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Sample records for female atlantic croaker

  1. Effects of maturation-inducing hormone on heterologous gap junctional coupling in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

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    Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Bolamba, D.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2001-01-01

    A previous ultrastructural study of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) gap junction (GJ) contacts in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker suggested that these contacts disappear late during the process of resumption of oocyte meiosis. This observation suggested that, unlike scenarios proposed for a number of other species, uncoupling of GJ is not necessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in croaker follicles. However, the functionality of heterologous GJ contacts and the temporal association between maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-induced changes in heterologous coupling and resumption of oocyte meiosis have not been examined in Atlantic croaker. These questions were addressed with a cell-cell coupling assay that is based on the transfer of a GJ marker, Lucifer Yellow, from oocytes to granulosa cells. Follicle-enclosed oocytes injected with Lucifer Yellow allowed transfer of the dye into the follicle cell layer, thus confirming that there is functional heterologous coupling between the oocyte and the granulosa cells. Dye transfer was observed in vitellogenic, full-grown/maturation-incompetent, and full-grown /maturation-competent follicles. Treatment of maturation-competent follicles with MIH caused a time-dependent decline in the number of follicles transferring dye. However, although GJ uncoupling in some of the follicles was observed before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, index of meiotic resumption), about 50% of the follicles maintained the ability to transfer dye even after GVBD had occurred. Further, a known GJ inhibitor (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) blocked heterologous GJ within a time frame similar to that seen with MIH but without inducing any of the morphological changes (including GVBD) associated with follicular maturation. In conclusion, uncoupling of heterologous GJ seems insufficient and unnecessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  2. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress

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    Md. Saydur Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  3. Accumulation of triclosan from diet and its neuroendocrine effects in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) under two temperature Regimes.

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    Hedrick-Hopper, Tiffany L; Koster, Lauren P; Diamond, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    Rising water temperatures due to climate change may increase the uptake and effects of triclosan in aquatic organisms. Our objectives were to investigate the accumulation of dietary triclosan and its neuroendocrine effects in Atlantic croaker, an estuarine fish, under two temperatures and during depuration. A pilot study was used to select a dietary exposure of 50 mg/kg. For 10 days, fish were exposed to one of four diet/temperature treatments (n = 16/treatment): normal diet at 26 °C and 29 °C and triclosan-treated diet at 26 °C and 29 °C. Fish exposed to triclosan at 26 °C accumulated 2.6 mg/kg wet weight on average versus 5.6 mg/kg wet weight at 29 °C. Triclosan exposure significantly impacted reflexes, resulting in the loss of the dorsal fin reflex (DS) in 53% of fish, while temperature and triclosan-temperature interactions were not significant. Triclosan body burden did not significantly predict DS loss. There were no significant differences in thyroid hormone levels among groups. Triclosan-treated fish at 26 °C were fed untreated pellets for 5 additional weeks. Two fish lost the DS during the first depuration week, and no affected fish recovered the reflex. These results have important implications for fish and their predators, as the DS may be important for swimming performance and social patterning.

  4. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

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    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (Pobservations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variation among white croaker populations

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    Han, Zhiqiang; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Tang, Qisheng

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the genetic structures and differentiation of different wild populations of white croaker ( Pennahia argentata), horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was performed on 133 individuals collected from five different locations in China and Japan. The eleven enzyme systems revealed 15 loci, of which eleven were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic loci of white croaker populations varied from 6.67% to 53.33%; the mean observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.0033 to 0.0133 and 0.0032 to 0.0191, respectively. The expected heterozygosity revealed a low genetic variability for white croaker in comparison with other marine fishes. The genetic distances between populations ranged from 0.00005 to 0.00026. A weak differentiation was observed within each clade and between clades; and no significant differences in gene frequencies among populations were observed in white croaker. Among the five populations, three Chinese populations showed more genetic diversity than that in Japanese populations.

  6. Hepatic reference gene selection in adult and juvenile female Atlantic salmon at normal and elevated temperatures

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    Anderson Kelli C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become widespread due to its specificity, sensitivity and apparent ease of use. However, experimental error can be introduced at many stages during sample processing and analysis, and for this reason qPCR data are often normalised to an internal reference gene. The present study used three freely available algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper to assess the stability of hepatically expressed candidate reference genes (Hprt1, Tbp, Ef1α and β-tubulin in two experiments. In the first, female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar broodstock of different ages were reared at either 14 or 22°C for an entire reproductive season, therefore a reference gene that does not respond to thermal challenge or reproductive condition was sought. In the second, estrogen treated juvenile salmon were maintained at the same temperatures for 14 days and a reference gene that does not respond to temperature or estrogen was required. Additionally, we performed independent statistic analysis to validate the outputs obtained from the program based analysis. Results Based on the independent statistical analysis performed the stability of the genes tested was Tbp > Ef1α > Hprt1 > β-tubulin for the temperature/reproductive development experiment and Ef1α > Hprt1 > Tbp for the estrogen administration experiment (β-tubulin was not analysed. Results from the algorithms tested were quite ambiguous for both experiments; however all programs consistently identified the least stable candidate gene. BestKeeper provided rankings that were consistent with the independent analysis for both experiments. When an inappropriate candidate reference gene was used to normalise the expression of a hepatically expressed target gene, the ability to detect treatment-dependent changes in target gene expression was lost for multiple groups in both experiments. Conclusions We have highlighted the need to

  7. Spatiotemporal variability and sound characterization in silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae in the Central Amazon.

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    Alfredo Borie

    Full Text Available The fish family Sciaenidae has numerous species that produce sounds with superfast muscles that vibrate the swimbladder. These muscles form post embryonically and undergo seasonal hypertrophy-atrophy cycles. The family has been the focus of numerous passive acoustic studies to localize spatial and temporal occurrence of spawning aggregations. Fishes produce disturbance calls when hand-held, and males form aggregations in late afternoon and produce advertisement calls to attract females for mating. Previous studies on five continents have been confined to temperate species. Here we examine the calls of the silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus, a freshwater equatorial species, which experiences constant photoperiod, minimal temperature variation but seasonal changes in water depth and color, pH and conductivity.Dissections indicate that sonic muscles are present exclusively in males and that muscles are thicker and redder during the mating season. Disturbance calls were recorded in hand-held fish during the low-water mating season and high-water period outside of the mating season. Advertisement calls were recorded from wild fish that formed aggregations in both periods but only during the mating season from fish in large cages. Disturbance calls consist of a series of short individual pulses in mature males. Advertisement calls start with single and paired pulses followed by greater amplitude multi-pulse bursts with higher peak frequencies than in disturbance calls. Advertisement-like calls also occur in aggregations during the off season, but bursts are shorter with fewer pulses.Silver croaker produce complex advertisement calls that vary in amplitude, number of cycles per burst and burst duration of their calls. Unlike temperate sciaenids, which only call during the spawning season, silver croaker produce advertisement calls in both seasons. Sonic muscles are thinner, and bursts are shorter than at the spawning peak, but males still

  8. Differential patterns of male and female mtDNA exchange across the Atlantic Ocean in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

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    Riginos, Cynthia; Hickerson, Michael J; Henzler, Christine M; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2004-11-01

    Comparisons among loci with differing modes of inheritance can reveal unexpected aspects of population history. We employ a multilocus approach to ask whether two types of independently assorting mitochondrial DNAs (maternally and paternally inherited: F- and M-mtDNA) and a nuclear locus (ITS) yield concordant estimates of gene flow and population divergence. The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is distributed on both North American and European coastlines and these populations are separated by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Gene flow across the Atlantic Ocean differs among loci, with F-mtDNA and ITS showing an imprint of some genetic interchange and M-mtDNA showing no evidence for gene flow. Gene flow of F-mtDNA and ITS causes trans-Atlantic population divergence times to be greatly underestimated for these loci, although a single trans-Atlantic population divergence time (1.2 MYA) can be accommodated by considering all three loci in combination in a coalescent framework. The apparent lack of gene flow for M-mtDNA is not readily explained by different dispersal capacities of male and female mussels. A genetic barrier to M-mtDNA exchange between North American and European mussel populations is likely to explain the observed pattern, perhaps associated with the double uniparental system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  9. Interpopulational differences in the female reproductive cycle of the southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae

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    Romina B. Ituarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, a semiterrestrial burrowing crab endemic to the southwestern Atlantic, was compared in two contrasting coastal habitats: San Antonio (SA, marine and Mar Chiquita (MC, estuarial. Mature females were collected monthly for 1.5 years and the ovarian cycle was described using a qualitative scale. Gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes were calculated. The highest GSI and HSI occurred early in the reproductive season in SA and during the non-reproductive season in MC. The beginning and duration of the reproductive season also differed between populations: it started later and was shorter in SA. In MC, secondary vitellogenesis continued when the reproductive season had finished, and the ovaries remained fully developed throughout the non-reproductive season (winter. Therefore, females of MC were ready to lay eggs as soon as spring environmental conditions appeared. However, SA females did not attain a fully developed ovary during winter. A limited food supply would restrict the available energy to complete secondary vitellogenesis at the end of the reproductive season in SA, after the last spawning. Thus, the vitellogenic cycle should be completed in the following spring, causing a delay in the beginning of the reproductive period. In addition, the higher temperature amplitude may cause the reproductive period in SA to end early.

  10. Migration and population structure characteristics of the small yellow croakerLarimichthys polyactis in the southern Yellow Sea

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    XIONG Ying; ZHONG Xiaming; TANG Jianhua; YANG Jian

    2016-01-01

    Monthly fishery survey data of the small yellow croakerLarimichthys polyactis in the southern Yellow Sea from 2003 and 2013 were employed to evaluate the variation in the resource distribution and biological characteristics (especially body length and sex ratio) in the population on a decadal scale. The results indicated that the small yellow croaker migrated from the Shawai fishing ground to the Dasha fishing ground in spring and was mainly distributed in the central and western parts of the Dasha fishing ground in April and May.Larimichthys polyactis in the Dasha fishing ground migrated eastward to offshore wintering grounds in autumn and reached the central Dasha fishing ground in October and November. The small yellow croaker entered the western waters of the Shawai fishing ground in winter. A large number of age 0+ fish occurred in the Shawai and Jiangwai fishing grounds in October of 2003 and 2013. The body lengths of the spawning stock and wintering stock in 2013 were larger than those in 2003, and the monthly sex ratios (female to male) were significantly less than 1 in both years. The monthly distribution of this fish in the southern Yellow Sea was consistent with a previous finding that “the stock migrated between the wintering grounds in the west of Jeju Island and the Lüsi spawning grounds” but tended to move more northward, with the spawning grounds extending outward. In the past decade, body length variation experienced a decline after an increase, rather than a steady decrease. The sex ratio in the single-stick stow net showed a tendency to increase over the decade, but was either less than or more than 1 depending on the fishing gear; therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the sex structure.

  11. Estimated reproductive success of brooders and heritability of growth traits for large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) using microsatellites

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    LIU Xiande; SUI Banliang; WANG Zhiyong; CAI Mingyi; YAO Cuiluan; CHEN Qingkai

    2011-01-01

    We estimated the reproductive success of adult brood fish and the heritability of growthrelated traits for large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).We created two independent full-factorial cross groups (1 and 2) by crossing 4 males×4 females and 4 males×3 females,respectively.We measured the body weight (BW),body length (BL),and body height (BH) of 281 individuals from group 1 and 318 individuals from group 2 at 20 months post hatch (harvest age).We also collected a tissue sample from each individual.The parents and offspring were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellites.Of the 599 offspring,99.2% were assigned to a single pair of parents.In both groups,some parent pairs produced a large number of offsprings while other pairs did not produce any offspring.The genetic diversity and putative Ne were lower in the offsprings than in the parents in both groups.The heritability estimates at 20-month age were 0.13±0.10 for BW,0.19±0.13 for BL,and 0.09±0.06 for BH.The genetic and phenotype correlation between BW,BL,and BH was close to 1.The results provide basic information for selective breeding and further genetic characterization of large yellow croaker.

  12. Longitudinal progesterone profiles in baleen from female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) match known calving history.

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    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Moore, Michael J; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction of mysticete whales is difficult to monitor, and basic parameters, such as pregnancy rate and inter-calving interval, remain unknown for many populations. We hypothesized that baleen plates (keratinous strips that grow downward from the palate of mysticete whales) might record previous pregnancies, in the form of high-progesterone regions in the sections of baleen that grew while the whale was pregnant. To test this hypothesis, longitudinal baleen progesterone profiles from two adult female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) that died as a result of ship strike were compared with dates of known pregnancies inferred from calf sightings and post-mortem data. We sampled a full-length baleen plate from each female at 4 cm intervals from base (newest baleen) to tip (oldest baleen), each interval representing ∼60 days of baleen growth, with high-progesterone areas then sampled at 2 or 1 cm intervals. Pulverized baleen powder was assayed for progesterone using enzyme immunoassay. The date of growth of each sampling location on the baleen plate was estimated based on the distance from the base of the plate and baleen growth rates derived from annual cycles of stable isotope ratios. Baleen progesterone profiles from both whales showed dramatic elevations (two orders of magnitude higher than baseline) in areas corresponding to known pregnancies. Baleen hormone analysis shows great potential for estimation of recent reproductive history, inter-calving interval and general reproductive biology in this species and, possibly, in other mysticete whales.

  13. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on the Quality of Little Yellow Croaker

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    Yuan Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the effects of lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the quality of little yellow croaker. The effects of the LAB starter composed of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the quality of little yellow croaker were studied through a 72 h fermentation process in this study. During 72 h fermentation at 30°C, little yellow croaker inoculated with the LAB starter not only resulted in a rapid pH decrease and suppression of spoilage bacteria, but also receded chemical changes such as total volatile base nitrogen and biogenic amines, its texture profile and whiteness also satisfying. Besides, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM images indicated some microstructure changes in LAB fermentation. The results demonstrated that the LAB starter could be developed as bio-preservatives to improve the quality of little yellow croaker in storage.

  14. Parentage assignment and parental contribution analysis in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea using microsatellite markers

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    Xiande LIU; Guangtai ZHAO; Zhiyong WANG; Mingyi CAI; Hua YE; Qiurong WANG

    2012-01-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea is one of the most important fish species in China.To estimate the reproductive success of breeders,three independent full-factorial crosses were created and the fins of breeders and progenies were sampled for microsatellite analysis.Out of 959 offspring from three sets,99.6% were assigned to their parents using 6-7 microsatellite markers.In all crosses,some parent pairs produced a large number of offspring and some parent pairs did not produce any offspring.The contributions of male or female parents were unequal,ranging from 1.0-89.3% across the three sets.The loss of putative Ne was 69.6% in set 1,31.2% in set 2 and 57.6% in set 3.These results suggest that the unequal contribution of parents is universal in artificial breeding ofL.crocea,especially in a small population,and this should be taken into account in hatcheries or when releasing animals for resource enhancement [Current Zoology 58 (2):244-249,2012].

  15. Artificial induction of mito-gynogenetic diploids in large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) by hydrostatic pressure

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    Cai, Mingyi; Wu, Qingming; Liu, Xiande; Yao, Cuiluan; Chen, Qingkai; Wang, Zhiyong

    2010-07-01

    The present study investigated conditions for inducing mito-gynogenetic (endomitosis) diploids by hydrostatic pressure in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. In haploid control groups, the development of eggs was activated with ultraviolet radiated semen. All fry presented typical haploid syndrome in the haploid control groups, and were verified as haploids using cytometry. After hydrostatic pressure treatment, morphologically normal fry reappeared at different frequencies according to the intensity and time of pressure shock. Fry with normal appearance in the pressure treated groups were verified as gynogenetic double haploids (GDHs), containing only one allele from the female parent at all four diagnostic microsatellite loci. For a fixed duration of 3 min, the optimal intensity of blocking the first mitosis was determined to be 40 Mpa, which was similar to that of blocking the second meiosis. There was a “window” of starting time, from 36.1 min to 38.1 min post-insemination at 25.0±1.0°C, within which the production of GDHs was not significantly different. Maximum production of morphologically normal fries, 9.36%±2.97% of developed eggs, was found when the eggs were shocked with hydrostatic pressure at 40 Mpa for 3 min, starting from 38.1 min post insemination at 25.0±1.0°C.

  16. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

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    Jingqun Ao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04% of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and medaka (Oryzias latipes. Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker.

  17. Comparison of nutritional quality in fish maw product of croaker Protonibea diacanthus and perch Lates niloticus

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    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Ziming; Xu, Youhou

    2016-08-01

    Fish maw (the dried swimbladders of fish) is ranked in the list of the four sea treasures in Chinese cuisine. Fish maw is mainly produced from croaker, which is the most highly priced. However, some of the fish maw being sold as croaker maw are in fact not from croaker, but from the Nile perch Lates niloticus. The present work determined and compared the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of croaker Protonibea diacanthus maw and perch L. niloticus maw. The results indicated that both maws were high protein sources and low in fat content. The dominant amino acids in both maws were glycine, proline, glutamic acid, alanine and arginine. These amino acids constituted 66.2% and 66.4% of the total amino acids in P. diacanthus and L. niloticus, respectively. The ratio of FAA: TAA (functional amino acids: total amino acids) in both maws were 0.69. This is a good explanation for why fish maws have been widely utilized as a traditional tonic and remedy in Asia. Except valine and histidine, all the essential amino acid contents in P. diacanthus were higher than in L. niloticus. Moreover, croaker P. diacanthus maw contained more AA and DHA than perch L. niloticus maw, showing a higher ratio of n-3 / n-6, which is more desirable.

  18. Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: Seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock

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    Taranger Geir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatolactin (Sl is a fish specific adenohypophyseal peptide hormone related to growth hormone (Gh. Some species, including salmonids, possess two forms: Sl alpha and Sl beta. The somatolactin receptor (slr is closely related to the growth hormone receptor (ghr. Sl has been ascribed many physiological functions, including a role in sexual maturation. In order to clarify the role of Sl in the sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, the full length cDNAs of slr, Sl alpha and Sl beta were cloned and their expression was studied throughout a seasonal reproductive cycle using real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR. Methods Atlantic salmon Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr cDNAs were cloned using a PCR approach. Gene expression of Sl alpha, SL beta and slr was studied using RTqPCR over a 17 month period encompassing pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, ovulation and post ovulation in salmon females. Histological examination of ovarian samples allowed for the classification according to the degree of follicle maturation into oil drop, primary, secondary or tertiary yolk stage. Results The mature peptide sequences of Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr are highly similar to previously cloned salmonid forms and contained the typical motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic salmon Sl alpha and Sl beta shows that these peptides group into the two Sl clades present in some fish species. The Atlantic salmon slr grouped with salmonid slr amongst so-called type I ghr. An increase in pituitary Sl alpha and Sl beta transcripts before and during spawning, with a decrease post-ovulation, and a constant expression level of ovarian slr were observed. There was also a transient increase in Sl alpha and Sl beta in May prior to transfer from seawater to fresh water and ensuing fasting. Conclusion The up-regulation of Sl alpha and Sl beta during vitellogenesis and spawning, with a subsequent decrease post-ovulation, supports a role for Sl during gonadal

  19. Genetic evidence of two stocks of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri in the Río de la Plata and oceanic front in Uruguay.

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    Pereira, A N; Márquez, A; Marin, M; Marin, Y

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region resolved two stocks of whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri in Uruguayan waters, one in the Río de la Plata and the other on the Uruguayan shelf. The whitemouth croaker is the most important coastal fishery resource along the coast and has the greatest commercial importance in the Río de la Plata and its oceanic front. The number of pair-wise differences (pi) and haplotype diversity (h) showed significant differences between the two regions. Frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes did not differ between Río de la Plata from Bahia Blanca M. furnieri. Samples from the oceanic front showed greater genetic variability and a larger effective number of females that were an order of magnitude larger than that in Río de la Plata. Mismatch distributions showed evidence of a recent population expansion in the oceanic region, beginning c. 40,000 b.p. The presence of two stocks of the M. furnieri in the study area should be considered in the management of this species' fishery.

