede complementar el análisis netamente descriptivo con el análisis multivariante, aplicándolo en un área del saber que ha sido poco explotada en Venezuela, permitiendo informar a la colectividad en general, las técnicas estadísticas empleadas en materia de riesgo. AbstractThis paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelan financial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods: the first known as CAMEL and the second through a statistical technique called analysis discriminant, the latter will qualify for financial institutions in risk categories, form a profile that shows the most representative feature of the category and quantify the probability of belonging to a rating. This research does not establish whether one model is better than the other, but show that you can supplement purely descriptive analysis multivariate analysis, applied to an area of knowledge that has been little exploited in Venezuela, allowing to inform the public at large , the statistical techniques used in risk.This paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelanfinancial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods:the first known as CAMEL and the second

  17. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation.

  18. Ethnoveterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Manhas, R K

    2015-07-01

    Camel is an important mode of transportation in the hot and hilly tracts of Shiwaliks of Kathua districts. The camel owners of the region lack the modern veterinary facilities and therefore depend heavily upon local treatments for the animal. This ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants is acquired by them from their forefathers and generally moves from one generation to another orally. The oral mode of transferring this valuable knowledge is vulnerable to erosion with the passage of time and generations. Ethnoveterinary information was collected by interviewing 38 camel keepers and traditional healers as per the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed quantitatively using three indices viz. use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (Fl %). A total of 41 plants were found to be of ethnoveterinary importance in the present study. Herbs and trees (41.5% each) were the most used life forms. The most used plant part was fruit (27.9%). Rhizome, root and whole plant parts collectively contributed to 18.6%. Most of the ethnoveterinary practices (65.9%) used oral mode of medication. The values of UV and Fl (%) shows that the most important species for curing the ailing camels were Curcuma longa, Trachyspermum ammi, Brassica campestris, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Plumbago zeylanica etc. The high values of ICF (0.91-0.99) show that the informants share the knowledge for the treatment of camels amongst themselves on regular basis. A good number of plants are utilised by the informants to cure camels. Most of the preparations used fruits and leaves. Only 18.6% of the practices required destructive collection and such species need sustainable use and conservation. Some of the species like Tamarindus indica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Albizia lebbeck and Citrus medica require further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China.

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    Ye Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes. As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy or three doses (high-cost, a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China.

  20. Subclinical mastitis in dairy camels in Algeria: Comparison of screening tests

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    Leyla HADEF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine a threshold values and to assess the effectiveness of four indirect tests for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels comparing with bacteriological culture. One hundred fifty three milk samples from 17 lactating camels were subjected to bacteriological culture, where 84 milk samples were positive, 47 were negative and 22 samples were considered as contaminated. A total of 131 milk samples were screened by pH, electrical conductivity (EC, California mastitis test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC. The good combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a threshold of 6.55, 7.2 mS/cm, score trace was considered as CMT (+ and 240 000 cells/ml for the four tests, respectively. The sensitivity of the SCC, pH, EC and CMT was 72.61, 66.66, 47.61 and 39.28 %; the specificity 70.21, 38.02, 59.57 and 72.34 %; percentage accuracy 71.75, 51.14, 51.90 and 51.14 %; and positive predictive value 81.33, 47.61, 67.79 and 71.73 %, respectively. The SCC was significantly correlated with bacteriological culture (r = 0.415, p < 0.05. Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC > CMT > EC > pH. In conclusion, the results suggest that the SCC was the most accurate, reliable, diagnostic method compared to other tests used in this study after cultural isolation for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camel under field conditions.

  1. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Musa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel, by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique. All samples were processed and examined according to standard bacteriological protocols. Results: Percentage occurrence of Salmonella species had the highest value of 15 (50.1% from the market, found in sheep, while the lowest occurrence of Salmonella species was associated with 3(10.0% in goats sampled from shop meat.. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species from cattle meat revealed high resistant to Erythromycin (52%. In sheep, the higher percentage of resistance occurred against Ampicillin (33.3% and less resistant to Amoxicillin (4% was obtained. The isolates from camel meat recorded 25% resistant against Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 12.5% to Streptomycin. A total of 28.4% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 23.1% to Ofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has shown that Salmonella species are present in fresh meat sold in abattoir, retail markets and shops. We recommend strict hygienic measures in places where fresh meat are sold in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria to ensure consumers right to have safe food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 227-233

  2. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Gambo,; Igwebuike Joseph Uchechi,; Alade Nurudeen Kehinde,; Adamu Shaibu Bala; Raji Abdulrazaq Onimisi

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White) of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM) for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV)...

  3. Evaluation of camel rumen content as a feed for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    O. J. Makinde; A. M. Abdullahi; G. Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of Camel Rumen Content (CRC) as a replacement for maize and groundnut cake. CRC was included in the diets of broilers at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and designated as TI, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Five dietary treatments were formulated. One hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks (Anak breed) were randomly allotted to fiv...

  4. Cross-sectional surveillance of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels and other mammals in Egypt, August 2015 to January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kandeil, Ahmed; Shehata, Mahmoud; Elsokary, Basma; Gomaa, Mokhtar; Hassan, Naglaa; El Sayed, Ahmed; El-Taweel, Ahmed; Sobhy, Heba; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; El Masry, Ihab; Wolde, Abebe Wossene; Daszak, Peter; Miller, Maureen; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Morzaria, Subhash; Lubroth, Juan; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre

    2017-03-16

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84.5%) had MERS-CoV neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in imported (614/692; 88.7%) than resident camels (257/339; 5.8%) (p MERS-CoV seroprevalence (p MERS-CoV antibodies except one sheep sample which showed a 1:640 titre. Of 1,078 camels, 41 (3.8%) were positive for MERS-CoV genetic material. Sequences obtained were not found to cluster with clade A or B MERS-CoV sequences and were genetically diverse. The presence of neutralising antibodies in one sheep apparently in contact with seropositive camels calls for further studies on domestic animals in contact with camels. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  5. Effect of Melatonin Implants during the Non-Breeding Season on the Onset of Ovarian Activity and the Plasma Prolactin in Dromedary Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Allali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine a possible control of reproductive seasonality by melatonin, continual-release subcutaneous melatonin implants were inserted 4.5 months before the natural breeding season (October–April into female camels (Melatonin-treated group. The animals were exposed to an artificial long photoperiod (16L:8D for 41 days prior to implant placement to facilitate receptivity to the short-day signal that is expected with melatonin implants. The treated and control groups (untreated females were maintained separately under outdoor natural conditions. Ovarian follicular development was monitored in both groups by transrectal ultrasonography and by plasma estradiol-17β concentrations performed weekly for 8 weeks and then for 14 weeks following implant insertion. Plasma prolactin concentrations were determined at 45 and 15 days before and 0, 14, 28, 56, and 98 days after implant insertion. Plasma melatonin concentration was determined to validate response to the artificial long photoperiod and to verify the pattern of release from the implants. Results showed that the artificial long photoperiod induced a melatonin secretion peak of significantly (P < 0.05 shorter duration (about 2.5 h. Melatonin release from the implants resulted in higher circulating plasma melatonin levels during daytime and nighttime which persisted for more than 12 weeks following implants insertion. Treatment with melatonin implants advanced the onset of follicular growth activity by 3.5 months compared to untreated animals. Plasma estradiol-17β increased gradually from the second week after the beginning of treatment to reach significantly (P < 0.01 higher concentrations (39.2 ± 6.2 to 46.4 ± 4.5 pg/ml between the third and the fifth week post insertion of melatonin implants. Treatment with melatonin implants also induced a moderate, but significant (P < 0.05 suppressive effect on plasma prolactin concentration on the 28th day. These

  6. Effect of Melatonin Implants during the Non-Breeding Season on the Onset of Ovarian Activity and the Plasma Prolactin in Dromedary Camel

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; Sghiri, Abdelmalek; Bouâouda, Hanan; Achaâban, Mohamed Rachid; Ouzir, Mounir; Bothorel, Béatrice; El Mzibri, Mohammed; El Abbadi, Najia; Moutaouakkil, Adnane; Tibary, Ahmed; Pévet, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To examine a possible control of reproductive seasonality by melatonin, continual-release subcutaneous melatonin implants were inserted 4.5 months before the natural breeding season (October–April) into female camels (Melatonin-treated group). The animals were exposed to an artificial long photoperiod (16L:8D) for 41 days prior to implant placement to facilitate receptivity to the short-day signal that is expected with melatonin implants. The treated and control groups (untreated females) were maintained separately under outdoor natural conditions. Ovarian follicular development was monitored in both groups by transrectal ultrasonography and by plasma estradiol-17β concentrations performed weekly for 8 weeks and then for 14 weeks following implant insertion. Plasma prolactin concentrations were determined at 45 and 15 days before and 0, 14, 28, 56, and 98 days after implant insertion. Plasma melatonin concentration was determined to validate response to the artificial long photoperiod and to verify the pattern of release from the implants. Results showed that the artificial long photoperiod induced a melatonin secretion peak of significantly (P < 0.05) shorter duration (about 2.5 h). Melatonin release from the implants resulted in higher circulating plasma melatonin levels during daytime and nighttime which persisted for more than 12 weeks following implants insertion. Treatment with melatonin implants advanced the onset of follicular growth activity by 3.5 months compared to untreated animals. Plasma estradiol-17β increased gradually from the second week after the beginning of treatment to reach significantly (P < 0.01) higher concentrations (39.2 ± 6.2 to 46.4 ± 4.5 pg/ml) between the third and the fifth week post insertion of melatonin implants. Treatment with melatonin implants also induced a moderate, but significant (P < 0.05) suppressive effect on plasma prolactin concentration on the 28th day. These results

  7. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  8. Analisis Komparatif Kinerja Keuangan Perbankan Syariah Menggunakan Metode Camels pada Sebelum, Selama dan Sesudah Krisis Global Tahun 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Kurniawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial crisis that hit the United States has spread to the whole world. Conditions of the global economic crisis affecting the financial performance of banks and each bank has the financial performance of the condition varies in receiving the impact of global crisis include Shariah banking. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the comparison and test the differences between the financial performance of Shariah banking, objects used in this study is the bank Syariah Mandiri and Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in the period 2007, 2008, 2009 using the method CAMELS. The study was based on the rating of the CAMELS method that uses a Bank Indonesia Regulation 9/1/PBI/2007. The study was a quantitative study using a comparative description and analysis of secondary data collection methods in the form of annual financial statements of each Islamic bank and the sampling method using a purposive sampling method. Data were processed using SPSS and data analysis performed using One Way ANOVA. The results showed that the overall ratio of otherwise healthy banks in the years 2007-2009 CAMELS BSM and BMI, and BSMI has an average level of health in the composite ranking categories. Based on the results obtained there was no significant difference between the performance of CAMELS in BMI, BSM and BSMI. At the time of global crisis Bank Syariah Mandiri is superior to preserve the value and growth ratio compared Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.

