WorldWideScience

Sample records for female body image

  1. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  2. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  3. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  4. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L; Zalilah, M S; Phan, Y Y; Ang, M; Maznah, B; Norimah, A K

    2009-03-01

    Body image concerns are common among adolescents as they undergo rapid physical growth and body shape changes. Having a distorted body image is a risk factor for the development of disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate body image concerns among Malaysian male and female adolescents aged 11-15 years. A total of 2,050 adolescents (1,043 males and 1,007 females) with a mean age of 13.1 +/- 0.8 years from secondary schools in Kedah and Pulau Pinang were included in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic data and body image indicators. The majority (87 percent) of the adolescents were concerned with their body shape. While the majority of underweight, normal weight and overweight male and female subjects perceived their body weight status correctly according to their body mass index (BMI), a noteworthy proportion in each category misjudged their body weight. About 35.4 percent of the males and 20.5 percent of the females in the underweight category perceived themselves as having a normal weight, while 29.4 percent and 26.7 percent of the overweight males and females respectively also perceived that they had a normal weight. A higher proportion of the females (20 percent) than males (9 percent) with a normal BMI perceived themselves as fat. Most of the male (78-83 percent) and female subjects (69-74 percent) in all the BMI categories desired to be taller than their current height. An appreciable proportion of both the males (41.9 percent) and females (38.2 percent) preferred to remain thin, or even to be thinner (23.7 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females). Females had a significantly higher mean body dissatisfaction score than males, indicating their preference for a slimmer body shape. More males (49.1 percent) preferred a larger body size while more females (58.3 percent) idealised a smaller body size. Compared to normal weight and underweight subjects, overweight males and females

  5. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  6. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  7. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression...

  8. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  9. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  10. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  11. Media exposure and influence of female athlete body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeney Christensen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The job of any form of media is to convey a message. These messages can range from a benign sales ad to deeper subliminal message of acceptable behavior.  Historically, media has taught us that men are supposed to compete in physical activities such as sport and any women who choose to do so are type casted as being lesbian or tomboys. To combat this, females often go to great lengths, including portraying themselves as sexual objects, to prove their femininity and thus lose their credibility as athletes.  The other issue that can arise from this include other female athletes concentrating more on the physique of their bodies and less on performing their athletic talents. 

  12. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  13. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereotypes in the media, based on three major pictorial stereotypes in history, being the madona, the seductive and the politician (HIGONNET, 1991. It expresses the confirmation of the superlative visibility of some groups of women and the invisibility of others. The survey reveals that, despite the assumption that they are very imagetically represented in newspapers, women are under-represented, especially in news photographs. It shows that the editorship of the “culture” and “varieties” sections are exceptions, because those special fragments are considered “light”, referring to art, music, dance, celebrities, television, film and cultural activities” (HEDLER, 2011. We conclude that even in a visual culture, visibility is not guaranteed at all. This research enables to deconstructthe concept that it´s normal to use certain images as representations of such a heterogeneous group like women. We expect to expand the horizon of the discussion about the leading roles for women in the society and their relationship to the images produced about them in the newspapers.

  14. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Oktan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body image and self-esteem (r=-0,365, p<.01 of female adolescents. Findings also illustrate that an increase in female adolescents’ content with their body image leads to an increase in their self-esteem. Results of the study revealed that female adolescents with positive body image have a high level of self-esteem and so female adolescents with negative body image have a low level of self-esteem. In this respect, in this study, the importance of female adolescents’ realistic appreciation concerned with their body image is discussed.

  15. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  16. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  17. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  18. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia; Paxton, Susan J; Keery, Helene; Wall, Melanie; Guo, Jia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the role of media body comparison as a mediator of the relationships between psychological factors and sociocultural pressures to be thin and body dissatisfaction in both females and males. Participants were 1,386 females (mean age = 19.37 years) and 1,130 males (mean age = 19.46) from diverse backgrounds who completed a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test a cross-sectional model in which media body comparison mediated the impact of self-esteem, depressive mood, parent dieting environment, friend dieting, TV exposure, magazine message exposure, weight teasing and body mass index (BMI) on body dissatisfaction. In females, media body comparison partially or fully mediated relationships between self-esteem, depressive mood, friend dieting, magazine message exposure and BMI, and body dissatisfaction. In males, media body comparison was not a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. This research particularly highlights the need to further examine processes that are involved in the development of body dissatisfaction in males.

  19. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  20. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vesile Oktan; Mustafa Şahin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body i...

  1. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  2. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Methods Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All pa...

  3. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  4. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  5. The Image of the Female Body in Contemporary Society: An Approach from the Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Carol; Franco-Vázquez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning and artistic creation provide future secondary teachers with an opportunity to experience and to reflect on the importance of including a gender perspective in education. This article describes a case study where students of the Postgraduate course in Secondary Teacher Training explore the image of the female body in comics,…

  6. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Media images of the "ideal" female body: can acute exercise moderate their psychological impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to the media's "ideal" physique increases mood and body image disturbance, especially for at-risk women. Because exercise decreases mood and body image disturbance, we examined the ability of acute aerobic exercise to moderate the negative psychological impact of exposure to media pictures of the "ideal" female body. Women reporting high drive for thinness and media internalization viewed pictures of either nonphysique or "ideal" physique pictures after engaging in 30min of either aerobic exercise or quiet rest. Compared to the nonphysique pictures, viewing the physique pictures resulted in increased depression and body dissatisfaction. Acute aerobic exercise, however, did not moderate the negative mood states elicited by the media images. Implications of our results and future directions for research are discussed.

  8. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All participants completed the Polish adaptation of the 15-item questionnaire assessing orthorexia eating behaviours (the ORTHO-15) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (the MBSRQ). Relationships between scores on the ORTHO-15 and MBSRQ were explored in the 213 students who had high levels of preoccupation with a healthy food intake (68.55% women and 43.18% men, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the levels of orthorexia behaviours between females and males. In female students with orthorexia nervosa, preoccupation with consuming healthy food was significantly correlated with the MBSRQ subscale scores for overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation, fitness orientation, health orientation, body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation. Conversely, in male students with orthorexia nervosa there were no correlations between orthorexic behaviours and the MBSRQ subscales. In female students with orthorexia nervosa multivariable linear regression analysis found high body areas (parts) satisfaction, low fitness orientation, low overweight preoccupation and low appearance orientation were independent predictors of greater fixation on eating healthy food. In male students, we found that aspects of body image were not associated with preoccupation with healthy eating. A strong preoccupation with healthy and proper food was not associated with an unhealthy body-self relationship among Polish female student with orthorexia nervosa.

  9. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  10. Evaluation of Body Image and Sexual Satisfaction in Women Undergoing Female Genital Plastic/Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

  11. [Body composition assessment and body image perception in a group of University females of the Basque Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M; Ansotegui, L; Pereira, E; Lacerda, F; Valador, N; Serrano, L; Rocandio, A Ma

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] To assess the body image perception and to compare the results with the true measurements in a group of university students. Participants were 28 volunteer females recruited from the degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetic from the University of the Basque Country (Spain). All participants gave their informed consent. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 22.01 (2.12) years (20,23-28,25). Anthropometric measurement estimated directly and the derived indexes were compared with reference values. The assessment of body image perception was made using a somatomorphic software. The difference between the perceived measurements and the ideals were used as measure of body dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS vs 14.0. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.7%, and of under-weight was 70.1%. The body fat perception was well, while the perception of the muscle index was significantly different from the real measure (3.91+/-2.75 kg/m2; P<0.001). The level of body dissatisfaction was higher for the body fat (6.00+/-8.61%; P<0.001) than for the muscle index (1.65+/-2.82 kg/m2; P<0.01). This result can be justified for the present canons of beauty and for the overvaluation of the thinness. Additional research is needed to further know the relation between female body image and true measurements of body composition. Future research will allow to compare the results with other populations.

  12. Body image, disordered eating and anabolic steroid use in female bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating practices are common among sports and activities that require low body fat or low body weight for enhanced performance. Competitive Bodybuilding is a sport that requires participants to be exceptionally lean and mesomorphic, thus participants may be vulnerable to developing unhealthy eating and weight control practices, as well as using anabolic steroids. This study compares competitive female bodybuilders (CFBBs) and recreational female weight-training controls (RFWTs) on a broad scope of eating related and general psychological characteristics. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, body modification practices (including anabolic steroids), lifetime rates of eating disorders, and general psychological characteristics, were completed by 20 CFBBs and 25 RFWTs. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, bulimic practices, and anabolic steroid use were reported among CFBBs, and to a lesser degree, RFWTs. Differences between groups on general psychological factors were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. CFBBs appear to share many eating-related features with women with bulimia nervosa but few psychological traits. Longitudinal research is needed to ascertain whether women with disordered eating or a history of bulimia nervosa disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuilding, and/or whether competitive bodybuilding fosters body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, bulimia nervosa, and anabolic steroid use.

  13. The relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents / Yasmin Seedat

    OpenAIRE

    Seedat, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents. During the literature search conducted by the researcher no research specifically on body image of female adolescents when wearing the Muslim dress code in South Africa could be found. South African Indian Muslim adolescents are faced with challenges in a changing environment. In the aftermath of 9/11 South African Indian Muslim adolescent females ar...

  14. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image.

  15. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

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    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED.Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towards the Body and Appearance Questionnaire, constructed by the author of this study, based on the results of factor analysis and subject literature, as well as projective techniques such as Thompson’s Silhouette Test and a thematic drawing: “body image”. Theinventories and projective techniques applied in the research procedures aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological traits in the examined females.Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained as a result of this research revealed that the examined females suffering from psychogenic overeating were overweight. Analysis of the study data concerning the subject’s evaluation of their body image pointed to a substantial discrepancy between the individuals’ perception of their current body shape, which they clearly did not approve of, and the ideal thin body that the females desired. The study data obtained as a result of the EDI inventory, aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological (personality traits exhibited by the examined females, revealed that the subjects received the highest (inappropriate score in the scale describing the individuals’ preoccupation with pursuit of thinness. It was also discovered that the study participants had a high level of internalization of socio-cultural norms about the ideal female body, promoting the “cult of thinness”, and they exhibited the feeling of insecurity and personal worthlessness, as well as a low level of interpersonal

  16. Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Female Adolescent College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…

  17. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  18. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  19. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.

  20. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents: the moderating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo

    2014-01-01

    Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.

  1. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

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    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  2. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  3. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  4. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  5. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  6. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

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    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  7. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  8. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  9. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Stephen, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Although self-compassion is associated with healthier body image and eating behavior, these findings have generally emerged at the between-persons level only. The present study investigated the unique contributions of within-person variability in self-compassion, and between-persons differences in self-compassion, to body image and eating behavior. Over seven days, 92 female college students completed nightly measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, dietary restraint, intuitive eating, body appreciation, body satisfaction, and state body image. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, day-to-day fluctuations in self-compassion contributed to day-to-day fluctuations in body image and eating. Between-persons, participants' average levels of self-compassion across days contributed to their average levels of body image and eating over the week. Results generally held when controlling for within- and between-persons self-esteem. Evidently, the eating and body image benefits of self-compassion may come not only from being a generally self-compassionate person, but also from treating oneself more self-compassionately than usual on a given day.

  10. Social likeability, conformity, and body talk: Does fat talk have a normative rival in female body image conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, K Brooke; Martz, Denise M; Rocheleau, Courtney A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2009-09-01

    Fat talk, dialogues among women involving negative body-focused discussions, was studied as a function of conformity and social likeability through the use of four vignettes depicting young women in conversation. Using a 2 (body presentation style of the group: negative or positive)x2 (body presentation style of the target, Jenny: negative or positive) factorial design, 215 college women (92.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian) read one of four vignettes in a classroom setting and made ratings on a social likeability scale. Participants' personal ratings of Jenny's likeability were higher when she spoke positively about her body, whereas they expected the other group members in the vignette to like Jenny more when she conformed to the group's body presentation style. This study is the first to support two competing norms for women's body image-the existing norm to fat talk versus a newly documented norm that some women like others who express body acceptance.

  11. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  12. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Improving Body Image of Female Students with Bulimia Nervosa

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    Moslem Abbasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Patients with bulimia nervosa may have impaired mental image of their body and fear of weight gain. The aim of current research is study the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving body image of female students with bulimia nervosa.   Methods: The design of current study is as quasi-experiment research with pre-test and post-test with control group . Statistical population consists all 12-16 years old female students with bulimia nervosa of Ardabil city in the 2013-13 academic years. In order to select the sample, at first 400 students were selected by multi stage cluster sampling method. Then between the students with bulimia nervosa, 40 subjects were selected randomly and were put in two experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment based training. Thecontrol group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.   Results: The results show that acceptance and commitment therapy improved body image and reduced the symptoms of bulimia nervosa subjects of experimental group in comparison with the control group in the post-test (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results indicated that acceptance and commitment therapy by therapeutic strategies, improved body image of female students with bulimia nervosa. Thus, interventions based on this approach in schools for students lead to decreasing the psychological problems

  13. Body image perception and its association with body mass index and nutrient intakes among female college students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Beitullah; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Dehghan, Parvin; Alipour, Mahdieh

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight management and can be influenced by several social or cultural factors in Western or non-Western societies; however, body image perception and its nutritional and demographic determinants in Iran have not been extensively studied. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate body image perception and its socio-demographic and nutritional determinants among female university students in Tabriz City of Iran. In the current cross-sectional survey, 184 female students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran, were enrolled. Anthropometric variables including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Body image perception and distortion were assessed by Figure Rating Scale (FRS) developed by Stunkard consisting of nine silhouettes. Nutrition intake was assessed by a 3-day 24-h dietary recall method and analyzed by Nutritionist IV software. Most of the participants in the underweight (41.66%), normal weight (67.71%) and overweight (57.14%) categories of BMI selected the thinnest figure as their desirable or ideal body image perception. The total prevalences of body image dissatisfaction and distortion were 51.63% and 64.13%, respectively. Subjects who had undistorted body image perception consumed more time for physical activity and had more night sleeping hours compared with others (P nutritional status compared with others. Due to high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction, the need for appropriate interventional programs to prevent the associated co-morbidities is emphasized.

  14. Influences of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students

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    Mase T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Mase,1 Kumiko Ohara,2,3 Chiemi Miyawaki,4 Katsuyasu Kouda,5 Harunobu Nakamura2 1Department of Childhood Education, Kyoto Seibo College, Kyoto, Japan; 2Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan; 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Early Childhood Education, Heian Jogakuin (St Agnes’ College, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Public Health, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan Purpose: The present study investigated the influence of peers’ and family members’ body shapes on the perception of body image and desire for thinness in Japanese female students.Methods: The study included 342 female, Japanese university students between the ages of 18 years and 22 years. They completed an anonymous questionnaire, which included questions related to anthropometry and body perception. Eating behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Eating Attitude Test-26.Results: Many students overestimated their body shape (81.2% of underweight students and 74.6% of normal students and had a desire for thinness (41.0% of underweight students, 88.2% of normal students, and 100% of overweight students. One of the main reasons for the overestimation of their body shape was comparison with others. Participants who were interested in a friend’s body shape were almost three times more likely to have a desire for thinness than those who were not interested in a female friend’s body shape (odds ratio: 3.06, P=0.014.Conclusion: The results indicate a possibility that a female Japanese student’s young female friends’ body shapes, influences her desire for thinness or her perception of her own body shape. Keywords: body perception, body shape, desire for thinness, female students 

  15. Influence of socioeconomic, behavioral and nutritional factors on dissatisfaction with body image among female university students in Florianopolis, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF). Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling) as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with dissatisfaction with body image were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 47.3% (95% CI 40.7; 53.9). Nutritional status by BMI and going on a diet to lose weight were the variables associated with body dissatisfaction. Results showed a high prevalence of indicators of rejection of their physical fitness among university students, which signals toward the need for nutritional education actions at universities in order to clarify and prevent abnormal eating attitudes among students.

  16. Navigating the thin-ideal in an athletic world: influence of coach communication on female athletes' body image and health choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Brittany N; Record, Rachael A

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how interpersonal communication between coaches and female athletes influences the female athletes' perceptions of body image and health choices. Much of the current literature has focused on the fact that female athletes are at risk for disordered eating and a distorted body image due to susceptibility to the feminine "thin-ideal" while maintaining the fitness levels necessary to compete in their sport. However, very little research has examined how interpersonal interaction plays a role in female athletes' body image perceptions and health behaviors. Utilizing the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI) as a lens to examine communication between female athletes and their coaches, the researchers analyzed transcripts from in-depth interviews with 28 female athletes and identified themes within the personal, relational, enacted, and communal layers of identity. Coach communication with their female athletes was found to be influential to the athletes' body images and health choices.

  17. Relations of Strength Training to Body Image among a Sample of Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine; Hilton, Wanda; Pituch, Keenan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated college women enrolled in a strength training class before and after completion of the class, using a combination of physical fitness measures, to determine the relationship between strength training and body image. Strength training generally did not substantially change participants' weight, percentage of fat, or circumferences. Most…

  18. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  19. Relationship between body image and breast self-examination intentions and behavior among female university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Ahmadian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behavior and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.