  20. Fatty acid profiles of muscle from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) of different age

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    Tang, Hong-gang; Chen, Li-hong; Xiao, Chao-geng; Wu, Tian-xing

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the fatty acid profiles of muscle from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) of different age. One- and two-year-old fish were cultured in floating net cages and sampled randomly for analysis. Moisture, protein, lipid and ash contents were determined by methods of Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC) International. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Crude protein, fat, moisture and ash contents showed no significant differences between the two age groups. The contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly higher and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content was significantly lower in the two-year-old large yellow croaker than in the one-year-old (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the contents of total saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, or the ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids among the large yellow croakers of the two age groups. We conclude that large yellow croakers are good food sources of EPA and DHA. PMID:19235275

  1. Fatty acid profiles of muscle from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) of different age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-gang TANG; Li-hong CHEN; Chao-geng XIAO; Tian-xing WU

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the fatty acid profiles of muscle from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) of different age.One- and two-year-old fish were cultured in floating net cages and sampled randomly for analysis.Moisture,protein,lipid and ash contents were determined by methods of Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC) International.Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography.Crude protein,fat,moisture and ash contents showed no significant differences between the two age groups.The contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly higher and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content was significantly lower in the two-year-old large yellow croaker than in the one-year-old (P<0.05).No significant differences were observed in the contents of total saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids,or the ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids among the large yellow croakers of the two age groups.We conclude that large yellow croakers are good food sources of EPA and DHA.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic of the Amoy croaker, Argyrosomus amoyensis (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

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    Liao, Mengxiang; Zheng, Jiao; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Mingyi

    2017-08-01

    The family Sciaenidae is remarkable for its species richness and economic importance. However, the cytogenetic data available in this fish group are still limited, especially those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the present study, the chromosome characteristics of a sciaenid species, Argyrosomus amoyensis, were examined with several cytogenetic methods, including dual-FISH with 18S and 5S rDNA probes, and a self-genomic in situ hybridization procedure (Self-GISH). The karyotype of A. amoyensis comprised 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes. A single pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was located at the proximal position of chromosome 1, which was positive for silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3) staining and denaturation-propidium iodide (DPI) staining but negative for Giemsa staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and was confirmed by FISH with 18S rDNA probes. The 5S rDNA sites were located at the centromeric region of chromosome 3. Telomeric FISH signals were detected at all chromosome ends with different intensities, but internal telomeric sequences (ITSs) were not found. Self-GISH resulted in strong signals distributed at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. C-banding revealed not only centromeric heterochromatin, but also heterochromatin that located on NORs, in interstitial and distal telomeric regions of specific chromosomes. These results suggest that the karyotype of Amoy croaker was relatively conserved and primitive. By comparison with the reported cytogenetic data of other sciaenids, it can be deduced that although the karyotypic macrostructure and chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA are conserved, the distribution of 5S rDNA varies dynamically among sciaenid species. Thus, the 5S rDNA sites may have different evolutionary dynamics in relation to other chromosomal regions, and have the potential to be effective cytotaxonomic markers in Sciaenidae.

  3. Trophic ecology of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis Bleeker): stable carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Weiwei; CHEN Xuezhong; JIANG Yazhou; LI Shengfa

    2011-01-01

    The trophic ecology of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) was studied using stable isotope analyses.Samples were collected from July to September 2009 and 34 individuals from eight sites were examined for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes.Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C)ranged from -20.67 to -15.43,while stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) ranged 9.18-12.23.The relationship between δ13C and δ15N suggested high resource partitioning in the sampling area.Significant differences in stable isotope values among the eight sampling sites may be linked to environmental diversities involving various physical processes (such as ocean current,wind and tide) and different carbon sources.Furthermore,the stable isotope ratios may also explain the ontogenetic variability in diet and feeding,because δ13C and δ15N varied significantly with increasing body size.The findings are consistent with other studies on diet analyses in small yellow croaker.It was also demonstrated that stable isotope analysis could be used to estimate the trophic characters of small yellow croaker in feeding patterns and migrating habits.

  4. Fatty acid composition of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla and croaker (Otolithes ruber

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    Rasool Abdul Nazeer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the proximate and fatty acid composition of muscle, viscera, skin and bone of marine fish’s horse mackerel and croaker. Methods: Freshly collected fishes were dissected and their moisture, ash and protein content were estimated gravimetrically by AOAC procedure and the lipid was extracted using chloroform, methanol and water in a ratio proposed by Bligh and Dyer. Extracted lipid was injected into gas chromatography connected to BPX-70 glass column to evaluate the fatty acid composition. Results: All the body parts analyzed had varying moisture content in between 73%-83%. Horse mackerel contained less than 3% and croaker had above 4% of lipid in all the body parts except muscle (1.4%. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for all the body parts and the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Conclusion: Both the fish species showed variation, in protein content, lipid content and fatty acid composition. However, croaker had more remarkable quantity of lipid than horse mackerel.

  5. Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes in miiuy croaker.

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    Tianjun Xu

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC has a central role in the adaptive immune system by presenting foreign peptide to the T-cell receptor. In order to study the molecular function and genomic characteristic of class II genes in teleost, the full lengths of MHC class IIA and IIB cDNA and genomic sequence were cloned from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy. As in other teleost, four exons and three introns were identified in miiuy croaker class IIA gene; but the difference is that six exons and five introns were identified in the miiuy croaker class IIB gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of class IIA and class IIB had 26.3-85.7% and 11.0-88.8% identity with those of mammal and teleost, respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the MHC class IIA and IIB were ubiquitously expressed in ten normal tissues; expression levels of MHC genes were found first upregulated and then downregulated, and finally by a recovery to normal level throughout the pathogenic bacteria infection process. In addition, we report on the underlying mechanism that maintains sequences diversity among many fish species. A series of site-model tests implemented in the CODEML program revealed that positive Darwinian selection is likely the cause of the molecular evolution in the fish MHC class II genes.

  6. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth.

  7. Current status of small yellow croaker resources in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Longshan; LIU Zunlei; JIANG Yazhou; HUANG Wei; GAO Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We used data from bottom trawl surveys to study the factors influencing the abundance of small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS). The resource density index (RDI) was generally higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. RDIs were also significantly greater in the SYS than in the ECS in summer and autumn. The bottom water salinity and depth of spatial distribution of small yellow croaker was similar between the two areas in summer, but different in other seasons. Regression analysis suggested that environmental factors such as bottom water temperature, salinity, and depth influenced the RDIs in summer in these areas.Growth condition factor (GCF) in the two areas varied monthly and the croaker in the SYS grew more slowly than those in the ECS. This was likely due to the low bottom temperature of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in summer and autumn or to higher human fishing pressure in the ECS. To ensure sustainable utilization of the croaker stocks in these regions, we recommend reducing the fishing intensity, increasing the cod-end mesh size, and improving the protection of juveniles.

  8. Characterization of the miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy transcriptome and development of immune-relevant genes and molecular markers.

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    Rongbo Che

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy is an important species of marine fish that supports capture fisheries and aquaculture. At present commercial scale aquaculture of this species is limited due to diseases caused by pathogens and parasites which restrict production and limit commercial value. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information for the miiuy croaker limits the ability of researchers to study the pathogenesis and immune system of this species. In this study we constructed a cDNA library from liver, spleen and kidney which was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing to enable gene discovery and molecular marker development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a total of 69,071 unigenes with an average length of 572 bp were obtained. Of these, 45,676 (66.13% were successfully annotated in public databases. The unigenes were also annotated with Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups and KEGG pathways. Additionally, 498 immune-relevant genes were identified and classified. Furthermore, 14,885 putative simple sequence repeats (cSSRs and 8,510 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified from the 69,071 unigenes. CONCLUSION: The miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy transcriptome data provides a large resource to identify new genes involved in many processes including those involved in the response to pathogens and diseases. Furthermore, the thousands of potential cSSR and SNP markers found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of molecular marker assisted breeding programs for the miiuy croaker.

  9. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-gang TANG; Tian-xing WU; Zhan-yu ZHAO; Xiao-dong PAN

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75±23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m×3 m×3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemerited with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%,the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively.

  10. Effect of hypoxia on the blood of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaolian; Xu, Zhaoli

    2011-05-01

    Large areas of hypoxic water have recently been reported in the East China Sea. It is hypothesized that hypoxia may be partially responsible for the decline of some fish stocks. We evaluated the effect of hypoxia on large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea). The fish were exposed to three concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO; 1.5 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, and 6.5 mg/L control). We collected blood after 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h exposure. There was a significant increase in red blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in the group exposed to 1.5 mg/L DO after 6 h or 12 h, and a delayed increase (only elevated after 48 h and 96 h) in these indices in the group exposed to 2.0 mg/L DO. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly in both hypoxic groups after 24 h. Furthermore, plasma lactate and lactate dehydrogenase activity increased significantly after the first 6 h exposure in both hypoxic groups. Our results suggest that large yellow croakers could not maintain the aerobic pathway and instead use anaerobic metabolism for survival when DO levels fall below 2.0 mg/L. We conclude that the occurrence of hypoxia (population decline of this species.

  11. Caracterização morfométrica da corvlna Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest (Pisces, Sciaenidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Morphometric characterization of the white croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest (Pisces, Sciaenidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rafaela Nascimento Vicentini

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The white croaker Micropogonias fumieri (Desmarest, 1823 is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba Bay, being heavily exploited in fisheries. Two hundred eleven fishes, captured from October 1998 to September 1999, in monthly samplings with otter trawling, were studied. The aim here is to characterize morphometrics of populations that use de Bay in order to compare with other areas. Measurements included standard length (SL, head length (HL, Pre-dorsal distance (PDD, pectoral distance (PD, ventral distance (VD and anal distance (AD, pectoral length (PL and eye diarneter (ED. The values of HL, PDD, PD, VD, AD, were related to SL, while ED was related to HL. Scatterplot from logaritrnized data, by sex, were analyzed in order to assess alometry. Males outnumber females with differences being highly significant (p I were shown for PL in both sexes, and for AD in female, indicating that these measurements increase proportionately more than the standard length; isometric growth (k = 1 were shown for HL, PDD, PD, VD in both sexes, for AD in males; negative alometry (k < 1 was shown only for ED in relation to head length (HL, in both males and females. The white croaker populations in lhe Sepetiba Bay seems to be similar in their morphometrics aspects to the populations of coastal zone at Southeast Brazil, which differ from South coastal zone populations.

  12. Comparative studies on some genetic characteristics among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dexiang; WANG Jun; DING Shaoxiong; SU Yongquan

    2007-01-01

    The genetic structure was compared among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations, an important aquaculture species in China. RAPD and ISSR results show that the genetic distances between domestic stocks and their wild counterparts are significantly larger than those between the three wild stocks. The sequence of mtDNA cyt b shows that the three wild populations share the same sequence, with differences in the four bases from the cultured stock: two transitions [ 57 ( C-T), 291 (G-A) ] and two transversions [ 66 (C-G) ,223 (A-C) ]. Cluster analysis reveals that the domestic stock has diverged from its parental wild stock [ Min-Yuedong (Fujian Province-eastern Guangdong Province, China) stock]. Results demonstrate that 20 a of domestication of the Pseudosciaena crocea stock has resulted in significant genetic changes.

  13. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P lipid oxidation. C18:0, C16:1n7, C19:0, and C22:6n3 showed clear changes in principle component one of a principle components analysis. These fatty acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  14. Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea

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    Zhu Peng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs, vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. The ORs are the most important receptors for detecting a wide range of environmental chemicals in daily life. Most fish OR genes have been identified from genome databases following the completion of the genome sequencing projects of many fishes. However, it remains unclear whether these OR genes from the genome databases are actually expressed in the fish olfactory epithelium. Thus, it is necessary to clone the OR mRNAs directly from the olfactory epithelium and to examine their expression status. Results Eighty-nine full-length and 22 partial OR cDNA sequences were isolated from the olfactory epithelium of the large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the vertebrate OR genes into two types, with several clades within each type, and showed that the L. crocea OR genes of each type are more closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback than they are to those of medaka, zebrafish and frog. The reconciled tree showed 178 duplications and 129 losses. The evolutionary relationships among OR genes in these fishes accords with their evolutionary history. The fish OR genes have experienced functional divergence, and the different clades of OR genes have evolved different functions. The result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels. Conclusion We have shown about 100 OR genes to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea. The OR genes of modern fishes duplicated from their common ancestor, and were expanded over evolutionary time. The OR genes of L. crocea are closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback, which is consistent with its evolutionary position. The different expression

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of a cystatin analogue in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Ao, Jingqun; Chen, Xinhua

    2009-05-01

    The cDNA of a cystatin analogue was isolated from the spleen Smart cDNA library of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Lyccys). The open reading frame (ORF) of 354 nucleotides (nt) of Lyccys encodes a protein of 118 amino acids (aa), containing a 21-aa signal peptide and a 97-aa mature polypeptide. The deduced Lyccys possessed structural features of the Family II cystatins, including three evolutionally conserved motifs known to interact with the active sites of cysteine peptidases: Gly at the N-terminus (Gly(25)), Gln-X-Val-X-Gly motif (Q(69)LVAG(73)) and Pro-Try pair at the C-terminus (P(106)W(107)). Genomic analysis revealed that Lyccys gene, spanning 2297 nt, consisted of three exons and two introns. The Lyccys gene was constitutively expressed in all eight tissues examined although at different levels. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that Lyccys transcript in spleen and kidney was obviously up-regulated by poly(I:C) or inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine, while in blood its expression was down-regulated. Immuno-electron microscopy showed that Lyccys was mainly localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) or in the vesicular structures in spleen and kidney cells. Recombinant Lyccys protein fused with glutathione S-transferase (rLyccys) was shown to have remarkable protease-inhibitory activity and well affinity binding to papain (with a K(i) of 1.3x10(-13) M). An in vivo administration of rLyccys could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of large yellow croaker tumor necrosis factor-alpha2 (TNF-alpha2) and interleukin-10 in spleen and kidney, but to a lesser extent increase TNF-alpha1 expression. These results suggest that the Lyccys is a secreted inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, which may have an immunomodulatory function in inflammation response.

  16. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

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    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization.

  17. Mechanism of Gonadal Precocity in Cultured Large Yellow Croaker,Pseudosciaena Crocea: A Study of Microstructure and Submicrostructure of Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell in Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yongqiang; Weng Youzhu; Zhou Jing; Xie Fangjing; Liu Jiafu

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure and submicrostructure of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell in the testis of gonadal precocity and immaturation in cultured large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, are studied using histology and electron microscopic technique. The results indicate that the fine structure of the two kinds of cells in different development stages presents an obvious difference. The smooth endoplasmic reticular and tubular mitochondria of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell are well developed in the testis of gonadal precocity, but poorly developed in the testis of immaturation. We suggest that the reason for gonadal precocity in the large yellow croaker may be related to the earlier development and maturation of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell.

  18. Therapeutic Effect of Polysaccharide of Large Yellow Croaker Swim Bladder on Lupus Nephritis of Mice

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    Xianhong Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of polysaccharide of large yellow croaker swim bladder (PLYCSB on lupus nephritis has been studied in vivo. A high concentration (50 mg/kg dose of PLYCSB reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ compared to a low concentration (25 mg/kg dose and control mice. SCr, BUN, TC and TG serum levels of PLYCSB treated mice were lower than those of control mice, and TP and ALB serum levels were higher than control mice. Control mice tested ds-DNA positive at the 6th week, and 50 mg/kg treated mice tested at the 10th week after the experiment began. The output of urine protein of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was most closely comparable to the normal mice. The glomerular number of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was more than the 25 mg/kg dose and control groups, and the 50 mg/kg dose group showed the lowest glomerular sclerosis index in lupus nephritis mice. By RT-PCR and western blot assay, PLYCSB significantly induced inflammation in kidney tissues of mice by downregulating NF-κB-p65, TGF-β1, Fas, FasL and upregulating IκB-α. These results suggest that PLYCSB showed a potential curative effect on lupus nephritis as a drug or functional food.

  19. Effects of dietary squid viscera meal on growth and cadmium accumulation in tissues of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea R.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huitao LI; Kangsen MAI; Qinghui AI; Chunxiao ZHANG; Lu ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental pollutant with a long biological half-life and can produce both hepatic and renal injuries in mammals and fish. Squid viscera meal (SVM), an effective attractant for aquatic animals, is widely used as an ingredient in aquafeeds. However, SVM is rich in Cd and its complexes. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary SVM on the growth and Cd deposition in the tissues of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea R. Three practical diets diet, correspondingly containing a 0.21, 7.26 and 12.08 mg groups of 100 juveniles of large yellow croaker (mean initial weight, 9.75 + 0.35 g) in floating sea cages (1.0 m × 1.0m × 1.5 m). Fish were fed twice daily (05:00 and 17:00) to satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that there were no significant differences in fish survival among the three dietary treatments, but significant higher specific growth rates (SGR) were observed in the fish fed diets with (P< 0.05). The cadmium concentrations in fish tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and gill) were significantly influ-enced by the dietary SVM. The cadmium concentrations in all tissues significantly increased with increasing dietary Cd levels (P < 0.05). In all the dietary treatments, the high-est Cd level was always observed in the kidney, followed SVM had significantly higher Cd accumulations in the level in fish muscle, however, was undetectable in all treatments. Therefore, based on these results, accumulation of Cd in edible tissue (muscle) of farmed large yellow croaker is not a food safety issue. However, long-term feeding of diets with SVM may result in accumulation of Cd in the kidney, liver and gills of fish.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea

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    Bin Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid soluble collagen (ASC from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis, and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin, and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1, GPAGPAG (ACH-P2, and GFPSG (ACH-P3. ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively, DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively, superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively, and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively. ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage.

  1. Growth and Mortality of Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) Inhabiting Haizhou Bay of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; XU Binduo; YE Zhenjiang; REN Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Length frequency data of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were acquired from the survey vessel in May,July,September and December,2011 in Haizhou Bay of China.In this study,921 fish individuals were analyzed for the estimation of growth and mortality parameters.Between length and weight,the power coefficient b was 2.7321,2.9703,3.0418 and 2.7252 for the 4 surveying months,respectively.The estimated von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were 230mm (L∞) and 0.26yr-1 (K) as were calculated with ELEFAN method equipped in FiSAT computer package.With length-converted catch curve analysis,the total mortality rate (Z) and its 95% confidence interval were 2.16 (1.69-2.64) yr-1,0.59 (0.15-1.04) yr-1,1.16 (0.80-1.52) yr-1 and 0.96 (0.70-1.23) yr-1 for the 4 surveying months,respectively,with the pooled data the value was 1.15 (0.81-1.48) yr-1.The natural mortality rate (M) was 0.516 yr-1 as was calculated with Pauly's equation (the annual average sea water temperature was 11 ℃).Therefore,fish mortality rate was 0.634 yr-1.The yield-per-recruit analysis indicated that when tc was 1,Fmax was 0.7 and F0.1 was 0.55.Currently,the age at first capture is about 1 year and Fcurrent was 0.634.Therefore,Fcurrent was larger than F0.1 and less than Fmax.This indicates that current fish mortality is at a dangerously high level.With Gulland method,the biological reference point for fishery (Fopt) was estimated as 0.516 yr-1,lower than current fish mortality.Accordingly,reducing catch in the region was strongly recommended.

  2. Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa comprised the yeast core gut microbiota of wild and reared carnivorous salmonids, croaker and yellowtail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Patricia; Lopez, Paulina; Diaz, Angélica; Carrasco, Diana; Silva, Alfonso; Velez, Antonio; Opazo, Rafael; Magne, Fabien; Navarrete, Paola A

    2014-09-01

    This is the first study using molecular and culture-based methods aimed at investigating the composition of the intestinal yeast microbiota of wild and reared carnivorous salmonids, croaker and yellowtail, to characterize their cores and to evaluate the enzymatic activities of the cultivated yeast. Among 103 samples from salmonids, croaker and yellowtail, yeast were detected in 85.4%, with 43 species identified. The core of reared fish was composed of eight species, in contrast to the wild fish core, which consisted of two species: Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Despite the smaller diversity of the wild fish core, similar enzymatic profiles were detected for the species from the wild and reared cores. For principal component analysis, samples grouped together independently of host species, domestication status and location. A high proportion of yeast produced aminopeptidases and lipases, which may be explained by the high proportion of protein and lipids in the carnivorous diet. This study reveals the presence of a yeast community in the fish gut that appears to be strongly shaped by a carnivorous diet. Yeast in the gut increases the repertoire of microorganisms interacting with the host intestine, which could influence health and disease.

  3. Population genetic studies revealed local adaptation in a high gene-flow marine fish, the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis.