  9. Comparative in vitro efficacy of kefir produced from camel, goat, ewe and cow milk on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, D; Rekik, M; Akkari, H

    2018-04-18

    One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H. contortus egg hatching at all tested concentrations. The highest inhibition (100%) of eggs was observed with camel milk kefir at a concentration 0.125 mg/ml. In relation to the effect of kefirs on the survival of adult parasites, all kefirs induced concentration-dependent mortality in adults, with variable results. The complete mortality (100%) of adults of H. contortus occurred at concentrations in the range 0.25-2 mg/ml. The highest inhibition of motility (100%) of worms was observed after 8 h post exposure with camel milk kefir at 0.25 mg/ml. These findings indicate that kefir can be considered a potential tool to control haemonchosis in sheep. Further investigations are needed to assess the active molecules in kefir responsible for its anthelmintic properties and to investigate similar in vivo effects.

  10. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results: Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3% were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%, followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%, raw ovine milk (7.1%, and raw caprine milk (4.2% samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%; the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%, Listeria ivanovii (0.08% and Listeria seeligari (0.04%. The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions: The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  11. Foaming and adsorption behavior of bovine and camel proteins mixed layers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine foaming and interfacial behavior of three milk protein mixtures, bovine α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M1), camel α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M2) and β-lactoglobulin-β-casein (M3), alone and in binary mixtures, at the air/water interface in order to better understand the foaming properties of bovine and camel milks. Different mixture ratios (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) were used during foaming tests and interfacial protein interactions were studied with a pendant drop tensiometer. Experimental results evidenced that the greatest foam was obtained with a higher β-casein amount in all camel and bovine mixtures. Good correlation was observed with the adsorption and the interfacial rheological properties of camel and bovine protein mixtures. The proteins adsorbed layers are mainly affected by the presence of β-casein molecules, which are probably the most abundant protein at interface and the most efficient in reducing the interfacial properties. In contrast of, the globular proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin that are involved in the protein layer composition, but could not compact well at the interface to ensure foams creation and stabilization because of their rigid molecular structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The foaming properties of camel and bovine whey: The impact of pH and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Cases, Eliane; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2018-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment (70°C or 90°C for 30min) on the foaming and interfacial properties of acid and sweet whey obtained from bovine and camel fresh milk was examined. The maximum foamability and foam stability were observed for acid whey when compared to sweet whey for both milks, with higher values for the camel whey. This behavior for acid whey was explained by the proximity of the pI of whey protein (4.9-5.2), where proteins were found to carry the lowest negative charge as confirmed by the zeta potential measurements. Interfacial properties of acid camel whey and acid bovine whey were preserved at air water interface even after a heat treatment at 90°C. These results confirmed the pronounced foaming and interfacial properties of acid camel whey, even if acid and sweet bovine whey exhibited the highest viscoelastic modulus after heating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comprehensive Assessment of Models and Events based on Library tools (CAMEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Boblitt, J. M.; DeZeeuw, D.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Wiegand, C.

    2017-12-01

    At the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), the assessment of modeling skill using a library of model-data comparison metrics is taken to the next level by fully integrating the ability to request a series of runs with the same model parameters for a list of events. The CAMEL framework initiates and runs a series of selected, pre-defined simulation settings for participating models (e.g., WSA-ENLIL, SWMF-SC+IH for the heliosphere, SWMF-GM, OpenGGCM, LFM, GUMICS for the magnetosphere) and performs post-processing using existing tools for a host of different output parameters. The framework compares the resulting time series data with respective observational data and computes a suite of metrics such as Prediction Efficiency, Root Mean Square Error, Probability of Detection, Probability of False Detection, Heidke Skill Score for each model-data pair. The system then plots scores by event and aggregated over all events for all participating models and run settings. We are building on past experiences with model-data comparisons of magnetosphere and ionosphere model outputs in GEM2008, GEM-CEDAR CETI2010 and Operational Space Weather Model challenges (2010-2013). We can apply the framework also to solar-heliosphere as well as radiation belt models. The CAMEL framework takes advantage of model simulations described with Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) metadata and a database backend design developed for a next-generation Run-on-Request system at the CCMC.

  14. Camel Milk Beneficial Effects on Treating Gentamicin Induced Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of camel milk (CM against gentamicin (GM induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p., and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione s-transferase (GST activity decreased significantly (P≤0.05. Administration of CM significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.

  15. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  17. Q fever in Egypt: Epidemiological survey of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Klemmer

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Clinical presentation in humans varies from asymptomatic to flu-like illness and severe sequelae may be seen. Ruminants are often sub-clinically infected or show reproductive disorders such as abortions. In Egypt, only limited data on the epidemiology of Q fever in animals are available. Using a stratified two stage random sampling approach, we evaluated the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies among ruminants and camels in 299 herds. A total of 2,699 blood samples was investigated using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies were detected in 40.7% of camels (215/528, 19.3% of cattle (162/840, 11.2% of buffaloes (34/304, 8.9% of sheep (64/716 and 6.8% of goats (21/311, respectively. Odds of seropositivity were significantly higher for cattle (aOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.96-5.13 and camels (aOR: 9.75; 95% CI: 6.02-15.78. Significant differences in seropositivity were also found between domains (Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Nile Valley and Delta and 25 governorates (p 0.05. Only 8.7% of the interviewed people living on the farms consumed raw camel milk and none reported prior knowledge on Q fever. Findings from this nationwide study show that exposure to Coxiella burnetii is common in ruminants and camels. Disease awareness among physicians, veterinarians and animal owners has to be raised. Future epidemiological investigations have to elucidate the impact of Q fever on human health and on the economy of Egypt.

  18. Comparative effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status in camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency is widely described in livestock from the Arabian Peninsula, notably in the camel, and selenium supplementation is based on cattle or horse requirements, usually with sodium selenite product. In order to test the effect of organic Se supplementation vs inorganic Se, 24 pregnant camels were subjected to 3 treatment groups starting one month before delivery (control without Se, non-organic bolus, organic Se. Blood, milk and feces samples were collected from one month before delivery to 3 months of lactation. At delivery, the organic group had a significant higher Se concentration (P < 0.01 in serum (8.21 ± 1.38 μg/100 mL and in colostrum (7.27 ± 2.89 μg/100 mL than in inorganic group (3.90 ± 0.68 and 3.72 ± 0.71, respectively and than in control group (5.45 ± 2.38 and 2.70 ± 0.66, respectively. In calf serum, the Se concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the two supplemented groups (6.32 ± 2.81 and 5.99 ± 3.31 μg/100 mL in organic and inorganic groups, respectively than in control (3.42 ± 1.41 μg/100 mL. The Se in mother serum decreased after parturition but was highly correlated to Se serum in calf and to Se fecal excretion. Se in milk was lower than in colostrum in all groups (P < 0.01. Treatments had no significant effect on somatic cell count. This study revealed that organic supplementation in camel appeared more efficient.

  19. Sero-prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) specific antibodies in Dromedary Camels in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrath, Rafik; Duhier, Faisel M Abu

    2018-04-16

    The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel Coronavirus which was responsible of the first case of human acute respiratory syndrome in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 2012. Dromedary camels are considered as potential reservoirs for the virus and seem to be the only animal host which may transmit the infection to human. Further studies are required to better understand the animal sources of zoonotic transmission route and the risks of this infection. A primary sero-prevalence study of MERS-CoV preexisting neutralizing antibodies in Dromedary camel serum was conducted in Tabuk, western north region of KSA, in order to assess the seopositivity of these animals and to explain their possible role in the transmission of the infection to Human. One hundred seventy one (171) serum samples were collected from healthy dromedary camels with different ages and genders in Tabuk city and tested for specific serum IgG by ELISA using the receptor-binding S1 subunits of spike proteins of MERS-CoV. 144 (84,21%) of the total camel sera shown the presence of protein-specific antibodies against MERS-CoV. These results may provide evidence that MERS-CoV has previously infected dromedary camels in Tabuk and may support the possible role of camels in the human infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  1. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  2. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  3. Analyzing Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in India: Application of CAMEL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mohi-ud-Din Sangmi

    Full Text Available Sound financial health of a bank is the guarantee not only to its depositors but is equally significant for the shareholders, employees and whole economy as well. As a sequel to this maxim, efforts have been made from time to time, to measure the financial position of each bank and manage it efficiently and effectively. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the financial performance of the two major banks operating in northern India .This evaluation has been done by using CAMEL Parameters, the latest model of financial analysis. Through this model, it is highlighted that the position of the banks under study is sound and satisfactory so far as their capital adequacy, asset quality, Management capability and liquidity is concerned.

  4. MERS coronaviruses from camels in Africa exhibit region-dependent genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daniel K W; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Miguel, Eve; Niemeyer, Daniela; Zhao, Jincun; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Dudas, Gytis; Oladipo, Jamiu O; Traoré, Amadou; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa; Ali, Abraham; Demissié, Getnet F; Muth, Doreen; Chan, Michael C W; Nicholls, John M; Meyerholz, David K; Kuranga, Sulyman A; Mamo, Gezahegne; Zhou, Ziqi; So, Ray T Y; Hemida, Maged G; Webby, Richard J; Roger, Francois; Rambaut, Andrew; Poon, Leo L M; Perlman, Stanley; Drosten, Christian; Chevalier, Veronique; Peiris, Malik