  20. Disordered Eating Behavior, Body Image, and Energy Status of Female Student Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbeson, Justine G; Kruger, Herculina Salome; Wright, Hattie H

    2015-08-01

    Modern culture has stereotyped the female body as one that is continually getting thinner. Internalization of the 'thin' ideal is partly attributable to the inner ideal to be successful combined with the external pressure imposed by media and others. Many individuals attempt to achieve these ideals by behavior modification that imposes health risks. To investigate disordered eating (DE) behavior and energy status in female student dancers. Volunteer dancers (n = 26) aged 19.0 (18.0; 21.0) years, matched by controls (n = 26) aged 20.0 (19.0; 21.0) years were recruited. Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) subscales, Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Cognitive Dietary Restraint (CDR) subscale, and EDI-3 Referral Form behavioral questions assessed DE behavior. Energy status was assessed with a food record and Actiheart monitor. Dancers achieved significantly higher scores than controls in all questionnaires, namely: EDI-3 Drive for Thinness [12.0 (3.0; 19.0) vs. 4.5 (2.0; 9.0), p = .023], EDI-3 Body Dissatisfaction [16.0 (10.0; 25.0) vs. 6.5 (3.0; 14.0), p = .004], and TFEQ-CDR [9.0 (2.0; 15.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0; 7.0), p = .032]; dancers used excessive exercise to lose weight (19.2% vs. 0%, c2 = 5.53, p = .019), and had lower energy availability (24% vs. 8%, p Female dancers are at risk for DE behavior and many have suboptimal energy status which may be related to their quest to achieve a more desirable appearance; education on healthy weight management practices is needed.

  1. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  2. Is obesity contagious by way of body image? A study on Japanese female students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrowicz, Rinako; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    Although it has been suggested that obesity is 'contagious' within the social network, direct cause of this spread of obesity remains unclear. This study hypothesized that Body Image (BI), the perception of one's own body size, may play a role in this obesity spread, since a high prevalence of obesity could shift people's perception of 'what is normal'. Young Japanese females (n = 53) were interviewed within 1 month after moving to New York City, where the prevalence of obesity is substantially higher than that of their home country, Japan. Each participant was examined for her BI in terms of current body size (CBS) and ideal body size (IBS). They were interviewed again 2 months after the first examination. Between the two interviews, the participants' CBS was decreased (having thinner self-image), while the IBS increased (having fatter ideal-image), leading to less dissatisfaction (smaller CBS-IBS) with their body size. These results suggest that one's BI could change in a period as short as 2 months, possibly because of being surrounded by more obese people. The IBS change was positively associated with BMI change (increased by 0.4 ± 0.6 kg/m²), warranting further study on the role of BI in the spread of obesity.

  3. The impact of mirrors on body image and performance in high and low performing female ballet students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radell, Sally A; Adame, Daniel D; Cole, Steven P; Blumenkehl, Nicole J

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the effect of mirrors on body image and performance in high and low performing female collegiate ballet students. Twenty-three females enrolled in a beginning ballet class were taught using mirrors, and a second group of 23 beginning females were taught without mirrors. All participants completed the Cash 69-item Body Self-Relations Questionnaire during the first and last class of a 14-week semester. They were videotaped performing in the studio during the fifth and fourteenth weeks. Two ballet teachers independently viewed the videotapes to evaluate the dancers' rhythmic accuracy, ease and flow of movement, and mastery of steps and alignment, and rated the students' skill level on a 1-5 scale. For analysis purposes, students whose scores averaged three or higher were categorized as "high performers," and those who averaged less than three were "low performers." Two (mirror, non-mirror) by two (high performance, low performance) by two (pre-test, post-test) repeated measures ANOVAs were used to test class differences over the course of the semester. There were significant 3-way interactions for overweight preoccupation (p < 0.01) and body-areas satisfaction (p < 0.05). Low performers increased in overweight preoccupation in the non-mirror class while decreasing in the mirror class. High performers significantly increased in satisfaction for most areas of their body in the non-mirror class, while there were smaller increases for both low and high performers in the mirror class. It is concluded that while use of the mirror has some benefits in training, higher performing dancers feel better about their body image when they do not use the mirror. Lower performers who use the mirror worry less about their weight; those who do not use the mirror worry more. The mirror may provide feedback that helps low performing dancers feel more comfortable with their weight.

  4. Body image in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Böserová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The Master's Thesis deals with the marketing research of the body image meaning in female and male life style magazines chosen. The main aim is to analyze the advertisement using the quantitative content analysis and to identify the most common elements presented, furthermore to analyse these elements based on the data obtained and to find out the difference of human body presented when female and male are the target groups. The secondary aim is defined as to prepare this analysis for the fro...

  5. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  7. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Body Image Distress in Female Victims of Physical and Sexual Assault: Exploring Integrated Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Terri L.; Griffin, Michael G.; Mitchell, Elisha R.

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has been rarely explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African-American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distre...

  8. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  9. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and body image distress in female victims of physical and sexual assault: exploring integrated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Griffin, Michael G; Mitchell, Elisha R

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has rarely been explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distress was a significant, unique predictor of depression but not PTSD severity. We recommend continued exploration of body image concerns to further integrated research on violence against women.

  10. Sociocultural Variations in the Body Image Perceptions of Urban Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…

  11. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  12. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  13. An exploration of the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among male and female adolescents from six Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Using survey methodology, this exploratory study examined the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among 1,272 eighth- and ninth-grade males and females from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 195), Guatemala City, Guatemala (n = 212), Havana, Cuba (n = 213), Lima, Peru (n = 218), Panama City, Panama (n = 195), and Santiago, Chile (n = 239). The two dimensions of body image were assessed by showing the participants nine male and nine female silhouettes depicting body sizes ranging from extremely thin (#1) to extremely obese (#9). Approximately 50% of the male and female adolescents chose silhouette #3 as best depicting the attractive male body. Silhouette #2 was chosen by 45% of the females as best depicting feminine attractiveness, while 45% of the males chose silhouette #3. When identifying the silhouette that best depicted the healthy male body, 26% of the participants chose silhouette #2, 41% chose #3, and 19% chose #4. Silhouette #2 was selected by 33% of the adolescents as best depicting the healthy female body, 38% chose #3, and 14% chose #4. In all cities, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on body satisfaction was highly significant (p cities, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of females than males desired to be thinner, the exception being Havana, where the distribution of desired change in body size was almost identical for males and females. Findings suggest a need for culturally sensitive, age- and gender-specific preventive interventions focusing on the importance of achieving a healthy weight during adolescence to promote body size acceptance among adolescents who are at a healthy weight.

  14. Imaging female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected.

  15. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MENSTRUAL CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS AND PERCEIVED BODY IMAGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY OF POLISH FEMALE ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Trambacz-Oleszak, Sylwia

    2016-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of negative body perceptions among adolescent girls and the tendency towards wishing to be thinner have become a cultural norm in Western culture. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to developing a negative body image due to physical and sexual changes occurring during puberty. This study aimed to evaluate the association between different measures of body image perceptions and different phases of the menstrual cycle after controlling for weight status and other potential confounders in Polish adolescent girls aged 12-18 years. Three-hundred and thirty participants of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009, normally cycling and with no eating disorders, completed a background questionnaire and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and their anthropometric measurements were collected. The dependent outcome variables were measures of body image (actual body image, ideal body image and ideal-self discrepancy) and dichotomous body image perception (satisfied versus dissatisfied) adjusted for other predictor factors: socio-demographic variables, menstrual history and cycle phases, and weight status. One-way ANOVA indicated that weight status, age at menarche and menstrual cycle phase were associated with actual body image and rate of ideal-self discrepancy. Ideal body image was associated with weight status and menstrual cycle phase. General logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of body dissatisfaction and all potential predictor variables. The final selected model of the multiple logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination procedure revealed that adjusted for other factors, negative body image was significantly associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle (p trend=0.033) and increasing body weight status (p trend=0.0007). The likelihood of body dissatisfaction was greatest during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.06, 5.32) and among girls in

  16. Downward dog becomes fit body, inc.: A content analysis of 40 years of female cover images of Yoga Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Vinoski, Erin R; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Burrell, Marlene I; Putz, Davina Y

    2017-09-01

    The present analysis investigated temporal trends in physical appearance attributes and attire worn by female cover models of Yoga Journal magazine between the years 1975-2015. Covers featuring a single female model (N=168) were coded for: pose activity, amount of body visibility, perceived body size, body shape, breast size, skin exposure, and revealing or form-fitting attire. When collapsed across all decades, the majority of cover models was actively posed with high body visibility, rated as at most low normal weight, possessed either a "thin/lean" or "skinny/boney" body shape, and were "flat-chested" or "small-breasted". Greater body visibility, pose activity, thinness/leanness, skin exposure, and form-fitting attire were featured on more recent years' covers. Findings suggest that the female "yoga body" conforms to the contemporary thin- and-toned media fitness ideal, particularly recently, which may promote objectified body competence, an unhealthy drive for leanness, and dissuade higher weight women from considering yoga practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate student...... strategies and activities should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and BIC and should moreover pay attention to the gender-specific correlates of BIC for tailoring evidence based interventions for females and for males....

  18. Body image perception, satisfaction and somatotype in male and female athletes and non-athletes: results using a novel morphing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur D; Benson, Philip J; Michanikou, Evangelia G; Tsiota, Dimitra G; Narli, Margarita K

    2003-10-01

    Thirty-six adults (24 males, 12 females) were assessed for anthropometric somatotype and body image (perception and satisfaction) by a novel technique using quantitative distortion of a digital still image. Software produced random distortions in nine body regions. The participants manipulated interactive slider controls to adjust each body feature in turn, recreate their perceived image and indicate their desired image. There were no differences in perception between the sexes. However, the ideal-actual differences (i.e. satisfaction) indicated that males desired larger and females smaller features, respectively, in the chest and thighs (P Somatotype analysis indicated that the physique associated with minimal dissatisfaction was 2.0-5.0-3.0 for males and 3.0-2.5-3.0 for females. Cluster analysis, combining anthropometric and satisfaction data, revealed seven distinct subgroups distinguished by particular attributes of physical appearance. We conclude that the method is reliable and that body image includes sex-specific, anthropometric, perceptual and personality-related components.

  19. A Comparison of Quality of Life and Body Image of Female Yoga Practitioners and Novices Aged 25 to 45 in the City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alsadat Pourrahmat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to compare the quality of life and body image of female yoga practitioners and novices.This study was done through descriptive comparative survey in which data was collected through survey and field work. The study population included all female yoga practitioners and non-athletes aged 25 to 45 in the city of Tehran. 120 female yoga practitioners and 120 non-athletes living in districts 2 and 18 were randomly chosen to be the sample population. To measure participants’ body image and quality of life, body-self relations and standard Sf36 questionnaires were used respectively. Both face and content validity of questionnaires were confirmed by the judgment of 6 experts and professors. Reliability of the questionnaires used for body image and quality of life, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha using SPSS 21.0, were 0.87 and 0.92 respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics (i.e. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS 21.0 were used to analyze data. The findings of the comparison of quality of life between female yoga practitioners and non-athletes showed a meaningful contrast (t=20.327, p=0.001. There was also a meaningful contrast between body image of women who practiced yoga and those who did not (t=2/278, p=0.021. Based on this significant effect of yoga on quality of life and body image, regular practice of yoga is recommended to men and women.

  20. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  1. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  2. Perceived current and ideal body size in female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Lillian P; Best, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors are pervasive problems in Western society, particularly for females. The female "thin-ideal" is a potent contributor to the growing discontent with the female body and research has shown that even females who are normal or underweight, perceive themselves as overweight. The goal of the current study was to examine correlates of body image satisfaction and the perception of the female body. One hundred and sixty six female undergraduates (Mean Age=21.40 years) completed self-report measures pertaining to disordered eating (EAT-26) and body dissatisfaction (BIQ and ABS). Body image perception and satisfaction were measured using ratings of female bodies on a weight perception scale (PFRS). Overall, disordered eating was related to a lower ideal body size and greater body dissatisfaction. In support of previous research, the most common ideal female body had a BMI categorized as underweight. Although females in the current sample reported an ideal that was smaller than their current size, participants underestimated their current body size, which, given the amount of dieting and weight pressure in present Western society, seems counterintuitive. It is possible that thin ideal portrayed in the media is increasingly different from and at odds with the average female body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Cross-sectional Study of the Pattern of Body Image Perception among Female Students of BBM College in Vijayapur, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B M; Patil, Shailaja S; Angadi, Mahabaleshwar Mahantappa; Pattankar, Tanuja P

    2016-07-01

    Body image is an essential aspect of young girls' self-definition and individual identity which is influenced by various biological, psychological and social factors. Excessive concern about body image, body image misconception are leading to dissatisfaction, disturbed eating patterns, affecting the nutritional status and also leading to depression and anxiety disorders. This concept of body image has been less explored in Indian context, especially among young girls. The objectives of the study were to assess the body image perception among young college going girls, using a visual analog scale and to compare body image perception and satisfaction with their BMI levels and weight changing methods adopted. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 female students studying BBM course at a private commerce institution in Vijayapur city. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing details of basic socio-demographic information and a validated visual analogue scale. Height was measured by Seca Stadiometer, weight was measured using Digital weighing machine and Body Mass Index levels were calculated. Percentages were calculated for descriptive variables. Chi-square test was applied for analysing categorical variables. Spearman Rank correlation test was applied for analysing ordinal data. A 39.7% of participants were underweight and 15.9% were overweight/obese. Majority of underweight and overweight girls (72% and 89%, respectively) perceived themselves as normal weight. Body image satisfaction of participants was found to be significantly associated with their body image perception, mothers' educational status and also with relatives' and peer group's opinions about their body weight. Unhealthy weight changing patterns like skipping meals (13%), increasing quantity and frequency of meals (17%) were reported among study participants. This exploratory study highlights the gap between young girls' body image perception and their

  4. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  5. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  6. Appearance-related residual injury, posttraumatic stress, and body image: Associations within a sample of female victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Resnick, Heidi S; Kokoska, Mimi S; Etzel, Julie C

    2007-12-01

    One third of women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) receive some form of injury. After acute injuries have healed, a victim's physical appearance may be altered with residual changes including marks or scars. This study included 56 female victims of IPV (31 with appearance-related residual injury and a comparison group of 25 with no appearance-related residual injury) and examined the associations between violence-related experiences, body image distress, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Appearance-related residual injury status moderated the relationship between body image distress and symptoms of PTSD. In addition, within the appearance-related residual injury group, body image distress emerged a unique predictor of PTSD explaining incremental variance beyond that explained by severity of psychological maltreatment.

  7. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    for the association between four increasing levels of BIC as the dependent variables (no BIC, mild BIC, moderate BIC and marked BIC) on the one hand, and the socio-demographic (gender, age, year at university), lifestyle (physical activity, nutrition) and mental well-being variables (quality of life, perceived stress......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...... strategies and activities should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and BIC and should moreover pay attention to the gender-specific correlates of BIC for tailoring evidence based interventions for females and for males....

  8. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  9. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  10. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  11. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Programs for Girls www.womensmediacenter.com/pages/media-programs-for-girls Glossary Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which distorted body image leads a person to diet excessively. Body Mass Index (BMI): A number calculated from height and ...

  12. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  13. Female Adolescent Body Image and Success at School: A Grounded Theory Approach to Creation of Administrative Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    At present, school administrators do not have necessary information to create a school environment where teenage girls unhappy with their bodies can experience success at school. This research surrounds three research questions: (1) How do adolescent girls' definitions of their bodies relate to their perception of their high school's climate? (2)…

  14. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  15. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  16. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  17. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  18. Females and post-pubescent adolescents: groups with high exposure to the development of body image dissatisfaction in São Bonifácio, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Lucy Fidelix

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and analyse associated factors. The sample under analysis comprised 278 adolescents, 10- to 17-year-old students from government schools in a small town in southern Brazil. Sociodemographic information was collected (age, sex, area of residence and educational level of family head, coupled to self-assessment of sexual maturation and body image perception (scale of body silhouettes. Frequency distribution was employed for statistical analysis; Student’s t test was applied for independent samples; chi-square and Fisher's exact test and Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment were used. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 59.3%, or rather, higher among females (65.6% than among males (53%. An association between body image and sexual maturation existed which revealed that post-pubescent adolescents were more likely to show body image dissatisfaction when compared to their pre-pubescent peers. Females and post-pubescent adolescents were more likely to feel body image dissatisfaction. Intervention programs may be proposed as strategies for the construction of a positive body image.