  4. Combining ozone and slurry ice to maximize shelf-life and quality of bighead croaker (Collichthys niveatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Huang, Ju; Deng, Shanggui; Huang, Yuting

    2016-10-01

    Slurry ice possesses several advantages for seafood preservation, such as faster chilling rate, reduced physical damage, and complete coverage of the fish surface. In this paper, the efficiency of its employment, either applied alone or combined with ozone, was evaluated for bighead croaker and compared with traditional flake ice. Changes of a series of microbial, biochemical and sensory parameters including total viable count (TVC), sensory scores, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hardness and springiness were investigated up to 21 days. TVC, sensory attributes, hardness and springiness of fish stored in ozonised slurry ice, were significantly different from fish stored flake ice and slurry ice, indicating that a combination of slurry ice and ozone allowed better quality maintenance. Increase in TVB-N, PV and TBA values of the fish treated with ozonised slurry ice and slurry ice were found to be noticeably reduced compared to those of the flake ice ones. Based on the acceptable limits of TVC and other quantifiable attributes, a prolonged shelf life of 18 days was estimated for the bighead croaker stored in ozonised-slurry ice, whereas the counterpart batches treated with flake and slurry ice would exceed these limits after 9 and 15 days, respectively. Additionally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and scanning electron microscope observation also revealed that ozonised-slurry ice could effectively retard the degradation of myofibrillar proteins and reduce the deterioration of microstructure.

  5. Vegetable oil induced inflammatory response by altering TLR-NF-κB signalling, macrophages infiltration and polarization in adipose tissue of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Dong, Xiaojing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    High level of vegetable oil (VO) in diets could induce strong inflammatory response, and thus decrease nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in most marine fish species. The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary VO could exert these anti-immunological effects by altering TLR-NF-κB signalling, macrophages infiltration and polarization in adipose tissue of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets with 0% (FO, fish oil, the control), 50% (FV, fish oil and vegetable oil mixed) and 100% (VO, vegetable oil) vegetable oil were fed to fish with three replicates for ten weeks. The results showed that activities of respiratory burst (RB) and alternative complement pathway (ACP), as well as disease resistance after immune challenge were significantly decreased in large yellow croaker fed VO diets compared to FO diets. Inflammatory response of experimental fish was markedly elevated by VO reflected by increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β and TNFα) and decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine (arginase I and IL10) genes expression. TLR-related genes expression, nucleus p65 protein, IKKα/β and IκBα phosphorylation were all significantly increased in the AT of large yellow croaker fed VO diets. Moreover, the expression of macrophage infiltration marker proteins (cluster of differentiation 68 [CD68] and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor [CSF1R]) was significantly increased while the expression of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization marker proteins (macrophage mannose receptor 1 [MRC1] and cluster of differentiation 209 [CD209]) was significantly decreased in the AT of large yellow croaker fed VO diets. In conclusion, VO could induce inflammatory responses by activating TLR-NF-κB signalling, increasing macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and polarization of macrophage in large yellow croaker.

  6. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine and Betaine on Serum Biochemical Indices of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea Cultured in Floating Net Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guo Sang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical changes of large yellow croaker as affected by dietary supplements. Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea is a marine species that is widely cultured in China due to its high commercial value. However, the cage-cultured large yellow croakers were found to be less tasty compared with wild large yellow croakers due to high lipid in their body, which significantly impacts the commercial markets. Triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are main lipid ingredients in the animal body. The fish were fed with basal diet or basal diet supplemented with L-carnitine (0.08% of dry weight diet or betaine (0.8% of dry weight diet for 12 weeks in seawater floating net cages (3×2×1.5 m each holding 60 fishes. Three net cages were assigned to each dietary treatment, as replications. The seawater temperature ranged from 18 to 31°C and salinity from 25 to 28 g/kg. Fish were hand-fed one of the experimental diets to apparent satiety twice daily (05:00 and 17:30 throughout the 12 week experimental period. The results indicate that L-carnitine or betaine in diets significantly reduced Serum Triglyceride (STG and Serum Cholesterol (SCH levels while increased Serum Free Fatty Acids (SFFA content (p<0.05. The diets of L-carnitine or betaine supplements on serum biochemical indices of that fish species have positive effects. These results suggested that the supplementation with L-carnitine or betaine is one of the effective ways to improve the meat quality of large yellow croakers cultured in floating net cages.

  7. Analysis on the Export Competitiveness of China's Cultured Large Yellow Croaker%养殖大黄鱼的出口竞争力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高滢

    2012-01-01

    Based on the description of the present situation on the export of China's large Yellow croaker, this paper revealed the basic characteristics of the large Yellow croaker export markets: as a result of the concentrated areas of cultured large Yellow croaker, the export provinces were concentrated and face with serious trade barriers. Through the use of export competitiveness index, this article analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of several export provinces of the large Yellow croaker. And put forward suggestions as actively looking for new ways of export, expanding the export market, enhancing the diversification of export products and reasonably avoiding barriers, in order to realize the steady growth on export profits of large Yellow croaker.%通过介绍中国养殖大黄鱼产业的出口现状,文章指出了养殖大黄鱼出口市场的基本特征.研究表明:由于养殖大黄鱼产地集中,出口省份也较为集中,面临着严峻的贸易壁垒问题.同时,文章通过运用出口竞争力指标,对几个省份的大黄鱼出口优、劣势做出了分析.并提出了积极寻找新型出口方式、拓展出口市场、加强出口产品的多样化以及合理规避贸易壁垒等建议,以实现大黄鱼出口利润的稳步增长.

  8. Metal contamination as a possible etiology of fibropapillomatosis in juvenile female green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from the southern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green sea turtles. In turn, a reduced concentration of serum cholesterol has been indicated as a reliable biomarker of malignancy in vertebrates, including marine turtles. In the present study, metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations, oxidative stress parameters [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), frequency of micronucleated cells (FMC)], water content, cholesterol concentration and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity were analyzed in the blood/serum of juvenile (29.3-59.5cm) female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with FP (n=14) and without FP (n=13) sampled at Ubatuba coast (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil). Green sea turtles were grouped and analyzed according to the severity of tumors. Individuals heavily afflicted with FP showed significantly higher blood Cu, Pb and Fe concentrations, blood LPO levels, as well as significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations and HMGR activity than turtles without FP. Significant and positive correlations were observed between HMGR activity and cholesterol concentrations, as well as LPO levels and Fe and Pb concentrations. In turn, Cu and Pb concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with HMGR activity and cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, Cu, Fe and Pb were positively correlated with each other. Therefore, the reduced concentration of serum cholesterol observed in green sea turtles heavily afflicted with FP is related to a Cu- and Pb-induced inhibition of HMGR activity paralleled by a higher LPO rate induced by increased Fe and Pb concentrations. As oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, our findings support the idea that metal contamination, especially by Cu, Fe and Pb, may be implicated in the etiology of FP in green sea turtles through oxidative stress

  9. Quorum sensing signals affect spoilage of refrigerated large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Shewanella baltica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junli; Zhao, Aifei; Feng, Lifang; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-18

    In this work we investigated the specific spoilage organism (SSO) of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) stored at 4°C and role of quorum sensing (QS) system of SSO isolated from the spoiled fish. According to microbial count and 16S rRNA gene of the isolated pure strains, Shewanella, mainly Shewanella baltica and Shewanella putrefaciens, was predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of P. crocea. Among Shewanella isolates, S.baltica02 was demonstrated as SSO in spoilage potential characteristics by inoculation into sterile fish juice using sensory and chemical analyses. Autoinducer 2 and two cyclic dipeptides (DKPs) including cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe), no any AHLs, were detected in cell-free S. baltica culture. Interestingly, S.baltica02 had the highest QS activity among three spoilers of S. baltica. The production of biofilm, trimethylamines (TMA) and putrescine in these spoilers significantly increased in the presence of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu), rather than cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the AI-2 precursor, DPD). In accordance with the effect of signal molecules on the spoilage phenotype, exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was also showed to up-regulate the transcription levels of luxR, torA and ODC, and no effect of luxS indicated that S. baltica could sense cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu). In the fish homogenate, exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) shortened lag phase durations and enhanced growth rates of the dominant bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, under refrigerated storage, while exogenous DPD retarded growth of competing bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae. Meanwhile, cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) also promoted the accumulation of metabolites on the spoilage process of homogenate. S.baltica02 luxS mutant preliminarily proved that AI-2 might not play a signaling role in the spoilage. The present study suggested that the spoilage potential of S. baltica in P. crocea might be regulated by DKP-based quorum sensing.

  10. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of unfolded protein response genes from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and their expression in response to dietary fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Yan, Jing; Li, Songlin; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2017-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a mechanism to cope with perturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions or accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER in eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the UPR also participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nutrient sensing, lipid synthesis, and inflammatory response. In this study, four UPR-related genes (GRP78/BiP, ATF6α, XBP1 and CHO) were isolated characterized from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and their expression in response to dietary lipid sources (various fatty acids) such as fish oil (FO), palmic acid (PA), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO), and perilla oil (PO), were examined following feeding. The results showed that the four UPR-related proteins contained highly conserved functional domains and had the closest phylogenetic relationships with other fishes. Additionally, these genes were ubiquitously expressed in large yellow croaker, as in zebrafish and medaka. Moreover, GRP78, ATF6α and spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA levels in the liver, not in adipose tissue, were significantly increased in the SO group compared to the other groups (P<0.05). These results indicated that dietary SO activated UPR, and the activation of UPR might provide a mechanism to improve ER function, but probably stimulated lipid synthesis and caused inflammatory response in the liver of large yellow croaker.

  12. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  13. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  14. Stable isotopic composition of otoliths in identification of stock structure of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yukun; HUANG Jiansheng; TANG Xuexi; JIN Xianshi; SUN Yao

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ18O andδ13C) in otoliths were used to identify the stock structure of small yellow croaker,Larimichthys polyactis. Otoliths were collected from fish at five locations across the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea representing most of their distributional range and fisheries areas. The significant differences in the isotopic signatures showed that the five locations could be chemically distinguished and clearly separated, indicating stock subdivision. Correlation ofδ18O andδ13C values suggested that population ofL. polyactis could be divided into the Bohai Sea group, the southern Yellow Sea group and the central Yellow Sea group. Discriminant analysis ofδ18O andδ13C values demonstrated a high significant difference with 85.7% classification accuracy. The spatial separation ofL. polyactis indicated a complex stock structure across the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. These results indicate that optimal fisheries management may require a comprehensive consideration on the current spatial arrangements. This study has provided further evidence that measurement of the stable isotopes ratios in otolith can be a valuable tool in the delineation of fishery management units.

  15. Otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination of two Collichthys genus croaker (Pieces: Sciaenidae,) from the northern Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jinhu; Song, Junjie; Cao, Liang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2017-08-01

    The otolith morphology of two croaker species (Collichthys lucidus and Collichthys niveatus) from three areas (Liaodong Bay, LD; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary, HRE; Jiaozhou Bay, JZ) along the northern Chinese coast were investigated for species identification and stock discrimination. The otolith contour shape described by elliptic Fourier coefficients (EFC) were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and stepwise canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to identify species and stocks. The two species were well differentiated, with an overall classification success rate of 97.8%. And variations in the otolith shapes were significant enough to discriminate among the three geographical samples of C. lucidus (67.7%) or C. niveatus (65.2%). Relatively high mis-assignment occurred between the geographically adjacent LD and HRE samples, which implied that individual mixing may exist between the two samples. This study yielded information complementary to that derived from genetic studies and provided information for assessing the stock structure of C. lucidus and C. niveatus in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  16. Comparative metabolic rates of common western North Atlantic Ocean sciaenid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodysky, A Z; Brill, R W; Bushnell, P G; Musick, J A; Latour, R J

    2011-07-01

    The resting metabolic rates (R(R)) of western North Atlantic Ocean sciaenids, such as Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, spot Leiostomus xanthurus and kingfishes Menticirrhus spp., as well as the active metabolic rates (R(A)) of M. undulatus and L. xanthurus were investigated to facilitate inter and intraspecific comparisons of their energetic ecology. The R(R) of M. undulatus and L. xanthurus were typical for fishes with similar lifestyles. The R(R) of Menticirrhus spp. were elevated relative to those of M. undulatus and L. xanthurus, but below those of high-energy-demand species such as tunas Thunnus spp. and dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus. Repeated-measures non-linear mixed-effects models were applied to account for within-individual autocorrelation and corrected for non-constant variance typical of noisy R(A) data sets. Repeated-measures models incorporating autoregressive first-order [AR(1)] and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) covariances provided significantly superior fits, more precise parameter estimates (i.e. reduced s.e.) and y-intercept estimates that more closely approximated measured R(R) for M. undulatus and L. xanthurus than standard least-squares regression procedures.

  17. De novo characterization of the spleen transcriptome of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and analysis of the immune relevant genes and pathways involved in the antiviral response

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Yinnan

    2014-05-12

    The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker. © 2014 Mu et al.

  18. Elaboração de empanado a partir da corvina (Micropogonias furnieri Preparation of breaded whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Bonacina

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo elaborar empanado a partir da corvina (Micropogonias furnieri. Os pescados foram medidos, pesados, avaliados quanto ao frescor através do pH e bases voláteis totais (BVT e determinada sua composição proximal. As corvinas apresentaram um tamanho e peso médio de 28,0 cm e 268,3 g, respectivamente. O pH e as concentrações de N-BVT dos exemplares utilizados encontraram-se dentro dos limites indicados pela legislação brasileira. A composição proximal da corvina foi 78,7% de umidade, 18,8% de proteína, 1,2% de cinza e 1,1% de gordura. A partir de testes preliminares definiu-se a formulação base, a qual se utilizou para determinar o tempo de pré-fritura do produto, que foi de 30 segundos. Para definir a formulação final do produto, foi realizado um planejamento fatorial completo 2³, com triplicata dos pontos centrais, variando-se o tempo de lavagem do músculo (0; 15 e 30 segundos, concentração de lactato de sódio (0; 0,8 e 1,6% e de leite em pó (0; 1 e 2%. As variáveis respostas foram a CRA, umidade, proteína e gordura, bem como a qualidade geral sensorial e os atributos de aparência, crocância, textura e sabor. Através dos resultados, foi possível verificar que o tempo de lavagem do músculo foi o fator de maior influência nas características sensoriais do produto, enquanto que para as características físico-químicas observou-se que estas foram influenciadas pelos três fatores estudados. Dessa forma, a formulação selecionada foi a submetida à condição de: 30 segundos de lavagem do músculo, 2% de leite em pó e ausência de lactato de sódio.This study involved the preparation of breaded whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri. The fish were measured and weighed, their freshness was evaluated based on pH and total volatile bases (TVB, and their proximal composition was analyzed. The average size and weight were 28.0 cm and 268.3 g, respectively. The specimens’ pH and

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a matrix Gla protein gene in the spinyhead croaker, Collichthys lucidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Zhao, M D; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Zhao, M; Meng, Y Y; Ma, L B

    2016-11-03

    The matrix Gla (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich) protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent and Gla-containing protein, is a calcification inhibitor that mainly functions in tissue calcification and mineralization. In this study, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence of MGP from the spinyhead croaker (Collichthys lucidus), which we named Cl-MGP. Cl-MGP was 923 bp long with a 384-bp open reading fragment that encoded 127 amino acids. The predicted MGP protein sequence contained a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide, suggesting that it possesses secretory characteristics. The Gla domain and the invariant unit ErraEtCedyspC, which has been identified in all known vitamin K-dependent vertebrate proteins, were highly conserved in Cl-MGP, suggesting that it uses the same mechanism to function as the known proteins. An alignment analysis revealed that Cl-MGP had the highest identity with Larimichthys crocea (93%), which had lost five amino acid residues in the C-terminal. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that Cl-MGP expression was highest in the gill, followed by the cholecyst and spleen, with almost no expression in the blood, muscle, or testes. The high Cl-MGP expression in the gill is similar to that observed in other fish species, but the relatively high expression found in the cholecyst and spleen is not seen in all species. Future studies should investigate the tissue distributions of both mRNA and proteins in different species, in order to understand the function and evolution of MGP in different species.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Biological Effects of a C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqun Ao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs play important roles in innate immunity as one type of pattern recognition receptors. Here, we cloned and characterized a C-type lectin-like receptor (LycCTLR from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The full-length cDNA of LycCTLR is 880 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 215 amino acids. The deduced LycCTLR contains a C-terminal C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD, an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a transmembrane region. The CTLD of LycCTLR possesses six highly conserved cysteine residues (C1–C6, a conserved WI/MGL motif, and two sugar binding motifs, EPD (Glu-Pro-Asp and WYD (Trp-Tyr-Asp. Ca2+ binding site 1 and 2 were also found in the CTLD. The LycCTLR gene consists of five exons and four introns, showing the same genomic organization as tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and guppy (Poecilia retitculata CTLRs. LycCTLR was constitutively expressed in various tissues tested, and its transcripts significantly increased in the head kidney and spleen after stimulation with inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. Recombinant LycCTLR (rLycCTLR protein produced in Escherichia coli BL21 exhibited not only the hemagglutinating activity and a preference for galactose, but also the agglutinating activity against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria E. coli and Bacillus cereus in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that LycCTLR is a potential galactose-binding C-type lectin that may play a role in the antibacterial immunity in fish.

  1. [Effect of stock abundance and environmental factors on the recruitment success of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jia-hua

    2015-02-01

    Multiple hypotheses are available to explain recruitment rate. Model selection methods can be used to identify the best model that supports a particular hypothesis. However, using a single model for estimating recruitment success is often inadequate for overexploited population because of high model uncertainty. In this study, stock-recruitment data of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea collected from fishery dependent and independent surveys between 1992 and 2012 were used to examine density-dependent effects on recruitment success. Model selection methods based on frequentist (AIC, maximum adjusted R2 and P-values) and Bayesian (Bayesian model averaging, BMA) methods were applied to identify the relationship between recruitment and environment conditions. Interannual variability of the East China Sea environment was indicated by sea surface temperature ( SST) , meridional wind stress (MWS), zonal wind stress (ZWS), sea surface pressure (SPP) and runoff of Changjiang River ( RCR). Mean absolute error, mean squared predictive error and continuous ranked probability score were calculated to evaluate the predictive performance of recruitment success. The results showed that models structures were not consistent based on three kinds of model selection methods, predictive variables of models were spawning abundance and MWS by AIC, spawning abundance by P-values, spawning abundance, MWS and RCR by maximum adjusted R2. The recruitment success decreased linearly with stock abundance (P runoff of Changjiang River showed a marginally negative effect (P = 0.07). Based on mean absolute error and continuous ranked probability score, predictive error associated with models obtained from BMA was the smallest amongst different approaches, while that from models selected based on the P-value of the independent variables was the highest. However, mean squared predictive error from models selected based on the maximum adjusted R2 was highest. We found that BMA method could

  2. Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationships and relative condition factors were analyzed for Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) along the north coast of China. Data covered six regions from north to south: Yellow River Estuary, Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, Jiaozhou Bay, Coastal Waters of Qingdao, Haizhou Bay, and South Yellow Sea. In total 3,275 individuals were collected during six years (2008, 2011–2015). One generalized linear model, two simply linear models and nine linear mixed effect models that applied the effects from regions and/or years to coefficient a and/or the exponent b were studied and compared. Among these twelve models, the linear mixed effect model with random effects from both regions and years fit the data best, with lowest Akaike information criterion value and mean absolute error. In this model, the estimated a was 0.0192, with 95% confidence interval 0.0178~0.0308, and the estimated exponent b was 2.917 with 95% confidence interval 2.731~2.945. Estimates for a and b with the random effects in intercept and coefficient from Region and Year, ranged from 0.013 to 0.023 and from 2.835 to 3.017, respectively. Both regions and years had effects on parameters a and b, while the effects from years were shown to be much larger than those from regions. Except for Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, a decreased from north to south. Condition factors relative to reference years of 1960, 1986, 2005, 2007, 2008~2009 and 2010 revealed that the body shape of Yellow Croaker became thinner in recent years. Furthermore relative condition factors varied among months, years, regions and length. The values of a and relative condition factors decreased, when the environmental pollution became worse, therefore, length-weight relationships could be an indicator for the environment quality. Results from this study provided basic description of current condition of Yellow Croaker along the north coast of China. PMID:28225777

  3. Deterioration of white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat thermally-induced gel products caused by proteolytic enzymes in the contaminated intestine and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Nobuhiko; Wan, Jianrong; Watabe, Shugo

    2016-05-15

    Thermally-induced gels were made from white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat in the presence of its organ extracts by pre-heating at 40 and 65°C for 20 min and subsequent heating at 85°C for 20 min. The breaking strength of the gels decreased with increasing concentrations of the intestinal extracts accompanying decomposition of myosin heavy chains. However, no significant changes in the gel strength occurred when the kidney extract was added. The proteolytic activity in the intestinal extracts examined in the meat homogenate had a maximum at 60°C and pH 8.90. These results suggest that the intestinal rather than kidney proteolytic activities are responsible for gel softening known as a modori phenomenon. Thus, the removal of intestinal tracts is essential to maintain a high quality of surimi-based products.