    2018-03-20

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. Although MERS-CoV infection is ubiquitous in dromedaries across Africa as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, zoonotic disease appears confined to the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoVs from Africa have hitherto been poorly studied. We genetically and phenotypically characterized MERS-CoV from dromedaries sampled in Morocco, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. Viruses from Africa (clade C) are phylogenetically distinct from contemporary viruses from the Arabian Peninsula (clades A and B) but remain antigenically similar in microneutralization tests. Viruses from West (Nigeria, Burkina Faso) and North (Morocco) Africa form a subclade, C1, that shares clade-defining genetic signatures including deletions in the accessory gene ORF4b Compared with human and camel MERS-CoV from Saudi Arabia, virus isolates from Burkina Faso (BF785) and Nigeria (Nig1657) had lower virus replication competence in Calu-3 cells and in ex vivo cultures of human bronchus and lung. BF785 replicated to lower titer in lungs of human DPP4-transduced mice. A reverse genetics-derived recombinant MERS-CoV (EMC) lacking ORF4b elicited higher type I and III IFN responses than the isogenic EMC virus in Calu-3 cells. However, ORF4b deletions may not be the major determinant of the reduced replication competence of BF785 and Nig1657. Genetic and phenotypic differences in West African viruses may be relevant to zoonotic potential. There is an urgent need for studies of MERS-CoV at the animal-human interface. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. A novel dromedary camel enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae from dromedaries in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Tong; Jose, Shanty; Yip, Cyril C Y; Huang, Yi; Wong, Emily Y M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-07-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from the Middle East and the discovery of the virus from dromedary camels have boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. Whilst picornaviruses are known to infect various animals, their existence in dromedaries was unknown. We describe the discovery of a novel picornavirus, dromedary camel enterovirus (DcEV), from dromedaries in Dubai. Among 215 dromedaries, DcEV was detected in faecal samples of four (1.9 %) dromedaries [one (0.5 %) adult dromedary and three (25 %) dromedary calves] by reverse transcription PCR. Analysis of two DcEV genomes showed that DcEV was clustered with other species of the genus Enterovirus and was most closely related to and possessed highest amino acid identities to the species Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F found in cattle. The G+C content of DcEV was 45 mol%, which differed from that of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F (49-50 mol%) by 4-5 %. Similar to other members of the genus Enterovirus, the 5' UTR of DcEV possessed a putative type I internal ribosome entry site. The low ratios of the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ka/Ks) of various coding regions suggested that dromedaries are the natural reservoir in which DcEV has been stably evolving. These results suggest that DcEV is a novel species of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Western blot analysis using recombinant DcEV VP1 polypeptide showed a high seroprevalence of 52 % among serum samples from 172 dromedaries for IgG, concurring with its much higher infection rates in dromedary calves than in adults. Further studies are important to understand the pathogenicity, epidemiology and genetic evolution of DcEV in this unique group of animals.

  6. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phage-Mediated Competitive Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Detecting Cry1Ab Toxin by Using an Anti-Idiotypic Camel Nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yulou; Li, Pan; Dong, Sa; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Qianru; Wang, Yulong; Ge, Jing; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-01-31

    Cry toxins have been widely used in genetically modified organisms for pest control, raising public concern regarding their effects on the natural environment and food safety. In this work, a phage-mediated competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (c-CLIA) was developed for determination of Cry1Ab toxin using anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies. By extracting RNA from camels' peripheral blood lymphocytes, a naive phage-displayed nanobody library was established. Using anti-Cry1Ab toxin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the library for anti-idiotypic antibody screening, four anti-idiotypic nanobodies were selected and confirmed to be specific for anti-Cry1Ab mAb binding. Thereafter, a c-CLIA was developed for detection of Cry1Ab toxin based on anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies and employed for sample testing. The results revealed a half-inhibition concentration of developed assay to be 42.68 ± 2.54 ng/mL, in the linear range of 10.49-307.1 ng/mL. The established method is highly specific for Cry1Ab recognition, with negligible cross-reactivity for other Cry toxins. For spiked cereal samples, the recoveries of Cry1Ab toxin ranged from 77.4% to 127%, with coefficient of variation of less than 9%. This study demonstrated that the competitive format based on phage-displayed anti-idiotypic nanobodies can provide an alternative strategy for Cry toxin detection.

  8. Effect of casein and inulin addition on physico-chemical characteristics of low fat camel dairy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Leila; Labbafi Mazrae Shahi, Mohsen; Salami, Maryam; Askari, Gholam R

    2018-05-21

    The effect of the addition of the camel casein fraction on some physico-chemical properties of low fat camel milk cream was studied. Oil-in-water emulsions, 25, 30, and 35 (w/w) fat, were prepared using inulin, camel skim milk, milk fat and variable percentages of casein (1, 2, and 3% w/w). The droplet size, ζ-potential, surface protein concentration, viscosity and surface tension of low fat dairy creams was measured. Cream containing 2% (w/w) casein had better stability. The modifications in physico-chemical properties appeared to be driven by changes in particle size distribution caused by droplet aggregation. The cream containing 2% casein leads to a gradual decrease in droplet size, as the particle size decreased, apparent viscosity increased. When casein concentration increased, ζ-potential decreased due to combination of c terminal (negative charge) with the surface of fat particles but steric repulsion improved textural properties. Cream with 30% fat and 2% casein had the best result. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  10. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziq, Abdul; de Verdier, Kerstin; Younas, Muhammad

    2010-06-21

    The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink). There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  11. Microbial load and phytochemicals stability of camel hay (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L) leaves as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, H. A. A.; Ahmed, E. E.; Osman, G. A. M.; Ludwig-muller, J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation on microbial load and chemical quality of camel hay (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) leaves was evaluated at doses of 0, 5,10, and 15 kGy in a cobalt-60 package irradiator. The results revealed that, immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation was found to cause significant reduction in microbial load proportionate to the doses delivered. TLC analysis indicated that irradiation of camel hay leaves extract with 15 kGy doses of gamma radiation had no effect on flavonoids concentrations, however, increase in total phenols and tannins was observed. In addition, the chemical constituents of camel hay leaves as represented by HPLC retention time (min) at different wave lengths showed that the compounds of retention time 8.42, 29.08, 8.38, 16.93, 14.80 and 42.80 min remained approximately unchanged, while the compound of retention times 16.95 min was eliminated. The compounds of retention times 9.66, 2.03 and 29.35 min were decreased from 16.56 to 11.77, 14.06 to 9.88 and 8.25 to 2.88 min respectively. An increase in the chemical constituents, was observed in the compounds of the retention times 14.37 and 35.42 min from 33.76 to 40.11 and 5.64 to 10.05, respectively. (Author)

  12. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  13. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  14. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  15. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  16. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  17. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  18. DSC of Milk Fats from Various Animals with High Levels of Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    fatty acid on milk fat crystallization, than is possible with dietary changes, other species as well as non-ruminant species may be studied. Apart from the commercially exploited mammals, we were only able to locate work on crystallization of camel. (Camelus dromedarius) milk fat.20 It was found that the camel milk.

  19. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  20. Evaluation of camel rumen content as a feed for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Makinde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of Camel Rumen Content (CRC as a replacement for maize and groundnut cake. CRC was included in the diets of broilers at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and designated as TI, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Five dietary treatments were formulated. One hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks (Anak breed were randomly allotted to five treatments replicated thrice with 10 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for 28 days. Means of body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of broilers fed the control diet, 5%, 10% and 15 % CRC diets were significantly (P 0.05 differences in the haematological parameters measured except haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Also, basophils and monocytes were not significantly (P>0.05 different among the differential counts measured. It was concluded that up to 15% CRC can be included in broilers diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without adverse effect on the performance of birds.

  1. ‘Acceptable rebellion’: marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed ‘hipsters’) to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Results Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called ‘hipsters’), and Camel’s brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. Conclusions To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company’s efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models. PMID:20501494

  2. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Allison; Fernandez, Benoît; Hammami, Riadh; Ababsa, Ahlem; Daba, Hocine; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans . An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium , Listeria , Staphylococcus , and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival). Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon), counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log 10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log 10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  3. The Combined ASTER MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL Part 1: Methodology and High Spectral Resolution Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eva Borbas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA MEaSUREs (Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity project, the Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-Madison and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL developed a global monthly mean emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR. This new Combined ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Emissivity over Land (CAMEL ESDR was produced by merging two current state-of-the-art emissivity datasets: the UW-Madison MODIS Infrared emissivity dataset (UW BF and the JPL ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Version 4 (GEDv4. The dataset includes monthly global records of emissivity and related uncertainties at 13 hinge points between 3.6–14.3 µm, as well as principal component analysis (PCA coefficients at 5-km resolution for the years 2000 through 2016. A high spectral resolution (HSR algorithm is provided for HSR applications. This paper describes the 13 hinge-points combination methodology and the high spectral resolutions algorithm, as well as reports the current status of the dataset.

  4. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  5. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  6. A case of early Wisconsinan ;over-chill;: New radiocarbon evidence for early extirpation of western camel (Camelops hesternus) in eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazula, Grant D.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Southon, John; Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; Reyes, Alberto V.; Hewitson, Susan; Hall, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    There are comparatively few fossils that document the presence of the Pleistocene western camel (Camelops hesternus) in the unglaciated regions of Alaska and Yukon, northwestern North America (eastern Beringia). It has been previously reported on the basis of stratigraphic and radiocarbon data that this species was present within this region from the Sangamonian interglaciation (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5) through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, MIS 2). However, the continued presence of western camel through the LGM is at odds with its ecological preferences as inferred from more southerly parts of the continent. Here we report 43 new radiocarbon dates on 34 western camel fossils from Alaska and Yukon, including specimens that have been dated previously. To minimize exogenous carbon contamination, we utilized either ultrafiltered collagen or single amino acid (hydroxyproline) methodologies in conducting the analyses. All samples, including previously reported specimens with finite ages, yielded ages that were either non-finite or close to the effective limit of radiocarbon dating. These results indicate that dates implying local presence of western camels in Alaska and Yukon during full-glacial conditions of MIS 2 are erroneous by as much as several tens of millennia, probably because of carbon contamination from glue or varnish used in fossil preparation and conservation. The revised radiocarbon chronology, together with other evidence, indicates that western camels were only able to occupy eastern Beringia only during Pleistocene interglaciations such as MIS 5, when forests and shrublands became the dominant regional biomes. The subsequent transition to cold, arid full-glacial conditions during the early Wisconsinan glaciation (MIS 4) around 75 000 years ago created unfavorable environmental conditions, eliminated browse, and led to their local extirpation in eastern Beringia. After their complete population loss in the Arctic and Subarctic, the range of

  7. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and its utilization as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the fore-stomach of the camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.; Elgass, Y.; Balcells, J.