  19. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  20. Insatisfação com a imagem corporal em universitárias brasileiras Body image dissatisfaction in female Brazilian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marle dos Santos Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A insatisfação com a imagem corporal é avaliada por meio da diferença entre a figura real e a idealizada e pode influenciar comportamentos alimentares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a insatisfação corporal de universitárias do sexo feminino nas cinco regiões do país e possíveis associações e correlações com a idade, o estado nutricional, a renda e o grau de escolaridade do chefe da família. MÉTODOS: 2.402 universitárias responderam à Escala de Silhuetas de Stunkard. As regiões foram comparadas por meio da análise de variância; correlações entre as variáveis foram analisadas pelos coeficientes de Pearson e Spearman. RESULTADOS: 64,4% gostariam de ser menores do que sua figura atual, e mesmo as estudantes eutróficas escolheram figuras saudável e ideal menores. Na região Norte foram apontados os mais magros padrões ideais e de saúde e na região Centro-Oeste, os maiores. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de insatisfação corporal foi bastante expressiva, com algumas diferenças regionais e sociodemográficas que devem ser consideradas.Body image dissatisfaction is evaluated according to the difference between the real figure and idealized figure, and could influence eating behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body dissatisfaction among female university students from the five regions of Brazil and possible associations and correlations with age, nutritional status, individual income and parental education. METHODS: 2,402 students answered the Stunkard's Body Image Scale and regions were compared by variance analysis, and correlations among variables with Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients. RESULTS: 64.4% desired a figure smaller than their actual one, and even the normal weight range students chose ideal and healthy smaller figures. In North region the ideal and healthy patterns were smaller and in the Central West bigger. CONCLUSION: Occurrence of body dissatisfaction was common among Brazilian university students and some regional and

  1. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  2. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  3. Providing information to improve body image and care-seeking behavior of women and girls living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esu, Ekpereonne; Okoye, Ifeyinwa; Arikpo, Iwara; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2017-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) has become recognized worldwide as an extreme form of violation of the human rights of girls and women. Strategies have been employed to curb the practice. To conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies of the effects of providing educational interventions on the body image and care-seeking behavior of girls and women living with FGM with the view to ending the practice. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and other databases were searched up to August 10, 2015 without any language restrictions. Studies that provided education to women and/or girls living with any type of FGM or residing in countries where FGM is predominantly practiced were included. Two authors independently screened and collected data. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using odds ratios and evidence was assessed using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). Educational interventions resulted in fewer women recommending FGM for their daughters and also reduced the incidence of FGM cases among daughters of women who received the educational interventions. These findings need to be validated with large randomized trials. 42015024637. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  4. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  5. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  6. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls.

  7. The female body in early Buddhist literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Grünhagen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents Theravāda Buddhist perceptions of the female body and their impact on sexuality, gender equality and salvation. In doing so the author draws on a selection of texts from the Buddhist canonical literature, which are relevant to the Theravāda tradition. Early Buddhist literature reflects an understanding of the female body as being more closely connected to the material world and the cycle of reincarnation, due to its biological qualities. This has a severe impact on the woman’s status and her chances of attaining enlightenment. Considering the early teaching of individuals possessing equal capacities to attain liberation, no matter what sex or social background, Buddhism as it developed over time failed to translate the equality of the sexes into a social reality. In fact, the perception of a distinct female ‘nature’ which was deemed a hindrance could not easily be erased from the collective consciousness. It is, however, important to note that Buddhist countries are subject to diverse influences that affect attitudes towards the female body, sexuality and the status of women—thus one has to be very careful with generalizations regarding norms and practices. Over time the negative attitudes and restrictions have been questioned; social changes have given way to new interpretations and perspectives. Pondering religious and cultural implications of the Buddhist attitude towards the body and its sex while also considering, for example, modern Mahayana Buddhist interpretations—especially by Western Buddhists and Buddhist Feminists—can lead to an acknowledgement of its potential of interpreting anattā, selflessness and an equality of capacity to practice Dhamma in favour of a general sex and gender equality.

  8. Body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors and sociocultural influences on body image among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Mellor, David; Kiehne, Melanie; Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Xu, Yangang

    2010-03-01

    Body dissatisfaction and body image disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent in developing non-Western countries such as China, but there is a lack of research examining the sociocultural factors that in other contexts have been associated with these problems. The current study investigated body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors, and sociocultural pressures on body image, and the relationships between these variables among 517 adolescent males (N=219) and females (N=298) in China. Females reported greater body dissatisfaction than males, and males reported using strategies to increase their muscle bulk more often than females. Males reported pressure from a variety of sociocultural sources to increase their muscles or weight, while females reported pressure from the media to lose weight. For males body dissatisfaction was predicted by pressure from peers to increase their muscle bulk, while for females pressure to lose weight from peers, adult relatives, and the media was likely to increase body dissatisfaction. Pressure from the media and adult relatives was also predictive of body change behaviors in both males and females. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research in both Western and non-Western contexts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  10. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  11. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  12. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  13. 影响女大学生负面身体意象形成的因素及对策研究%On the Negative Influence and Countermeasures of Body Image Formation in Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边菊平

    2012-01-01

    With the unanimous pursue of being slim in the cross cultural background,the female college students have body image cognitive impairment by the mass media culture shock,peer influence and campus culture education aesthetic the lack of the body and the individual body image cognitive status.So to change these "high standard consistency" body aesthetic culture concept,you need through standard the mass media industry,strengthen the construction of campus culture of ethics,full of sports and health class the teaching of the content,strengthen physical self perception practice,and improve college students' media literacy methods of female college students to guide the mold healthy body image.To build up a healthy body aesthetic culture,this can better understand physical self,body perception and body behavior.To reduce negative body image bring distress,strengthen body and mind cheerful feeling.%在当今女性对"瘦"的追求出现跨文化一致性的背景下,女大学生也因受大众传媒文化的冲击、同伴的影响和校园身体审美文化教育的缺失、个体身体意象的认知状况等因素的影响,造成身体意象认知障碍。因此,要转变这些"高标准一致性"身体审美文化观念,就需要通过规范大众传媒行业操守、加强校园文化建设、充实体育与健康课上的传授内容、加强身体自我感知实践及提高大学生媒介素养等方法,引导女大学生塑造健康的身体意象,建立健康的身体审美文化观,从而能够更好地认识身体自我、身体感知与身体行为,减少负面身体意象带来的苦恼,增强身心愉悦的感悟。

  14. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  15. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  16. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  17. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females. The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ to 78.9% (SST. Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001. Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05. Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents.

  18. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities include running, swimming, jumping rope, or soccer. Exercise is good for your mind and your body. Staying active relieves stress, helps you sleep better, and can help ease depression and anxiety. Should I go on a diet? Many teenage ...

  19. PERCEPTIONS OF JEWISH FEMALE BODIES THROUGH GUSTAV KLIMT AND PETER ALTENBERG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susanne Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Gustav Klimt and Peter Altenberg are two figures within Viennese fin-de-siècle cultural production whose art may reveal a perception of local Jewish culture through their different foci on the non-European female body image...

  20. PERCEPTIONS OF JEWISH FEMALE BODIES THROUGH GUSTAV KLIMT AND PETER ALTENBERG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susanne Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Gustav Klimt and Peter Altenberg are two figures within Viennese fin-de-siècle cultural production whose art may reveal a perception of local Jewish culture through their different foci on the non-European female body image...

  1. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  2. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  3. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to media and body image was found while negative influence was found between self-esteem and body image. No relationship was found between religiosity and body image. The results showed mixed outcomes as compared to past studies. The scope of this study is limited to one city only and hence the finding could not be generalized. Future researcher may use a larger sample drawn throughout Pakistan, and by examining whether body image perception varies ethnically, age and gender. Media exposure is affecting the traditional norms and values of Pakistan culture and body image. The obsessions of the media and thin body image have to be controlled and this requires policy changes. Corporate sector might take initiative by not selecting ultra-thin models. They might also sponsors public service messages showing ill effects of being ultra-thin, and showing that the ultra-thin models are not real but is results of artworks and camera angles. Social Comparison Theory with two addition variable religiosity and self-esteem has been successfully extended/empirically tested in the domain of Pakistan culture.

  4. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  5. Marketing importance of women's body image

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana KŘÍŽOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with research of the marketing importance of women's body image. The research methods including quantitative research performed by assisted interviewing and content analysis of printed advertisements in five magazines targeted on female population were used. The aims of the interviewing are to determine the current physical condition of Czech women and their views on the display "ideal" of feminine beauty in advertising. The content analysis finds out "ideal" state of physic...

  6. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  7. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 现代传媒对女性运动员性别角色与身体形象的构建%Construction of Gender Roles and Body Image of Female Athletes via the Modern Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥武; 张永龙

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料和逻辑分析等研究方法,以现代传媒对女性运动员的性别角色和身体形象构建为研究对象,对现代传媒影响下女性运动员身体的异化和成因进行研究。结果认为:性化与性感特征是现代传媒的娱乐主导倾向;在其影响下女性运动员的身体呈现“工具化”、“符号化”和“扭曲化”的多元异化发展趋势;现代女子竞技项目呈现性感化发展趋向;在男权文化的影响下女性运动员的身体扮演着客体化与边缘化的角色,呈现明显的符号化特征;男权文化的控制、价值需求、经济利益、工具化和功用化(功用性美丽和功用性色情)等因素的多元驱使是造成女性运动员身体异化的主要动因。%In this paper ,we studied the body alienation of female athletes and its causes using documents ,logical analysis and other methods with gender roles and body image construction by modern media as study object .We hold that :gender characteristics is the dominant entertainment tendency of modern media ;under its influence ,the bodies of female athletes show the multiple alienation trends of “instrumentalization” ,“symbolization”and“distortion”;modern female competitive events are showing a gender -oriented development trend ;the bodies of female athletes are playing the objectified and marginal roles under the influence of the male power culture an object with a marginal role ,showing obvious symbolization characteristic ;the factors such as control of male culture ,val-ue demand ,economic benefits ,instrumentalization and functionalization (functional beauty and functional sex ) are main caused for body alienation of female athletes .

  9. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  10. Body image: Marketingovy vyznam vnimania zenskej postavy

    OpenAIRE

    Nosková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to map the perception of female body in our society and demonstrate the impact of marketing on the ideal of woman beauty. The work is divided into three major parts. The first part, which is theoretical, provides a basis for subsequent research and familiarizes the reader with the issue of body image. The second part is devoted to content analysis of women's web magazines that offer an interesting area for marketing communication. The third part contents an analysis ...

  11. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  12. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  13. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  14. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Ideal Female Body on the Packaging Design of Traditional Medicine (Jamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamu, an Indonesian traditional medicine used for treating ailments or sicknesses  is also well known as a product for slimming especially for women.  Through its packaging design, jamu for women depict female body in the form of photograph and illustrations. The female body is constructed to be seen attractive and become the ideal body. The research aims to read the ideal female body on the packaging design of jamu and to reveal the ideology behind them. We analyzed the packaging design of jamu related to the formation of female body produced by five major manufacturers of traditional medicine that has survived for at least three generations: Air Mancur, Sido Muncul, Jamu Jago, Nyonya Meneer and Jamu Iboe. This analysis uses Roland Barthes' semiotic theory that reveals the linguistic message, the denoted image and rhetoric of the image. Ideal body is still struggling around the stereotype that physically described as thin and also plum with the emphasise on slim waist, big hip and breast. In keeping with the Javanese philosophy, woman's body is identical to the nature. The construction of female body is closely related to social and cultural context. Through the object and the pose, female body is depicted as traditional and modern, natural and cultural.

  16. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  17. MR imaging of the female pelvic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V; Tempany, C M; Dudiak, C M

    1992-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable technique for noninvasive evaluation of the female pelvic region. This article presents the normal anatomy and abnormalities of the female pelvis. MR imaging may be more useful than clinical evaluation or other imaging modalities in diagnosing or staging developmental anomalies, leiomyomas, adenomyosis, endometrial or cervical carcinoma, vaginal neoplasms, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, teratomas, polycystic ovaries, or other ovarian masses. It could potentially replace laparoscopy as a more useful tool in the diagnosis of uterine anomalies. MR imaging is generally capable of helping determine whether a pelvic mass is uterine or adnexal in origin and may be used to characterize some adnexal masses. In some cases, MR imaging is used to differentiate recurrent disease from posttreatment fibrosis, which aids in treatment planning.

  18. The Female Body in Motion: An Introduction to Women's Studies Through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Linda; Molstad, Susan

    1977-01-01

    "Exploring Female Images Through Movement," a course at Skidmore College, features activities that help students reexamine their attitudes toward their bodies, improve their self-image, and, through a combination of physical education and women's studies, experiment with new activities and ideas about themselves as women. (MB)

  19. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  20. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  1. Female Body Dissatisfaction and Perceptions of the Attractive Female Body in Ghana, the Ukraine, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon B. Forbes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many non-Western societies, moderate to high levels of body fat in women have long been equated with health, physical attractiveness, social status, and fertility. In recent times, however, many Western cultures have emphasized the idea that slender women are most attractive. This emphasis on thinness has led to increased levels of body dissatisfaction and dieting in Western cultures and in cultures that have imported Western media and ideals. The current study examines the body ideals in two cultures that have recently undergone increased contact with Western nations: Ghana and the Ukraine. Body dissatisfaction and perceptions of the attractive female body were studied in U.S. and Ukrainian undergraduates and villagers in Ghana using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (Thompson & Gray, 1995. Compared to the other cultures, in the U.S., slender bodies were more highly valued and women reported a larger discrepancy between their current and ideal bodies. Men and women in Ghana showed the least preference for slender bodies. Men in the U.S. reported that the most attractive body was thinner than the average female body, whereas men from Ghana reported that the most attractive body was heavier than the average female body. In general, preferences recorded in the Ukrainian sample fell between the results for the U.S. and Ghanaian samples. These findings suggest that despite the increased contact with Western cultures, there may be aspects of Ghanaian and Ukrainian culture that promote greater body satisfaction.

  2. Body Build Perceptions in Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roger C.; Hankins, Norman E.

    1979-01-01

    Results from scores on the Somatotype Rating Scale (SRS) indicated that, while there was close agreement between males and females on the measures, females exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body build and greater congruency between their self-concept and their same-sex stereotype than did males. (Author)

  3. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In China, applicants for flight attendant job voluntarily visit the hospital to break the tibia bone, into which is inserted gradually the expanding facility to ultimately adds the necessary centimeters to them to have chase to become flight attendants. The physical appearance seems to play in our lives increasingly greater role. How far we can go and what we can do to make us look better? Bachelor's work "The Marekting Importance of Body Image" introduces the reader with a theoretical part o...

  4. What I look like: college women, body image, and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2013-12-01

    Despite public acknowledgment of the importance of spiritual development, little has been written globally on female young adults' personal views of their spiritual values and body image. This article briefly presents the findings of a pilot study that explored female college students' reflections on body image and spirituality. Responses from participants showed that (1) many students are interested in faith and spiritual development; (2) body dissatisfaction affects those women who viewed themselves as spiritual (92%) as well as those who said they were free thinkers (49%). Nevertheless, religion and spiritual values seemed to confer some behavioral protection. Implications for educational programs that will address the spiritual dimension of learning are discussed.

  5. Body image in persons with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito Alcón, María Frenzi; Rodríguez Molina, José Miguel

    2015-05-15

    For subjects with gender dysphoria, body image is an important aspect of their condition. These people sometimes exhibit a strong desire to change their primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, idealization of beauty has grown in importance and it may increase body dissatisfaction. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether body dissatisfaction in people with gender dysphoria is similar to that in clinical population or if it is more similar to that which may appear in general population. We also looked at gender differences in body dissatisfaction. A set of questionnaires was administered to patients with gender dysphoria: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), body dissatisfaction sub-scale of Eating disorder inventory-two (EDI-2) and IMAGEN questionnaire. In the case of body dissatisfaction subscale of Eating disorder inventory-two with a cut-off 11; body dissatisfaction in our sample was close to the level presented in clinical population. However, using cut-off points 14 and 16, they exhibited a body dissatisfaction level that was similar to the general population. The same occurred for the IMAGEN questionnaire. No gender differences were found when looking at the level of dissatisfaction. The data seem to indicate that people with gender dysphoria would be at an intermediate point in relation to body dissatisfaction between general population and clinical population; in both female and male transsexuals. It seems that some level of body dissatisfaction may be perceived in relation to the ideal of beauty, but this dissatisfaction is significantly lower than in clinical populations.

  6. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  7. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-07-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research.

  8. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  9. Tradução, adaptação e avaliação da consistência interna do Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test para uso com crianças do sexo feminino Translation, adaptation and internal consistency evaluation of the Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test for female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Moreira Careta Galindo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test, para uso com crianças de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram sujeitos do estudo 261 escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos. Por meio da análise fatorial, com rotação varimax avaliou-se a consistência interna do instrumento. Esta análise, realizada com o auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versão 10.0, revelou dois fatores. Para o instrumento total a consistência interna foi adequada (coeficiente a de Cronbach: 0,89 e para os dois fatores (1 e 2 os valores de a também foram considerados satisfatórios (alfa=0,90 e alfa=0,80, respectivamente, mostrando, assim, que o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test é útil para uma avaliação precoce, rastreando atitudes indicadoras de possíveis distúrbios no comportamento alimentar. Foram mantidas as características psicométricas do instrumento original.This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test, to be used with children in a city in upstate São Paulo. Study subjects were 261 female students aging from 9 to 12 years. The internal consistency of the instrument was evaluated by means of factorial analysis with varimax rotation. This analysis was accomplished through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0, revealing two factors. The internal consistency was adequate for the total instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.89 and a values were also considered satisfactory for the two factors (1 and 2 (alpha=0.90 and alpha=0.80, respectively, which demonstrated that the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test is useful for an initial evaluation, tracing symptoms that indicate possible eating behavior disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the original instrument were maintained.