  4. Lipid oxidation during processing of traditional salting fish of yellow croakers%黄花鱼腌制加工过程的脂肪氧化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秋杏; 吴燕燕; 李来好; 杨贤庆; 赵永强; 王悦齐

    2014-01-01

    目的:阐明多脂黄花鱼(yellow croakers)腌制加工过程的理化变化对脂肪氧化的影响以及脂肪氧化的内在机制。方法通过测定大黄鱼腌制加工过程中鱼肉理化指标(水分、盐分、pH 值),脂质氧化指标[硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARs 值)、过氧化值(POV 值)]及脂肪氧合酶(LOX)活力的变化,研究加工过程中脂质分解氧化规律及其与水分、盐分、pH、LOX活力的相关性。结果随着加工的进行,水分出现3次显著性减少(P<0.05),分别在腌制3 d、烘干1 d以及成品;盐分在腌制3 d时达到最高值6.38%;氧化指标POV和TBARs都呈现先升后降的趋势,分别在腌制3 d和烘干1 d达到最高值为0.907 meq/kg和0.250 mg/kg; LOX活性则呈现递减的趋势。POV值仅和盐分呈显著正相关(P<0.05), TBARs则分别和盐分、水分呈极显著正、负相关(P<0.01), LOX酶活与盐分、TBARs呈极显著负相关(P<0.01)。结论在多脂黄花鱼的腌制过程中,适当的盐度和水分的减少可促进脂肪氧化,而脂肪氧合酶的活性可被盐抑制,酶促反应不是引起脂肪氧化的主要原因。%Objective To illustrate the physical and chemical changes on the influence of lipid oxidation and the inner mechanism of lipid oxidation during processing of salting fatty fish of yellow croaker. Methods Lipid oxidation during processing of salting fatty fish of yellow croakers were studied by evaluating the changes in physicochemical parameters(moisture content, salt content, pH), lipid oxidation index [peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)], and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities and their correlation.ResultsAlong with the processing, moisture content significantly decreased (P<0.05) at salting for 3 d, drying for 1 d and final product; the salt content reached the peak of 6.38% at salting for 3 d; POV and TBARs increased first and then decreased, and reached the peak at salting for 3 d and

  5. The N-terminal β-sheet of peroxiredoxin 4 in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea is involved in its biological functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinnan Mu

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are thiol-specific antioxidant proteins that exhibit peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities involved in the reduction of reactive oxygen species. The peroxiredoxin Prx4 from the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea is a typical 2-Cys Prx with an N-terminal signal peptide. We solved the crystal structure of Prx4 at 1.90 Å and revealed an N-terminal antiparallel β-sheet that contributes to the dimer interface. Deletion of this β-sheet decreased the in vitro peroxidase activity to about 50% of the wild-type. In vivo assays further demonstrated that removal of this β-sheet led to some impairment in the ability of Prx4 to negatively regulate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and to perform its role in anti-bacterial immunity. These results provide new insights into the structure and function relationship of a peroxiredoxin from bony fish.

  6. The role of Nrf2/Keap1 signaling in inorganic mercury induced oxidative stress in the liver of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Wang, Yong-Hong; Xu, Mei-Ying; Zhu, Ai-Yi; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute inorganic Hg exposure (0, 32 and 64μgHgL(-1)) on lipid peroxidation, activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST), and mRNA levels of the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling molecules at different exposure times (6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, and 96h) in the liver of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. The results showed that lipid peroxidation was sharply reduced by 32μg Hg L(-1) during 6-12h before returning to control levels. Similarly, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced during 6-12h followed by a sharp increase towards the end of the exposure in the 64μgHgL(-1) group. There was a negative relationship between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and positive relationship between activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting that the changes at a molecular level may underlie enzymatic level and accordingly affect hepatic lipid peroxidation. Obtained results also showed a coordinated transcriptional regulation of antioxidant genes, suggesting that Nrf2 is required for the protracted induction of these genes. Furthermore, a negative relationship between the mRNA levels of Nrf2 and Keap1 indicated that Keap1 may play an important role in switching off the Nrf2 response. In conclusion, this is the first study to elucidate effects of waterborne Hg on antioxidant system in large yellow croaker through the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, which will aid our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of waterborne heavy metal on antioxidant responses in fish.

  7. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on growth, fatty acid composition and hepatic lipogenesis in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-yu ZHAO; Tian-xing WU; Hong-gang TANG; Ji-ze ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth, fatty acid composition and enzyme activity of fatty acid oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w) CLA, respectively. The fish were fed for 10 weeks ad libitum twice daily. We found that the dietary CLA had no effect on growth, biometric parameters and whole body proximate (P>0.05), but showed some significant effects on the fatty acid composition in both muscle and the liver.The activities oflipogenic enzymes were slightly depressed in fish fed with increasing levels of CLA when compared with control (P>0.05). Dietary CLA supplementation had no effects on liver lipid content, but significantly increased the contents of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in both muscle and the liver. Dietary CLA inclusion resulted in significant increases of the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers in both tissues (P<0.05). The total accumulation of CLA was higher in the liver (3.83%, w/w) than in muscle (3.77%, w/w) when fed with 4% (w/w) CLA. This study demonstrates that large yellow croakers are capable of absorbing and depositing CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in the liver and muscle, showing that this species fed with CLA could be an important human food source for these healthful fatty acids.

  8. The effect of insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of preadipocytes isolated from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea R..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Wang

    Full Text Available Fish final product can be affected by excessive lipid accumulation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to control obesity in cultivated fish to strengthen the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. As in mammals, the development of adiposity in fish depends on hormonal, cytokine and dietary factors. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes isolated from the large yellow croaker and examined the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, after which their proliferation was evaluated. The differentiation process was optimized by assaying glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH activity. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy were performed to visualize the accumulated triacylglycerol. Gene transcript levels were measured using SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin promoted preadipocytes proliferation, stimulated cell differentiation and decreased lipolysis of mature adipocytes. TNFα and DHA inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation. While TNFα stimulated mature adipocyte lipolysis, DHA showed no lipolytic effect on adipocytes. The expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, fatty acid synthase (FAS, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, γ (PPARα, PPARγ were quantified during preadipocytes differentiation and adipocytes lipolysis to partly explain the regulation mechanisms. In summary, the results of this study indicated that although preadipocytes proliferation and the differentiation process in large yellow croaker are similar to these processes in mammals, the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on fish adipocytes development are not exactly the same. Our findings fill in the gaps in the basic data regarding the effects of critical factors on adiposity

  9. The effect of insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of preadipocytes isolated from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea R.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Huang, Ming; Wang, Yizhen

    2012-01-01

    Fish final product can be affected by excessive lipid accumulation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to control obesity in cultivated fish to strengthen the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. As in mammals, the development of adiposity in fish depends on hormonal, cytokine and dietary factors. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes isolated from the large yellow croaker and examined the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, after which their proliferation was evaluated. The differentiation process was optimized by assaying glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy were performed to visualize the accumulated triacylglycerol. Gene transcript levels were measured using SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin promoted preadipocytes proliferation, stimulated cell differentiation and decreased lipolysis of mature adipocytes. TNFα and DHA inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation. While TNFα stimulated mature adipocyte lipolysis, DHA showed no lipolytic effect on adipocytes. The expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, γ (PPARα, PPARγ) were quantified during preadipocytes differentiation and adipocytes lipolysis to partly explain the regulation mechanisms. In summary, the results of this study indicated that although preadipocytes proliferation and the differentiation process in large yellow croaker are similar to these processes in mammals, the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on fish adipocytes development are not exactly the same. Our findings fill in the gaps in the basic data regarding the effects of critical factors on adiposity development in fish

  10. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  11. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  12. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  13. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  14. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  15. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  16. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea) by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Min; Li, Yi; Lu, You; Hou, Yingmei; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g) were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m). Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of lipoprotein

  17. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  18. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  19. Development of a visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas putida of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhijuan; Qiu, Yangyu; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Jigang; Yang, Jifang

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), an important marine fish farmed in the coastal areas of Zhejiang province, east China, has become severely endangered as a result of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas putida. This paper reports the development of a visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the pathogen. Four primers, F3, B3, FIP and BIP, were designed on the basis of DNA sequence of the rpoN gene of P. putida. After optimization of the reaction conditions, the detection limit of LAMP assay was 4.8cfu per reaction, 10-fold higher than that of conventional PCR. The assay showed high specificity to discriminate all P. putida isolates from nine other Gram-negative bacteria. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected fish. For visual LAMP without cross-contamination, SYBR Green I was embedded in a microcrystalline wax capsule and preset in the reaction tubes; after the reaction the wax was melted at 85°C to release the dye and allow intercalation with the amplicons. The simple, highly sensitive, highly specific and cost-effective characteristics of visual LAMP may encourage its application in the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen.

  20. Passive acoustic monitoring, development of disturbance calls and differentiation of disturbance and advertisement calls in the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai (Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, J S; Fine, M L; Norbis, W

    2017-01-23

    Disturbance and advertisement calls of the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai were recorded from coastal Uruguayan waters. Dissections indicate typical sciaenid extrinsic swimbladder muscles present exclusively in males. Disturbance calls were produced when captive U. canosai were startled, chased with a net or grabbed by the tail. Calls were unusual for sciaenids because each pulse consisted of multiple cycles. The number of cycles per pulse and dominant frequency did not change with U. canosai size, but pulse duration and interpulse interval increased. Advertisement calls were recorded from unseen choruses in the field and confirmed with captive individuals in a large tank. Advertisement calls were recorded throughout the known range of the species in Uruguay indicating a continuous belt of spawning populations. Tank recordings of the same individuals permitted explicit comparisons between the two calls. Advertisement call pulses averaged 2·4 more cycles (11·0-8·6) although pulses of both calls were basically similar as were durations and dominant frequencies. Pulse number, however, differed markedly, averaging 13·6 and 3·4 pulses for disturbance and advertisement calls respectively. Furthermore, disturbance calls were produced as a rapid series with an interpulse interval of 26-31 ms whereas advertisement call patterns were less stereotyped and ranged from <100 to 450 ms. Multicycle pulses distinguished U. canosai from other sympatric sciaenids.

  1. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) clone, expression pattern, and regulation by different lipid sources and lipid levels in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen; Li, Yongjin

    2013-04-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified as a triglyceride (TG)-specific lipase. In this study, we first obtained from large yellow croaker fish a 1,820-bp (GenBank ID: HQ916211) ATGL cDNA fragment with a 141-bp 5'UTR, a 1,485-bp open reading frame, and a 194-bp 3'UTR. The predicted fish ATGL had 494 amino acids (GenBank ID: ADY89608) and a calculated molecular weight of 55.1 kDa. ATGL was highly expressed in liver and, to a lesser degree, in heart, muscle, and abdominal fat. ATGL gene expression was high at 4.5 g and then decreased at 157.9 g and increased again at 474.2 g. The effects of lipid levels and lipid sources on ATGL expression in vivo were also investigated. A high-lipid diet decreased ATGL expression in fish significantly (P Fish in soybean oil group exhibited significantly lower ATGL expression than fish in the fish oil and beef tallow groups (P fish lipid metabolism.

  2. Environmentally induced tissue responses of hematopoietic system in abu mullet (Liza abu) and tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Negin; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Kheradmand, Parvin

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation aimed to assess the possibility of using plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and tissue changes of hematopoietic organs as biomarkers of environmental pollution in abu mullet (Liza abu) and tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) collected from Musa Creek (northwest of the Persian Gulf). 120 L. abu and O. ruber were collected from five stations at the Musa Creek: Petrochemical, Ghanam, Doragh, Zangi and Patil stations. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein. Tissue samples were also taken from the spleen and head kidney, and tissue sections were prepared according to routine histological methods. The concentrations of Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd were also measured in the sediment samples. The minimum level of EPO and the most severe tissue changes were determined in fish collected near a Petrochemical station. This station is adjacent to the Imam Khomeini Petrochemical Complex and receives highly contaminated effluents from this complex. The highest degree of contamination (Cd) also belonged to this station. The fish collected from the Patil station represented the highest EPO level and the least tissue changes. This station exhibited a lesser degree of contamination. Based on the results, there was a significant correlation between the plasma level of EPO hormone and the degree of environmental contamination.

  3. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation.

  4. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic...

  5. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  6. Nanocomposite biofilms obtained from Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate and Montmorillonite: evaluation of the physical, mechanical and barrier properties; Biofilmes nanocompositos obtidos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri) e Montmorilonita: avaliacao das propriedades fisicas, meanicas e de barreira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez-Vega, William Renzo, E-mail: williamvega@ufgd.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Bagatini, Daniela Cardozo; Souza, Juliana Tais Andreghetto de; Prentice, Carlos, E-mail: danielabagatini@hotmail.com, E-mail: ju.andreghetto@hotmail.com, E-mail: dqmprent@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2013-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of nanocomposite biofilms based on Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate with organophilic clays. Initially the croaker protein isolate (CPI) was obtained using the pH shifting process from by-products of croaker industrialization. A Box and Behnken experimental design was used to develop the films, with three levels of CPI (2, 3.5 and 5 g.100 g{sup -1} solution), montmorillonite MMT clay (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g.100 g{sup -1} solution) and glycerol (25, 30 and 35 g.100g{sup -1} CPI). The polymeric films were produced by the 'casting technique'. The tensile strength values ranged from 7.2 to 10.7 MPa and the elongation values from 39.6 to 45.8 %. The water vapor permeability (WVP) values ranged from 3.2 to 5.5 (g.mm.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}) and the CPI had an average protein content of 97.87 % protein (d. b.). It was concluded that the nanocomposite films produced from CPI with MMT were promising from the standpoint of their mechanical properties, visual appearance and easy handling, as well as for their low water vapor permeability and low water solubility. With respect to their mechanical properties, the concentrations of CPI and MMT were the main factors influencing the development of the nanocomposite films. The results obtained from the experimental design indicated that 3.5 g of CPI.100 g{sup -1}solution, 0.5 g of MMT.100 g{sup -1} solution and 30 g of glycerol.100 g{sup -1} CPI would be the ideal parameters for the development of nanocomposite films by 'casting'. (author)

  7. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  8. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  9. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  10. Development of Freezing-point Regulator for Cultured Large Yellow Croaker%养殖大黄鱼冰点调节剂研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡烨; 何建东; 王朋; 吴冬梅; 罗红宇; 励建荣

    2013-01-01

    研究冻结温度、冻结介质、鱼肉含水量及鱼块大小对养殖大黄鱼冻结过程中所产生的影响.在此基础上,考察NaCl、蔗糖、山梨醇、VC、葡萄糖对降低鱼块冰点所起的作用.通过Box-Behnken设计,结合鱼块冰点与感官品质变化,优化冰点调节剂的配方,最终选用2次挤压TPA方法对冰点调节剂处理前后的鱼肉质构特性进行测定.结果表明,相同冷冻温度和冷冻介质条件下,大黄鱼鱼块越小,含水量越低,鱼块降温越迅速.液体速冻比气体速冻具有更高的降温效率.通过Design-expert7.0软件确定的最佳冰点调节剂配方是:NaCl 5.16%,蔗糖2.96%,山梨醇7.15%.与空白对照组相比,将大黄鱼冰点从-1.5℃降低到-4.2℃,降低冰点作用明显,而鱼肉质构特性无统计学差异(P>0.05).%Effect of freezing temperature、freezing Medium、water content and size of cultured Large Yellow Croaker in Freezing process was studied. On this basis, investigate the effect of NaCl, sucrose, sorbitol, VC, glucose on decreasing the freezing point. Combined with the freezing point and sensory quality, freezing-point regulator was optimized by response surface methodology. Finally, determinate the texture of Large Yellow Croaker through the method two bite test. The results showed that in the same freezing temperature and freezing medium, the cooling speed of fish cake is much quicker when the size was smaller and the water content lower. The quick freezing though liquid was quicker in cooling speed than gas. The best freezing-point regulator is NaCl 5.16%, sucrose 2.96%, sorbitol 7.15% by Design-expert 7.0. Compared with the control group, it can decrease the freezing point from -1.5℃ to -4.2℃, which has a great statistics effect on decreasing the freezing point, while the texture of fish cake has no statistics significance(P>0.05).

  11. Expression profile of immune-associated genes in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in the East China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujiang; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Yinghua; Lv, Baoqiang; Wu, Xiongfei; Liu, Huihui; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of environment conditions on immune activity of fish, eight immune-associated genes responsible for innate immunity were selected from the GenBank, i.e. Pgrn-a, Ifit2, P-hepcidin, Lect2, β2m, Irf1, Il25 and Hsp96, and the mRNA expressions of them in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in different sea areas in the East China Sea were examined with qPCR techniques. In the contrasts of immune-associated gene expression between areas and populations, significant differences were found, expression levels of these immune-associated genes were lower in the clear water area than in the poor water quantity area, and lower in May than in October. MY was more sensitive to environmental factors than DQ, which was coincident with the water quality in the culturing areas. Differential analyses of the expression levels of these immune-associated genes showed that significant up-regulation could be triggered by poor environmental factors. The expression patterns indicated that the expression levels of these genes were sensitive to ecological changes, thereby the immune-associated genes, especially Pgrn-a, Ifit2, β2m, Il25 and Hsp96, might serve as immediate and sensitive indicators of population immunologic vigor and ecosystem health. But the expression of immunity-associated genes at the level of gene transcription is highly influenced by multiple factors, and the exact causes or influencing factors of the up-regulation or down-regulation of these genes still need further thorough investigation.

  12. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  13. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  14. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September...

  15. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council,...

  16. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  17. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  18. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  19. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  20. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  1. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  2. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  3. A novel C-type lectin, Nattectin-like protein, with a wide range of bacterial agglutination activity in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Changhuan; Zhang, Dongling; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are generally recognized as a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins, which serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity of vertebrates. In this study, the molecular characterization and immune roles of a novel CTL from Larimichthys crocea (designated as LcNTC) were investigated. LcNTC is a novel protein that shared 33%-49% homology with other teleosts CTLs. The full-length cDNA of LcNTC was composed of 859 bp with a 465 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 154 residues. LcNTC contained a single CRD with four conserved disulfide-bonded cysteine residues (Cys(57)-Cys(148), Cys(126)-Cys(140)) and EPN/AND motifs instead of invariant EPN/WND motifs required for carbohydrate-binding specificity and constructing Ca(2+)-binding sites. LcNTC mRNA was detected in all examined tissues with the most abundant in the gill. After challenged with poly I:C and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the temporal expression of LcNTC was significantly up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head-kidney. LcNTC transcripts were also induced in the gill, skin, spleen and head-kidney post-infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. The recombinant LcNTC (rLcNTC) purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) exhibited strong agglutination activity against erythrocytes from human, rabbit and large yellow croaker in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and the agglutination could be inhibited by D-Mannose, D-Glucose, D-Fructose, α-Lactose, D-Maltose and LPS. Positive microbial agglutination activities of rLcNTC were observed against all tested bacteria in the presence of Ca(2+), including Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysoleikticus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila). These findings collectively indicated that LcNTC might be involved in the innate immunity of L. crocea as a PRR.