    2004-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out on camels to establish a model for estimating the microbial protein outflow from the rumen to the small intestine using the excretion rate of purine derivatives (PD) in urine. In Experiment I, a significant linear regression was established between the level of feed intake and the urinary excretion of total PD. The amount of PD excretion in urine increased by about 11 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake/d with the increasing level of feeding. In Experiment II, endogenous excretion of PD was measured in four camels fasted for 5 continuous d. The endogenous excretion of PD averaged 230 μmol/kgW 0.75 /d, which was lower than values obtained in other ruminants. In Experiment III, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in plasma, liver and intestinal tissues of three camels was measured and detected in liver and intestine, but not in the plasma. For the tissues examined, XO activity in camel was lower than values reported for cattle. In Experiment IV, when purine bases (PB) from RNA yeast were infused at increasing rates into the duodenum of two camels, urinary excretion of PD responded linearly with an average recovery rate of 52%. Nitrogen (N) content of microbes (N) was 8.0 mg/g DM and PB 100.3 μmol/g DM, with a PB/N (mmol/g) ratio of 1.26. In Experiment V, carried out under conditions similar to those in Experiment I, daily creatinine (C) excretion in urine was 0.34 ± 0.04 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d. PD/C ratios in spot samples of urine, collected several times in a d, were regressed against the measured daily PD excretion. A high correlation (R 2 =0.86) was obtained indicating that the PD/C ratio in spot samples of urine can be used with confidence to estimate the daily PD excretion in camels. (author)

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of virulence genes, phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel-calves in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessalah, Salma; Fairbrother, John Morris; Salhi, Imed; Vanier, Ghyslaine; Khorchani, Touhami; Seddik, Mouldi Mabrouk; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44.7% and 41.5% of isolates from camels and herds with diarrhea versus 22.5% and 11.7% in camels (p=0.05) and herds without diarrhea (p=0.02). The aida, cnf1/2, f18, stx2 and paa genes were found only in isolates from camels with diarrhea, although at a low prevalence, 1.8%, 3.7%, 1.8%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of afa8, cdtB, eae, east1, iroN, iss, kpsMTII, paa, sfa, tsh and papC genes did not differ significantly between herds with or without diarrhea. Genes coding for faeG, fanC, f41, estI, estII, CS31a and eltA were not detected in any isolates. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftiofur and the highest frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, and ampicillin (52.8% and 37.1% respectively). The phylogenetic groups were identified by conventional triplex PCR. Results showed that E. coli strains segregated mainly in phylogenetic group B1, 52.8% in diarrheic herds and 52.9% in healthy herds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou; Ashraf Yehia El-naggar

    2016-01-01

    This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared),in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46) compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47).Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr...

  10. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  11. Expression and Purification of the Main Component Contained in Camel Milk and Its Antimicrobial Activities Against Bacterial Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeian, Abbas; Shahriari Ahmadi, Farajollah; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Mamarabadi, Mojtaba

    2018-04-04

    Lactoferrin is the most dominant protein in milk after casein. This protein plays a crucial role in many biological processes including the regulation of iron metabolism, induction and modulation of the immune system, the primary defense against microorganisms, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and presenting antimicrobial activity against various pathogens such as parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The major antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin is related to its N-terminal tail where different peptides for instance lactoferricin and lactoferrampin which are important for their antimicrobial abilities are present. The growth rate of bacterial cells in camel milk is lower than that of the cow milk due to having more antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we have fused a codon-optimized partial camel lactoferrcin and lactoferrampin DNA sequences in order to construct a fused peptide via a lysine. This chimeric 42-mer peptide consists of complete and partial amino acid sequence of camel lactoferrampin and lactoferricin, respectively. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were used for synthesizing this recombinant peptide. Finally, the antibacterial activities of this constructed peptide were investigated under in vitro condition. The result showed that, all construction, cloning and expression processes were successfully performed in HEK-293. One His-tag tail was added to the chimera in order to optimize the isolation and purification processes and also reduce the cost of production. Additionally, His-tag retained the antimicrobial activity of the chimera. The antimicrobial tests showed that the growth rate in the majority of bacterial plant pathogens, including gram negative and positive bacteria, was inhibited by recombinant chimera as the level of MIC values were evaluated between 0.39 and 25.07 μg/ml for different bacterial isolates.

  12. Oxygen transfer properties and dimensions of red blood cells in high-altitude camelids, dromedary camel and goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Jürgens, K D; Bartels, H; Piiper, J

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the advantage of the small red blood cells (RBC) of high-altitude camelids for O2 transfer, the kinetics of O2 uptake into and release from the RBC obtained from llama, vicuña and alpaca were investigated at 37 degrees C with a stopped-flow technique. O2 transfer conductance of RBC (G) was estimated from the rate of O2 saturation change and the corresponding O2 pressure difference between medium and hemoglobin. For comparison, O2 kinetics for the RBC of a low-altitude camelid (dromedary camel) and the pygmy goat were determined and previously measured values for human RBC were used. O2 transfer of RBC was found to be strongly influenced by extracellular diffusion, except with O2 release into dithionite solutions of sufficiently high concentration (greater than 30 mM). The G values measured in these 'standard' conditions, Gst (in mmol X min-1 X Torr-1 X (ml RBC)-1) were: high-altitude camelids, 0.58 (averaged for llama, alpaca and vicuña since there were no significant interspecific differences); camel 0.42; goat, 0.42; man, 0.39. The differences can in part be attributed to expected effects of the size and shape of the RBC (volume, surface area, mean thickness), as well as to the intracellular O2 diffusivity which depends on the concentration of cellular hemoglobin. The high Gst of RBC of high-altitude camelids may be considered to enhance O2 transfer in lungs and tissues. But the O2 transfer conductance of blood, theta, equal to Gst multiplied by hematocrit (in mmol X min-1 X Torr-1 X (ml blood)-1), was only slightly higher as compared to other species: 0.20 (llama, alpaca, vicuña), 0.14 (camel), 0.18 (goat), 0.17 (man).

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  14. A study on relationship between CAMELS Index's and Risk taking: A case study of Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the activists of the money market, banks as the most important financial institutions undertake an important role in optimal appropriation of financial short-term resources. Furthermore, they allocate the short-term surplus funds to enterprises, which have a short-term need. Holding a main part of the funds in economy circulation, banks have a critical role in adjustment of economic relations. Banks are facing different types of risks in their daily operations. In the banking system, the CAMELS indictors are used to evaluate and rate of the performance of banks. The CAMELS rating model is one of the most effective systems of financial assessment in banks. Therefore, in this research, the effects of CAMELS indicators of banks on risk taking of Iranian banks are studied. The statistical population of the national banking system includes all governmental and private banks. The whole statistical population is studied as a research sample during 2006-2011. Taking into consideration the fact that the research data or section-bounded and time-bounded, a combinational regression analysis has been used. The results of the combinational regression analysis have supported the presence of a reverse and meaningful effect of the indicators of assets quality and sensitivity of market risk on risk taking in national banks. In addition, the results have supported the direct and meaningful effects of capital sufficiency and quality of profit-making on risk taking, however, the effects of the indicators of management quality and liquidity quality on risk taking have been rejected.

  15. Self-assembled formation and transformation of In/CdZnTe(110) nano-rings into camel-humps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Taguri, G.; Ruzin, A.; Goldfarb, I.

    2012-01-01

    We used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to monitor in real time the formation of nano-rings at the molecular beam epitaxially grown In/CdZnTe(110) surface, and Auger electron spectroscopy to explore the corresponding compositional changes. In-diffusion of In and segregation of Cd to the surface in course of annealing lead to a formation of elliptically distorted nano-rings, elongated along the fast [110] diffusion direction. Exacerbated diffusion anisotropy in the liquid state, at temperatures above the melting point of In, further distorts the nano-rings into a camel-hump shape.

  16. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  17. Consolidated Storage Facilities: Camel's Nose or Shared Burden? - 13112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, James M. [Western Interstate Energy Board, 1600 Broadway, Suite 1700, Denver CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) made a strong argument why the reformulated nuclear waste program should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSFs), and recommended the amendment of NWPA Section 145(b) 2 (linking 'monitored retrievable storage' to repository development) as an essential means to that end. However, other than recommending that the siting of CSFs should be 'consent-based' and that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at stranded sites should be first-in-line for removal, the Commission made few recommendations regarding how CSF development should proceed. Working with three other key Senators, Jeff Bingaman attempted in the 112. Congress to craft legislation (S. 3469) to put the BRC recommendations into legislative language. The key reason why the Nuclear Waste Administration Act of 2012 did not proceed was the inability of the four senators to agree on whether and how to amend NWPA Section 145(b). A brief review of efforts to site consolidated storage since the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 suggests a strong and consistent motivation to shift the burden to someone (anyone) else. This paper argues that modification of NWPA Section 145(b) should be accompanied by guidelines for regional development and operation of CSFs. After review of the BRC recommendations regarding CSFs, and the 'camel's nose' prospects if implementation is not accompanied by further guidelines, the paper outlines a proposal for implementation of CSFs on a regional basis, including priorities for removal from reactor sites and subsequently from CSFs to repositories. Rather than allowing repository siting to be prejudiced by the location of a single remote CSF, the regional approach limits transport for off-site acceptance and storage, increases the efficiency of removal operations, provides a useful basis for compensation to states and communities that accept CSFs, and gives states with shared

  18. Analisis Pengaruh Rasio Camels terhadap Pertumbuhan Laba pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hidayatullah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of CAMELS method of profit growth in banking companies listed on stock exchanges of Indonesia. The methodology this research is t use purposive sampling, namely by taking a sample of 20 from a total of 30 banking companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The type of data used are secondary data. Secondary data were obtained in the form of documentation of routine financial statements issued annually by competent parties contained in the Indonesia Capital Market Directory (ICMD and the official site www.idx.co.id. This study tested the effect of CAR, NPLs, NIM, BO / PO, LDR, and the reserve requirement on profit growth at banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Techniques of data analysis in this study using multiple linear regression analysis. F test results indicate that the variable CAR, NPLs, NIM, BO / PO, LDR, and the reserve requirement is jointly significant effect on the variable income changes. While partially by t-test, indicates that the variable has positive and significant CAR, NPLs and no significant negative effect, NIM has positive and insignificant, BO / PO and a significant negative effect, LDR has positive and significant, negative effect and the reserve requirement no significant effect on bank profit growth. The results also showed an adjusted R2 value of 18.3%. The limitations of this study is the sample data and the year that is used relatively little. The results of this study is expected to be taken into consideration for management to predict the growth of bank earnings and improve overall performance by improving business efficiency and credit portfolio without ignoring the precautionary principle.

  19. Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H. Arab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Camel milk (CM has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA. Methods: CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund’s adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Results: CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals. Conclusion: The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA.