  10. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  11. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  12. Female's Characteristic Index of Upper Body for Apparel Mass Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhi-ying; CONG Shan; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The measurements of female aged from 18 to 50 in the East China are taken by TC2 3D-body scanner. The first five factors are obtained by factor analysis of SPSS from 25items of the upper body which influence the body shape,that is, circumference factor, height factor, side shape factor, frontal shape factor, and shoulder slope factor.Then characteristic indices of upper body are chosen by analyzing body scan data. This study will be useful for developing pattern more fitting and faster and helpful for realizing apparel mass customization.

  13. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  14. Repercussões do câncer de mama na imagem corporal da mulher: uma revisão sistemática Breast cancer repercussion in female body image: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rodrigues de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Além de apresentar implicações inerentes a qualquer adoecimento, o câncer de mama feminino é também um dos cânceres mais temidos, por afetar não apenas o corpo anatômico, mas principalmente alguns aspectos psicossociais da paciente. Dentre estes, destaca-se sua imagem corporal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão sistemática de artigos que abordaram a imagem corporal no câncer de mama, com descrição do conteúdo da produção encontrada. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão dos artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2010 em revistas científicas indexadas, por meio de busca nas bases de dados bibliográficos SciELO, PubMed, PePSIC e PsycINFO. Concluiu-se que o adoecimento por câncer da mama acaba por adoecer também a imagem corporal da mulher assistida, e que seu impacto varia conforme o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico escolhido, os tratamentos complementares adotados, a rede de apoio que cerca a paciente e suas características individuais. A alteração na imagem corporal tem múltiplas implicações na vida sexual e conjugal da mulher, afetando as relações com seu círculo social e consigo mesma, influenciando sua autoestima e seu sentimento de feminilidade e podendo levar a sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Embora avanços tenham sido verificados no estudo da relação entre imagem corporal e câncer de mama, esta pesquisa aponta para a existência de um campo fértil de investigação sobre o tema, ainda pouco explorado.Besides presenting implications inherent to any illness, female breast cancer is also one of the most feared cancers, affecting not only the anatomic body, but mainly some psychosocial aspects of the patient and, among these, the body image is highlighted. This paper aimed to carry out a systematic review of papers that approached the body image in breast cancer, with the description of the content of the production. To do so, a review was carried out of papers published between 2000 and

  15. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  16. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  17. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image.

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, M. R.; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  18. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Longo; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  19. MR imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, Ernst J. [Rechts der Isar Hospital, TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reimer, Peter [Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Heindel, Walter [Muenster Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2009-07-01

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical medicine more than 25 years ago, tremendous advances have been made both in the technology and in the clinical applications of the method, particularly during the last 10 years. MRI is now a core imaging modality and represents an extremely effective method of diagnosing various diseases in every region of the body. The advances made in recent years have optimized techniques for examining the chest and heart, abdominal organs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system. Higher magnetic fields and total body examinations are becoming clinical realities. In view of these dynamic developments, there is, of course, a need for continuous learning. The present volume provides systematic coverage of the various disease entities that can be identified on MRI, with clearly organized tables and charts listing the details of examination strategies at a glance. Along with the outstanding illustrations, the book offers a conceptual framework for everyday use. This book may help experienced colleagues, as well as residents and fellows, to understand the physical basis for MRI, and it may be able to guide them not only in the correct choice of techniques, but also in the appropriate and rational use of contrast media. MRI has a bright future in clinical diagnosis and scientific research, and this book provides an excellent reflection of the current state of the specialty.

  20. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  1. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  2. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Cristiana Araújo Gontijo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Maria do Carmo G. Peluzio; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat pe...

  3. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  4. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BONE STATUS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole body resistance training on bone status and body composition in young female. Twenty five moderately active females volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to whole body resistance trained (WRT (n=13; 23.1±2.0 years and control (C groups (n=12; 22.5±1.7 years. Height, body weight and body composition measurements were held. Total body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After completing the pre-test measurements, the WRT subjects were participated in 12 week whole body resistance training. At the end of the 12-week training period, paired t-test results showed that there was a significant (p.05 change in the body weight (-.21kg or BMI (.09. In the control group, significant (p.05 change in the body weight (.85kg, FFM (.12kg, and BMD (-.002 g/cm2 after 12 week period. These results showed that 12 week whole body resistance training had a optimize effect on body composition and bone status, but had no effect on body weight and body mass index in young female subjects.

  5. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  6. Perceptions of Jewish Female Bodies through Gustav Klimt and Peter Altenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kelley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Klimt and Peter Altenberg are two figures within Viennese fin-de-siècle cultural production whose art may reveal a perception of local Jewish culture through their different foci on the non-European female body image. Both men have moments in their career, when their attention turns to non-European cultures, through which they inadvertently represent and interpret their own. A selection of these two artists’ most well-known works demonstrate two frameworks in which Viennese Jewishness can be read through an alignment of the female body with Asian and African cultures.

  7. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  8. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  9. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  10. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  11. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  12. Body image distortions following spinal cord injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuentes, Christina T; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Longo, Matthew R; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) or anaesthesia, people may continue to experience feelings of the size, shape and posture of their body, suggesting that the conscious body image is not fully determined by immediate sensory signals...

  13. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  14. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  15. The Association between Body Image and Adjustment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Tamannaeifar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades a large amount of research has been done on body image of adolescents. The motivation for this new surge is based on its effect on their functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study included 400 male and female students of high school selected by cluster sampling. Information was gathered using Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis.Results: Results indicated that there was significant relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes.Conclusion: In general, findings demonstrate that positive body image lead to high self worth and adjustive behaviors in both sexes.

  16. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  17. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  18. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  19. Body image and self-esteem in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Neumärker, U; Neumärker, K J

    2001-08-01

    Body-image disturbances and low self-esteem have been implicated in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. This study investigated self-perception of body and personality among adolescent ballet dancers in a cross-sectional survey. Two questionnaires assessing "my body right now" and "my personality right now," using semantic differentials were completed by 90 ballet school students and 156 controls. Adolescent female dancers (ages 13 to 17 years) scored higher than age-matched controls and 11- to 12-yr. old peers on Undesirability and Sensitivity for personality and Unattractiveness for body. For both subscales of personality, differences were also found between male and female dancers; female ballet students scored higher. Within the control group a difference could be found only for Sensitivity on which girls scored higher than boys. Male dancers did not differ from controls except for a lower score on the Body mass measure. Adolescent female dancers showed a distinct answering profile for 7 of 16 semantic differentials in each questionnaire implicating less favorable body image and self-esteem. Interventions focused particularly on enhancing self-esteem may be useful in the prevention of psychopathology in adolescent ballet dancers.

  20. The effects of the ideal of female beauty on mood and body satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, L; Toner, B B; Ali, A; Garfinkel, P E; Stuckless, N

    1999-03-01

    The present study examined changes in women's mood states resulting from their viewing pictures in fashion magazines of models who represent a thin ideal. Female university students completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). They were then exposed to 20 slides; the experimental group (N = 51) viewed images of female fashion models and a control group (N = 67) viewed slides containing no human figures. All subjects then completed the POMS and the BPSS again. Women were more depressed (R2 = 0.745, p fashion models. Viewing images of female fashion models had an immediate negative effect on women's mood. This study, therefore, supports the hypothesis that media images do play a role in disordered eating.

  1. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image.

  2. Anthropometry, body image, self-esteem and dietary quality of Brazilian female flamenco dancers. Antropometría, imagen corporal, autoestima y calidad de la dieta de brasileñas practicantes de baile flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sayumi Nakamura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the nutritional profile, the body image perception and self-esteem of 17 Brazilian adult female flamenco dancers. The methods used were: Body Mass Index (BMI, fat percentage, waist circumference, the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale for body perception and the Rosemberg Scale for self-esteem. Food intake was classified by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. The average values found were: age 39.2 ± 8.3 years, practice time of 16 ± 11.5 months and 2.2 ± 0.9 hours a week. Although the majority of women (76.5% had an adequate BMI, 88.2% they showed a high percentage of fat. The BMI was related to the percentage of fat (r=0,681; IC [0.298-0.875] and associated with the current silhouette (p=0.018. Even though all dancers had a high self-esteem, 64.7% were not satisfied with their body. Underreporting was identified in 41.2% of the cases and it was not related to self-esteem or BMI. According to the HEI, the diet of 88.2% was classified as healthy. It was concluded that the women correctly evaluate their BMI and, despite their high self-esteem, they are not fully satisfied with their body.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el perfil nutricional, la percepción de la imagen corporal y la autoestima de 17 brasileñas adultas practicantes de flamenco. Los métodos utilizados fueron: índice de masa corporal (IMC, circunferencia abdominal y porcentaje de grasa corporal, la Escala de Siluetas de Stunkardt para la percepción corporal y la Escala de Rosemberg para la autoestima. La ingesta de alimentos fue clasificada según el Índice de Calidad de la Dieta (ICD. Los valores promedios encontrados fueron: edad de 39,2 ± 8,3 años, tiempo de practica de 16 ± 11,5 meses y 2,2 ± 0,9 horas/semanales. La mayoría (76,5% fue clasificada como eutrófica, sin embargo 88,2% presentaron porcentaje de grasa elevado. El IMC está correlacionado con el porcentaje de grasa (r=0,681; IC [0,298-0,875] y asociado a la

  3. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  5. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players.

  6. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural

  7. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  8. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  9. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  10. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  11. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  12. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  13. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  14. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  15. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  16. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  17. This Battlefield Called My Body: Warring over the Muslim Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameelah Medina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This communication centers on the argument that there is an ideological tug-of-war over the Muslim female body. The author discusses how religious and secular patriarchies, as well as feminism all make claims to the bodies of Muslim women and purport to know what is best for her. With particular focus on the headscarf and using comparisons with how non-Muslim women’s bodies are fought over, the author argues that there is a common thread connecting the warring sides as they each employ patriarchal and imperialist views of the Muslim woman that attempt to consume her agency. As the author examines the personal agency and veiling motives of Muslim woman, she counters the idea of Muslim women as passive recipients of mainstream religious and secular narratives imposed upon them by sharing different ways in which they self-author their own narratives in a post-9/11 USA.

  18. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    rate of response was 85%, and the present analysis comprises 2,589 women who supplied information about their body weight and height. The period prevalence of all UI, stress UI, urge UI, and mixed stress and urge UI was 17%, 15%, 9%, and 7%, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.7 kg/m2......The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall....... Irrespective of other risk indicators, BMI was positively associated with UI prevalence (OR, 1.07/BMI unit; PBMI interacted with childbirth in predicting stress UI prevalence, with cystitis in predicting urge UI, and with both in predicting mixed UI. Stress UI proved to be the UI type most closely...

  19. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guía sobre la imagen corporal para chicos The Truth About Guys People might think of guys as ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  20. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  1. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  2. (Deconstruction of a female body in Euripides' Hippolytus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Đurđina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Greek theatre and theatre in general, offering a special experience of reality, uses body as its medium to a great extent. At the same time, body is the sovereign of the stage, it benefits from its own possibilities and the possibilities of the text, scene, tendance of the audience. When it comes to tragedy, paradoxically enough, it possesses the greatest power and attracts the highest attention when it reaches the limits of its strength, when it walks on the edge, when it experiences labor, pain, suffering, and even death. Female body has been, and not only in ancient times, perceived as more fragile, open, susceptible to influences, more prone and inclined to experiences such as pleasure and pain. This perception is one of dimensions of a complex polarity in which woman takes place of the other. The conflict between male and female character is in the focus of dramatic action very often: in the opus of Euripides in a way which is maybe the closest to the contemporary audience and readers. This paper has taken as its case study Euripides’ drama Hippolitus, which characterizes a woman as a δύστροπος áρμονία. This „reversed, disonant harmony“ is placed within a female body. Biological limitations force a female being to adapt, mutate, to be at odds with her very self - that is how her inner conflict and ambiguity appear. In reading the chosen tragedy, philological and anthropological will encounter together with the perspectives of gender and culture studies. The here offered reading of Hippolitus is given with the awareness of the struggle for body (or against it in the XXI century. Contemporary anthropology, other social sciences and humanities prominently aim their attention towards social and cultural dimensions of the body’s existence. Medicine and sport vest in the body a media dimension, being concern with its limitations. On the other hand, the today body has increasingly been an object of interpretations

  3. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  4. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  5. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents.

  6. Valoración de la composición corporal y de la percepción de la imagen en un grupo de mujeres universitarias del País Vasco Body composition assesment and body image perception in a group of Universtity females of the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arroyo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la percepción de la imagen corporal y comparar los resultados con las medidas reales en un grupo de estudiantes universitarias. Sujetos: La muestra estuvo formada por 28 mujeres estudiantes de la Diplomatura en Nutrición Humana y Dietética de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU, que participaron voluntariamente tras dar su consentimiento informado. La edad media fue de 22,01 ± 2,12 años (20,23-28,25. Material y métodos: Las variables de antropometría estimadas de forma directa y los índices derivados se compararon con valores de referencia. La valoración de la percepción de la imagen corporal se llevó a cabo con un software somatomórfico. La diferencia entre las medidas percibidas y las ideales se utilizaron como medida de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. El análisis estadístico se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS vs 14,0. Resultados y discusión: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en la muestra objeto de estudio fue del 10,7%, y la de bajo peso fue del 7,1%. La percepción de la grasa corporal fue buena, mientras que la de la masa muscular difirió en gran medida de la real (3,91 ± 2,75 kg/m²; P Objetive: To assess the body image perception and to compare the results with the true measurements in a group of university students. Subjects: Participants were 28 volunteer females recruited from the degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetic from the University of the Basque Country (Spain. All participants gave their informed consent. The mean (SD age of the participants was 22.01 (2.12 years (20,23-28,25. Methods: Anthropometric measurement estimated directly and the derived indexes were compared with reference values. The assessment of body image perception was made using a somatomorphic software. The difference between the perceived measurements and the ideals were used as measure of body dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS vs 14.0. Results and discussion: Prevalence of overweight and

  7. A Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 : An investigation with female university students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a), an instrument for assessing key components of positive body image. Dutch-speaking female university students (N=310, Mage=21.31, SD=3.04) completed the Dutch BAS-2. To asse

  8. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  9. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  10. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  11. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  12. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  13. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  14. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  15. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting ...

  16. Sociocultural context of women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Marie-Claude; Raine, Kim

    2004-09-01

    In our society, women's bodies are the locus of both increasing rates of obesity and body dissatisfaction. While these trends may seem contradictory or to result from each other, an alternative explanation is that they are both the products of an unfavourable sociocultural environment in the area of food and weight. Both body dissatisfaction and excess weight can seriously impact women's physical and emotional health. The strong cultural value placed on thinness, especially for women, unfortunately may take precedence over health. To effectively address the impact of women's body image dissatisfaction requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of women's lives. This study used a naturalistic paradigm to explore how women's personal and sociocultural context influences their body image. Forty-four non-eating disordered women ranging from 21 to 61 years old were interviewed twice using a semi-structured interview guide. Women's narratives revealed that body image is not a static construct, but is dynamic and fluctuates as women encounter new experiences and re-interpret old ones. The powerful and unconscious impact of the media on body image was mediated by women's internal contexts (self-confident and self-critical) and their relationships with others, such as partners and other women. Body image was not so much influenced by the nature of others' comments but interpretation of their meaning. However, health professionals' comments were typically not reinterpreted due to the health context in which they were given. While some women's narratives expressed their internalized sociocultural norms, others' described acceptance of their bodies following a process of reflection and empowerment. In light of these findings, efforts to improve women's body image, and by extension their health, can no longer only focus on diminishing the tangible power of industry and media, but must include transforming the social ties, practices and conventions in everyday

  17. Body dysmorphic disorder in female Swedish dermatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohede, Sabina; Wyon, Yvonne; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2017-09-27

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are highly distressed and impaired owing to perceived defects in their physical appearance that are not noticeable to others. They are frequently concerned about their skin and often present to dermatologists rather than psychiatrists. However, BDD patients attending dermatology clinics may be at risk of not receiving an appropriate assessment and beneficial treatment. The aims of this study were to estimate the BDD prevalence rate among Swedish female dermatology patients and to assess the psychological condition of BDD patients compared to that of other dermatology patients. The occurrence of BDD was estimated using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), a validated self-report measure for BDD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and quality of life was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The prevalence rate of BDD among female Swedish dermatology patients was 4.9% (95% CI 3.2-7.4). Anxiety (HADS A ≥ 11) was 4-fold more commonly reported by patients with positive BDD screening (48% vs. 11%), and depression (HADS D ≥ 11) was over 10-fold more common in patients with positive BDD screening (19% vs. 1.8%) (P BDD group, compared to a score of 4 in the non-BDD group (P BDD is fairly common among female Swedish dermatology patients (4.9%) and that BDD patients have high levels of depression and anxiety and severely impaired quality of life. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, S; Schulte, D; Busch, M; Grönemeyer, D; Herpertz, S; Suchan, B

    2011-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing. Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively. Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to post-treatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus. Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for self-awareness. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  19. Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

  20. Young females' images of motherhood in relation to television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ex, C.T.G.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between television viewing and young females' images of motherhood. The respondents were 166 Dutch adolescents (age 15–17) and young women (age 20–22) with various educational backgrounds. None were mothers. We examined the young females' self-image and ideal ima

  1. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  2. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  4. BODY IMAGE AND ATTITUDE: A QUALITY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Silva Dalbosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study that seeks o determine whether people is able to build impressions through the perception of other's body. The study seeks to determine whether the different body shapes or configurations produce different attitudes in female recipients. Through a qualitative methodology and in-depth interviews which took place subsequent content analysis, we observed the reactions of subjects to five different forms of silhouettes, all with the same BMI (Body Mass Index. The article defends the method and realizes the most important conclusions of the investigation

  5. "Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, E

    2001-01-01

    Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

  6. [Sex differences in body image of adolescents and significance for self esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus

    2002-03-01

    Previous findings show that the body image of adolescents is in the first place gender related. However, most studies primarily focus on body cathexis. The present study, which was conducted in the context of a multi-dimensional perspective, refers to the question of gender differences in the adolescent's body image. Furthermore, it examines what relevance the single components of the body image have for general self-esteem. Therefore, we tested 326 adolescents aged 13 to 16 using questionnaires. The results indicate that there is primarily evidence for gender differences, whereas age related differences can hardly be found: Female adolescents differ from their male counterparts for example in the following aspects: they have a higher body awareness, a higher dissatisfaction with their shape, a lower perceived athletic competence and stronger feelings of depersonalisation. However, considering the effect sizes, it becomes clear that the differences mainly come up to only a low extend. Besides, the individual body image profile is hardly suitable to determine the gender of the adolescents. Furthermore, using regression analysis it was shown that altogether the body image has the same relevance for males and females in order to predict self-esteem. Nevertheless, there are special body image components that help to predict body image for boys and girls differently. The results show that the body image of adolescents is gender-depending but not gender specific. So demand arises for investigating the determinants of the development of the adolescent's body image that go beyond the gender-variable.