  4. Characterization of the duplicate L-SIGN and DC-SIGN genes in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis of L-SIGN in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Wang, Shanchen; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (L-SIGN/CD299) which are homologues of DC-SIGN are important members in C-type lectin receptors family as key molecules to recognize and eliminate pathogens in the innate immune system. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN have become hot topics in recent studies which both served as cell adhesion and phagocytic pathogen recognition receptors in mammals. However, there have been almost no studies of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN structure and characters in fish, only DC-SIGN in the zebrafish had been studied. In our study, we identified and characterized the full-length miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) DC-SIGN (mmDC-SIGN) and L-SIGN (mmL-SIGN) genes. The sequence analysis results showed that mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN have the same domains with other vertebrates except primates, and share some conserved motifs in CRD among all the vertebrates which play a crucial role in interacting with Ca(2+) and for recognizing mannose-containing motifs. Gene synteny of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN were analyzed for the first time and gene synteny of L-SIGN was conserved among the five fishes. Interestingly, one gene next to L-SIGN from gene synteny had high similarity with L-SIGN gene that was described as L-SIGN-like in fish species. While only one L-SIGN gene existed in other vertebrates, two L-SIGN in fish may be in consequence of the fish-specific genome duplication to adapt the specific environment. The evolutionary analysis showed that the ancestral lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes experienced purifying selection and the current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestral lineages and current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent different evolutionary patterns. Both mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN were expressed in all tested tissues and ubiquitously up-regulated in infected liver, spleen and kidney at different sampling time points

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5), and its expression in response to the ratio of linolenic acid to linoleic acid in diets of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianjiao; Zuo, Rantao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to clone and functionally characterize a full-length cDNA encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) from large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) and investigate its gene expression in response to graded dietary ratio of linolenic acid (ALA) to linoleic acid (LNA) (0.03, 0.06, 0.45, 0.90 and 1.51). An isolated 2372bp cDNA clone of Alox5 contained an open reading frame spanning 2025bp encoding a protein with the ability to modify arachidonate acid (AA) to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (5-HETE). In the liver, the Alox5 mRNA expression levels significantly increased to the maximum when the dietary ALA/LNA increased from 0.03 to 0.06, and then significantly decreased with dietary ALA/LNA increased to 1.51 (P<0.05). In the kidney, the expression levels of Alox5 of fish fed diets with low dietary ALA/LNA (0.03-0.06) were significantly higher than those of fish fed diets with high dietary ALA/LNA (0.45-1.51) (P<0.05). The dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) could act on cognate cis-acting elements in the promoter of Alox5 and increased the transcription of Alox5. Results of the present study suggested that the expression of Alox5 is higher in croakers fed high concentrations of LNA compared to those fed high concentrations of ALA, which might be regulated by NF-κB and contribute to the inflammation process by catalyzing the dioxygenation of AA.

  6. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  7. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally,...

  8. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  9. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  10. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  11. Oocyte development and maturity classification of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Edward D.; Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie O.;

    2012-01-01

    become the target of an industrial fishery in the Northeast Atlantic. A total of 2014 boarfish were collected from January to December 2010. Mature male and female boarfish were sexually dimorphic and could be readily identified based on external characteristics. A comprehensive maturity scale...

  12. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  13. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  14. Age and growth of pawak croaker Pennahia pawak in Beibu Gulf%北部湾斑鳍白姑鱼的年龄与生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 侯刚; 卢伙胜; 殷其群

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the age and growth of pawak croaker Pennahia pawak (Lin, 1940), 626 specimens collected by fishery-dependent bottom trawl, gillnet fleets and longline fishing in the Beibu Gulf from August 2008 to May 2009 were studied. The annuli in the scales were vacant narrow band, which indicated that they were formed once a year, from September to November by monthly changes in the marginal growth increment (MGI)of the scales,just after spawning from April to August. A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to fit the von Bertalanffy, Logistic, Gompertz and generalized von Bertalanffy growth functions to the length-at-age data. ARSS indicated that there were no significant differences in growth between sexes among the four growth models (P>0.05), and the Logistic growth function was selected as the most appropriate growth model according to Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), AIC differences(Δi) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The estimated parameters for Logistic growth function were L∞(asymptote length)= 220.32 mm, K(average growth rate of growth curve) = 0.58, to(theoretical original growth age)= 0.905. Pennahia pawak grows fast before age three,after which the growth rate tends to slow down. In order to protect the population and utilize the resources in a reasonable way, it is suggested that 146.53 mm body length with age two should be the minimum size for exploitation and utilization of P. pawak resources.%通过对斑鳍白姑鱼(Pennahia pawak)鳞片年轮的观察和基础生物学测定,研究斑鳍白姑鱼的年龄判定与生长特性.采用自2008年8月至2009年5月北部湾海域底拖网、流刺网和钓具作业的斑鳍白姑鱼渔获样本,共计626尾.结果认为斑鳍白姑鱼鳞片的年轮显示为空白型窄带,边缘增长率MGI计算结果表明,年轮主要在9-11月形成,为1年1个周期;性腺成熟指数(GSI)表明,繁殖期为4-8月份,年轮形成于繁殖期之后.本研究利

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  16. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  17. Distribution patterns in Atlantic hydroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; López-González, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The present study is a first attempt to comparing the hydroid faunas of the various Zoogeographie areas of the Atlantic Ocean. We restricted ourselves to species of the orders Antho- and Leptomedusae, of which 1050 species were taken into account. The classification of zoogeographic areas used follo

  18. 78 FR 48653 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). SUMMARY: The SAFMC will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  19. Acute toxicity tests of nitazoxanide on fingerings of large yellow croaker%硝唑尼特对大黄鱼幼鱼的急性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海平; 林煜; 钟全福

    2015-01-01

    Under the conditions of water temperature of 25-27℃ and pH of 8. 1-8. 2,compounding the solution by nita-zoxanide dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and using the hydrostatic test method,the acute toxicity of nitazoxanide on fingerings of large yellow croaker were studied. The test results showed that 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50)of nitazoxanide on fingerings of large yellow croaker was 6. 69 mg/L,6. 45 mg/L,5. 64 mg/L and 5. 04 mg/L respectively,and safe concentration was 1. 69 mg/L. Nitazoxanide belongs to high toxic chemicals,but generally that of 1 mg/L in the 72-hour immersion bath can effectively remove trophozoite,therefore,the effective concentrations of insect repellent is within the range of the safe concentration and it is safe to use in production.%在水温25~27℃、pH 值8.1~8.2条件下,将硝唑尼特溶解于二甲亚砜制成溶液,采用静水试验法研究硝唑尼特对大黄鱼幼鱼的急性毒性。试验结果表明:硝唑尼特对大黄鱼幼鱼24 h、48 h、72 h 和96 h 的半致死浓度( LC50)分别为6.69 mg/L、6.45 mg/L 、5.64 mg/L 和5.04 mg/L;安全浓度为1.69 mg/L。硝唑尼特属高毒化学物质,但一般1 mg/L浸浴72 h即可有效驱除滋养体。因此,驱虫的有效浓度属安全浓度范围,在生产中使用是安全的。

  20. Species of Euglossa of the analis group in the Atlantic forest (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 of the analis group inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic forest are revised and identification keys for males and females are provided. Five species are recognized in the Atlantic forest: Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970, Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, Euglossa roderici Nemésio, 2009 and two new species described here, Euglossa botocuda sp. nov. and Euglossa calycina sp. nov. These two new species have been misidentified by previous authors as Atlantic forest populations of, respectively, Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899. Relevant morphological features are illustrated and distribution maps are also provided. Notes on the analis group are included and an additional available name, Euglossa aureiventris Friese, 1899, is placed in this species group.

  1. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting...

  2. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  3. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark...

  4. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas were adjusted based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  5. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  6. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  8. Nutrient Profile of Large Yellow Croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson)Grown Under Different Aquacultural Settings%不同养殖模式大黄鱼肌肉营养成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜孙安; 姚清华; 林香信; 林虬; 苏德森

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient contents of the large yellow croakers,Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson,grown in seine net, pond or net cage fed with same feed were compared with those of the fish caught in the wild.The results showed that (a)the protein content of the wild croakers was higher than those of the aquacultured counterparts,(b)the fat and energy contents and E/P ratio were lower in the wild than the aquacultured croakers,(c)the total,essential and essential for children amino acids were significantly different among the groups grown under different settings,(d) no significant difference was found in the flavoring amino acids or ΣBCAA/ΣAAA in the fish raised in the different aquaculural settings (P >0.05),(d)the essential amino acid content in the fish was greater than 80% of the total amino acids,(e)the E/T and E/N ratios of all samples fell within the FAO/WHO model,(f)significant differences were found among the groups on the contents of saturated,monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids,as well as DHA+EPA and ΣUSFA/ΣSFA (P <0.05),and (g)the ΣSFA/ΣMUFA/ΣPUFA and Σ (n-6)PUFA/Σ(n-3)PUFA indices of the fish from all groups followed those formulated by Chinese Nutrition Society.Other than the fatty acids,all of the evaluation criteria on the croakers grown in seine net were the best among the fish from the tested groups.%采用国标的方法,对同一海域大围网、池塘和网箱三大养殖模式下大黄鱼肌肉的营养成分进行测定,以野生大黄鱼为对照,分析不同养殖模式大黄鱼肌肉营养成分差异。结果表明,养殖大黄鱼肌肉蛋白质含量低,粗脂肪含量、能值和 E/P 值较高;不同组间氨基酸总量、必需氨基酸总量和儿童必需氨基酸总量均存在显著性差异(P <0.05);呈味氨基酸含量、支/芳值组间差异均不显著(P >0.05);必需氨基酸指数均大于80%,E/T、E/N 均符合 FAO/WHO 模式;饱和脂肪酸、单不饱和脂肪酸、

  9. Stock assessment of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea based on multi-source data%基于多源数据的东海小黄鱼资源评估与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊雷; 严利平; 袁兴伟; 杨林林; 刘勇; 黎雨轩; 李圣法; 程家骅; 吴颖

    2013-01-01

    为建立稳定环境和波动环境机制下预防性渔业管理生物参考点,整合调查设计和渔捞日志等多源资源指标构建混合矩阵,利用logistic和Fox剩余产量模型的两步分析技术,对东海区小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)渔业资源动态进行评估。模型估算参数和管理参考点显示, Fox模型对渔获量和CPUE拟合的方差贡献率高于logistic模型,两者分别为68%和57%,环境承载力和内禀增长率相差较大。logistic 模型估算了相对较低的承载力和较高的内秉增长率、初始开发率以及MSY。稳定环境下资源状况评判结果表明:1999―2008年间多数年份的捕捞强度超过捕捞水平限制参考点,渔业遭受过度开发,平均资源量保持在中位水平且未达到过度捕捞状态,但已超过目标参考点;波动环境条件下的判别结果显示:logistic和Fox模型拟合的渔业水平均已达到过度捕捞。采用保护性捕捞参考点可增强渔业资源稳定性,当捕捞死亡从参考点FMSY降至预防性参考点Fopt, logistic模型估算资源量从8.1 t上升到10.1 t,而渔获量从13.1 t下降至12.3 t;Fox模型资源量则从11 t增加到15.9 t,相应的捕捞产量从12.8 t下降到11.6 t。Fox模型评估结果较为保守,适合预防性渔业管理。%Integrating the standardization of abundance indices into stock assessment models to examine the population dynamics of small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, was tested through a fisheries mixture ma-trix constructed with multiple data types. A precautionary approach to fishery control rules was adopted based on the logistic and Fox surplus production models, incorporating data from fishery-independent surveys, fishery-dependent catch-per-unit-of-effort(CPUE), and regional harvests. A risk-averse control rule, derived from model parameters and associated uncertainty, was developed to manage fisheries for maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and rapid rebuilding of

  10. Genetic diversity assessed using microsatellite DNA of spiny head croaker ( Collichthys lucidus) from the Zhoushan offshore waters%舟山近海棘头梅童鱼群体遗传多样性微卫星DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林能锋; 苏永全; 丁少雄; 王军

    2011-01-01

    应用6对可在棘头梅童鱼(Collichthy lucidels)中扩增的大黄鱼(Rseudosciaena Crocea)微卫星引物对浙江舟山近海的棘头梅童鱼群体进行PCR扩增,变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳分析扩增产物.6对引物在群体中共扩增出46个等位基因,平均每个位点得到5.308 0个有效等位基因.各位点的PIC值为0.4126~0.893 5(平均值0.670 8),PCIC4和PC8F5为中度多态性位点,PC4H12、PC5E11、PCIOF10及PC10G6为高度多态性位点,这些位点可以做为棘头梅童鱼群体遗传学研究的有效的分子遗传标记.6个位点的连锁分析显示,各位点间不存在明显的连锁关系.各位点在群体中的观测杂合度(Ho)为0.4545~0.9167(平均值0.6591),期望杂合度(He)为0.4680~0.9019(平均值0.6997),与其他海水鱼类比较,浙江近海的棘头梅童鱼群体遗传多样性偏低.对各位点进行Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测表明,PC4H12、PC10F10及PC10G6位点的等位基因频率偏离了平衡,综合现有的资源调查资料,遗传多样性的降低与近年来棘头梅童鱼资源的下降有关.%Spiny head croaker ( Collichthy lucidus) is a demersal and diminutive fish species, and was an abundant resource in the East China Sea until about 20 years ago. With the development of marine fisheries, much of the breeding stock of spiny head croaker and juvenile populations were overfished employing the traditional two-stick stow net method. To propose reasonable protection of the C. lucidus resource, it is important to understand the background of its population genetics. In this study, samples of spiny head croaker from Zhoushan offshore waters in Zhejiang province were collected and the genetic diversity analyzed. Six microsatellite loci developed from P.crocea were employed to assess the levels of allelic diversity and heterozygosity of the C. lucidus population. A total of 46 alleles were obtained from 24 individuals at six loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 13

  11. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak...

  12. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  13. Evaluation of reproductive status in Atlantic Tripletail by traditional and nonlethal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, R. T.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Denslow, N. D.; Kroll, K.J.; Bringolf, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology information is an important tool for fishery management actions such as the identification of spawning areas and the development of protective size limits, bag limits, and seasons. Such information for the management of Atlantic TripletailLobotes surinamensis is currently limited, particularly in the western Atlantic Ocean, as information regarding the reproductive biology of this species is sparse in the published literature. To this end, we determined the reproductive status of tripletail and compared the results of a nonlethal sampling method, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) analysis, with those of two traditional (lethal) methods, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology. A total of 223 (122 male and 101 female) tripletail were sampled over 2 years near Jekyll Island, Georgia. Gonad histology indicated that 107 (94%) of the male tripletail were in the spawning-capable reproductive phase. Female tripletail were found in all reproductive phases, but only nine (8.9%) were in the spawning-capable phase. Plasma VTG was strongly related to GSI in females (R2 = 0.832, n = 77), and female GSI differed significantly among reproductive phases (p fish within the study sample. Our study provides valuable information for the management of tripletail and indicates that a nonlethal approach (plasma VTG) may be useful for differentiating developing and spawning-capable females from males and from females in other reproductive phases.

  14. The Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe on the North Carolina Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph W.; Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    2000-01-01

    Gravid Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, are available along the central coast of North Carolina during the fall and are harvested by the purse-seine fleet from the port of Beaufort. Virtually all of the catch, sexually immature fish included, is reduces to fish meal, fish oil, and fish solubles; however, minor quantities of roe from ripening female menhaden are extracted for local consupmtion. Routine and selective port sampling information was used to characterize the seasonal and bio...

  15. 基于生长和死亡参数变化的官井洋大黄鱼资源现状分析%Resources status analysis of large yellow croaker in Guanjinyang using von Bertalanffy growth equation and fishing mortality parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶金清; 徐兆礼; 陈佳杰; 康伟

    2012-01-01

    依据2010-2011年福建官井洋水域渔业资源监测调查资料,对2098尾大黄鱼的体长、体质量、生长、性腺进行测定.据此,利用von Bertalanffy生长方程和死亡参数分析官井洋大黄鱼资源现状,并讨论了拐点年龄,临界年龄等渔业生物学特征.结果表明,目前官井洋大黄鱼平均体长132.6mm,优势体长组为110~150mm,占55.96%;平均体质量45.1g,优势体质量组为10~50 g,占61.77%,大黄鱼幼鱼和补充群体已成为渔业生产的主要捕捞对象.大黄鱼体长—体质量间的关系式为W=2.001 ×10-5L3.006.用ELEFAN技术拟合的von Bertalanffy生长方程参数分别为L∞ =385.4 mm、k=0.43及to=-0.32a,拐点年龄为2.2龄.对照20世纪80年代福建近海海域大黄鱼群体L∞值从555.4mm下降到现在的385.4mm,拐点年龄由2.97下降到2.2,均表明当今大黄鱼群体小型化且低龄化严重.生长系数k由0.36增长到0.43表明大黄鱼的生长速度加快.总死亡系数(Z)为3.12,自然死亡系数(M)为0.45,捕捞死亡系数(F)为2.67,资源开发率(E)为0.856.大黄鱼M值出现上升,可能与福建近海环境质量下降有关,而高强度的捕捞促使大黄鱼捕捞死亡系数由0.84上升到2.67,说明大黄鱼资源已经处于过度开发状态.在官井洋大黄鱼现行资源状态下,应努力降低捕捞死亡水平,保护大黄鱼生存环境,而对目前以小型化和低龄化为主的大黄鱼群体,建议以控制大黄鱼的开捕年龄(t0)为主.%Based on the fishery resources monitoring data collected in Guanjingyang sea in Fujian from 2010 to 2011, the present study analyzed the biological characteristics (n = 2 098) of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea),including body length and weight,growth and death,sex ratio,and sexual maturity, von Bertalanffy growth equation and parameters of mortality rate have been used to analyze the current resources status of large yellow croaker in Guanjingyang sea, meanwhile, biological

  16. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  17. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  18. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  19. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  20. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure.

  1. Female-female cooperation in polygynous oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van Treuren, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study(1). Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating

  2. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red..., the NMFS Assistant Administrator has determined that this rule is consistent with the Atlantic...

  3. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...

  4. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  5. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to...

  6. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  7. Life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, John; Haedrich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Popular articles about the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) usually state that ‘the Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species’, e.g. publications by the Atlantic Salmon Federation (North America), Atlantic Salmon Trust (UK), and WWF (World Wildlife Fund), and the life history is depicted as migration of juveniles from fresh water to the marine environment, with a return to where the fish were born as spawning adults. This article reviews the life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland...

  8. Meagre Argyrosomus regius (Osteichthyes) as host of a gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) off the Atlantic coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Prista, Nuno; Costa, Maria José

    2007-10-31

    Subgravid females (up to 439 mm long) of the nematode Philometra sp. were found in meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801) (Sciaenidae: Perciformes) off the southern Atlantic coast of Portugal in 2006. The general morphology of these nematodes somewhat resembles that of Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935), but the gravid females of the species from A. regius are apparently much longer. This is the first documented record of a gonad-infecting species of Philometra in marine fishes off the Atlantic coast of Europe. The possible importance of the gonad-parasitizing Philometra spp. as pathogens of marine fishes is stressed.

  9. 即食梅香黄鱼热杀菌过程中的品质变化%Quality Change of Ready-to-eat Fermented Yellow Croaker during Thermal Sterilization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪泽; 李汴生; 梅灿辉; 陈梓铠

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the quality chant of ready-to-eat fermented yellow croaker during thermal sterilization process, the results obtained for the F (the time needed to kill microorganisms by 90%) and C values and quality parameters such as color, texture and liquid loss were compared under different conditions of sterilization temperature/sterilization time, and spray water heating and cooling rates. The results showed that the F value revealed a marked increase with the extension of sterilization time. Similarly, higher temperature could result in notably increased F and C values. In addition, fast spraywater heating and cooling rates could result in longer sterilization time at the constant temperature for reaching the same F value when compared with slow spray-water heating and cooling rates. Moreover, fast spray-water heating and cooling rates could also result in larger surface C value and CIF value although both conditions revealed a similar central C value. Therefore, high-temperature and short-term sterilization can offer better color and texture as well as low water loss for yellow croaker. Fast spray-water heating and cooling rates can result in less water loss. The optimal thermal sterilization conditions are sterilization temperature of 127 ℃, heating rate of 10.99 ℃/min and cooling rate of 12.32 ℃/min.%为研究软包装即食梅香黄鱼在热杀菌过程中的品质变化,比较不同杀菌温度时间组合、不同喷淋水升降温速率在一定温度下杀死90%的微生物所需要的时间(F值)、热加工过程中导致食品外观特性变化的热损失值(C值)和品质指标(色泽、质构、汁液流失率)。结果表明:杀菌时间越长,F值增加越明显;杀菌温度越高,增加单位时间所带来的F值、C值的增加越明显;喷淋水升降温速率快慢相比,在达到相同F值时,所需的杀菌恒温时间是前者大于后者,前者表面C值更大,两者中心C值接近,前

  10. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  11. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  12. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  13. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  14. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  15. Establishment and Optimization of 2-DE Technique in Muscle Proteome of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea)%大黄鱼肌肉组织双向凝胶电泳方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王任; 王彦波; 李婷婷; 李学鹏; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    双向凝胶电泳技术为基于蛋白质的鱼类品质研究提供了新的思路.本试验中建立了大黄鱼肌肉组织蛋白质的双向凝胶电泳方法.在建立的大黄鱼肌肉组织样品处理模式的基础上,对双向电泳方法的关键因素和环节进行比较分析,优化水化上样方式、等电聚焦程序和染色方式.获得了较满意的双向凝胶电泳图谱,其具有较高的分辨率和重复性.成功建立了大黄鱼肌肉组织蛋白质双向凝胶电泳方法,为后续品质研究奠定了基础.%Two-dimensional electrophoresis technology provides new thoughts for the research for the quality of fish. So the objective of this research is to compare and analyze vital factors and procedures of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology for muscle proteins of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), which is on the base of successful treatment of fish muscle sample. We optimize the loading mode, the IEF program and dye method. After a series of trials, we finally get satisfactory 2-ED patterns with high quality and repetition. With optimization of these conditions, the technique of 2-DE has been successfully established, which is foundation of later research of fish quality.