  20. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  1. The sample of choice for detecting Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in asymptomatic dromedary camels using real-time reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohran, K A; Farag, E A B; Reusken, C B E; Raj, V S; Lamers, M M; Pas, S D; Voermans, J; Smits, S L; Alhajri, M M; Alhajri, F; Al-Romaihi, H E; Ghobashy, H; El-Maghraby, M M; Al Dhahiry, S H S; Al-Mawlawi, N; El-Sayed, A M; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P G

    2016-01-01

    The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus,

  2. Invasive human brucellosis infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M; Williams, David N; Hansen, Glen T

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the commonest zoonosis worldwide and typically results from ingestion of unpasteurized goat and sheep milk and cheese. Consumption of camel milk is common in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, but is an infrequently reported source of brucellosis. We report three immigrant patients seen in one hospital system between 2007 and 2013 with brucellosis due to the consumption of camel milk. The case patients presented after 3-14 days of symptoms following travel to countries where Brucella is endemic. All three patients were bacteremic. One patient had definite infective endocarditis, one had possible endocarditis and one patient presented with acute brucellosis. The diagnoses were made expeditiously and appropriate treatment initiated. Knowledge of travel, local customs and immigration patterns are keys to early Brucella diagnosis and optimal treatment. Previous reports implicating camel milk as the source of Brucella infection have been limited to patients living in or traveling to and from the Middle East. This report highlights the acquisition of Brucella infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of camel milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An annotated type catalogue of the camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae) held in the Zoological Museum Hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Danilo; DupÉrrÉ, Nadine

    2018-01-23

    Solifuges are an enigmatic and poorly studied group of arachnids. Commonly referred to as camel spiders or sun spiders, these animals are voracious predators of small animals and found in arid biomes of the Old World and the Americas. In this paper, we provide a catalogue for the solifuges (Arachnida: Solifugae) that are held at the Center of Natural History in Hamburg. The collections in Hamburg are predominantly historical and were accumulated by Karl Kraepelin between 1889 and 1914 with the help of other famous arachnologists such as Ferdinant Karsch and Eugène Simon. The re-study of these collections indicates that there are 38 type species and 65 type specimens from 10 families. We provide a detailed account of this material, including collection data, taxonomic updates, measurements and high-resolution images for species that are either poorly or not at all illustrated. Most specimens (70%) were collected in Africa as part of colonial expeditions or field surveys but there are also types from Western Asia (11%), and North and South America (19%). We provide an overview of the history of this collection, including a summary of the field surveys during which the specimens were collected and the arachnologists who described the material. Overall, this is the third-largest collection of solifuges in Germany with a distinct biogeographical focus and one of the largest collections of camel spiders in Europe.

  4. A camel-derived MERS-CoV with a variant spike protein cleavage site and distinct fusion activation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Goldstein, Monty E; Labitt, Rachael N; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Daniel, Susan; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to circulate in both humans and camels, and the origin and evolution of the virus remain unclear. Here we characterize the spike protein of a camel-derived MERS-CoV (NRCE-HKU205) identified in 2013, early in the MERS outbreak. NRCE-HKU205 spike protein has a variant cleavage motif with regard to the S2′ fusion activation site—notably, a novel substitution of isoleucine for the otherwise invariant serine at the critical P1′ cleavage site position. The substitutions resulted in a loss of furin-mediated cleavage, as shown by fluorogenic peptide cleavage and western blot assays. Cell–cell fusion and pseudotyped virus infectivity assays demonstrated that the S2′ substitutions decreased spike-mediated fusion and viral entry. However, cathepsin and trypsin-like protease activation were retained, albeit with much reduced efficiency compared with the prototypical EMC/2012 human strain. We show that NRCE-HKU205 has more limited fusion activation properties possibly resulting in more restricted viral tropism and may represent an intermediate in the complex pattern of MERS-CoV ecology and evolution. PMID:27999426

  5. Camel milk as a potential therapy for controlling diabetes and its complications: A review of in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a condition in which there is an elevation of blood glucose. Insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, is an important hormone needed by the body because it enables glucose to be transported into cells. Under the diabetic condition, the cells may not respond properly to insulin or the body does not produce a sufficient amount of insulin, or both. This situation will cause glucose accumulation in the blood that leads to major complications. Oral insulin therapy has been used for many years; however, coagulation in an acidic environment decreases the efficacy of insulin by neutralizing its actions. Several researchers have found that camel milk can be an adjunct to insulin therapy. It appears to be safe and effective in improving long-term glycemic control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review in vivo studies on the effect of camel milk as a potential therapy for controlling diabetes and its complications such as high cholesterol levels, liver and kidney disease, decreased oxidative stress, and delayed wound healing.

  6. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water and exclusively breast fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243 and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211. Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of Results: The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p

  7. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  8. Use of ELISA in the diagnosis of infection and evaluation of treatment with Cymelarsan in camels infected with Trypanosoma evansi in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaho-Mukani, W.; Omuse, J.K.; Nyang'ao, J.M.N.; Mutugi, M.W.; Ngaira, J.M.; Luckins, A.G.; Jeffires, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polyclonal based antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) was validated and used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis in five localities in Kenya. The Ag-ELISA results were correlated with those of parasitological tests, namely, Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and rodent subinoculation (RI). More animals showed evidence of infection using Ag-ELISA than when using BCT and RI, and showed infection rates ranging from 45.3% to 86.2% in sampled herds, compared with 0.8% to 18% using parasitologial tests. An overall apparent sensitivity of 74% by Ag-ELISA was obtained after screening sera from three camel herds. Higher ELISA values were observed in those herds with the highest rate of patent infection or where drug intervention was not being practised. However, the study revealed that trypanosomiasis was endemic in all the sampled herds and although treatment with quinapyramine sulphate suppressed parasitaemia, the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens indicated the probable persistence of infection due to resistance to this drug. In experimental camels, the use of Ag-ELISA in evaluating the efficacy of Cymelarsan revealed that in more than 80% of the treated camels there appeared to be cure, characterized by the absence of both parasitaemia and circulating trypanosomal antigens. However, in a few animals relapse in parasitaemia occurred, and in a number of camels, antigenaemia persisted throughout the study period. Treatment on the basis of a positive Ag-ELISA reduced the proportion of Ag-positive animals from 75% to 26% and parasite positive animals were no longer present at the end of the experiment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Prevalência de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Angelucci Contente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, podendo acometer mamíferos e aves. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais do estado de São Paulo, como forma de auxiliar no conhecimento do comportamento e importância do parasito nesta espécie animal. Foram colhidas 195 amostras de soro de avestruzes, provenientes de Sorocaba, Campinas, São Carlos, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Vale do Ribeira, Botucatu e São José do Rio Preto, estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram analisadas pela Técnica de Aglutinação Direta Modificada (MAT, para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii. Os exames sorológicos revelaram 14,36% de animais sororreagentes ao T. gondii. A titulação mínima considerada foi a diluição maior ou igual a 1:16, e a maior diluição encontrada foi 1:16384. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os sexos. Apenas duas regiões (São Paulo e São José do Rio Preto não apresentaram animais sororreagentes. Esses resultados salientam a importância de um estudo mais aprofundado sobre a infecção em avestruzes, e também sobre as práticas de manejo que venham a minimizar o risco de transmissão da toxoplasmose para essas aves e, por conseqüência, para o consumidor final.

  10. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

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    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  11. The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates

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    Nesreen Allam Tantawy Allam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders' farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets. Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1x107 cells/ml and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4 of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100 under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic she-camels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80 and 28.75% (23/80 were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40 and mixed (60%, n=34/40 bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg and ofloxacin (5 μg was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments cloxacillin (5 μg upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity. Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus

  12. The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Nesreen Allam Tantawy; Sedky, Doaa; Mira, Enshrah Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim:: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders’ farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets. Results:: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1×107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic she-camels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 µg) and ofloxacin (5 µg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments, cloxacillin (5 µg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity. Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus

  13. Effect of reproductive disorders on productivity and reproductive efficiency of dromedary she-camels in relation to cytokine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Malky, O M; Mostafa, T H; Abd El-Salaam, A M; Ayyat, M S

    2018-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of reproductive disorders on reproductive efficiency and milk production in relation with pro-inflammatory cytokines in dromedary she-camels. Total of 20 late pregnant Maghrabi she-camels, aging 6-9 years, weighing 420-550 kg, and between the second and third parities were divided into two groups. Animals in the first group (n = 12) showed normal reproductive status (G 1 ) at parturition, while those in the second one (n = 8) were suffered from reproductive disorders after parturition (G 2 ). Results showed that during pre-partum, red blood cells (RBCs) count decreased (P ≤ 0.05), while white blood cells (WBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) value, and neutrophils percentage increased (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Percentages of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils as well as hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05) in G1 and G2. During postpartum period, the same results were noticed in addition to increase (P ≤ 0.05) in eosinophil and decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in basophils percentages. During prepartum period, concentration of total proteins, albumin (AL) and IGF-1decreased (P ≤ 0.05), cholesterol concentration, and activity of AST and ALT were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 . Globulin (GL), AL: GL ratio, glucose, urea-N, creatinine, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ significantly in G 1 and G 2 . During postpartum period, the same results were noticed with decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in GL and glucose concentrations in G 2 as compared to G 1 . Concentration of all pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ, was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 2 than in G 1 at different peri-parturient times. Milk yield, days in milk, protein and lactose percentages, and IgG concentration were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in G 1 than in G 2 . Fat, total solids, solid non-fat, and ash percentages did not show any significant differences

  14. Characterization of self-assembled virus-like particles of dromedary camel hepatitis e virus generated by recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Kataoka, Michiyo; Liu, Zheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng

    2015-12-02

    Dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV), a novel hepatitis E virus, has been identified in dromedary camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The antigenicity, pathogenicity and epidemiology of this virus have been unclear. Here we first used a recombinant baculovirus expression system to express the 13 and 111 N-terminus amino-acid-truncated DcHEV ORF2 protein in insect Tn5 cells, and we obtained two types of virus-like particles (VLPs) with densities of 1.300 g/cm(3) and 1.285 g/cm(3), respectively. The small VLPs (Dc4sVLPs) were estimated to be 24 nm in diameter, and were assembled by a protein with the molecular mass 53 kDa. The large VLPs (Dc3nVLPs and Dc4nVLPs) were 35 nm in diameter, and were assembled by a 64-kDa protein. An antigenic analysis demonstrated that DcHEV was cross-reactive with G1, G3-G6, ferret and rat HEVs, and DcHEV showed a stronger cross-reactivity to G1 G3-G6 HEV than it did to rat and ferret HEV. In addition, the antibody against DcHEV-LPs neutralized G1 and G3 HEV in a cell culture system, suggesting that the serotypes of these HEVs are identical. We also found that the amino acid residue Met-358 affects the small DcHEV-LPs assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Avaliação de um centro popular de compras abrigando antigos camelôs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arq. Naiana Maura John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da avaliação do Centro Popular de Compras de Porto Alegre (CPC, por parte de lojistas (antigos camelôs e usuários, em relação ao uso, estética e percepção de segurança quanto ao crime. A avaliação da aparência externa do edifício é comparada com a avaliação de arquitetos. Ainda, é identificado o uso do CPC por usuários do centro da cidade. O estudo justifica-se pela necessidade de maior conhecimento sobre o impacto causado por edificações utilizadas para acomodar o comércio ambulante. A metodologia incluiu levantamentos de arquivo, levantamentos físicos, observações de comportamento, questionários e entrevistas. Os dados foram analisados através de testes estatísticos não-paramétricos, como Kruskal-Wallis e Spearman. Embora os resultados indiquem, por exemplo, que usuários estão mais satisfeitos do que lojistas, o número de usuários diminuiu em relação ao antigo Camelódromo da Praça XV, devido, principalmente, à dificuldade de acesso às lojas no CPC. Ainda, os resultados mostram similaridade na percepção de segurança por lojistas e usuários, sendo o terminal de ônibus percebido como inseguro por parcela significativa de respondentes. Assim, esta pesquisa contribui para o conhecimento sobre o impacto causado por edificações com as características físicas e de localização como as do CPC, para lojistas e distintos usuários.