  7. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  8. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  9. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  10. Analysis of Attentional Bias towards Attractive and Unattractive Body Regions among Overweight Males and Females: An Eye-Movement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Warschburger

    Full Text Available Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others' attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias.We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females with respect to the participants' own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view. Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires.The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one's own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results.

  11. Analysis of Attentional Bias towards Attractive and Unattractive Body Regions among Overweight Males and Females: An Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Calvano, Claudia; Richter, Eike M.; Engbert, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others’ attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias. Methods/Design We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females) and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females) with respect to the participants’ own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view). Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires. Discussion The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one’s own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results. PMID:26479500

  12. Food choice criteria in adolescents according to body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousana K. Papadopoulou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased worldwide, while the percentage of adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image has also increased. Disturbed body image is an important criterion for eating disturbances. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body image on the food choice criteria of adolescents. The participants consisted of 1003 students (495 boys and 508 girls from High and Junior High schools in Thessaloniki, with mean age of 14.6±1.5 years. The sample for our study was chosen with stratified sampling plan. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire regarding the food choice criteria, based on the studies of Lappalainen et al. (1998, Steptoe et al. (1995, Contento et al. (1995 and Worsley and Leitch (1981. Body image was assessed using Contento et al. (1995 questionnaire. The difference between desired and real body weight was used to estimate the desire of body weight change. The SPSS computer program was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square (X2 test was used to assess the differences between subgroups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed that 35.9% of the adolescents (45% females and 26.6% males wanted to lose weight, while 14% (6.3% females and 22% males wished to gain weight. The remaining 50.1% (48.7% females and 51.4% males wanted to maintain their body weight. Food appearance constituted a more important criterion for the adolescents who wished to gain weight compared to those who wished to maintain their weight and the adolescents who wanted to lose weight. Dietary value was more important for the individuals who wanted to lose weight, than those who wished to maintain their weight and those who wished to gain weight. Overall, the majority of the girls was dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to lose weight. More boys wished to gain weight compared to girls. Adolescents who wished to lose weight seemed more concerned about food dietary value than

  13. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bodiba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.

  14. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  15. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  16. Do children emotionally rehearse about their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fiona C M; McManus, Alison M; Knowles, Gemma; Masters, Rich S W; Polman, Remco C J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the association between propensity for emotional rehearsal, body image self-perception and weight status in Chinese Hong Kong pre-adolescents. Children 8-12 years of age (n = 278) completed measurement of body mass index, body image and emotional rehearsal. Multinomial regression analyses revealed that body mass index was positively associated with body image dissatisfaction and a significant predictor of body size estimation. However, only body size underestimation was associated with lower rehearsal tendencies. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and body size estimation was also reported for this population. Future research is suggested for greater understanding of emotional coping in body image dissatisfaction in young children.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  18. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  19. Teaching Body Image to EFL Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Miss `Victoria L

    2010-01-01

    An extract of an Upper-Intermediate EFL coursebook for teenage learners I designed in partial requirement for MA Applied Linguistics & English Language Teaching. The material is centred about the topic of 'Body Image' and includes a focus on learner training; infinitives & gerunds; skimming and scanning reading tasks; intensive listening practice; giving opinions/speculating; rhyming words.

  20. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do children emotionally rehearse about their body image?

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, F.C.M.; McManus, A. M.; Knowles, G; Masters, R.S.W.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between propensity for emotional rehearsal, body image self-perception \\ud and weight status in Chinese Hong Kong pre-adolescents. Children 8–12 years of age (n = 278) completed \\ud measurement of body mass index, body image and emotional rehearsal. Multinomial regression analyses \\ud revealed that body mass index was positively associated with body image dissatisfaction and a significant \\ud predictor of body size estimation. However, only body size undere...

  2. Consider ultrasound first for imaging the female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, Beryl R; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Bromley, Bryann; Goldstein, Steven R; Groszmann, Yvette; Shipp, Thomas D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound technology has evolved dramatically in recent years and now includes applications such as 3-dimensional volume imaging, real-time evaluation of pelvic organs (simultaneous with the physical examination), and Doppler blood flow mapping without the need for contrast, which makes ultrasound imaging unique for imaging the female pelvis. Among the many cross-sectional imaging techniques, we should use the most informative, less invasive, and less expensive modality to avoid radiation when possible. Hence, ultrasound imaging should be the first imaging modality used in women with pelvic symptoms.

  3. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  4. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

    2014-03-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image.

  5. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  6. The accuracy of the body adiposity index for predicting body fat percentage in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. A scientific study of this novel method in athletic groups is warranted because of the possibility of it serving as an inexpensive field technique. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the BAI for predicting BF% in a group of collegiate female athletes by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion variable. Thirty college-aged female athletes (age = 20.0 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. For each participant, BF% was obtained with the BAI method and compared with DXA. The mean BF% was 27.1 ± 3.4 by the BAI and 26.7 ± 5.9 from DXA, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, the BAI did not provide a significant correlation with the DXA (r = 0.28, R2 = 0.08, p > 0.05) and resulted in a standard error of estimate = 5.78% and total error = 5.84%. Bland-Altman plot showed that the limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) between the DXA and BAI ranged between -10.2 and 11.8%, and there was a significant negative association between the difference and mean of the 2 methods (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% in female athletes and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method should not be used for predicting individual BF% in athletic women.

  7. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  8. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  9. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  10. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Benson, Lindsay; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Goncalves, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that body image affects sexual functioning, but the relationship between specific types of body image (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) and domains of sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm) has not been investigated. To determine whether, and to what degree, body image concerns (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) influence aspects of women's sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm). Eighty-eight sexually active women in heterosexual romantic relationships completed surveys assessing evaluative, affective, and behavioral body image and sexual functioning. Body composition data also were collected using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sexual functioning was assessed using the desire, arousal, and orgasm subscales of the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that poor evaluative, affective, and behavioral body image were detrimental to women's sexual functioning. Specifically, dissatisfaction with one's body predicted decrements in desire (β = -0.31, P body negatively predicted decrements in desire (β = 0.22, P body during a sexual encounter (body image self-consciousness) predicted decrements in arousal (β = -0.37, P body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body ideals in women after viewing images of typical and healthy weight models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rebecca; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-09-01

    Viewing thin models, pervasive in popular culture, is correlated with body dissatisfaction and anxiety in women. Whether or not the same is true when viewing healthy weight models is unknown. In this study we tested whether viewing healthy weight models increases the ideal female body size. Body image, anxiety, happiness and depression were measured in 44 female participants following viewing of images of thin or healthy weight models (within-subject separated by two weeks). We found that after viewing images of healthy weight models, women's body ideals (as measured by a participant-adjusted virtual model) were significantly larger than when the same women viewed images of very thin models. This effect was greatest in those women with the highest levels of baseline anxiety (as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). These results suggest that viewing healthy weight models results in more healthy body ideals than those typically promoted through media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of Body Attitude and Personality Characteristics to Dietary Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Tiffany Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Relationship of Body Attitude and Personality Characteristics to Dietary Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes Tiffany Michelle Reiss The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of body attitude to both dietary intake and selected personality characteristics. The study focused on the relationship between dietary intake and both body attitude and personality characteristics as well as differences in body attitude and personality characteristics between female co...

  13. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  14. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p < 0.05 fo...

  15. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p pelvic floor prolapse.

  16. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders.

  17. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckbach, Sabine [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.weckbach@umm.de; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  18. Effects of Negative Body Image on Our Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to Wikipedia,body image can be defined as"a person’s perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of his or her own body".Body image can be influenced by many factors such as media,social values,culture,gender.These influences can lead to both positive and negative body images.The positive body image shows people’s satisfaction with their

  19. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  20. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  1. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  2. BMI not WHR modulates BOLD fMRI responses in a sub-cortical reward network when participants judge the attractiveness of human female bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Holliday

    Full Text Available In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female body-shaped greyscale images, based on a Principal Component Analysis of female bodies, we were able to construct images which covary with real female body mass (indexed with BMI and not with body shape (indexed with WHR, and vice versa. Twelve observers (6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. Our primary fMRI results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas (such as the extrastriate body area, changing BMI also modulated activity in the caudate nucleus, and other parts of the brain reward system. This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and we infer that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating disordered individuals.

  3. Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Females and Males: Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…

  4. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  5. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  6. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  7. Self-Esteem and Body Image Perception in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship established between self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, as subjective variables among young, female Romanian university students. Purpose of Study: We hypothesize that young women's body dissatisfaction is related to their self-esteem level. The…

  8. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  9. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  10. The Relationship Between Body Image and Sexual Function in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Poorandokht; Houshyar, Zeinab; Javadifar, Nahid; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh; Jorfi, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    An individual's social and marital function, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life may, sometimes be affected by negative body image. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between body image and sexual function in middle-aged women. In this cross-sectional study, 437 middle-aged women, who were referred to various public healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015, were selected. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for data collection. Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation test, and logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Approximately 58% of the participants expressed satisfaction with their body image, 35% were mildly dissatisfied, and 7% were moderately dissatisfied with their body image. Body image had a significant negative relationship with sexual satisfaction and sexual function (p=0.005). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between body image and sexual desire (p=0.022), pain (p=0.001), sexual arousal (pbody image is an important aspect of sexual health. In this study, women with a positive body image had higher sexual function valuation, compared to women with a negative body image. Also, body shape satisfaction was a predictor of sexual function.

  11. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-09-05

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and Decrease Body Size among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents. Findings indicated females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and…

  13. Female Body in Traditional Society%传统社会中的女性身体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文娟

    2015-01-01

    中国传统社会对女性身体有着三方面的操控,通过身体地位建构女性内在人格与外在形象;通过身体规训与改造来完成妇德教育;通过妇科话语与民间禁忌来认知女性身体生育功能。“内/外”之别的男女两性生活及行为活动空间的区别使得男女在家庭、社会中的角色和地位不同,乃至个体道德人格和身体取向上都有了基本差别。“内/外”之别在文化意义和社会普遍意识层面上由男权维系,而对女性行为的规范和对女性身体的规训、改造以及认知则是权力实践的主要场地。%Chinese traditional society has three ways of controlling of the female body: constructing the female internal and external image of personality through the body position; transforming feminine virtue and education through physical discipline; relying on the discourse of folk gynecology and taboo that restrict the female body to reproductive function. The “inside/outside” distinction means the distinctions in men and women's living space between men and women's behaviors in the family, and between different social roles and status of individual moral character. The “Inside/outside” distinction is maintained in cultural code and universal consciousness by the male chauvinist society. The norms of female behavior, the discipline, the restructuring and knowledge of the female body are the main fields of power practice.

  14. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  15. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  16. Prevalência de sintomas de anorexia nervosa e insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes do sexo feminino do Município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Prevalence of symptoms of anorexia nervosa and dissatisfaction with body image among female adolescents in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilaura Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar a prevalência de sintomas de anorexia nervosa e de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes (sexo feminino de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A amostra foi proporcional, estratificada conforme rede escolar (pública/privada e região sócio-geográfica, posteriormente distribuída no ensino fundamental e médio. Foram analisadas 1.148 adolescentes sorteadas aleatoriamente nos estratos. A presença de sintomas de anorexia nervosa (EAT+ foi identificada pelo Teste de Atitudes Alimentares e a avaliação da imagem corporal pelo Questionário de Imagem Corporal. As prevalências de EAT+ e insatisfação com a imagem corporal foram 15,6% e 18,8%. O EAT+ apresentou-se associado à faixa de 10-13 anos (OR = 1,542; p = 0,046; sobrepeso e obesidade (OR = 2,075; p The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of symptoms of anorexia nervosa (EAT+ and dissatisfaction with body image among female adolescents in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The proportional sample (1,148 adolescents was stratified according to position of schools in the socio-geographic regions and public/private school classification, and was subsequently distributed according to primary and secondary schools. EAT+ was identified through the Eating Attitudes Test and evaluation of body image through the Body Shape Questionnaire. Prevalence rates for EAT+ and dissatisfaction with body image were 15.6% and 18.8%, respectively. EAT+ was associated with age (10-13y (OR = 1.542; p = 0.046; overweight/obesity (OR = 2.075; p < 0.001; dissatisfaction with body image (OR = 14.392; p < 0.001; and public schools (OR = 1.423; p = 0.041. Multiple logistic regression showed dissatisfaction with body image as the strongest independent risk factor for symptoms of anorexia nervosa (OR = 16.7; p < 0.001. Adolescents in Florianópolis show EAT+ rates similar to those observed in other regions of Brazil.

  17. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-08-23

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries.

  18. Commodifying the Female Body: Outsourcing Surrogacy in a Global Market

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Commodification of the human body and its services is frequently contested. However, certain forms of bodily commodification are treated differently than others and raise fundamental questions about ethics, class, race and gender, to name a few. What commonly goes unacknowledged, however, is that human bodies are already commodified on a daily basis in a myriad of ways. Not only do medical professionals routinely commodify the bodies of their patients, but many others, such as models, athlete...

  19. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  20. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction in Portuguese adolescents: obesity, sports activity and TV watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles de Castro Coelho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors in Portuguese adolescents (N=529, 10-18 years, 53.7% male and 46.3% female. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction (estimated through Collins's silhouettes was 58%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the variables associated were: obesity, watch TV over 2 hours/day and practice sport activities 4 or more days/week. In male, obesity and watch TV over 2 hours/day were related to body dissatisfaction and among female only obesity had statistical significance. It is necessary to considered different public health interventions for men and women in order to reduce this high body image dissatisfaction.   Keywords: Body image, adolescence, gender, obesity, sports activity

  1. Preoperative imaging diagnosis of carotid body tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ojeda, Luis A; Martínez-Viteri, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are relatively frequent lesions encountered at high altitudes, such in as the Andean Mountains. A correct preoperative diagnosis is essential for surgical planning and performance. For this reason, we have reviewed the evolution of our experience in the imaging diagnosis of these tumors. Between 1980 and June 2008, 160 CBTs were diagnosed. A total of 138 tumors were operated on, 4 are waiting for surgery, and 18 were not operated on because of age, medical conditions, or patient refusal. We have reviewed retrospectively the modalities of imaging diagnosis in our patients who underwent operation. Among the 138 tumors operated on, a correct preoperative diagnosis was done in 127 cases (92%). The preoperative diagnosis of the remaining 11 patients was unspecified benign tumor for 6 patients and neck lymph node for 5 patients. The imaging methods performed by different radiologists were conventional ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, carotid conventional angiography (CA), axial tomography, magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Most patients had more than one image study. Review of radiologist reports revealed a correct diagnosis in all carotid CA, magnetic resonance studies, and CTA. Additionally, CTA appeared to be a valuable method to predict the Shamblin group. Clinical suspicion and current image techniques permit a correct diagnosis in practically all cases of CBT.

  2. Marketingový význam body image

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers...

  3. Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.

  4. A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2013-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    TOTTEN, Daniel C.; Vuong, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Harrell, Robert A.; Beneš, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fo...

  6. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you ...

  7. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities.

  8. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... really bring down your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all ...