  16. Female sexuality in magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Zucco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an investigation on the discourse of female sexuality carried by women's magazines in the years 2005 and 2006. 'Claudia' and 'Mulher dia-a-dia' were the documents analyzed through a qualitative investigative approach. The data construction was undertaken through critical discourse analysis, and female sexuality was approached from a constructivist perspective. The main results showed that the discursive conventions present in the reports gave shape to dual positions on contemporary Western sexual dynamics, such as: adoption of symmetrical sexual practices versus continuation of asymmetrical sexual practices; female sexual autonomy versus female sexual dependency; activeness versus passiveness; female pleasure versus male pleasure. Thus, we argue that sexuality remains doubly informed by hegemonic standards in force within society.

  17. Decadal cyclone variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, U.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Raible, C.C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The unstable midlatitude ocean-atmosphere coupling motivates the definition of two decadal regimes with distinct implications for the North Atlantic cyclone variability. Phases with low (high) decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which are connected with an annular (sectoral) spatial scale of the geopotential height teleconnection pattern, are identified as a hemispheric (regional) regime. In the hemispheric regime during a positive El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (warm event), the North Atlantic cyclones and the regions of enhanced precipitation shift southward while over northern Europe the cyclone activity and the rainfall are reduced. During the regional regime this impact of ENSO on the Atlantic storm track is extremely small and a clear interpretation over Europe is inhibited. (orig.)

  18. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  20. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  1. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  2. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  3. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  4. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  5. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  6. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  7. Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the pr...

  8. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  9. Diel changes in food and feeding activity of sciaenid fishes from the South-western Atlantic, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, L S; Vazzoler, A E

    2001-05-01

    Food habits and daily feeding activity of fish populations are important ecological variables for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of juvenile whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri, shortfin corvina Isopisthus parvipinnis, shorthead drum Larimus breviceps and of juvenile and adult banded croaker Paralonchurus brasiliensis were investigated from samples taken over a 24 hours period from 4 to 5 September 1987 on the continental shelf off South-eastern Brazil. Whitemouth croaker and banded croaker had a benthic diet based on polychaetes and some caridean shrimps and showed no diel feeding pattern. Shortfin corvina and shorthead drum fed on crustaceans and teleostean fish, the former species primarily on pelagic sergestid shrimps and benthic caridean shrimps, and the latter mainly on pelagic sergestid shrimps, mysidacean and benthic caridean shrimps. Shortfin corvina is primarily a diurnal feeder, but preyed on some items only at night. Shorthead drum is a night feeder, with minimum stomach fullness values between dawn and daytime, and maximum values between dusk and night time.

  10. The North Atlantic Ocean as habitat for Calanus finmarchicus: Environmental factors and life history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, Webjørn; Runge, Jeffrey; Head, Erica; Plourde, Stéphane; Castellani, Claudia; Licandro, Priscilla; Pierson, James; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Johnson, Catherine; Broms, Cecilie; Debes, Høgni; Falkenhaug, Tone; Gaard, Eilif; Gislason, Astthor; Heath, Michael; Niehoff, Barbara; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Pepin, Pierre; Stenevik, Erling Kaare; Chust, Guillem

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation and analysis of data on Calanus finmarchicus abundance, demography, dormancy, egg production and mortality in relation to basin-scale patterns of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, circulation and other environmental characteristics in the context of understanding factors determining the distribution and abundance of C. finmarchicus across its North Atlantic habitat. A number of themes emerge: (1) the south-to-north transport of plankton in the northeast Atlantic contrasts with north-to-south transport in the western North Atlantic, which has implications for understanding population responses of C. finmarchicus to climate forcing, (2) recruitment to the youngest copepodite stages occurs during or just after the phytoplankton bloom in the east whereas it occurs after the bloom at many western sites, with up to 3.5 months difference in recruitment timing, (3) the deep basin and gyre of the southern Norwegian Sea is the centre of production and overwintering of C. finmarchicus, upon which the surrounding waters depend, whereas, in the Labrador/Irminger Seas production mainly occurs along the margins, such that the deep basins serve as collection areas and refugia for the overwintering populations, rather than as centres of production, (4) the western North Atlantic marginal seas have an important role in sustaining high C. finmarchicus abundance on the nearby coastal shelves, (5) differences in mean temperature and chlorophyll concentration between the western and eastern North Atlantic are reflected in regional differences in female body size and egg production, (6) regional differences in functional responses of egg production rate may reflect genetic differences between western and eastern populations, (7) dormancy duration is generally shorter in the deep waters adjacent to the lower latitude western North Atlantic shelves than in the east, (8) there are differences in stage-specific daily mortality rates between

  11. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  12. New records of Anopheles homunculus in central and Serra do Mar biodiversity corridors of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cardoso, Jader C; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sant'ana, Denise C; Motoki, Maysa T; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2012-03-01

    Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquiné municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I.

  13. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... management alternatives available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and...

  14. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries (sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks), non-blacknose small...

  15. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus...-427-8503 or by fax: 301-713-1917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Atlantic shark fisheries...

  16. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery...

  17. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any..., fishing opportunities for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. The proposed measures...

  18. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with the findings...

  19. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or... for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. These actions could affect...

  20. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer...

  1. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks...

  2. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2002-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary condition

  3. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... 24, 2013. ADDRESSES: ] Meeting address: The meeting will be held at the Crowne Plaza Airport Hotel...

  4. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term, female athlete triad may lead to reduced physical performance, stress fractures, and other injuries. Over the long term, it can cause bone weakness, long-term effects on the reproductive system, and heart problems. A ...

  5. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  6. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  7. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be comfortable with your sexuality, improve your self-esteem and accept your body. Try practicing these healthy ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/definition/CON-20027721 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  8. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  9. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  10. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  11. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  12. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  13. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  14. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  15. Assessing the impact of swimming exercise and the relative susceptibility of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum) and atlantic salmon salmo salar L. following injection challenge with weissella ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    All-female rainbow trout and mixed-sex Atlantic salmon (approximately 200 g and 120 g initial weight, respectively) were maintained in small circular tanks in a flow-through system under study conditions for a period of five months. The four tank populations consisted of rainbow trout exposed to ei...

  16. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanie Carney Almroth

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  17. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the prediction of North Atlantic sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöwer, M.; Latif, M.; Ding, H.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Park, W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major current system in the Atlantic Ocean, is thought to be an important driver of climate variability, both regionally and globally and on a large range of time scales from decadal to centennial and even longer. Measurements to monitor the AMOC strength have only started in 2004, which is too short to investigate its link to long-term climate variability. Here the surface heat flux-driven part of the AMOC during 1900-2010 is reconstructed from the history of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the most energetic mode of internal atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector. The decadal variations of the AMOC obtained in that way are shown to precede the observed decadal variations in basin-wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) which strongly impacts societally important quantities such as Atlantic hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall. The future evolution of the AMO is forecast using the AMOC reconstructed up to 2010. The present warm phase of the AMO is predicted to continue until the end of the next decade, but with a negative tendency.

  18. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  19. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  20. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Rantao; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao

    2012-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans). Six isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated with graded levels of n-3 HUFA ranging from 0.15% to 2.25% of the dry weight and the DHA/EPA was approximately fixed at 2.0. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in floating sea cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m), and each cage was stocked with 60 fish (initial average weight 9.79 ± 0.6 g). Fish were fed twice daily (05:00 and 17:00) to apparent satiation for 58 days. Results showed that moderate n-3 HUFA level (0.98%) significantly enhanced growth compared with the control group (0.15% HUFA) (P  0.05). Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) positive leucocytes percentage of head kidney and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing n-3 HUFA from 0.15% to 0.60%, and decreased with further increase of n-3 HUFA from 0.60% to 2.25% (P  0.05). There were no significant differences in phagocytosis index (PI) of head kidney leucocytes among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was significantly up-regulated in fish fed the diets with low or moderate levels, while in kidney this increment was only found at specific sampling time during the natural infestation of parasites. The 13 d cumulative mortality rate following natural infestation of parasites decreased with n-3 HUFA increased from 0.15% to 0.60% (P parasites and dietary n-3 HUFA may regulate fish immunity and disease resistance by altering the mRNA expression levels of TLR22 and MyD88.

  1. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...... of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  2. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  3. Imaging female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected.

  4. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings....... Such a review is indtended to provide some insight into how scholars in different social contexts, who study apparently the same phenomenon, direct their focus. It should also enrich research into female entrepreneurship in both regions of the world and provide directions for further research in the field....

  5. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  6. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic...

  7. Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Dijkstra, H.A.; Leeuwen, P.J. van

    2002-01-01

    The thermohaline exchange between the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is analyzed, using a data set based on WOCE hydrographic data. It is shown that the salt and heat transports brought about by the South Atlantic subtropical gyre play an essential role in the Atlantic heat and salt budgets. It is

  8. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We use a simplified model of the North Atlantic ocean to study the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of

  9. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We use a simplified model of the North Atlantic ocean to study the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of

  10. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  11. How predictable are equatorial Atlantic surface winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin

    2017-04-01

    Sensitivity tests with the SINTEX-F general circulation model (GCM) as well as experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) are used to examine the extent to which sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies contribute to the variability and predictability of monthly mean surface winds in the equatorial Atlantic. In the SINTEX-F experiments, a control experiment with prescribed observed SST for the period 1982-2014 is modified by inserting climatological values in certain regions, thereby eliminating SST anomalies. When SSTs are set to climatology in the tropical Atlantic only (30S to 30N), surface wind variability over the equatorial Atlantic (5S-5N) decreases by about 40% in April-May-June (AMJ). This suggests that about 60% of surface wind variability is due to either internal atmospheric variability or SSTs anomalies outside the tropical Atlantic. A further experiment with climatological SSTs in the equatorial Pacific indicates that another 10% of variability in AMJ may be due to remote influences from that basin. Experiments from the CMIP5 archive, in which climatological SSTs are prescribed globally, tend to confirm the results from SINTEX-F but show a wide spread. In some models, the equatorial Atlantic surface wind variability decreases by more than 90%, while in others it even increases. Overall, the results suggest that about 50-60% of surface wind variance in AMJ is predictable, while the rest is due to internal atmospheric variability. Other months show significantly lower predictability. The relatively strong internal variability as well as the influence of remote SSTs suggest a limited role for coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in equatorial Atlantic variability.

  12. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  13. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  14. On Female Consumption Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平

    2012-01-01

    This is an observation by the daily deliberation of China major consuming force-female,which should be a great master piece.Because of the not-in-depth study and analysis,I can only put it in the air as a clue for further research by experts.

  15. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings...

  16. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  18. Uroptychus atlanticus, a new species of squat lobster (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary K

    2017-02-02

    A new species of squat lobster, Uroptychus atlanticus, is described on the basis of a female specimen taken at a depth of 713-841 m in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species is readily distinguished from all known species of the genus from the western Atlantic by the very spinose carapace and pereopods, and a transverse row of spines on each of the abdominal tergites 1 and 2.

  19. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  20. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with ICCAT fisheries. This rule...

  1. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... blacknose sharks, NMFS is declaring the following stock status determinations. Sandbar sharks are still overfished, but no longer experiencing overfishing. Dusky sharks are still overfished and still...

  2. Persistent influence of tropical North Atlantic wintertime sea surface temperature on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the seasonally lagged impact of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic main development region (MDR) on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season. It is found that wintertime SST anomalies in the MDR can persist into the summer, explaining 42% of the variance in the subsequent hurricane season's SST during 1951-2010. An anomalously warm wintertime in the MDR is usually followed by an anomalously active hurricane season. Analysis shows an important constraint on the seasonal evolution of the MDR SST by the water vapor feedback process, in addition to the well-known wind-evaporation-SST and cloud-SST feedback mechanisms over the tropical North Atlantic. The water vapor feedback influences the seasonal evolution of MDR SST by modulating seasonal variations of downward longwave radiation. This wintertime thermal control of hurricane activity has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of hurricane activity over the North Atlantic.

  3. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    .... Receive an update on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Communication Group Social Media Workshop. 3... Airport Hotel, 4381 Tanger Outlet Boulevard, North Charleston, SC 29418; telephone: (800) 503-5762 or...

  4. 78 FR 36685 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... discard estimate used to set the specifications is wrong, especially if it is too high and as a result the... the Federal Register, emailing individuals who have subscribed to the Atlantic HMS News...

  5. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... practical effect on the legal supply chain. Swordfish are monitored for compliance with minimum size... the supply chain and limit NOAA's ability to enforce minimum size requirements. Miscellaneous Comment... Atlantic swordfish quotas and implement the management measures contained in Recommendation...

  6. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State... overfishing. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 12, 2013. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director,...

  7. 78 FR 17625 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... logistics for two additional public hearings, and an extension of the comment period from April 23, 2013, to... for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). The authority to issue regulations under the Magnuson...

  8. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the... include data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers...

  9. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  10. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is n

  11. A right whale pootree: classification trees of faecal hormones identify reproductive states in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkeron, Peter; Rolland, Rosalind M; Hunt, Kathleen E; Kraus, Scott D

    2017-01-01

    Immunoassay of hormone metabolites extracted from faecal samples of free-ranging large whales can provide biologically relevant information on reproductive state and stress responses. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis Müller 1776) are an ideal model for testing the conservation value of faecal metabolites. Almost all North Atlantic right whales are individually identified, most of the population is sighted each year, and systematic survey effort extends back to 1986. North Atlantic right whales number whales of known reproductive state. Our tree correctly classified the age class, sex and reproductive state of 83% of 112 faecal samples from known individual whales. Pregnant females, lactating females and both mature and immature males were classified reliably using our model. Non-reproductive [i.e. 'resting' (not pregnant and not lactating) and immature] females proved the most unreliable to distinguish. There were three individual males that, given their age, would traditionally be considered immature but that our tree classed as mature males, possibly calling for a re-evaluation of their reproductive status. Our analysis reiterates the importance of considering the reproductive state of whales when assessing the relationship between cortisol concentrations and stress. Overall, these results confirm findings from previous univariate statistical analyses, but with a more robust multivariate approach that may prove useful for the multiple-analyte data sets that are increasingly used by conservation physiologists.

  12. Response of the South Atlantic circulation to an abrupt collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, Audine [University of Hawai' i at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The South Atlantic response to a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model. A reduced Agulhas leakage (about 3.1 Sv; 1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is found to be associated with a weaker Southern Hemisphere (SH) supergyre and Indonesian throughflow. These changes are due to reduced wind stress curl over the SH supergyre, associated with a weaker Hadley circulation and a weaker SH subtropical jet. The northward cross-equatorial transport of thermocline and intermediate waters is much more strongly reduced than Agulhas leakage in relation with an AMOC collapse. A cross-equatorial gyre develops due to an anomalous wind stress curl over the tropics that results from the anomalous sea surface temperature gradient associated with reduced ocean heat transport. This cross-equatorial gyre completely blocks the transport of thermocline waters from the South to the North Atlantic. The waters originating from Agulhas leakage flow somewhat deeper and most of it recirculates in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, leading to a gyre intensification. This intensification is consistent with the anomalous surface cooling over the South Atlantic. Most changes in South Atlantic circulation due to global warming, featuring a reduced AMOC, are qualitatively similar to the response to an AMOC collapse, but smaller in amplitude. However, the increased northward cross-equatorial transport of intermediate water relative to thermocline water is a strong fingerprint of an AMOC collapse. (orig.)

  13. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    tenuis are strongly diminished, causing an increase in relative abundance of the lower photic zone taxa Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. During the past 140,000 years the surface water circulation of the equatorial Atlantic has changed drastically, as can be seen from changes...

  14. Atlantic gyres variability during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Juliette; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Khodri, Myriam; Ezat, Ullah; Jacob, Jérémy; Hall, Ian; Servonnat, Jérome; Xuang Truong, Minh

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the low frequency variability of the Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres over the last millennium. First, a compilation of the several recent proxy recontructions (e.g. Sicre et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009 for the subpolar gyre, Mc Gregor et al. 2007 and unpublished data from Sicre et al. in the subtropical gyre) will allow to assess the low frequency hydrographic variability in key areas related to the horizontal circulation in the Atlantic and the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, we use a simulation of the IPSL model to explore the link between the gyres circulation and the local hydrography. In a simulation reproducing the climate over the last millennium, we assess the low frequency variability of the gyres circulation over this period and the role of the external forcing and low frequency atmospheric variability in the northern North Atlantic. The aim is to help the interpretation of the data cited above at the basin-scale.

  15. Indian - Atlantic interocean exchange: variability and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Mathijs Wilhelmus

    2002-01-01

    South of Africa, warm Indian Ocean water enters the Atlantic Ocean by means of large Agulhas Rings. These rings, with diameters up to 350 km and reaching all the way to the ocean floor at 5 km depth, form an important link in the global thermohaline circulation, which is the driving force behind the

  16. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  17. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-12-01

    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  18. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Atlantic: Biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    Information on age-related parameters, reproduction and growth is presented and assessed by region and/or population, of which there may be 14 throughout the North Atlantic. Among age related parameters, maximum longevity recorded is 24 years; maximal rate of population growth is probably 9.4% but in the range 5-10%; mortality is highest in year 1, and 3 years; ovulation rates fall in the range 0.64 - 0.988 corpus per year, and reproductive interval is 1.01-1.57 years; pregnancy rates are generally in the range 0.74 - 0.986 per year, meaning that not all females produce a calf every year; there is seasonal breeding/mating in the period June–August; gestation lasts 10-11 months; parturition generally occurs between mid-May to mid-July; duration of lactation is uncertain, but is probably at least 8 months; size at birth is usually in the range 65-75 cm with a maximum size of about 80 cm. Sex ratio is biased to males throughout life: 1.1-1.2 males : 1.0 females in the foetal stage, and 1.1-1.7 males : 1.0 females post-natal. Growth parameters indicate an asymptotic length and weight that varies with population, but usually falls in the range 153-163 cm and 55-65 kg for females and 141-149 cm and 46-51 kg for males. Growth models used for length and weight are typically based on von Bertalanffy and Gompertz models. Length at sexual maturity also varies with population, but is usually in the range 138-147 cm for females and 127-135 cm for males. There is no information based on vertebral epiphyseal fusion to indicate age at physical maturity. Foetal growth appears normal, but there is uncertainty about the existence of embryonic diapause. Size/age at weaning are uncertain, but size may be 8 months; however, entirely independent feeding may not occur until about 10 months.

  19. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  20. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  1. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  2. Sexual Well-Being in Single, Sexually Active College Females: A Matter of Agency and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Larissa Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored multiple predictors of sexual well-being in a sample of 253 single, sexually active undergraduate females at a public Mid-Atlantic university. Several factors were identified from past research that might impact sexual well-being: casual sex, sexual agency, sexual attitudes, and sexual desire. Of the four factors, only sexual agency and sexual attitudes were found as significant predictors of sexual well-being. The results suggest that -- of single, sexually active undergr...

  3. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  5. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs to 51 Northwest (NW Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008. Using General Additive Models (GAMs we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding. Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  6. Effects of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Denggao; Xu, Shihong; Song, Changbin; Chi, Liang; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting regimes have been successfully used to inhibit sexual maturity of Atlantic salmon in confinement. However, when these operations are applied in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using standard lighting technology, sexual maturation is not suppressed. In this study, an L9 (33) orthogonal design was used to determine the effects of three factors (spectral composition, photoperiod, and light intensity) on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon in RAS. We demonstrated that the photoperiod at the tested levels had a much greater effect on the gonadosomatic index and female Fulton condition factor than spectral composition and light intensity. The photoperiod had a significant effect on the secretion of sex steroids and melatonin ( P0.05). The optimum lighting levels in female and male Atlantic salmon were LD 8:16, 455 nm (or 625 nm), 8.60 W/m2; and LD 8:16, 8.60 W/m2, 455 nm respectively. These conditions not only delayed gonadal development, but also had no negative effects on Atlantic salmon growth in RAS. These results demonstrate that a combination of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity is effective at delaying the gonadal development of both male and female salmon in RAS.