  16. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  17. Aspectos patológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em camelídeos sul-americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas, Josilene N.; Orlando, Débora R.; Wouters, Flademir; Wouters, Angelica T.B.; Varaschin, Mary S.; Raymundo, Djeison L.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: Aceturato de diminazeno é um fármaco quimioterápico sintético comumente usado na medicina veterinária para o tratamento de doenças causadas por parasitos hematozoários. Entretanto, seu uso pode levar a efeitos colaterais, como alterações neurológicas graves e morte. A criação de camelídeos é uma atividade recente no Brasil, fazendo-se necessário conhecer mais sobre as doenças que acometem essas espécies. De dez camelídeos (seis lhamas e quatro alpacas) da propriedade, seis tiveram sin...

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.

  19. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  20. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbey, Gokben; Ertas, Hasan Basri; Kok, Filiz

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%), Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14%) and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%). A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysi...

  1. O Camelódromo e o novo CPC – Centro Popular de Compras Impactos Sobre O Espaço Urbano

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    Mg. Arq. Cíntia Perozzo dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga a percepção dos usuários do centro da cidade de Porto Alegre quanto à mudança do Camelódromo para o novo Centro Popular de Compras (CPC. São comparados os níveis de satisfação de distintos grupos de usuários, quanto ao uso, estética e segurança quanto ao crime. Este trabalho se justifica pela carência de informações acerca dos impactos causados pelo comércio ambulante no espaço urbano, conforme a percepção dos seus usuários. Ainda, existe uma carência de estudos comparativos entre os impactos causados por essas estruturas móveis e as expectativas que os usuários possuem em relação às novas edificações construídas para realocar os camelôs. Como métodos de coleta de dados, foram aplicados diferentes tipos de questionários, e os dados foram analisados quantitativamente, a partir de testes estatísticos não-paramétricos realizados no programa SPSS/PC. Os resultados mostram, por exemplo, que os impactos do Camelódromo no espaço urbano são percebidos pela maioria dos usuários como negativos quanto à estética e à segurança. Por outro lado, as expectativas em relação à estética e à segurança do CPC são positivas. Quanto ao uso, a maioria dos respondentes que freqüenta o Camelódromo pretende freqüentar o CPC.

  2. Detection of rabies in camel, goat and cattle in Sudan using Fluorescent antibody test (FAT and hemi nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (hnRT-PCR

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    Baraa Abdalaziz Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to identify rabies virus in camels and other animals in Sudan. Materials and methods: Four camel samples were collected from Garraht Elzawia, Kab-kabia and North Darfur areas in Sudan. The samples were collected based on clinical signs. In addition, two camel samples were obtained from Khartoum and Tambool, one goat sample was collected from El-Fashir, and one cattle sample was obtained from Atbara. The samples were transported to the Veterinary Research Institute (VRI at Khartoum, Sudan for further studies. The samples were subjected for nested and hemi nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR along with the gold standard Fluorescent antibody test (FAT to diagnose rabies. Results: Out of eight samples, seven were found to be positive by both FAT and RT-PCR methods. The remaining one sample was positive by FAT but negative by hnRT-PCR indicating the suitablity of hnRT-PCR along with FAT for accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals. Conclusion: The study concluded that FAT and RT-PCR are useful tools for research and diagnosis of rabies. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 274-277

  3. Genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from raw camel milk in two southwest Algerian arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  4. The effect of intravenous injection of Ghrelin on the mean plasma concentrations of insulin in immature camels fed different levels of their energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted into the circulation from the stomach, but this peptide is also synthetized in a number of different body tissues including the brain and pancreas, suggesting both endocrine and paracrine effects. These include: stimulation of GH and ACTH secretion, an increase in appetite and diabetogenic effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R. Ghrelin and its mRNAas well as GH secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulates insulin release and glucose metabolism, but because the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in semiruminant animals has never been examined,   therefore the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in camels. In this investigation 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed either 50% and 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/kg body weight via their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of all animals before, during (30 minutes after injection of ghrelin and after the intervention for 4 continuous days and plasma insulin concentrations determined by RIA. Data obtained were analyzed by repeated measures –ANOVA and paired t-Test. p

  5. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  6. Study on the production and quality improvement of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk as compared with camel milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farooq

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to produce and improve the quality of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk as compared to cheese made from camel milk using conventional cheese-making technique. Before making cheese all the milk samples were skimmed and analyzed for their physico-chemical composition. Mean values for pH, acidity, specific gravity, total solids, SNF, fat percentages of raw and skimmed camel milk samples, respectively were 6.87±0.03 and 6.87±0.04, 0.17±0.01 and 0.18±0.01, 1.015±0.001 and 1.023±0.001, 11.69±0.33 and 7.93±0.27, 7.59±0.26 and 7.64±0.26, 4.09±0.36 and 0.29±0.08, and total protein, casein, lactose, ash and chlorides percentages of raw and skimmed milk samples respectively were 3.16±0.20 and 3.56±0.41, 2.21 ±0.23 and 1.67±0.11, 3.48±0.27 and 3.14±0.29, 0.94±0.03 and 0.93±0.07, and 0.26±0.01 and 0.25±0.01, whereas the mean values of buffalo raw milk were 6.53, 0.17%, 1.032, 15.78%, 9.23%, 6.55%, 5.35%, 4.01%, 3.24%, 0.64%, 0.07%, and skimmed milk were 6.55, 0.18%,1.035, 10.27%, 10.12%,0.15%, 4.80%, 3.38%, 4.74%, 0.49% and 0.078% respectively. The cheese samples were analyzed for their physico-chemical properties. The mean values for pH was (5.23± 0.13, acidity in terms of lactic acid (1.01± 0.23%, total solids (29.54±0.39%, solids not fat (28.66± 0.33%, fat (0.88±0.19%, total proteins(23.14±0.42%, casein(17.57±0.68%, ash(2.15±0.14% and chloride contents(0.67± 0.08% whereas the values of physico-chemical quality of soft unripened cheese made from buffalo milk for pH, acidity, total solids, SNF, fat, total protein, casein, ash and chlorides percentages were respectively 5.47, 0.45, 30.79, 30.49, 0.3, 23.44, 17.41, 1.65,0.355. Trial 1 yielded the highest percentage (7.68 of cheese followed by Trial 2 (7.38, Trial 3 (7.22 and Trial 5 (5.68. While Trial 4 yielded the lowest percentage (5.49. Whereas cheese yielded from buffalo milk was 12.22 %. Samples from each trial were presented to the

  7. Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve block in dromedary camels: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Adel M; Eshra, Eman A

    2018-03-01

    Description of an ultrasound (US)-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve blockade in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) cadavers. Prospective experimental cadaveric study that was carried out in three phases: phase I: anatomical dissection and development of US-guided technique; phase II: methylene blue (MB) injection; phase III: contrast medium (CM), US-guided injections with computed tomography (CT) control. A total of 36 orbits from 18 heads were obtained from 18 dromedary cadavers. Phase I: anatomical dissections were carried out bilaterally, using two heads to determine needle site placement. Phase II: a US-guided, lateral, in-plane approach using one of three volumes of MB (3, 6, or 9 mL) was evaluated in six heads (four orbits per volume tested) to establish the ideal injection volume. Injections of MB that strongly stained all retrobulbar nerves were considered successful, whereas insufficient MB volumes resulted in weak or no nerve staining. Phase III: US-guided retrobulbar injection with CM was carried out using 20 orbits. Computed tomography was performed after each injection trial to determine the accuracy of needle placement and CM dispersal. An injection was judged to be successful when the CT images revealed that the needle was located within the retractor bulbi muscle cone and the CM reached the target nerves at the orbitorotundum and the optic foramina. Only injection of 9 mL of MB stained the target nerves sufficiently, whereas there was no or only weak staining with 3 and 6 mL, respectively. Therefore, 9 mL of CM was used for the US-guided injections in phase III. Subsequent CT scans revealed satisfying CM distribution within the ocular muscle cone in 18 of 20 cases (90% success rate). US-guided retrobulbar injection in dromedary cadavers is feasible. Further research is required to assess its practicality and usefulness in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  8. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from the Nasal Cavity of Camels in Samburu, Nakuru, and Isiolo Counties of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Mutua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%, Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3.96%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (0.74%. Isolates were most susceptible to Gentamicin (95.8%, followed by Tetracycline (90.5%, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol (each at 85.3%, Sulphamethoxazole (84.2%, Co-trimoxazole (82.1%, Ampicillin (78.9%, and finally Streptomycin (76.8%. This translated to low resistance levels. Multidrug resistance was also reported in 30.5% of the isolates tested. Even though the antibiotic resistance demonstrated in this study is low, the observation is significant, since the few resistant normal flora could be harboring resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria within the animal, to other animals’ bacteria and, most seriously, to human pathogens.

  10. Determination of 13C/12C-ratios in rumen produced methane and CO2 of cows, sheep and camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E; Lohmeyer, S; Giese, W

    1998-01-01

    Naturally produced methane shows different delta 13C-values with respect to its origin, e.g., geological or biological. Methane-production of ruminants is considered to be the dominant source from the animal kingdom. Isotopic values of rumen methane--given in literature--range between -80/1000 and -50/1000 and are related to feed composition and also sampling techniques. Keeping cows, camels and sheep under identical feed conditions and sampling rumen gases via implanted fistuale we compared delta PDB 13C-values of methane and CO2 between the species. Referring to mean values obtained from 4 or 5 samples at different times of 11 animals (n = 47) we calculated delta PDB 13C-medians resulting in small but not significant differences within and significant differences between the species for CO2 and methane. The delta PDB 13C-differences between methane and CO2 were statistically equal within and also between the species. Therefore a linear regression of methane values on CO2 is appropriate and leads to: delta PDB 13C(methane)/1000 = 1.57 * delta PDB 13C(CO2)/1000 - 47/1000 with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87.