  9. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  10. Nutritional Habits of Female University Students in Relation to Self-Perception of Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…

  11. Body image and sexual function in women after treatment for anal and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Philip, Errol J; Baser, Raymond E; Carter, Jeanne; Schuler, Tammy A; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine; Nelson, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Treatment for anal and rectal cancer (ARCa) often results in side effects that directly impact sexual functioning; however, ARCa survivors are an understudied group, and factors contributing to the sexual sequelae are not well understood. Body image problems are distressing and may further exacerbate sexual difficulties, particularly for women. This preliminary study sought to (1) describe body image problems, including sociodemographic and disease/treatment correlates, and (2) examine relations between body image and sexual function. For the baseline assessment of a larger study, 70 women completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and Colorectal Cancer-specific Module, including the Body Image subscale, and Female Sexual Function Index. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression evaluated correlates of body image. Among sexually active women (n = 41), hierarchical regression examined relations between body image and sexual function domains. Women were on average 55 years old (standard deviation = 11.6), non-Hispanic White (79%), married (57%), and employed (47%). The majority (86%) reported at least one body image problem. Younger age, lower global health status, and greater severity of symptoms related to poorer body image (p's body image was inversely related to all aspects of sexual function (β range 0.50-0.70, p's body image as a potentially modifiable target to address sexual difficulties in this understudied group. Further longitudinal research is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective interventions to improve the sexual health and well-being of female ARCa survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amad N; Khalid, Salema; Khan, Hussain I; Jabeen, Mehnaz

    2011-05-24

    Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in

  13. Examining the impact of acculturative stress on body image disturbance among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Chloe V; Harter, Stephanie L

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.

  14. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  15. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  16. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  17. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-01-24

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  18. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  19. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-07

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  20. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  1. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  2. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  3. Association between self-concept and body weight, gender, and pubertal development among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, J A; Abraham, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of 462 young adolescent Australian students from two different schools. All students enrolled in Years 7 and 8 completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, which includes several self-concept subscales and ratings of the importance of each subscale. The self-concept subscales ranked as most important by male and female students were Close Friendship, Scholastic Competence, and Job Competence. Females rated their ability to form close friendships significantly higher and of greater importance than did males. Standard body weight was related to students' Physical Appearance subscale scores, with higher weight students having lower self-concept, and postmenarcheal females having the poorest opinion of their physical appearance. Higher body weight males had lower scores on Athletic Competence, Job Competence, and Behavioral Conduct than did other males. Overweight females and normal weight males considered athletic competence to be more important than did other students. Pubertal status was related to students' scores on Athletic Competence, with postpubertal males who were not overweight scoring highest, and on Physical Appearance, with postmenarcheal females having the lowest opinion of their appearance. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and postmenarcheal females the lowest self-concept score. The discrepancy score suggested that females felt they had failed to meet their ideal self-concept significantly more than did males. The results suggest that school programs should be implemented to provide exercise and job skill training suitable for all students, especially those who are overweight. These programs, while taking into account students' pubertal status, should aim to improve self-image

  4. Development and Full Body Validation of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew L; Koya, Bharath; Schap, Jeremy M; Gayzik, F Scott

    2016-11-01

    To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases. In order to make direct comparisons to experimental data, which represent the mass of an average male, the model was compared to experimental corridors using two methods: 1) post-hoc scaling the outputs from the baseline F05-O model and 2) geometrically morphing the model to the body habitus of the average male to allow direct comparisons. This second step required running the morphed full body model in all 10 simulations for a total of 20 full body simulations presented. Overall, geometrically morphing the model was found to more closely match the target data with an average ISO score for the rigid impacts of 0.76 compared to 0.67 for the scaled responses. Based on these data, the morphed model was then used for model validation in the vehicle sled cases. Overall, the morphed model attained an average weighted score of 0.69 for the two sled impacts. Hard tissue injuries were also assessed and the baseline F05-O model was found to predict a greater occurrence of pelvic fractures compared to the GHBMC average male model, but predicted fewer rib fractures.

  5. Infection imaging using whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpe, K.D.M.; Schulthess, G.K. von [Department of Medical Radiology: Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Dazzi, H.; Schaffner, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the detection of soft tissue and bone infections. Forty-five PET examinations in 39 patients (26 male, 13 female, age range 27-86 years) with suspected infectious foci were examined with whole- or partial-body PET scans using FDG. Twenty-seven scans were done in patients with soft tissue and 18 in patients with bone infections. Corrected and uncorrected transaxial PET images were acquired. Seven hundred and twelve body regions in these 45 PET scans were evaluated. Pathological findings were graded using a confidence scale from A to E (A, definitive infection; E, no infection). Disease status was defined in all patients by culture, biopsy or surgery and clinical follow-up. In 45 PET scans there were 40 true-positive, four false-positive and one false-negative findings. Twelve foci suspected to be infectious in nature on the basis of other imaging examinations were identified as negative by PET, thus representing true-negative findings. Sensitivities for the patients with soft tissue (STI) and bone infections (BI) and for the pooled data were 96%, 100% and 98%, respectively. As the calculation of specificity is not straightforward, it was calculated on a per lesion as well as on a per body region basis to permit estimation of an upper and a lower limit. On a per lesion basis, specificities were 70% (STI), 83% (BI) and 75% for the pooled data and on a per body region basis (dividing the body into 22 regions) they were 99% (STI), 99% (BI) and 99% for the pooled data. One false-negative result was found in a patient with cholangitis. It is concluded that PET appears to be a highly sensitive method to detect infectious foci. Specificity is more difficult to estimate, but is probably in the range from 70% to above 90%. (orig.)

  6. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of understand

  7. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  8. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  9. Body Image and Dieting Failure in College Men and Women: Examining Links between Depression and Eating Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Linda J.; Wasserman, Erika L.

    1995-01-01

    Explored whether the links of depression, eating problems, and body image that apply to women also apply to men. A study of 234 male and female college students showed depression was higher in those with negative body image for both men and women. Depression accounted for significant variability in eating problems only in women. (GR)

  10. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-04-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  11. Correlation between Health Perception, Body Image, and Eating Habits in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ichsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders, including eating disorders, mostly begin during youth. Moreover, negative body image is found to cause unhealthy eating habits in the context of several cross-cultural settings. This study aimed to examine the correlation between health perception and body image with eating habits among high school students. Methods: A structured, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students of a private high school in Bandung, Indonesia in June-October 2014. The questionnaire included questions about health perception, body image, eating habits, body weight and height, and also other demographic parameters. The school was selected as the study object through purposive sampling, and 140 high school students (72 male and 68 female were ramdomly selected. Results: Male and female did not show considerable differences in health perceptions. Out of 13 statements, 12 statements of male respondents showed better body image than female. While in eating habits statements, female respondents seemed to maintain healthier eating habits than male respondents. No significant correlation was observed between body image and eating habits (r=-0.015, p=0.858. There was significant correlation between health perception and eating habits (r=0.374, p<0.001. Correlation between sex and eating habits was found (p=0.020, there was not significant relationship between eating habits and Body Mass Index (BMI (p=0.368. Conclusions: The negative relationship between body image and eating habits is not significant. However there was a significant positive relationship between health perception and eating habits. Furthermore, there was correlation between sex and eating habits, while the positive relationship between eating habits and BMI was still not found.

  12. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  13. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

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    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  14. BodyWise: evaluating a pilot body image group for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Victoria A; Brown, Amy; Bamford, Bryony; Saeidi, Saeideh; Morgan, John F; Lacey, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance can be enduring and distressing to individuals with eating disorders and effective treatments remain limited. This pilot study evaluated a group-based treatment-BodyWise-developed for use in full and partial hospitalization with patients with anorexia nervosa at low weight. A partial crossover waitlist design was used. BodyWise (N = 50) versus treatment as usual (N = 40) were compared on standardized measures of body image disturbance. Results demonstrated significant improvement in the group compared to treatment as usual for the primary outcome measure (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Shape Concern subscale) and other manifestations of body image disturbance including body checking and body image quality of life. BodyWise appeared acceptable to participants, and was easy to deliver within the pragmatics of a busy eating disorder service. There is potential for its wider dissemination as a precursor to more active body image interventions.

  15. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.

  16. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  17. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI.

  18. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-04-11

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of self-esteem and body image stable across adolescence? (2) What is the direction of the relations between body image and self-esteem over time? (3) What is the role of gender, ethnicity, and pubertal development on those trajectories? This study relies on Autoregressive Latent Trajectory analyses based on data from a 4-year, 6-wave, prospective longitudinal study of 1,001 adolescents. Self-esteem and body image levels remained high and stable over time, although body image levels also tended to increase slightly. The results show that levels of self-esteem were positively influenced by levels of body image. However, these effects remained small and most of the observed associations were cross-sectional. Finally, the effects of pubertal development on body image and self-esteem levels were mostly limited to non-Caucasian females who appeared to benefit from more advanced pubertal development. Conversely, Caucasian females presented the lowest self-esteem and body image levels of all, although for them more advanced pubertal development levels were associated with a slight rise in body image over time.

  19. Influência de fatores socioeconômicos, comportamentais e nutricionais na insatisfação com a imagem corporal de universitárias em Florianópolis, SC Influence of socioeconomic, behavioral and nutritional factors on dissatisfaction with body image among female university students in Florianopolis, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal e testar a associação com fatores socioeconômicos, comportamentais e nutricionais em universitárias ingressantes de uma universidade pública em Florianópolis, SC. A insatisfação com a imagem corporal foi investigada por meio do Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34, em uma amostra de 220 estudantes. O estado nutricional foi investigado por meio do índice de massa corporal (IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC. As características socioeconômicas (idade, renda familiar mensal e escolaridade dos pais, bem como consumo energético e prática de regimes para emagrecer também foram investigados. Os fatores associados à insatisfação com a imagem corporal foram testados pela regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal foi de 47,3% (IC 95% 40,7; 53,9. O estado nutricional segundo IMC e a prática de regimes para emagrecer foram as variáveis que se mostraram associadas à insatisfação corporal. Os resultados apontam indicadores de uma elevada prevalência de rejeição da própria forma física entre as universitárias, o que sinaliza a necessidade de ações nutricionais nas universidades, a fim de esclarecer e prevenir atitudes alimentares anormais entre os estudantes.This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34 in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and body fat percentage (%BF. Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with

  20. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  1. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  2. The role of scar origin in shaping men's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-03-01

    Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars.

  3. Body image dissatisfaction in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Shah, Samir A; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Shapiro, Jason; Leleiko, Neal; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Samad, Zahid; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and their treatments may affect physical appearance, the effect of IBD on body image is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether body image dissatisfaction (BID) changes over time in patients with IBD and to examine the demographic and disease-related variables associated with decreased body image. Adults aged 18 and above in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. BID was assessed using a modified version of the Adapted Satisfaction With Appearance questionnaire. Total Adapted Satisfaction With Appearance scores and 2 subscores were calculated. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. Two hundred seventy-four patients were studied. BID was found to be stable over time among men and women with IBD despite overall improvements in disease activity. No differences were found in BID according to IBD subtype. Female gender, greater disease activity, higher symptom burden, longer duration of steroid use, dermatologic and musculoskeletal manifestations of IBD, and ileocolonic disease location among patients with Crohn's disease were associated with greater BID. Greater BID was associated with lower health-related quality of life. BID remains stable in an incident cohort of IBD despite improved disease activity and is associated with lower health-related quality of life.

  4. Bigger Is Not Always Better: Females Prefer Males of Mean Body Size in Philautus odontotarsus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bicheng; Wang, Jichao; Zhao, Longhui; Sun, Zhixin; Brauth, Steven E.; Tang, Yezhong; Cui, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Most species are believed to evolve larger body sizes over evolutionary time. Previous studies have suggested that sexual selection, through male-male competition and female choice, favors larger males. However, there is little evidence of selection against large size. The female serrate-legged small treefrogs (Philautus odontotarsus) must carry passive males from leks to breeding grounds over relatively long distances after amplexus to find a suitable place to lay eggs. The costs of large male size may therefore decrease mating success due to reduced agility and/or higher energy requirements. Thus, we hypothesized that selection would not favor larger males in P. odontotarsus. Females can assess male body size on the basis of the dominant frequency of male calls in frogs. To assess female P. odontotarsus preferences for a potential mate’s body size, male calls of high, average and low dominant frequency were played back to the females in phonotaxis experiments. Results showed that most females prefer the advertisement call with average dominant frequency. In addition, we compared the body mass distribution of amplectant males with that of single males in nature. The body masses of amplectant males are more narrowly distributed in the intermediate range than that of single males. The phonotaxis results and the data of actual female preferences in the field show that females strongly prefer potential mates of mean body sizes, consistent with the view that, in this species at least, larger males are not always perceived as better by females. In the present study, P. odontotarsus provides an example of an amphibian species in which large size does not have an advantage in mating success for males. Instead, our results provide evidences that stabilizing selection favors the optimal intermediate size of males. PMID:26901766

  5. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  6. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  7. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  8. Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

  9. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  10. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  11. Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Self-Esteem in African American College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kimberly A.; Phelps, LeAdelle; Bross, Andrea L.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates African American undergraduate females (N=95) for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and on four dimensions of self-concept. Results indicate body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness at levels commensurate with Caucasian samples. A hierarchical multiple regression found a combination of physical self-concept, drive for…

  12. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  13. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  14. “I Like My Body; Therefore, I Like Myself”: How Body Image Influences Self-Esteem—A Cross-Sectional Study on Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a very important process for adolescents. Physiological changes and body modifications lead to great vulnerability. This vulnerability is connected to the adolescent’s perceptions of the uncertainty of outcomes due to the transformation of their infant body into an adult one. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand whether body image perception and satisfaction influence self-esteem in a sample of Italian male and female adolescents. A total of 242 adolescents (120 male and 122 female individuals aged 11 to 17 years (M = 13.33; SD = 1.7 completed the study measures. Quantitative and qualitative instruments were used. In particular, adolescents completed self-report questionnaires to assess their pubertal status (Pubertal Developmental Scale, Peterson, Crockett, Richards, & Boxer, 1988, their body esteem (Body Esteem Scale, Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001, their body image (Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire, Rauste-von Wright, 1989, and their self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg,1965. Adolescent were also invited to depict themselves to assess their body representations by completing the Drawing Me test (Confalonieri, 2011. Results from MANOVAs confirm that gender and age are two factors that influence body image perception and satisfaction. SEM analyses show that good self-esteem is reached through good body satisfaction following different trajectories in male and female individuals. Data from adolescents’ body representations obtained via drawings confirm that females are more concerned about their body changes and about the appearance of secondary sexual features than males. This research, stressing the influence of various individual factors and highlighting the psychological distress and dissatisfaction of adolescents, especially females, confirms the importance of studying this topic in order to generate preventive measures to help adolescents through this developmental task.

  15. Female infertility: a systematic approach to radiologic imaging and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkeler, Jill A; Woodfield, Courtney A; Lazarus, Elizabeth; Hillstrom, Mary M

    2009-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation of women for infertility. The pelvic causes of female infertility are varied and range from tubal and peritubal abnormalities to uterine, cervical, and ovarian disorders. In most cases, the imaging work-up begins with hysterosalpingography to evaluate fallopian tube patency. Uterine filling defects and contour abnormalities may be discovered at hysterosalpingography but typically require further characterization with hysterographic or pelvic ultrasonography (US) or pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hysterographic US helps differentiate among uterine synechiae, endometrial polyps, and submucosal leiomyomas. Pelvic US and MR imaging help further differentiate among uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis, and the various müllerian duct anomalies, with MR imaging being the most sensitive modality for detecting endometriosis. The presence of cervical disease may be inferred initially on the basis of difficulty or failure of cervical cannulation at hysterosalpingography. Ovarian abnormalities are usually detected at US. The appropriate selection of imaging modalities and accurate characterization of the various pelvic causes of infertility are essential because the imaging findings help direct subsequent patient care. (c) RSNA, 2009.

  16. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  17. Marketingový význam body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected with marketing activities that leads to the increasing pressure on marketing regulation. That is why the research of this potential influence is very actual. Both the real body image impact on consumer behavior and the ideal body image imaginary should be explored. Contrary to the importance of body image in consumer behavior, concentrated attention to it is relatively rare or even missing in marketing literature. There is also the other reason why to investigate it: naturally, there exist many differences in body image behavior among consumers . This implies the possibilities of physiognomic variables in market segmentation processes. A lot of research lines and methods could be employed to investigate marketing specifics of body image. One area is represented by comparative analyses of various secondary data. For example, the Body Mass Index date, their structure and trends can indicate some backgrounds moments. Data mining of syndicated data of marketing research agencies (such as project Market&Media&Lifestyle-TGI of Median agency in CR offer an immense possibility to explore overall tendencies in body image consumer behavior, changes in time, cross relations between several body image variables and consumer descriptive characteristics. Moreover, body image behavior could be related to media behavior and attitudes to advertising. Quantitative and qualitative ad hoc research represents further important research direction. It enables to explore specific levels of

  18. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    According to medical experts, individuals who are overweight (Body Mass ... exercise program improves physical health, enhance body image, raise ..... behavior in children and adolescents: what places youth at risk and how can these.

  19. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  20. Assimilating to a Boy's Body Shape for the Sake of Performance: Three Female Athletes' Body Experiences in a Sporting Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jenny; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores three female swimmers' relationships with their male coaches and the body practices they were exposed to within Australian swimming. Particular attention is given to how the relationships and practices might relate to gender. Additionally, the article examines how (if at all) the conduct contributed to the social construction…

  1. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  2. Male Body Image: The Role of Muscle Magazine Exposure, Body Mass Index, and Social Comparison in Men's Body Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonason, Peter K; Krcmar, Marina; Sohn, Steve

    2009-01-01

    ...). However, research on male body image tends to assume that the same theoretical models used to account for body satisfaction in women are appropriate for men (e.g., McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2004...