  7. Screen for Footprints of Selection during Domestication/Captive Breeding of Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti Vasemägi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated animals provide a unique opportunity to identify genomic targets of artificial selection to the captive environment. Here, we screened three independent domesticated/captive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar strains and their wild progenitor populations in an effort to detect potential signals of domestication selection by typing of 261 SNPs and 70 microsatellite loci. By combining information from four different neutrality tests, in total ten genomic regions showed signs of directional selection based on multiple sources of evidence. Most of the identified candidate regions were rather small ranging from zero to a few centimorgans (cM in the female Atlantic salmon linkage map. We also evaluated how adaptation from standing variation affects adjacent SNP and microsatellite variation along the chromosomes and, by using forward simulations with strong selection, we were able to generate genetic differentiation patterns comparable to the observed data. This study highlights the significance of standing genetic variation during the early stages of adaptation and represents a useful step towards identifying functional variants involved in domestication of Atlantic salmon.

  8. Tracking leatherback turtles from the world's largest rookery: assessing threats across the South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Matthew J; Augowet Bonguno, Eric; Broderick, Annette C; Coyne, Michael S; Formia, Angela; Gibudi, Alain; Mounguengui Mounguengui, Gil Avery; Moussounda, Carine; NSafou, Monique; Nougessono, Solange; Parnell, Richard J; Sounguet, Guy-Philippe; Verhage, Sebastian; Godley, Brendan J

    2011-08-07

    Despite extensive work carried out on leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the North Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, very little is known of the at-sea distribution of this species in the South Atlantic, where the world's largest population nests in Gabon (central Africa). This paucity of data is of marked concern given the pace of industrialization in fisheries with demonstrable marine turtle bycatch in African/Latin American waters. We tracked the movements of 25 adult female leatherback turtles obtaining a range of fundamental and applied insights, including indications for methodological advancement. Individuals could be assigned to one of three dispersal strategies, moving to (i) habitats of the equatorial Atlantic, (ii) temperate habitats off South America or (iii) temperate habitats off southern Africa. While occupying regions with high surface chlorophyll concentrations, these strategies exposed turtles to some of the world's highest levels of longline fishing effort, in addition to areas with coastal gillnet fisheries. Satellite tracking highlighted that at least 11 nations should be involved in the conservation of this species in addition to those with distant fishing fleets. The majority of tracking days were, however, spent in the high seas, where effective implementation of conservation efforts is complex to achieve.

  9. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. INGUINAL HERNIA IN FEMALES

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    9 patients of inguinal hernia in females were diagnosed in a total of 50 patients who presented with congenital groin problems, 8 of these were managed surgically. There were 6 small children, 1 young girl and 2 elderly ladies. All children were managed by herniotomy and herniorrhaphy was done in women. 2 patients under one year presented with irreducible hernia, one of them on exploration was found to be having sliding hernia with incarcerated ovary and tube as contents while other one had i...

  12. 宁德地区养殖大黄鱼市场结构特征的初步分析%Preliminary analysis of the market structure of the farmed large yellow croaker in Ningde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林捷敏; 高滢; 高超; 高健

    2012-01-01

    采用贝恩的市场结构分类法,对宁德地区养殖产地的市场结构类型、产业市场集中度和产业进入壁垒进行了分析,确定了宁德地区大黄鱼养殖产业的市场结构。研究结果表明:宁德农户养殖的市场集中度指标CR4约为0.87%,市场集中程度很低,处于Ⅵ原子型——不存在集中现象;20余家较大规模养殖企业的CR4约为12.55%,也为Ⅵ原子型;市场竞争性强,接近完全竞争市场;产业进入壁垒较低。得出的基本结论是:产地市场的养殖产业内部集中度较低(Ⅵ原子型),应提高产业内部的集中度;竞争性强,接近完全竞争市场,应控制过度竞争以提高环境资源的配置效率;进入壁垒弱是导致集中度低和完全竞争市场结构的主要原因。%This paper applies Bain's market structure classification,analyzes the market structure,industry market concentration degree and the entry barriers in Ningde breeding habitats area,and it identifies the large yellow croaker breeding industry market structure in Ningde.The results show that: Ningde farmers' market concentration index of CR4 is 0.87%,the degree of market concentration is very low at Ⅵ atomic type-hardly exists concentration;more than 20 large enterprises' CR4 is about 12.55%,also the Ⅵ atomic type;market competition is tense,it is close to the completely competitive market;the industry entry barriers are low.The basic conclusions are: the origin breeding market of internal industry presents lower concentration(Ⅵ atomic type),so that improving the industry concentration degree is necessary;due to the completely perfectly competitive market,we should control the excessive competition in order to improve the resources allocation efficiency;the weakness of barriers to entry is the leading cause of low concentration and the complete competition market structure.

  13. 日本黄姑鱼幼鱼对过氧化氢的生理反应%Physiological Responses of Juvenile Japanese Croaker Nibea j aponica to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云海; 王跃斌; 胡则辉; 柴学军

    2014-01-01

    26℃,日本黄姑鱼幼鱼暴露在过氧化氢1 h、24 h和48 h后,测定了血清总蛋白、K+、Na+、Cl-、Ca2+、P、M g2+和皮质醇的含量及超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和溶菌酶的活性。试验共分4组,对照组、处理组、24 h恢复组和48 h恢复组,每组设3个重复。结果显示,过氧化氢暴露后总蛋白、K+和溶菌酶与对照组无显著差异,24 h后Ca2+、P、M g2+恢复至正常水平,Na+、Cl-和皮质醇在48 h后仍显著高于对照组,过氧化氢处理24 h后超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化氢酶活性显著高于对照组并在48 h后恢复至正常水平。过氧化氢暴露后各指标较为敏感且部分指标恢复时间超过48 h。%In this paper , the concentrations of total plasma protein , potassium (K ) , sodium (Na ) , chloride (Cl) ,plasma calcium (Ca) ,phosphorus (P) ,magnesium (Mg) ,plasma cortisol and plasma glucose ,and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,catalase (CAT ) and lysozyme (LZM ) were determined in juvenile Japanese croaker Nibea japonica 1 h ,24 h and 48 h after the juveniles were exposed to hydrogen peroxide with triplication at 26 ℃ . The results showed that there were no significant differences in total plasma protein , and K+ levels and LZM activity between the hydrogen peroxide exposure groups and the control group .The levels of plasma Ca2+ ,P and Mg2+ were recovered to the normal levels in the juveniles at 24 h hydrogen peroxide exposure . There were significantly higher concentrations of Na+ , Cl- and cortisol than those in the control group at 48 h hydrogen peroxide exposure .The juveniles exposed to hydrogen peroxide for 24 h had significantly higher activities of SOD and CA T than the juveniles in the control group did ,and recovered to normal levels at 48 h hydrogen peroxide exposure .Some indicators derived from hydrogen peroxide exposure were found to be relatively sensitive to hydrogen peroxide exposure and to be recovered

  14. Enrichment of Pb, Hg and Cr in cultured carp otolith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... record the pollution condition at the sampling time. ... aquatic organisms are aquatic algae, zooplankton .... element cannot show that Hg concentration in otolith ..... from Atlantic croaker along an estuarine pollution gradient.

  15. Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

    2013-10-01

    Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, pwild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected.

  16. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  17. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  18. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  19. Female entrepreneurial activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária DÉZSI-BENYOVSZKI; Tünde Petra SZABÓ; Ágnes NAGY

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the female entrepreneurial activity in Romania. We will compare the socio-demographic characteristics, the entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions of female early-stage entrepreneurs and the female employees in order to highlight the main differences. Using a logistic regression we will identify the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming a female early-stage entrepreneur.

  20. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  1. Coherent water transport across the South Atlantic

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Beron-Vera, F J

    2015-01-01

    The role of mesoscale eddies in transporting Agulhas leakage is investigated using a recent technique from nonlinear dynamical systems theory applied on geostrophic currents inferred from the over two-decade-long satellite altimetry record. Eddies are found to acquire material coherence away from the Agulhas retroflection, near the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic. Yearly, 1 to 4 coherent material eddies are detected with diameters ranging from 40 to 280 km. A total of 23 eddy cores of about 50 km in diameter and with at least 30% of their contents traceable into the Indian Ocean were found to travel across the subtropical gyre with minor filamentation. No more than 5\\% of such cores pour their contents on the North Brazil Current. While ability of eddies to carry Agulhas leakage northwestward across the South Atlantic is supported by our analysis, this is more restricted than suggested by earlier ring transport assessments.

  2. Wind Stress Increases Glacial Atlantic Overturning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, J.; Schmittner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) showed ambiguous results on transports and structure. Here we analyze the most recent PMIP3 models, which show a consistent increase (on average by 41%) and deepening (580 m) of the AMOC for all models with respect to pre-industrial control (PIC) simulations (see Figure), in contrast to some reconstructions. Changes in wind stress alone lead to similar AMOC responses in a climate-ocean circulation model, suggesting that atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic due to the presence of ice sheets are an important control in the PMIP3 models' LGM response. These results improve our understanding of the LGM AMOC's driving forces and are relevant for the evaluation of models that are used in the IPCC's Assessment Reports for future climate projections, as well as for the currently ongoing design of the next round of PMIP.

  3. Life-history traits and population decline of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrusin the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghesso, C; Riginella, E; La Mesa, M; Donato, F; Mazzoldi, C

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated demographic structure and reproductive characteristics of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, in relation to landing trends in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. Results highlighted the occurrence of only small-sized and young-age individuals, and a marked decline from the 1990s to the present in maximum age (from 8 to 3 years) and total length (L(T); from 420 to 360 mm). Fecundity ranged between 40,000 and 190,000 eggs, and was related to female L(T). High levels of atresia implied lower values of actual fecundity. Sexual maturity was attained by 72·8% of individuals in their first year of life at 200 mm. The reduction in maximum L(T) resulted in a marked decline in the population egg production, while the reduction in maximum age implied that females participated in fewer spawning events.

  4. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  6. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; Hernanz Gismero, Antonio; Gavira-Vallejo, José M.; Iriarte Cela, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding pan...

  7. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  8. Plankton respiration in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol; Serret, Pablo; Tilstone, Gavin; Teira, Eva; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Rees, Andrew P.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2002-05-01

    Concurrent measurements of dark community respiration (DCR), gross production (GP), size fractionated primary production ( 14C PP), nitrogen uptake, nutrients, chlorophyll a concentration, and heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial abundance were collected from the upper 200 m of a latitudinal (32°S-48°N) transect in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean during May/June 1998. The mean mixed layer respiration rate was 2.5±2.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=119) for the whole transect, 2.2±1.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=32) in areas where chlorophyll a was dissolved oxygen consumption, was 0.8 ( n=11). At the time of the study, plankton community respiration exceeded GP in the picoautotroph dominated oligotrophic regions (Eastern Tropical Atlantic [15.5°S-14.2°N] and North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre [21.5-42.5°N]), which amounted to 50% of the stations sampled along the 12,100 km transect. These regions also exhibited high heterotrophic: autotrophic biomass ratios, higher turnover rates of phytoplankton than of bacteria and low f ratios. However, the carbon supply mechanisms required to sustain the rates of respiration higher than GP could not be fully quantified. Future research should aim to determine the temporal balance of respiration and GP together with substrate supply mechanisms in these ocean regions.

  9. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  10. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  11. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  12. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  13. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  14. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  5. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  6. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  7. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  8. [Female athlete triad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-08-05

    The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.

  9. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  10. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  11. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  12. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  13. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  14. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  15. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  16. Chriolepis bilix, a new species of goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from deep waters of the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2013-12-09

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from four specimens from four widely separate western Atlantic localities (Little Bahama Bank; off southwestern Florida; Tobago Island; and northeastern Colombia) from depths ranging from 62 to 138 m. The species is distinct from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis in having a fully scaled body, the first two dorsal-fin spines greatly elongated in both sexes, especially so in females, and two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It differs from members of the similar genus Varicus in having branched pelvic-fins rays, a longer fifth pelvic-fin ray and more numerous meristic elements. It closely resembles Chriolepis atrimelum, known from a similar depth at Isla del Coco in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 

  17. First record of Thylaeodus (Gastropoda: Vermetidae from the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Spotorno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The vermetid Thylaeodus equatorialis sp. nov. is endemic to the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, located at the mid equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The species is closely related to Thylaeodus rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878, as indicated by similar shell characters, coloration of the soft parts, and feeding tube scars. However, T. equatorialis sp. nov. mainly differs from T. rugulosus in the operculum/aperture diameter ratio (~79% versus 100%, by having well developed pedal tentacles and fewer egg capsules in brooding females. In addition, the new species has the following unique characteristics: size almost twice as large (shell, tube aperture, erect feeding tube, protoconch and egg capsules as the other Atlantic species; unusual method of brooding egg capsules; radula with prominent and more numerous flanking cusps; and small pustules following the suture of the protoconch. A detailed discussion on the taxonomy and biology of vermetid Thylaeodus and allies is also presented.

  18. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  20. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... status quo management measures for 2011, which would result in a TAL identical to the 2010 TAL, or 29.264... analyzed three alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for the 2011 Atlantic bluefish... recreational sector. Alternative 3 (status quo) would allocate 10.051 million lb (4,559 mt) to the...

  1. 77 FR 72762 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2013 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog fisheries for 2013 will remain status quo. Regulations governing these... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177; fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 648.72(c) of the regulations implementing the fishery management plan...

  2. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...). Alternative 3, the no action alternative, is considered to be synonymous with status quo management measures... a given phase in the rebuilding period, or the status quo F, whichever is less. According to... alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery. All...

  3. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Atlantic billfishes. Reauthorization of the MSA in 1996 initiated fundamental changes in U.S. fishery.... List of Subjects 50 CFR Part 600 Administrative practice and procedure, Confidential business..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Statistics. 50 CFR Part 635 Fisheries, Fishing, Fishing vessels...

  4. The Equatorial Undercurrent in the central Atlantic and its relation to tropical Atlantic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Tantet, Alexis; Johns, William E.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal to interannual variations of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) in the central Atlantic at 23?Ware studied using shipboard observation taken during the period 1999–2011 as well as moored velocity time series covering the period May 2005–June 2011. The sea- sonal variations are dominated by a

  5. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... considering the inclusion of Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks in an amendment to the 2006 Consolidated Highly..., sandbar, and blacknose sharks. A new stock assessment is ongoing for Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks,...

  6. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service.... This change ensures that the process is preserved for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and..., among other things, pelagic shark quotas and annual quota adjustments. The instructions,...

  7. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Plan (FMP) to address the results of recent shark stock assessments for several shark species, including dusky sharks. In that notice, based on the 2010/2011 Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

  8. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Caribbean Sea under authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Act (16 U.S.C. 1811, 16 U.S.C. 1854(f)(3)). The... Atlantic sharks be offloaded with fins naturally attached; and Collecting shark life history information... proactive in management and explore methods to establish more flexible regulations that would consider...

  9. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Conservation Division; the Council's Invasive Species Policy and the Coral Reef Conservation Program Grant Projects; and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Meeting. Special Accommodations These meetings are physically.... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral...

  10. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... fisheries, related industries, research, teaching, writing, conservation, or management of marine organisms... environmental community active in the conservation and management of Atlantic HMS, and the academic community... requirements of participating in the data and/or assessment workshop, the designee must receive...

  11. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  12. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... conditions, and recommends research and monitoring needs. The assessment is independently peer reviewed at...: August 6, 2010: 12 p.m. - 4 p.m. Assessment panelists will (1) discuss red snapper model base runs, (2... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper AGENCY: National Marine...

  13. Some hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An account is given of some hydroids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, collected during dives of submersibles "Nautile" (operated by IFREMER, France) and "Alvin" (operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A). The specimens came from three main sectors of the ridge: 15 species from localities

  14. 温度和盐度对岱衢族大黄鱼排氨率和耗氧率的影响%Effects of temperature and salinity on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭念岗; 吴雄飞; 沈伟良

    2014-01-01

    采用静水封闭的实验方法研究了温度(8℃、14℃、20℃、26℃、31℃)和盐度(5、15、25、35)对体质量353.2 g岱衢族大黄鱼( Pseudosciaena crocea)排氨率和耗氧率的影响,同时测定其在不同温度下浮头点和窒息点。结果显示,随着温度升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,在26℃时两者达到最大值,温度对两者存在显著影响( P<0�05);随着盐度的升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,盐度25时两者达到最大值,盐度对两者存在显著影响( P<0.05);浮头点和窒息点随着温度上升呈现先降低后升高趋势,在14℃达最小值,温度对浮头点和窒息点存在显著影响(P<0.05)。研究认为,在温度26℃、盐度25的环境条件下,岱衢族大黄鱼代谢旺盛,是其比较适合的生长条件;14℃可以作为苗种运输时的温度。%The effects of temperature ( 8 ℃, 14 ℃, 20 ℃, 26 ℃, 31 ℃) and salinity ( 5, 15, 25, 35 ) on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) with average body weight of 353.2 g were determined by sealed-still water experimental methods, and the floating point and the suffocation point at different temperatures were measured as well. The results showed that both of the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu large yellow croaker were both increased first and then decreased with temperature rose, and they reached to the maximum value of 26 ℃. Water temperature had significant effects on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate ( P<0.05) . Ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption of the fish increased first and then reduced with salinity rose, and they reached to the maximum value of salinity 25. Salinity had significant effects on the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate (P<0.05). With the temperature rose, the floating

  15. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM FOOD DEPRIVATION ON THE GROWTH AND ACTIVITIES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF MIIUY CROAKER MIICHTHYS MIIUY LARVAE AND JUVENILES%短期饥饿胁迫下(鱼免)鱼(Miichthys miiuy)早期生活阶段的生长及消化酶活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单秀娟; 窦硕增

    2011-01-01

    采用实验生态学方法,研究了饥饿胁迫对(鱼免)鱼(1—7日龄前期仔鱼,26—35日龄后期仔鱼,42—53日龄稚鱼)的生长、存活及消化酶(淀粉酶、脂肪酶、胰蛋白酶)活性的变化。结果表明,短期饥饿(2天)会显著降低前期仔鱼生长及消化酶活性;在后期仔鱼和稚鱼中,产生这种影响的饥饿时间分别为饥饿后3和6天,表明(鱼免)鱼仔、稚鱼的生长与消化酶活性对饥饿的忍受能力随发育生长而增强。恢复摄食5天后,饥饿4天的后期仔鱼和饥饿6天的稚鱼消化酶活性可达到正常水平,但饥饿6天的后期仔鱼的消化酶活性不能从饥饿损伤中恢复。饥饿4—%This study investigated the effects of short-term food deprivation on the growth, survival and activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase and trypsin) of miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) at different developmental stages [1—7 days post hatching (dph) pre-larvae, 26—35dph post-larvae, and 42—53dph juveniles]. The results showed that the growth and activities of the digestive enzymes of the pre-larvae significantly decreased after food deprivation for 2 days, compared with 3 days in the post-larvae and 6 days in the juveniles. These observations suggest that the activities of the digestive enzymes of miiuy croaker at early developmental stages were subject to short-term starvation. However, their ability to withstand starvation may improve as they grow. After resuming feeding for 5 days, the activities of the digestive enzymes of the post-larvae that had starved for 4 days recovered to the levels of the well-fed fish. However, the digestive enzymatic activities of the post-larvae that had starved for 6 days did not recover to the levels of the well-fed fish even after feeding was resumed. In contrast, the activities of the digestive enzymes of the juveniles starved for 6 d reached the levels of the well-fed fish within 5 days after resuming

  16. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Sources on Growth Performance, Digestive Enzyme and Carbohydrate Metabolic Key Enzyme Activities of Large Yellow Croaker ( Larmichthys crocea Richardson)%饲料中糖源对大黄鱼生长性能及消化酶、糖代谢关键酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弋; 周飘苹; 邱红; 候迎梅; 申屠基康; 周歧存

    2015-01-01

    为评估饲料中糖源对大黄鱼生长性能及消化酶、糖代谢关键酶活性的影响,进行为期8周的养殖试验. 以鱼粉、小麦蛋白粉和豆粕为蛋白质源,鱼油、豆油和大豆卵磷脂为脂肪源,葡萄糖、蔗糖、糊精、土豆淀粉、玉米淀粉和小麦淀粉分别为糖源,配制成6 种等氮等能的试验饲料. 每种试验饲料设3个重复,每个重复放养初始平均体重为(7.06±0.48) g的大黄鱼幼鱼50尾,以重复为单位养殖于浮伐式网箱(1.5 m×1.5 m×2.0 m)中,每天饲喂2次. 结果表明:小麦淀粉和玉米淀粉组大黄鱼的增重率、特定生长率、饲料效率和蛋白质效率均显著高于蔗糖和葡萄糖组( P0.05),但小麦淀粉、土豆淀粉和玉米淀粉组的全鱼粗脂肪含量显著高于糊精、蔗糖和葡萄糖组( P0.05). 由结果得出,大黄鱼对小麦淀粉和玉米淀粉等结构复杂多糖的利用能力要高于蔗糖和葡萄糖.%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on growth performance, digestive enzyme and carbohydrate metabolic key enzyme activities of large yellow croak-er ( Larmichthys crocea Richardson) . Fish meal, wheat gluten and soybean meal were used as protein sources, fish oil, soybean oil and soybean lecithin were used as lipid sources, and wheat starch, corn starch, potato starch, dextrin, saccharose and glucose were used as carbohydrate sources, respectively, six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were prepared. Each diet was randomly assigned to 3 replicates, and each replicate had 50 juvenile large yellow croaker with the initial average body weight of (7.06±0.48) g which were stocked in floating net cages (1.5 m×1.5 m×2.0 m), and were fed twice daily. The results showed as follows: fish fed the diets containing wheat starch or corn starch had significantly higher weight gain ratio ( WGR ) , specific growth rate ( SGR) , feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio

  17. Linkage maps of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome derived from RAD sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Lowe, Natalie R; Cezard, Timothé; Gharbi, Karim; Bishop, Stephen C; Houston, Ross D

    2014-02-27

    Genetic linkage maps are useful tools for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing variation in traits of interest in a population. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches such as Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) now enable the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide SNP markers suitable for the development of dense SNP linkage maps, including in non-model organisms such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This paper describes the development and characterisation of a high density SNP linkage map based on SbfI RAD-Seq SNP markers from two Atlantic salmon reference families. Approximately 6,000 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups, utilising markers from known genomic locations as anchors. Linkage maps were then constructed for the four mapping parents separately. Overall map lengths were comparable between male and female parents, but the distribution of the SNPs showed sex-specific patterns with a greater degree of clustering of sire-segregating SNPs to single chromosome regions. The maps were integrated with the Atlantic salmon draft reference genome contigs, allowing the unique assignment of ~4,000 contigs to a linkage group. 112 genome contigs mapped to two or more linkage groups, highlighting regions of putative homeology within the salmon genome. A comparative genomics analysis with the stickleback reference genome identified putative genes closely linked to approximately half of the ordered SNPs and demonstrated blocks of orthology between the Atlantic salmon and stickleback genomes. A subset of 47 RAD-Seq SNPs were successfully validated using a high-throughput genotyping assay, with a correspondence of 97% between the two assays. This Atlantic salmon RAD-Seq linkage map is a resource for salmonid genomics research as genotyping-by-sequencing becomes increasingly common. This is aided by the integration of the SbfI RAD-Seq SNPs with existing reference maps and the draft reference genome, as well as the identification of

  18. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  19. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  20. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  1. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  2. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...