  11. Cytotoxic and antioxidant capacity of camel milk peptides: Effects of isolated peptide on superoxide dismutase and catalase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Homayouni-Tabrizi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides from natural sources such as milk are shown to have a wide spectrum of biological activities. In this study, three peptides with antioxidant capacity were identified from camel milk protein hydrolysate. Pepsin and pancreatin were used for hydrolysis of milk proteins. Ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used for the concentration and purification of the hydrolysate, respectively. Sequences of the three peptides, which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectrophotometry, were LEEQQQTEDEQQDQL [molecular weight (MW: 1860.85 Da, LL-15], YLEELHRLNAGY (MW: 1477.63 Da, YY-11, and RGLHPVPQ (MW: 903.04 Da, RQ-8. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these chemically synthesized peptides against HepG2 cells. In vitro analysis showed antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activities of these peptides on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid+, O2–, and OH– free radicals. HepG2 cells were treated with YY-11 peptide for 48 hours, and the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed a significant increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase genes in treated HepG2 cells.

  12. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  13. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  14. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  15. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  16. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  17. The antidiabetic action of camel milk in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus: an overview on the changes in incretin hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, A A

    2014-06-01

    Folk medicine stories accredited the aptitude of camel milk (CMK) as a hypoglycemic agent and recent studies have confirmed this in the diabetic patients and experimental animals. However, the mechanism(s) by which CMK influences glucose homeostasis is yet unclear. The current study investigated the changes in the glucose homeostatic parameters, the incretin hormones, and the inflammatory cytokines in the CMK-treated diabetic animals. A model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 40 mg/kg/day for 4 repeated doses. Camel milk treatment was administered for 8 weeks. The changes in glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose tolerance, fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin resistance (IR), TNF-α, TGF-β1, lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI), and body weight were investigated. The untreated diabetic animals showed hyperglycemia, increased HOMA-IR, hyperlipidemia, elevated AI, high serum incretins [GLP-1 and GIP], TNF-α, and TGF-β1 levels and weight loss as compared with the control group. Camel milk treatment to the diabetic animals resulted in significant lowered fasting glucose level, hypolipidemia, decreased HOMA-IR, recovery of insulin secretion, weight gain, and no mortality during the study. Additionally, CMK inhibits the diabetes-induced elevation in incretin hormones, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels. The increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, decreased HOMA-IR, modulation of the secretion and/or the action of incretins, and the anti-inflammatory effect are anticipated mechanisms to the antidiabetic effect of CMK and suggest it as a valuable adjuvant antidiabetic therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Aspectos patológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em camelídeos sul-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene N. Seixas

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Aceturato de diminazeno é um fármaco quimioterápico sintético comumente usado na medicina veterinária para o tratamento de doenças causadas por parasitos hematozoários. Entretanto, seu uso pode levar a efeitos colaterais, como alterações neurológicas graves e morte. A criação de camelídeos é uma atividade recente no Brasil, fazendo-se necessário conhecer mais sobre as doenças que acometem essas espécies. De dez camelídeos (seis lhamas e quatro alpacas da propriedade, seis tiveram sinais clínicos e, destes, apenas uma lhama com manifestações leves recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, andar cambaleante, fraqueza, sialorreia, cabeça baixa e pendida lateralmente, dificuldade em levantar e dispneia, observados a partir de 18 horas após o uso do medicamento. À necropsia e ao exame histopatológico foram observadas alterações de encefalopatia hemorrágica bilateral e simétrica, mais graves em tronco encefálico e tálamo. Este trabalho descreve as principais lesões observadas em um surto de intoxicação por diminazeno em alpacas (Lama pacos e lhamas (Lama glama e alerta criadores e veterinários sobre o risco de intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em camelídeos sul americanos.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Y. Woo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23 from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3% and 59 (100% of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001. Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  20. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  1. Bioscreening and expression of a camel anti-CTGF VHH nanobody and its renaturation by a novel dialysis-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiulei; Fan, Xiaobo; Qu, Qingrong; Wu, Guoqiu

    2016-12-01

    The variable regions of the camel heavy chain antibody, also known as nanobody is the smallest antibody with antigen-binding efficiency. CTGF is considered important during extracellular matrix deposition which was involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis related diseases. There are several anti-CTGF-C nanobody drugs under developing in pharmacy. In this study, we described the screening of a novel anti-CTGF-C nanobody from the peripheral blood of immunized camel by phage display. The screened nanobody was further expressed and purified from E. coli cells. A sophisticated dialysis-dilution method was designed for the in vitro refolding of the nanobody. The results showed that the expressed nanobody was consisted of 135 amino acid and mainly expressed as inclusion body in E. coli cells. The dialysis-dilution method was very effective and the recovery rate of the renaturation was more than 80 %. The ELISA result suggested the nanobody had been well refolded showing a superior CTGF binding activity to the commercial mouse anti-CTGF-C mAb. In conclusion, the anti-CTGF-C nonobody had been successfully screened by phage display. The dialysis-dilution refolding method was very effective and the recovery rate reached over 80 %.

  2. Development of a bifunctional xylanase-cellulase chimera with enhanced activity on rice and barley straws using a modular xylanase and an endoglucanase procured from camel rumen metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Ghadikolaei, Kamran; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    The camel rumen metagenome is an untapped source of glycoside hydrolases. In this study, novel genes encoding for a modular xylanase (XylC) and a cellulase (CelC) were isolated from a camel rumen metagenome and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). XylC with xylanase (Xyn), CBM, and carbohydrate esterase (CE) domains was characterized as a β-1,4-endoxylanase with remarkable catalytic activity on oat-spelt xylan (K cat  = 2919 ± 57 s -1 ). The implication of XylC's modular structure in its high catalytic activity was analyzed by truncation and fusion construction with CelC. The resulting fusions including Cel-CBM, Cel-CBM-CE, and Xyn-CBM-Cel showed remarkable enhancement in CMCase activity with K cat values of 742 ± 12, 1289 ± 34.5, and 2799 ± 51 s -1 compared to CelC with a K cat of 422 ± 3.5 s -1 . It was also shown that the bifunctional Xyn-CBM-Cel with synergistic xylanase/cellulase activities was more efficient than XylC and CelC in hydrolysis of rice and barley straws.

  3. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  4. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  5. Dynamic Conservation of Date Palms: The Future of a Genetic Resource at the Nexus of Climate Change, Desertification and Salinity Stress in Oasis Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the only indigenous, wild desert plant definitely domesticated in its native harsh environment, and along with the camel (Camelus dromedarius), was responsible for opening the vast desert territories for human activity and the development of oasis ecosystems, w...

  6. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 55, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ES Shuiep, IE El Zubeir, OA El Owni, HH Mussa, 112-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bahpa.v55i2.32797 ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mussa, HH. Vol 55, No 2 (2007) - Articles Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  8. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and ...

  9. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  10. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maswadeh HM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamzah M Maswadeh,1 Ahmed N Aljarbou,1 Mohammed S Alorainy,2 Arshad H Rahmani,3 Masood A Khan3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, 3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox or etoposide (ETP were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98% in liposomes (Lip prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP. Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the

  11. In vivo antitumour potential of camel's milk against hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and its improvement of cisplatin renal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Miniawy, Hala M F; Ahmed, Kawkab A; Mansour, Sameeh A; Khattab, Marwa M Salah

    2017-12-01

    Camel milk (CM) is recommended for liver disease patients in Egypt for a strong belief that it has a curative effect. The effect of consumption of CM with or without chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was evaluated on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Wistar male rats (56) were divided into eight groups (7 rats each). Group I was control. Hepatocarcinogenesis was initiated by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg BW) and promoted by phenobarbitone (500 ppm) in drinking water in groups V, VI, VII and VIII. Treatment started from 28th till 38th week using CM (5 mL/day) and/or cisplatin (5 mg/kg/3 weeks) in groups II, III IV, VI, VII and VIII. Biochemical analysis, lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissue were performed. Histopathology of liver and kidney and immunohistochemistry of placental glutathione-S-transferase (P-GST) in liver were performed and analyzed using image analysis. Albumin concentration and SOD activity were 3.13 ± 0.23 and 311.45 ± 41.71 in group VII (DENA & cisplatin), whereas they were 4.3 ± 0.15 and 540.5 ± 29.94 in group VII (DENA, CM and cisplatin). The mean area of altered hepatocellular foci and P-GST altered foci decreased in group VI (DENA and CM) (1049.6 ± 174.78 and 829.1 ± 261) and group VIII (cisplatin and CM) (1615.12 ± 436 and 543.9 ± 127) compared to group V (DENA only) (4173.74 ± 510.7 and 3169.49 ± 538.61). Cisplatin caused chronic interstitial nephritis, which was slightly alleviated in group VIII (CM and cisplatin). CM had an antioxidant effect and together with cisplatin managed to decrease hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Female urethral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi

    1988-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  14. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  15. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  16. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  17. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...

  18. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  19. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  20. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  1. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  2. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  3. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  4. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  5. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  6. Comparative study of chemical composition, isolation and identification of micro-flora in traditional fermented camel milk products: Gariss, Suusac, and Shubat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of micro-flora in dairy products cannot be overemphasised. Although there are scores of academic papers that elucidated on this subject, however, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there is no published paper that compares the composition of the traditional fermented camel milk products. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the preparation methods, chemical compositions, microbial counts and pH, isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria, as well as yeasts in Gariss, Suusac, and Shubat. Through comparative analysis of previous existing published papers, the researcher discovered that different preparation methods of these three products have effects on their chemical compositions, microbial counts and pH, and as well as growth of lactic acid bacteria and yeast species.

  7. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  8. Extrapolation of Inter Domain Communications and Substrate Binding Cavity of Camel HSP70 1A: A Molecular Modeling and Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 is an important chaperone, involved in protein folding, refolding, translocation and complex remodeling reactions under normal as well as stress conditions. However, expression of HSPA1A gene in heat and cold stress conditions associates with other chaperons and perform its function. Experimental structure for Camel HSP70 protein (cHSP70 has not been reported so far. Hence, we constructed 3D models of cHSP70 through multi- template comparative modeling with HSP110 protein of S. cerevisiae (open state and with HSP70 protein of E. coli 70kDa DnaK (close state and relaxed them for 100 nanoseconds (ns using all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. Two stable conformations of cHSP70 with Substrate Binding Domain (SBD in open and close states were obtained. The collective mode analysis of different transitions of open state to close state and vice versa was examined via Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Minimum Distance Matrix (MDM. The results provide mechanistic representation of the communication between Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD and SBD to identify the role of sub domains in conformational change mechanism, which leads the chaperone cycle of cHSP70. Further, residues present in the chaperon functioning site were also identified through protein-peptide docking. This study provides an overall insight into the inter domain communication mechanism and identification of the chaperon binding cavity, which explains the underlying mechanism involved during heat and cold stress conditions in camel.