  3. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Behshid Garrusi; Saeide Garousi; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultura...

  4. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  5. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected wi...

  6. 'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: implications for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    The current study examines the role of self-compassion in face of shame and body image dissatisfaction, in 102 female eating disorders' patients, and 123 women from general population. Self-compassion was negatively associated with external shame, general psychopathology, and eating disorders' symptomatology. In women from the general population increased external shame predicted drive for thinness partially through lower self-compassion; also, body image dissatisfaction directly predicted drive for thinness. However, in the patients' sample increased shame and body image dissatisfaction predicted increased drive for thinness through decreased self-compassion. These results highlight the importance of the affiliative emotion dimensions of self-compassion in face of external shame, body image dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, emphasising the relevance of cultivating a self-compassionate relationship in eating disorders' patients.

  8. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  9. Percepción de imagen corporal y conductas alimentarias de riesgo en bailarinas de danza clásica del Liceo Municipal de la ciudad de Santa Fe Body image perception and dangerous eating habits among female ballet dancers from the municipal art academy in Santa Fe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Paredes

    2011-09-01

    habits with risk of anorexia nervosa among a group of 24 female dancers, aged between 13 and 23, attending ballet training courses at the Municipal Art Academy in Santa Fe City. The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate their BMI. Body images were used to assess the perception the participants had of themselves. 50% of the dancers overestimated their body image by selecting images that did not correspond to their anthropometric parameters. An EAT-40 questionnaire was used to identify eating disorders with risk of anorexia nervosa. The results showed that 58.3% of the dancers were at risk; that is to say, they followed abnormal eating habits; for example, they controlled their food intake and they were afraid of being overweight. The results show that dancers attending ballet training courses belong to a high-risk group, vulnerable to developing anorexia nervosa since more than half classified as "risk" and half presented the precipitating factor "body- image distortion".

  10. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook.

  11. Adolescents' Body Image Trajectories: A Further Test of the Self-Equilibrium Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maïano, Christophe; Scalas, L. Francesca; Janosz, Michel; Litalien, David

    2017-01-01

    The self-equilibrium hypothesis underlines the importance of having a strong core self, which is defined as a high and developmentally stable self-concept. This study tested this hypothesis in relation to body image (BI) trajectories in a sample of 1,006 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.6, including 541 males and 465 females) across a 4-year…

  12. Classroom Approach for Managing Dietary Restraint, Negative Eating Styles, and Body Image Concerns among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven R.; Madanat, Hala; Smith, TeriSue; De La Cruz, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an elective college course on dieting levels, eating styles, and body image among college women. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 29 self-selected female students at a western university who were mostly white, normal-weight seniors with significant…

  13. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  14. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  15. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  16. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  17. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence......Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... in the moving image...

  18. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  19. (Relocating (Identity With(in Politicized (Representation of Fe/Male Body in Kamala Das’ Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Sultana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is going to argue that the selected poems of renowned Indian poet Kamala Das are inclined to relocate both feminine and masculine identity through the politicized representation of body.  Kamala Das’ representation of body in her poems has always been viewed as a medium of re-historicizing the pain, sufferings, and psychological trauma that a woman goes through in a patriarchal society.  Though apparently female body seems to be submissive under patriarchal dominance but this paper reveals how female body in Das’ poems acts as a powerful agent over the male body. The objective of this paper is to analyze and evaluate kamala Das’ representation of body to understand the gender reality in a patriarchal society, to question the existing discourse of sexed/gendered identity, to find a new way of viewing to both female and male body. Echoing Beauvoir, Judith Butler and Hall, this paper is going to analyze how Kamala Das represents body as an important factor in her poems to fight back the normative concept of identity based on patriarchal sex and/or gender stereotypes. Keywords: identity, body, sex/gender, performativity, representation

  20. Internalização do ideal de magreza e insatisfação com a imagem corporal em meninas adolescentes = Internalization of thin ideal and body image dissatisfaction in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar o impacto da internalização do ideal de magreza na insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC em adolescentes do sexo feminino. A amostra foi constituída por 273 sujeitos com idade entre 11 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Body Shape Questionaire (BSQ para avaliar a IC. Utilizaram-se as subescalas “Internalização Geral” e “Internalização Atlética” do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 para avaliar a influência da mídia sobre a IC. Os resultados evidenciaram diferenças tanto na subescala internalização geral (p = 0,001 quanto na internalização atlética (p = 0,01 em função das classificações do BSQ. O modelo de regressão indicou influências estatisticamente significativas das subescalas do SATAQ-3 nos escores do BSQ (p = 0,001. Concluiu-se que a internalização do ideal de corpo sociocultural foi importante preditor da insatisfação com o peso e a aparência física em jovens meninas

  1. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle......Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...

  2. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  3. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.

  4. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  5. Body image and sexuality in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; Miller, Janis M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of physical changes associated with pelvic organ prolapse on a woman's body image and how that may influence sexuality has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to assess the implementation and utility of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Two research questions were asked: (1) What is the impact of pelvic organ prolapse on women's body image and how does this affect their sexual health?, and (2) Does the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) Scale show utility for use in assessing body image and sexual health in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A qualitative design was used for this study. Telephone interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire and an adapted body image and sexuality questionnaire specific to genital body image. Thirteen women with pelvic organ prolapse completed the study. Eight women were classified as sexually active, and 5 women were not sexually active. Data showed women with pelvic organ prolapse, classified as sexually active, scored significantly lower on the VSBE scale than women who were not sexually active. There was a positive correlation between severity of prolapse and VSBE scores. The VSBE scale questionnaire showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This tool may assist clinicians in a more thorough assessment of body image and sexuality in this population of women.

  6. Beyond muscles: unexplored parts of men's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Martins, Yolanda; Churchett, Libby

    2008-11-01

    Thus far the study of men's body image has been largely restricted to the dimensions of adiposity and muscularity. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way multiple aspects of men's body images, in particular, head hair, body hair, height and penis size, in addition to body weight and muscularity. Questionnaires were completed online by 200 heterosexual men. It was found that men were dissatisfied with all six aspects of their bodies, and worried primarily about body weight, penis size and height. In addition, aspects of weight, muscularity, height and penis size, but not head or body hair, were related to overall appearance self-esteem. It was concluded that men's body image is both multi-faceted and complex.

  7. “I Like My Body; Therefore, I Like Myself”: How Body Image Influences Self-Esteem—A Cross-Sectional Study on Italian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gatti; Chiara Ionio; Daniela Traficante; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a very important process for adolescents. Physiological changes and body modifications lead to great vulnerability. This vulnerability is connected to the adolescent’s perceptions of the uncertainty of outcomes due to the transformation of their infant body into an adult one. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand whether body image perception and satisfaction influence self-esteem in a sample of Italian male and female adolescents. A total of 242 adolescents (120 mal...

  8. The female images in the tang dynasty painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽霞

    2014-01-01

    the tang dynasty is the most prosperous dynasties in ancient China. Both in the cultural, economic, political and artistic performance is very outstanding. Historical development of the era makes unprece-dented open people's minds, such open also natural y seep into the woman's behavior, they have a certain personal freedom and individuality liberation, the status of women is rising. This painting in the tang dy-nasty has very good reflected in the female image. At times like these, had appeared Zhang Xuan, zhou-fang painter, their painting art has ex-erts a far-reaching influence on the later tang dynasty figure painting.

  9. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  10. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  11. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  12. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  13. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  14. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  15. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  16. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  17. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  18. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  19. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  20. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  1. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  2. Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa FORTES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disordered eating. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores according to body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state classifications. Results The findings showed that body dissatisfaction (p=0.001, perfectionism (p=0.04, and mood state (p=0.05 were associated with disordered eating in the female adolescents evaluated. Despite the statistically significant results obtained for all independent variables, it is worth mentioning that body dissatisfaction was the main determinant of disordered eating in the multiple regression model. Conclusion It can be concluded that body dissatisfaction explains the variance in disordered eating; however, it is also important to note that perfectionism and mood state are also associated to the disordered eating in female adolescents, although to a lesser extent.

  3. Body image and day-to-day social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B

    1999-10-01

    Participants maintained a social interaction diary and completed a measure of body image. Body image was found to have three factors, body attractiveness, social attractiveness (how attractive people believed others found them to be), and general attractiveness. For both men and women, self-perceptions of body attractiveness and of social attractiveness were positively related to the intimacy they found in interaction. Self-perceptions of social attractiveness were positively related to women's confidence in social interaction and their perceived influence over interaction, whereas for men, confidence and influence were unrelated to social attractiveness. For both men and women, body image was unrelated to how enjoyable people found interactions to be and was weakly related to how responsive they felt others were to them. For both men and women, body image was also unrelated to how socially active people were and to the relative distribution of same- and opposite-sex interactions.

  4. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment.

  5. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-01-23

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ(2) = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  6. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...

  7. A DXA validated geometric model for the calculation of body segment inertial parameters of young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha Lee; Forrest, Sarah Michelle; Wallace, Joanne; Challis, John H

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new geometric solids model, developed to address the lack of female specific models for body segment inertial parameter estimation. A second aim was to determine the effect of reducing the number of geometric solids used to model the limb segments on model accuracy. The 'full' model comprised 56 geometric solids, the 'reduced' 31, and the 'basic' 16. Predicted whole-body inertial parameters were compared with direct measurements (reaction board, scales), and predicted segmental parameters with those estimated from whole-body DXA scans for 28 females. The percentage root mean square error (%RMSE) for whole-body volume was geometric solids are required to more accurately model the trunk.

  8. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (Pmedia had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (Pmedia, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls.

  9. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: SOMATOTYPE AND BODY COMPOSITION VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener BEKTAŞ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data were collected according to the International Biological Programme (IBP and International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. The mean age of the subjects were 13.84 + 4.34 (year where weight 55.4 + 15.7 (kg and height 162.2 + 11.6 (cm. Study results showed gradual increase tendency in body fat pattern through categories. Subsequently body somatotypes were differed between categories as well. As a general tendency the somatotype characteristics of the subjects were found to be endomorphic mesomorph.

  10. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Factors that influence body image representations of black Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants' views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women.

  12. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  13. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs.

  14. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  15. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  16. Body image and eating disturbance in India: media and interpersonal influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Hemal; Thompson, J Kevin

    2004-03-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relationships among the variables of body mass index (BMI), interpersonal teasing, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness in samples of young adult and middle school females from India. Ninety-six adolescent and 93 adult females from Bombay, India, completed measures of body dissatisfaction, restriction, teasing history, and internalization of media images. Correlational and path analytic procedures were used to examine the data. Path analyses indicated that teasing and internalization mediated the effect of BMI on body dissatisfaction and in certain cases influenced drive for thinness. These findings replicate and extend previous work with U.S., Australian, and Swedish samples, suggesting that there are similar potential risk factors, cross-culturally, that may explain the development of eating and shape-related problems. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 198-203, 2004.

  17. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    .4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions......To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  19. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  20. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  1. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-02-01

    Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. This correlational study was performed on 130 infertile women who referred to Montaserieh Infertility Research Centre in Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. To collect data, valid and reliable questionnaires including demographic and infertility-related data tool, modified Younesi Body Image Questionnaire, Rosen Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were used. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey post-hoc test. The mean scores of body image, sexual function, and marital adjustment in women were 308.1 ± 45.8, 27.23 ± 3.80, and 113.8 ± 19.73, respectively. There was a direct correlation between overall body image and subscales of sexual function including sexual arousal (P = 0.003), sexual desire (P = 0.024), vaginal moisture (P = 0.001), orgasm (P body image and subscales of marital adjustment including agreement and consent (P body image provides evidence that one of the solutions to reduce sexual dysfunction and marital dispute in infertile women could be planning educational and counseling programs to improve women's body image.

  2. Body image in women with HIV: a cross-sectional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra Karen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is a recognized complication of potent antiretroviral therapy and is characterized by often dramatic changes in various body fat stores, both central and peripheral. Given prior findings of heightened body image dysphoria among HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy as compared to HIV-infected men without lipodystrophy, we sought to determine body image among HIV-infected and HIV-negative women and to determine the relationship of HIV and lipodystrophy with body image. Our a priori hypothesis was that women with HIV and lipodystrophy would have significantly poorer body image as compared to women without HIV and to women with HIV without lipodystrophy. Results 116 women responded to two previously validated self-report instruments (Body Image Quality of Life Index (BIQLI and the Situational Inventory of Body-Image Dysphoria – Short Form (SIBID-S on body image. 62 (53% subjects HIV-infected women were recruited at the university-based HIV clinic. 54 (47% subjects HIV-negative female controls were recruited from another study evaluating bone density in otherwise healthy controls. 96% identified their sexual orientation as women having sex with men. Among the HIV-infected group, 36 reported the presence of lipodystrophic characteristics and 26 reported no lipodystrophic changes. Agreement regarding the presence of lipodystrophy between physician and subject was 0.67 as measured by the kappa coefficient of agreement. Compared to HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women demonstrated poor body image as measured by BIQLI (p = 0.0009. Compared with HIV-infected women who denied lipodystrophy, HIV-infected women with self-reported lipodystrophy demonstrated poor body image as measured by BIQLI (p = 0.02 and SIBID-S scales (p = 0.001. Conclusion We demonstrate that HIV and lipodystrophy status among women is associated with poor body image. Universal efforts should be made in the HIV medical community to

  3. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have...

  4. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  5. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  6. Comparison of total and segmental body composition using DXA and multifrequency bioimpedance in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Leatherwood, Matthew D; Chamberlain, Nik A; Redding, Melvenia L; Flatt, Andrew A; Moon, Jordan R; Williford, Henry N

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the agreement between multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body fat percentage (BF%), fat-free mass (FFM), and total body and segmental lean soft tissue (LST) in collegiate female athletes. Forty-five female athletes (age = 21.2 ± 2.0 years, height = 166.1 ± 7.1 cm, weight = 62.6 ± 9.9 kg) participated in this study. Variables measured through BIA and DXA were as follows: BF%, FFM, and LST of the arms (ARMS(LST)), the legs (LEGS(LST)), the trunk (TRUNK(LST)), and the total body (TOTAL(LST)). Compared with the DXA, the InBody 720 provided significantly lower values for BF% (-3.3%, p < 0.001) and significantly higher values for FFM (2.1 kg, p < 0.001) with limits of agreement (1.96 SD of the mean difference) of ±5.6% for BF% and ±3.7 kg for FFM. No significant differences (p < 0.008) existed between the 2 devices (InBody 720-DXA) for ARMS(LST) (0.05 kg), TRUNK(LST) (0.14 kg), LEGS(LST) (-0.4 kg), and TOTAL(LST) (-0.21 kg). The limits of agreement were ±0.79 kg for ARMS(LST), ±2.62 kg for LEGS(LST), ±3.18 kg for TRUNK(LST), and ±4.23 kg for TOTAL(LST). This study found discrepancies in BF% and FFM between the 2 devices. However, the InBody 720 and DXA appeared to provide excellent agreement for measuring total body and segmental LST. Therefore, the InBody 720 may be a rapid noninvasive method to assess LST in female athletes when DXA is not available.

  7. Female external genitalia on fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, S F; Nemec, U; Weber, M; Rotmensch, S; Brugger, P C; Kasprian, G; Krestan, C R; Rimoin, D L; Graham, J M; Prayer, D

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the normal development of the female external genitalia on fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study included MRI examinations of 191 female fetuses (20-36 gestational weeks) with normal anatomy or minor abnormalities, following suspicion of anomalies on prenatal ultrasound examination. Using a 1.5-Tesla unit, the bilabial diameter was measured on T2-weighted sequences. Statistical description, as well as correlation and regression analyses, was used to evaluate bilabial diameter in relation to gestational age. MRI measurements were compared with published ultrasound data. The morphological appearance and signal intensities of the external genitalia were also assessed. Mean bilabial diameters, with 95% CIs and percentiles, were defined. The bilabial diameter as a function of gestational age was expressed by the regression equation: bilabial diameter = - 11.336 + 0.836 × (gestational age in weeks). The correlation coefficient, r = 0.782, was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Bilabial diameter on MRI was not significantly different from that on ultrasound (P < 0.001). In addition, on MRI we observed changes in morphology of the external genitalia and in signal intensities with increasing gestational age. We have provided a reference range of fetal bilabial diameter on MRI, which, in addition to ultrasound findings, may be helpful in the identification of genital anomalies. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  9. The Body Image Psychological Inflexibility Scale: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Sandoz, Emily K; Darrow, Sabrina M; Feeney, Timothy K

    2015-03-30

    Body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been researched from a variety of psychological approaches. Psychological inflexibility, or avoidance of one's own cognitive and affective states at a cost to personal values, may be a useful construct to understand these problems. In an effort to clarify the role of psychological inflexibility in body image disturbance and BDD, a measure was created based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The scale was developed by generating new items to represent the construct and revising items from an existing scale measuring aspects of body image psychological inflexibility. The study was conducted with an ethnically diverse undergraduate population using three samples during the validation process. Participants completed multiple assessments to determine the validity of the measure and were interviewed for BDD. The 16-item scale has internal consistency (α = 0.93), a single factor solution, convergent validity, and test re-test reliability (r = 0.90). Data demonstrate a relationship between psychological inflexibility and body image disturbance indicating empirical support for an ACT conceptualization of body image problems and the use of this measure for body image disturbance and BDD.

  10. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  11. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  12. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  13. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  14. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    focused on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, especially radiography and CT scanning with advanced 3D visualizations. Indeed, the development of commercially available CT scanners in the 1970s meant that for the first time the 3D internal structure of mummies...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  15. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hussain I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48% were males and 408 (52% females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85 years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63 years. Out of these, 358 (45.6% respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction score while 426 (54.4% had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7% were male and 265 (65.0% were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3% were male and 143 (35.0% were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females.

  16. The body as a site of struggle: oppositional discourses of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The body as a site of struggle: oppositional discourses of the disciplined female body. ... relating to female body image, such as the notion of the ideal female body, ... it legitimates its ethic of compulsory heterosexuality, which positions women ...

  17. Exploring the link between self-compassion and body image in university women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; MacKinnon, Anna L; MacLellan, Aleka M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationships between self-compassion and women's body image. In Study 1, female undergraduates (N=142) completed three measures of body image and measures of self-esteem and self-compassion. Results showed that high self-compassion predicted fewer body concerns independently of self-esteem. Moreover, when both self-compassion and self-esteem were included as predictors, self-compassion accounted for unique variance in body preoccupation and weight concerns whereas self-esteem did not. In Study 2, this finding was partially replicated with one component (self-judgment) of self-compassion uniquely predicting body preoccupation in undergraduate women (N=187). High scores on self-compassion also predicted less eating guilt independent of self-esteem. Additionally, self-compassion was shown to partially mediate the relationship between body preoccupation and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the possibility that a consideration of self-compassion for body image may contribute to identifying who is most at risk for body/shape concerns.

  18. Body Image Distortion and Pathological Eating Behaviors : Sociocultural Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    OMORI, Mika

    2000-01-01

    Body image distortion is often cited as a causal factor contributing to the development of eating disorders or pathological eating behaviors. Sociocultural factors, such as the societal preference for thinness and ...

  19. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayios, I A; Bergeles, N K; Apostolidis, N G; Noutsos, K S; Koskolou, M D

    2006-06-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to determine the anthropometric profile, body composition and somatotype of elite Greek female basketball (B), volleyball (V) and handball (H) players, b) to compare the mean scores among sports and c) to detect possible differences in relation to competition level. A total of 518 female athletes, all members of the Greek first National League (A1 and A2 division) in B, V and H sport teams participated in the present study. Twelve anthropometric measures required for the calculation of body composition indexes and somatotype components were obtained according to the established literature. V athletes were the tallest (Pathletes, had the lowest values of body fat (Psomatotype was characterized as balanced endomorph (3.4-2.7-2.9). B athletes were taller (Psomatotype characterized as mesomorph-endomorph (3.7-3.2-2.4). H athletes were the shortest of all (Psomatotype was mesomorph-endomorph (4.2-4.7-1.8). In comparison with their A2 counterparts the A1 division players were taller (Psomatotype characteristics (Psomatotype variables of Greek female elite teamball players varied among sports; selection criteria, hours of training and sport-specific physiological demands during the game could explain the observed differences. More data are certainly needed to define the anthropometric profile of B, V and H female athletes internationally.

  20. Diagnosis of Female Diverticula Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Porten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of physical exam to diagnose urethral diverticula with or without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and exclusive of invasive modalities. A retrospective chart review of all women undergoing urethral diverticulectomy at our institution since 1999 was performed. We identified 28 female patients with a mean age at diagnosis of 42.6 years (range 18–66. Common presenting symptoms included dyspareunia, urgency, and frequency. Physical exam revealed a suspected urethral diverticulum in 26 (92.9% patients, which was confirmed postoperatively in 17 of the 20 (85% women who underwent surgical resection. Noninvasive imaging modalities (MRI or CT were available for review in 20 (71% cases and made the correct diagnosis of urethral diverticulum (presence or absence in 19 (95% patients. In those patients with symptoms of stress or urge incontinence (11, 39%, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG was performed. Urethral diverticula are often easily diagnosed on physical exam. MRI can be a useful adjunct for defining diverticular extent in surgical planning, especially for proximal and complex diverticula, and should be the modality of choice if clinical suspicion is high based on patient symptoms and physical exam.

  1. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  2. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness.

  3. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  4. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  5. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image perception in adolescents and concern with weight

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Maria Geraldes Rodrigues; Antão, Celeste; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2016-01-01

    In a holistic conception of health, youth health is moderated by their self image and the perception that adolescents have of themselves is conditioned by social and cultural pressure, and low selfesteem is often observed, possibly caused by the way they perceive their own body, having as a consequence, an health proile with morbidities. Recognize the level of youth heath assessing Body Image perception and their concern with weight. It is a descriptive, quantitative and ...

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis focuses on proving the relevance and importance of body image in marketing. In theoretical part the thesis initially outlines basic marketing knowledge with special concentration on marketing research and segmentation. Next, sources of data and methodology used in the analytical part are described. In the analytical part itself the thesis firstly proves the relevance of body image as a segmentation variable on a few examples. First variable used for segmentation is the natu...

  8. Body Experience and Mirror Behaviour in Female Eating Disorders Patients and non Clinical Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Probst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the attention for mirror exercises in therapies targeted specifically to body experience concerns has increased. This retrospective study will explore the mirror behaviour of anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and non-clinical female subjects (CG and investigate whether mirror avoidance or checking are related to negative body experiences.The group of eating disorders consisted of 560 AN and 314 BN patients. The control group consisted of 1151 female subjects. The Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction were used. To explore the mirror behaviour, one item of the Body Attitude Test ‘I am observing my appearance in the mirror’ was used. Nonparametric analyses (Spearman rho correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used because of the categorical data.BN patients observed their body more often in the mirror than AN patients and the control subjects do. Age and BMI showed no significant main effect of mirror frequency. The relation between the frequency of mirror behaviour and body experience were significant but low (under .40. AN patients and control subjects with a mirror checking behaviour had a more negative body experience than those with mirror avoidance behaviour. In the BN group, no differences were found.There is support to integrate mirror exercises in a treatment of eating disorder patients. From a clinical point, mirror exercises are preferably combined with a body oriented therapy within a multidimensional cognitive behavioural approach. Recommendations for mirror exercises based on the clinical experience are given.

  9. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

  10. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  11. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  12. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  13. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  14. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease...

  15. The relationship between female body size and egg size in pipefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Goncalves, I; Ahnesjö, I; Kvarnemo, C

    2011-06-01

    Comparing five species of pipefish, egg size was significantly larger in species with brood pouches (Syngnathus typhle, Syngnathus acus and Syngnathus rostellatus) than in species without brood pouches (Entelurus aequoreus and Nerophis ophidion). Egg size correlated positively with female body size in species with brood pouches, but was similar across female sizes in the species lacking pouches. These results may reflect differences in offspring competition as a consequence of variable offspring relatedness within a brood, due to the mating systems adopted by the different species and the presence or absence of a brood pouch.

  16. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  17. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  18. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  19. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  20. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  1. Whole-body MR imaging in tumor staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic and Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-11-01

    Recent refinements allow widespread use of turboSTIR MRI as a whole-body imaging tool and, in particular, as a powerful oncologic screening tool. Whole-body MRI screening can play a primary role in assessing skeletal metastases, as well as metastatic breast and lung carcinoma. (orig.)

  2. Reconceptualization of the body image construct from a multidisciplinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Castro-Lemus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article carries out a systematic review of the main conceptualizations that currently exist of the body image construct from different disciplines, such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and even Physical Education. This review argues the terminological unification of terms such as body, embodiment, corporeality, corporal identity, self-concept, corporal asset, and body schema. It also offers a reconceptualization of the construct.

  3. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pcontemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (Pdance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  4. Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855

  5. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

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    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  6. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  7. Body image, body satisfaction, and unsafe anal intercourse among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Welles, Seth L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Ross, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Using survey results from the 1998 Twin Cities Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Festival (N = 535), we explored associations between body image and unsafe anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and evaluated whether body satisfaction mediated this association. MSM who reported underweight body image had lower odds than those who reported average weight of UAI (AOR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.85); body satisfaction was not found to mediate this association. 13.3% of men who reported overweight/obese body image had engaged in UAI compared with 21.6% of those who reported average weight and 8.2% of those who reported underweight (p < .05). Compared with MSM in exclusive relationships, MSM in non exclusive relationships had increased odds of UAI (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.96, 11.29) as did men who were not partnered (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.72, 5.93). These findings highlight the importance of including body image in sexual behavior models of MSM to better understand body image's role in influencing sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  8. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  9. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  10. Naturalization and medicalization of the female body: social control through reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses, through bibliographic research, the recurrence of naturalization as basis for the medicalization of the female body, as a means of social control through biological reproduction, whereby behavioral standards, social class, ethnic and race differences are rearranged/redefined. Through this process, male patriarchal and class predominance is maintained and the rift of social and gender inequalities grow wider. It is important to identify the role of technological developments and their complexities - which do not allow lower-income classes to take decisions in regard to their own bodies and reproductive health - and schooling, specially through science and physical education classes whereby upper-class predominance is sustained.

  11. Evaluative Concerns and Personal Standards Perfectionism as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Asian and European American Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Tina; Chang, Olivia D.; Jilani, Zunaira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined perfectionism (viz, evaluative concerns and personal standards) and ethnicity as predictors of body dissatisfaction in female college students. Participants: Participants were 298 female college students sampled by December of 2013. Methods: A self-report survey with measures of body dissatisfaction,…

  12. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  13. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  14. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  15. Body image in the mass media

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    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  16. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  17. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  18. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  20. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  1. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  2. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  3. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  4. Female waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and sexual attractiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. DIXSON, Baoguo LI, A.F. DIXSON

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Men and women at Northwest University (n = 751, Xi’an, China were asked to judge the attractiveness of photographs of female patients who had undergone micrograft surgery to reduce their waist-to-hip ratios (WHR. Micrograft surgery involves harvesting adipose tissue from the waist and reshaping the buttocks to produce a low WHR and an ‘hourglass’ female figure. This gynoid distribution of female body fat has been shown to correlate with measures of fertility and health. Significantly larger numbers of subjects, of both sexes, chose post-operative photographs, with lower WHRs, as more attractive than pre-operative photographs of the same women. Some patients had gained, and some had lost weight, post-operatively, with resultant changes in body mass index (BMI. However, these changes in BMI were not related to judgments of attractiveness. These results show that the hourglass female figure is rated as attractive in China, and that WHR, rather than BMI, plays a crucial role in such attractiveness judgments [Current Zoology 56 (2: 175–181, 2010].

  5. Overweight, Thinness, Body Self-Image and Eating Strategies of 2,121 Italian Teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guarino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the prevalence rate of overweight and thinness in a population of teens living in two different areas of Italy and explores the body self-image perception and unhealthy eating behaviours and strategies to lose weight. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2,121 teenage students (1,084 males; 1,037 females. Results showed that teen females and males build and perceive their body images in very different ways. Most of the overall sample perceived their weight as normal, while a relevant 31.6% defined themselves as overweight and another 4.4% as heavily overweight. Analysis based on BMI (calculated through self-referred weight and height showed that only 9.2% of our sample could be considered overweight and 1,7% obese. Most of female teen students (485 out of 1,037 were trying to lose weight, demonstrating that strategies to lose weight were undertaken also by girls perceiving themsleves as normal in relation to body weight; 46.8% girls were using strategies to lose weight compared with 21.9% boys. These strategies included very problematic behaviours like self-induced vomiting (3.3% F vs. 1.7% M and dieting pills (2.8% F vs. 1.5% M undertaken along with more usual thinning strategies like dieting and exercising. Girls were more prone than boys to exercise as a way to lose weight (41% vs. 31.7%. This study showed that there is a deep gap between actual weight and perceived body-image and weight. This study is one of the first of this kind in Italy and calls for primary prevention and health education programs aimed at improving teen body-image as a strategy to reduce the eating disorder epidemics spreading among young people.

  6. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.

  7. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  8. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  9. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

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    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  10. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

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    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  11. Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2006-07-01

    Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables.

  12. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  13. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF METASTASIS OF TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-he Yang; Jian-zhong Lin; Xin Wang; Jian-hua Lu; Zhong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor.Methods Fifty-six patients (40 males and 16 females, age ranging from 29 to 84 years with a mean age of 57 years) with a variety of primary tumors were investigated by whole body DWI combined with computed tomography (CT) and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Twelve patients underwent positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of CT or high resolution CT result for lung lesion and MRI or CT result for skull, abdomen and other parts. All tumors were classified into four groups by their diameter: below 1.0 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm, 2.0-2.9 cm, and above 3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI in the detection of metastatic tumor were analyzed.Results The sensitivities of whole body DWI for screening metastasis oftlie four groups were 38%, 75%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Whole body DWI showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastasis of the skeletal system. It was difficult to find metastatic tumor whose diameter was below 1.0 cm, or lymph nodes located in the pelvis with diameter below 2.0 cm. Conclusions Whole body DWI is a promising method in the diagnosis ofmetastastic tumors. With the perfection of scanning parameter, whole body DWI should be a new effective whole body technique for tumor detection.

  15. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.

  16. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  17. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

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    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  19. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

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    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  20. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  1. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  2. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  3. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  4. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  5. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  6. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Lilian A.; Novaes Jefferson S.; Santos Mara L.; Fernandes Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.8...

  8. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.

  9. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  10. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  11. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  12. Selfies, Image and the Re-making of the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiidenberg, Katrin; Gomez-Cruz, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationality between women’s bodies and selfies on NSFW (Not Safe For Work) tumblr blogs. We consider the way selfie practices engage with normative, ageist and sexist assumptions of the wider culture in order to understand how specific ways of looking become possible. ....... For our participants, self-shooting is an engaged, self-affirmative and awareness raising pursuit, where their body, through critically self-aware self-care, emerges as agentic, sexual and distinctly female. Thus, this is a reading of selfies as a practice of freedom....

  13. Human-Friendly Design of Virtual System “female Body-dress”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Mengna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT. Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.

  14. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

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    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  15. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  16. Male and female differences in variability with estimating body fat composition using skinfold calipers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marc P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a major health problem in the United States. Skinfold measurements are routinely used in assessing outcomes in the management of obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences in skinfold measurements would be apparent in intraobserver and interobserver reliability as well as validity when compared with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. Methods To determine intraobserver and interobserver variability, 71 male and 45 female subjects (chiropractic students) were assessed by 4 separate observers who each took 4 separate skinfold measurements. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was later conducted using a foot-to-foot technique. The average sums of the skinfold measurement and their standard deviations were calculated, and correlation coefficients between skinfold measurements and BIA techniques for male and female subjects were plotted separately to assess validity. Results Men tended to have greater amounts of intraobserver and interobserver variability when compared with women, but these differences were not significant. In regard to validity, there was no significant difference between skinfold measurements and BIA when estimating percentage body fat for men; but the difference was significant for women, where BIA underestimated by 3.4%. Conclusions The differences observed in variability could be explained by the fact that there is a difference in skinfold compressibility between men and women. Physicians who are using skinfold calipers for body composition assessment should take into account these small potential differences when evaluating total body fatness. PMID:22027106

  17. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  18. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  19. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

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    Badzinski, Shannon S., E-mail: sbadzinski@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada); Flint, Paul L., E-mail: pflint@usgs.go [U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gorman, Kristen B., E-mail: kgorman@alumni.sfu.c [Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Petrie, Scott A., E-mail: spetrie@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 mug g{sup -1} dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 mug g{sup -1} dw), and selenium (Se: >10 mug g{sup -1} dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. - Some female greater scaup initiate nesting with elevated hepatic concentrations of some trace elements, but adverse effects on condition and productivity are unlikely.

  20. Social Factors Influencing Women’s Body Image in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Keyvanara

    2013-02-01

    , Denat, Y., Cinar, Ş. (2007. An investigation into the body image of women in menopause, International Journal of Human Sciences, Vol. 4, Issue: 2,   Levine M, Piran N. (2004 The role of body image in the prevention of eating disorders, Body Image. 1(1:57-70   Levinson, R., Powell, B., Steelman, L. C. (1986. Social location, significant others and body image among adolescents. Social Psychology Quarterly, (4 49.   Lewis, A. C. (1971 Masters of Sociological Thoughts, Translated by Mohssen Solasi, Tehran: Sokhan Publishing.   Richardson E, King T, Forsyth H, Clark M. (2000 Body image evaluations in obese females with eating disorder. Eating Behaviors; 1(2161-171.   Shilling, C. (1993 Body and Social Theory, London :Sage publication.   Swami, V., Hadji-Michael, M., Furnham, A. (2008. Personality and individual correlates of positive body image, Body Image, 5 (3 322-325   Urner, B.S, (1978 Medical power and social knowledge, Londan: Saege publication   Watkins S. A. (2005, Feminism, Translate by: Zyba Jalali,z, Second Edition,Tehran: Shirazeh Publishing.   Zokaee, M. (2008, Culture of Youth Studies, Tehran: Institution of Agah Publication.