  9. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  10. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  11. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    -founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  12. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  13. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  14. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  15. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  16. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  17. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  18. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  19. Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  1. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  2. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  3. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  4. Why whey? Camel whey protein as a new dietary approach to the management of free radicals and for the treatment of different health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Gamal; Ramadan, Nancy K; Sayed, Leila H; Badr, Badr M; Omar, Hossam M; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-01-01

    The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP) is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF), lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention. PMID:28804604

  5. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  6. Why whey? Camel whey protein as a new dietary approach to the management of free radicals and for the treatment of different health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF, lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention.

  7. El Camellón “Once de Noviembre”: prácticas culturales y representaciones en el espacio público de Sincelejo. 1910 – 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Emiro Martínez Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En una aproximación histórica realizada desde el enfoque de la historia cultural urbana, en este artículo se realiza una exploración sobre las prácticas culturales, las representaciones y las significaciones contenidas en uno de los espacios urbanos más emblemáticos de la ciudad de Sincelejo, “El Camellón Once de Noviembre”. El estudio utiliza como método, el análisis crítico de los discursos relacionados con el lugar en mención, presentes en la colección de prensa sincelejana de comienzos del siglo XX, disponible en la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia en Bogotá. Se da cuenta aquí, de los procesos relacionados con la construcción de la obra y la apropiación del lugar como centro social de la ciudad.

  8. Rating System CAMEL as Instrument of Assessment of the Financial Stability of the Bank Рейтинговая система CAMEL как инструмент оценки финансовой стабильности банка

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg Nikolaevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the basic theoretical and methodic bases as to the use of rating assessments of CAMEL. It gives recommendations as to the use of rating assessments of CAMEL for the assessment of the activity of the banks of Ukraine.Обоснованы основные теоретико-методические основы использования рейтинговых оценок CAMEL. Предоставлены рекомендации относительно использования рейтинговых оценок CAMEL для оценки деятельности банков в Украине.

  9. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna

    2016-06-01

    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids.

  10. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  13. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  14. Female condom awareness, use and concerns among Nigerian female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunlola, M A; Morhason-Bello, I O; Owonikoko, K M; Adekunle, A O

    2006-05-01

    A cross-sectional study of female condom awareness, usage and concerns among the female undergraduates of the University of Ibadan was conducted in September 2004. The results of 850 out of the 879 female students interviewed were used for analysis (96.6%). Over 80% had knowledge of the female condom as a form of modern contraception and the majority of them learnt about it through the mass media (39.9%) and health workers (34.4%). However, only 11.3% had ever used the female condom, with most (40%) using it to prevent both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV (STI/HIV). The sexual partners' approval was appreciable, accounting for about 42.7% among those that had experience of the female condom usage. Major concerns mentioned such as difficulty of inserting it into the vagina and lack of sexual satisfaction, were not different from those in earlier studies. The result of this study looks promising judging from a high awareness level of the female condom, even though its usage is low. The female condom may be an alternative strategy to combat unsafe sexual practises and its sequelae in a country like Nigeria that is male dominated.

  15. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Female desistance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodermond, E.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Slotboom, A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important for

  17. Quality of camel meat in the slaughterhouse of Ouargla in Algeria. I. Some physical and chemical characteristics of meat during ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benaissa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of four muscles (semitendinosus [ST], rectus femoris [RF] longissimus thoracis [LT] and semimembranosus [SM], stored at 4°C, were measured during ageing in male camels (10 young aged three to four years, and 10 adults over five years of Sahrawi breed. A decrease in postmortem temperature reached a minimum of 5.7 ± 0.20°C (LT in adults, whereas the minimum value in the young was lower with 3.9 ± 0.68°C (ST. The pH of the studied muscles decreased during the postmortem period. The minimum values ranged from 5.2 ± 1.11 (RF to 5.7 ± 0.02 (LT in the young, and from 5.6 ±  0.05 (SM to 6.3 ±  0 53 (ST in adults. The amount of extractable water increased for the four muscles in both age groups. The maximum values were 0.21 ± 0.040 g per gram of RF muscle in the young, and 0.21 ± 0.009 g per gram of RF muscle in adults. This meant that the water retention capacity of the different muscles decreased during the postmortem period. The electrical conductivity did not follow the same pattern for all the studied muscles. A slight increase in this parameter was detected over time in LT (117.3 ± 0.30 µS/cm/g in the young, and in ST (158.3 ± 0.14 µS/cm/g in the adults.

  18. Presence of heterocyclic amine carcinogens in home-cooked and fast-food camel meat burgers commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan Khan, Mohammad; Naushad, Mu; Abdullah Alothman, Zeid

    2017-05-10

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed by cooking protein-rich foods, for instance, meat and fish, and are listed as possible human carcinogens. In the present study, the presence of five potential HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) in cooked camel meat burgers was analyzed for the first time. The analysis was performed in home-cooked and fast-food burger samples containing food additives. The applied cooking technique for the home-cooked samples was pan frying for a controlled cooking time and temperature. In the control cooked meat samples (samples that contained no food additives), the concentrations of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP ranged from 2.47 ng/g to 4.89 ng/g, whereas IQ and MeIQ were found to be below the limit of quantification. The concentrations contents of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP in the home-cooked and fast-food samples ranged from 1.52 ng/g to 2.13 ng/g and 1.85 ng/g to 3.46 ng/g, respectively. IQ and MeIQ were not detected in either type of sample. In comparison to the control samples, the home-cooked and fast-food samples produced lower levels of HCAs. Such observations could result from the existence of antioxidants in incorporated food additives, which induce pro-oxidative effects with the successive formation and/or scavenging of free radicals.

  19. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  20. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  1. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  2. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  3. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  4. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  5. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  6. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  7. A Case of Female Intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... At operation a reasonably small uterus (5 X 3 X 2 cm), was found with ... tissue made a detailed anatomical dissection and investi- .... relative term, because no human being is completely male or female. ... while pregnant.

  8. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  9. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  10. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

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    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

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    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  13. Camel Milk Ameliorates 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Renal Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathways

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    Hany H. Arab

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The clinical utility of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Camel milk (CM has previously displayed beneficial effects in toxicant-induced nephropathies. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of CM to attenuate 5-FU-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Renal tissues were studied in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The levels of renal injury markers, inflammatory cytokines along with NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 were assessed by ELISA. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, NF-κBp65, p53, Bax and PCNA were detected by Immunohistochemistry. To gain an insight into the molecular signaling mechanisms, we determined the effect of CM on MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways by Western blotting. Results: CM lowered 5-FU-triggered increase of creatinine, BUN, Kim-1 and NGAL renal injury biomarkers and attenuated the histopathological aberrations. It suppressed oxidative stress and augmented renal antioxidant armory (GSH, SOD, GPx, TAC with restoration of NOX-1, Nrf-2 and HO-1 levels. CM also suppressed renal inflammation as indicated by inhibition of MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and MCP-1 proinflammatory mediators and downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression with boosting of IL-10. Regarding MAPKs signaling, CM suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 and inhibited NF-κB activation. For apoptosis, CM downregulated p53, Bax, CytC and caspase-3 proapoptotic signals with enhancement of Bcl-2 and PCNA. It also enhanced PI3K p110α, phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS levels with augmentation of renal NO, favoring cell survival. Equally important, CM preconditioning enhanced 5-FU cytotoxicity in MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, thus, justifying their concomitant use. Conclusion: The current findings pinpoint, for the first time, the marked renoprotective effects of CM that were mediated via ROS scavenging, suppression of MAPKs and NF-κB along with activation of PI3K

  14. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  15. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

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    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  16. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

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    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  17. Mitochondrial functionality in female reproduction

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    Łukasz Gąsior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.

  18. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

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    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  19. Female circumcision: persistence amid conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J H

    1998-01-01

    The continuing practice of female circumcision (removal of varying degrees of external genitalia) was perhaps the most emotional issue discussed at the Ninth International Congress on Women's Health Issues, held in June in Alexandria, Egypt. The results of two studies presented at the Congress have resulted to an argument. Others view female circumcision as a traditional folk practice, similar to scarring of the skin or elongation of the lips among certain African tribes and should not be subjected to "cultural imperialism" from abroad. Instead, the procedure could best be eradicated through focused education--telling patients that it is not required by Islam and that it can be detrimental to health. However, this suggestion was hotly debated by members of the audience who insisted that female circumcision should be considered as a form of child abuse and thus properly addressed as a political issue.

  20. Conflito urbano e comércio informal: Quadros da repressão e da tolerância aos camelôs na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (1983-2009

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    Hernán Armando Mamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca compreender os quadros sociais que explicaram e justificaram a expansão, a tolerância e a repressão no comércio informal no Centro do Rio de Janeiro entre 1983 e 2009. Com base em uma “cartografia” de notícias do jornal O Globo entre estes anos pretende-se identificar as arenas, conjunturas, atores e repertórios utilizados e reconhecer, na imprensa, termos e enquadramentos duráveis do conflito entre comerciantes e ambulantes, buscando identificar aqueles que predominam na definição da situação e sua mudança. As análises dispõem-se cronologicamente identificando a eclosão do problema (1983, sua estabilização no incentivo aos “camelódromos” (1984 e sua rotinização (1994. Em um segundo momento, trata da associação do comércio informal à “pirataria” (1999, à desordem urbana e à ilegalidade (2009. This article Urban Conflict and Informal Trade: Frames from the Repression and the Tolerance Towards the Camelôs in the City of Rio de Janeiro (1983-2009 seeks to understand the social frames which explained and justified the expansion, the tolerance and the repression towards the informal trade in downtown Rio de Janeiro between 1983 and 2009. Based on a "cartography" of news assembled from the Brazilian newspaper O Globo between these years, the article intends to identify the arenas, conjunctures, actors and repertoires employed and recognize, in the press, durable terms and frameworks from the conflict between traders and street vendors, seeking to identify those who predominate in defining the situation and its change. The analysis, which was arranged chronologically, identifies the outbreak of the issue (1983, its stabilization through the incitation of "camelódromos"(1984, and its routinisation (1994. This article addresses the subject of informal trade's association to "piracy" (1999, to urban disorder and to illegality (2009.Keywords: popular markets, informal trade, conflict, urban order