  3. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  4. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  5. Population structure of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae in a southwestern Atlantic salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Angeletti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neohelice granulata inhabits estuarine and protected coastal areas in temperate regions and is the most dominant decapod crustacean in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. The population structure was studied during a year in a SW Atlantic salt marsh located in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. Crabs were sampled monthly from August 2010 to July 2011. The maximum observed density was 30 crabs m-2 in February and 70 burrows m-2 in May. The maximum carapace width (CW was 32 and 27.5 mm in males and females respectively. Medium size crabs were between 16 and 20 mm CW. Significantly smaller sized crabs were observed at the lower intertidal regions (P < 0.05. The sex ratio was favorable for males and was significantly different from the expected 1:1 (P < 0.05. The recruitment of unsexed juveniles crabs (CW <6.5 mm was observed throughout the year and the presence of ovigerous females from October to February indicated seasonal reproduction. The average size of ovigerous females was CW = 20.8 mm and the smallest ovigerous female measured was 16 mm CW. For the first time, the population structure of the most important macro-invertebrate is analyzed in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. This study may help to make decisions in the area, where anthropic action is progressing day by day.

  6. Reproductive biology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris from the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Menni, R C

    2011-01-01

    This study provides the first detailed information on the reproductive biology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris in the south-western Atlantic Ocean between latitudes 34° and 42° S. A total of 320 males (196-647 mm total length, L(T)) and 336 females (200-640 mm L(T)) were analysed. No significant differences were observed in size at 50% maturity between males (499 mm L(T)) and females (506 mm L(T)). Three seasonal patterns were related to the testes mass, the development of spermatocysts and the presence of spermatozoa in genital ducts. Females showed a 3 year reproductive cycle, with 2 years of ovarian maturation and 1 year of gestation, including a mean annual fecundity of one to two embryos. Synchronicity of both ovulating females and males with sperm in genital ducts indicated that ovulation and hence mating occurs during winter. Birth was assumed to occur during winter, but neither ovulation nor mating is simultaneous with this reproductive event. Despite its low economic value, a decline in abundance in the region, together with a low reproductive efficiency, indicates that the Z. brevirostris population should be monitored closely.

  7. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon Salmo salar Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Salmo_salar_L.png Salmo_salar_NL.png Salmo_salar..._S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+sala...r&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NS ...

  9. Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.

  10. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  11. Variación entre años de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos de la corvina Cilus gilberti (Pisces: Sciaenidae en Chile Between-years variation in infracommunities of metazoan parasites of the croaker Cilus gilberti (Pisces: Sciaenidae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX GARCÍAS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan la composición, riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y dominancia en las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos de 86 ejemplares de corvina Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1889, recolectados en dos muestras tomadas con 15 años de diferencia en la zona de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile. Se pretende averiguar si estas características comunitarias se modifican o no sustantivamente entre años. Se recolectaron un total de 26 taxa, a los que se les determinó la prevalencia, aunque sólo a 22 se les determinó la abundancia. El 69 % de los 26 taxa ocurría en ambos años, sin embargo, al comparar la composición infracomunitaria entre años, sólo se consideró a aquellos 13 taxa que estaban en al menos 10 corvinas del total de 86 examinadas, y a hospedadores de similar longitud corporal. Hay variaciones significativas entre años en la composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos pero no en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y dominancia. Aunque los antecedentes son escasos, la observada relativamente alta variabilidad composicional y baja variabilidad agregada es similar a lo encontrado en infracomunidades de parásitos, tanto de peces como de mamíferos. Se discute la medida en que estos resultados representan compensación o estasis comunitaria, entre cuyas causas podrían estar las interacciones biológicasThe composition, richness, diversity, abundance and dominance in infracommunities of metazoan parasites found in 86 croaker Cilus gilberti (Abbott 1889 are compared between two samples taken off Talcahuano, Chile, with 15 years of difference. All hosts harboured parasites, and 26 taxa were collected. The prevalence of all taxa, and the abundance of 22 taxa were recorded. Most (69 % taxa were found in both years. However, to compare between years, we just considered those 13 taxa occurring in at least 10 host individuals. Significant variations in composition but not in richness, abundance, diversity and dominance were found when

  12. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  13. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    CERN Document Server

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  14. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  15. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  16. Modelling of the North Atlantic eddy characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Konstantin; Ibrayev, Rashit

    2017-04-01

    We investigate eddy characteristics of the Atlantic basin circulation and their impact on the ocean heat transport. A 15-year-long numerical experiment is performed with the global 3-dimensional z-coordinate INMIO ocean general circulation model of 0.1 deg., 49 levels resolution in conditions of the CORE-II protocol. The model is tuned to maximal intensity of eddies production by using only biharmonic filters instead of lateral viscous and diffusive terms in the model equations. Comparison with viscous and coarse-resolution simulations shows the increase of explicitly resolved heat transfer fraction and absolute values. Vertical turbulent mixing is parameterized by the Munk-Anderson scheme including convective adjustment. The sea ice is described by a simple thermodynamic submodel. The eddying velocity and temperature field components are defined as anomalies relative to the 3-month sliding mean. The regional distributions of hydrological parameters, eddy kinetic energy, heat convergence, meridional heat transport (MHT) and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction, and their temporal variability are analyzed. In some parts of the basin the simulated eddy heat transport is opposite to the mean flow transport and may change direction with depth. The MHT intensity is slightly below observationally based assessments with notable influence of the East Greenland current simulation bias. The work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project N 14-27-00126) and performed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences.

  17. Egalitarianism in female African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Pusey, A E; Eberly, L E

    2001-07-27

    Because most cooperative societies are despotic, it has been difficult to test models of egalitarianism. Female African lions demonstrate a unique form of plural breeding in which companions consistently produce similar numbers of surviving offspring. Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs. A female also lacks incentives to reduce her companions' reproduction, because her own survival and reproduction depend on group territoriality and synchronous breeding. Consequently, female relationships are highly symmetrical, and female lions are "free agents" who only contribute to communal care when they have cubs of their own.

  18. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Alyson J.; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E.; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally-fertilising and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilisation experiments to generate offspring using ...

  19. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  20. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  1. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  2. Modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees: a 5-year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrides, L; Sawatzky, C; Petrie, J; Veinot, P

    2010-12-01

    A number of modifiable health risks, such as smoking, inactivity and obesity have been linked to increased employer costs, including decreased productivity and increased absenteeism and health claims. The purpose of this paper is to report on the health profile and prevalence of modifiable health risks in an Atlantic Canadian Employee Database. Data were collected over a 5-year period (2001-2006) by the Atlantic Health and Wellness Institute, the research arm of Creative Wellness Solutions, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Each employee of 51 workplaces (n = 6067; 2665 males, 3402 females; average age 41.3 years) completed a Health Risk Assessment questionnaire on smoking, nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Clinical data measurements were blood pressure, blood cholesterol, weight and height. Data were compared for private, public and health sectors. Sixteen percent had elevated blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg), 20% smoked cigarettes, 70% were overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2)], 31% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), 38% had elevated non-fasting cholesterol levels (≥ 5.20 mmol/l) and 49% were inactive (health risks (i.e. daily tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and high blood pressure). Health care sector employees were healthier overall, but there was substantial room for improvement. The present analysis identified an alarming prevalence of modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees. Workplaces need to invest in workplace wellness to reduce the risks and promote better health among employees, thus increasing productivity and decreasing the financial burden on employers.

  3. Origin of Quasi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintges, Annika; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the leading mode of internal atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic sector. It depicts significant quasi-decadal variability that is well documented, but the underlying mechanism is still under discussion. Other quantities in the North Atlantic sector such as sea surface temperature (SST) exhibit variability on a similar timescale. Here we present results from a global climate model which simulates the quasi-decadal NAO and North Atlantic SST variability consistent with observations. The quasi-decadal NAO variability is suggested to originate from large-scale air-sea interactions, where the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) basically sets the timescale. Wind-driven ocean circulation changes provide a fast positive feedback on North Atlantic SST through anomalous Ekman currents and the establishment of an "intergyre" gyre. A delayed negative feedback on SST is accomplished through surface heat flux-driven changes of the AMOC and associated heat transport. The results stress the importance of both wind-induced and thermohaline-induced changes in the ocean circulation for quasi-decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic sector.

  4. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. ... usually performed at home without anesthesia.5 It has four .... sexual function than control in all aspects namely sexual desire ...

  5. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  6. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  7. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  9. Effects of Different Lipid and Glucose Levels on Growth Performance, Hepatic Glycolysis and Gluconeogenic Key Enzyme Activities of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea Richardson)%不同脂肪和葡萄糖水平对大黄鱼生长性能、肝脏糖酵解和糖异生关键酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红娜; 周飘苹; 陆游; 袁野; 侯迎梅; 孙蓬; 丁立云; 周歧存

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同脂肪和葡萄糖水平对大黄鱼生长性能、肝脏糖酵解和糖异生关键酶活性、血清生化指标、糖原含量及消化酶活性等的影响。采用2×3双因素试验设计,其中脂肪设5%、10%2个水平,葡萄糖设10%、20%、30%3个水平,共配制6种试验饲料。每种饲料设3个重复,每个重复放养平均体重为(14.79±0.13) g的大黄鱼幼鱼50尾。试验期为8周。结果表明:饲料脂肪和葡萄糖水平的交互作用对大黄鱼增重率( WGR)、特定生长率( SGR)和饲料效率( FE)的影响不显著( P>0.05)。在饲料脂肪水平为5%时,WGR和SGR随饲料葡萄糖水平增加而降低,30%葡萄糖组的WGR和SGR显著低于10%葡萄糖组( P0.05)。饲料脂肪和葡萄糖水平的交互作用对大黄鱼肝糖原、肌糖原含量有显著影响( P0.05);然而,在饲料脂肪水平相同时,血清葡萄糖含量随饲料葡萄糖水平的升高而升高,30%葡萄糖组血清葡萄糖含量显著高于10%葡萄糖组( P0.05)。在饲料脂肪水平为10%时,随饲料葡萄糖水平的升高,肝脏GK、PFK活性升高,肝脏PEPCK活性先升高后降低。由结果可知,与饲料脂肪水平为10%时相比,在饲料脂肪水平为5%时,随饲料葡萄糖的水平的升高,大黄鱼能够通过调节糖代谢关键酶活性及肝糖原含量来维持血糖含量的平衡,有效利用饲料中的葡萄糖。综合本试验结果,建议大黄鱼幼鱼阶段饲料适宜的脂肪和糖水平分别为10%和20%。%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lipid and glucose levels on growth performance, hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenic key enzyme activities, serum biochemical indices, glycogen contents and digestive enzyme activities etc. of large yellow croaker. Six experimental diets were for-mulated to contain two lipid levels ( 5% and 10%) and three glucose levels ( 10%, 20% and 30%) using 2 × 3 double-factor experimental design. Each diet was

  10. 不同加工方式降低大黄鱼鱼卵过敏原及其消化产物免疫反应性的比较研究%Comparative research on different processing methods decreasing the immunoreactivity of the roe of large yellow croaker allergen and digestion products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘妍妘; 曹敏杰; 李玉宝; 张凌晶; 杜翠红; 刘光明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and compare the effects of different processing methods on the immu-noreactivity of the roe of large yellow croaker allergen and digestion products. Methods The crude extracts of yolk protein from large yellow croaker were performed to simulate gastric and intestinal fluid two phase digesti on after extracted by 4 different processing methods (Maillard reaction, ultraviolet radiation, ultrasonic-heating, high pressure steaming). Then the IgG/IgE-binding ability of the allergen in crude extracts and digestion prod-ucts was analyzed by Western-blotting and inhibition ELISA methods. Results The IgG-binding ability of the allergen in yolk protein was analyzed after treated by different processing methods. The results showed that it could not be detected the specific binding between Maillard reaction products and antibody, when the antibody was diluted 4×104 times. However, the crude extracts could react with antibody inordinately after treated by 3 physical processing methods. In addition, analyzing the IgE-binding ability of the processed and digested al-lergen with patients’ sera found that only the inhibition ratio of Maillard reaction products was lower than 50%after treated by different processing methods, but its inhibition ratio varied inconspicuously. Nevertheless, the inhibition ratio of the crude extracts treated by high pressure steaming was 65%, while its inhibition ratio dropped to below 20% after digestion. Conclusion In the different processing methods, Maillard reaction could effectively decrease the IgG/IgE-binding ability of the allergen in the roe of large yellow croaker. Ultra-sonic-heating and high pressure steaming could decrease the IgE-binding ability of its digestion products ob-viously, although the IgG/IgE-binding ability of the allergen in large yellow croaker was not decreased. But ul-traviolet radiation had little effect on the immunoreactivity of the allergen.%目的:本文以大黄鱼鱼卵为原料,分析

  11. Interaction between the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks and its implication on the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouard, M.; Rivière, G.; Arbogast, P.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the connection between the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks is investigated to better understand the influence of the Pacific flow on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The type of wave breaking in the North Atlantic area and the phase of the NAO have been shown to depend on the properties of the Pacific atmospheric flow (Franzke et al. 2004; Rivière and Orlanski 2007), but the key ingredients in the Pacific flow that influence the NAO are not well identified. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of the Pacific flow on the NAO by performing numerical experiments with the Marshall and Molteni (1993) three-level quasi-geostrophic model and by comparing our results with ECMWF data reanalysis. The NAO, defined by the first EOF of the geopotential height in the North Atlantic area, is well reproduced by long term simulations of the model forced by ERA40 data. Similar properties appear in the observed NAO and simulated NAO, in particular, the nature of the waves breaking (more anticyclonic during positive phase events and more cyclonic during negative phase events), their spatial scale (large-scale waves dominate during positive phase events and small-scale waves dominate during negative phase events) and the presence of a large-scale ridge in the eastern Pacific that reaches its maximum four days before the maximum of the positive phase events. In order to investigate the influence of this ridge onto the NAO, diagnostic tools (such as the refractive index) are first used. Then, different strategies of sensitivity numerical experiments (such as initial-value problems) are considered to confirm the role played by the Pacific ridge.

  12. Atlante project; Progetto atlante. Quadro di riferimento, analisi degli strumenti esistenti, implementazione metodologica e applicazione prototipale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, R.; Del Cellio, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Atlante project a joint program of Emilia Romagna region and Italian ENEA based on the concept of substantiality and the most important methods and models used in the territorial planning. [Italian] La redazione del presente volume e' stata articolata in modo da bilanciare, da un lato l'esigenza di rispettare il programma di attivita' previsto nell'ambito della Convenzione fra Regione Emilia Romagna ed ENEA.

  13. Atlantic Hurricane Activity: 1851-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsea, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    This presentation reports on the second year's work of a three year project to re-analyze the North Atlantic hurricane database (or HURDAT). The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database - which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC's) Webpage - has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity. Unfortunately, HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. One problem with HURDAT is that there are numerous systematic as sell as some random errors in the database which need correction. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as our understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database that have not been addressed. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall. Finally, recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 1800s and early 1900s led by Jose Fernandez-Partagas have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events, which are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years. As part of the re-analyses, three files will be made available: {* } The revised Atlantic HURDAT (with six hourly intensities

  14. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  16. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...... the female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  17. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ljung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere have hitherto failed to uncover a distinct climatic anomaly associated with the 8.2 kyr event. Here we present a lake sediment record from Nightingale Island in the central South Atlantic showing enhanced precipitation between 8275 and 8025 cal. yrs BP, most likely as a consequence of increased sea surface temperature (SST. We show that this is consistent with climate model projections of a warming of the South Atlantic in response to reduced north-ward energy transport during the 8.2 kyr event.

  18. Distribution of mercury in archived fur from little brown bats across Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in archived fur from adult female little brown bats sampled at maternity roosts across Atlantic Canada. Mercury concentrations varied significantly among regions and roosts. Bats from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland had the highest median Hg concentrations (9.67 μg/g and 9.51 μg/g) among regions, and individuals from Kejimkujik National Park had the highest Hg (median: 28.38 μg/g) among roosts. Over one third of individuals sampled had fur Hg concentrations exceeding thresholds associated with neurochemical responses. Within-roost examinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in fur showed inconsistent associations with Hg concentrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that within-roost variation in Hg is driven by variation in diet is not supported by this data, and it is recommended that key prey items be included in future mercury bioaccumulation studies for bats. The elevated mercury fur concentrations for bats from southern Nova Scotia remains an anomaly of concern even when placed in the larger context of Atlantic Canada.

  19. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  20. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  1. Sustainable Development and Female Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIAN OFOR

    In parts of Southeastern Nigeria, the erroneous belief that training the girl child was a .... calorie availability, household budget shares of medical care and child's ... A study conducted on the welfare effects of male and female incomes in Brazil.

  2. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  3. African perceptions of female attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    .... To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial...

  4. Egalitarianism in Female African Lions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig Packer; Anne E. Pusey; Lynn E. Eberly

    2001-01-01

    .... Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs...

  5. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...... model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  6. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2017-04-15

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Ocean station data collected using bottle casts from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From Northwest Atlantic and Southwest Atlantic Ocean from 30 October 1980 to 21 August 1982 (NODC Accession 9000164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using seechi disk, meteorological sensors, and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Southwest Atlantic...

  9. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  10. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  11. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  12. The Security of the South Atlantic: Is It a Case for ’SATO’--South Atlantic Treaty Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-10

    deal with this problem of resource depletion. The United States with 6% of the world’s population is now using about 35% of the planet’s energy and...to Central Atlantic Germany 24/4/41 PINGUIN (F) 22/6/40-8/5/41 28 136,551 Atlantic, Indian Sunk in the Indian And Antartic Ocean between the Ocean...strategically. She is emerging as regional power in her own right. Her population is in excess of 100 million and most of it is located along the Atlantic

  13. Molecular assessment of mating strategies in a population of Atlantic spotted dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Green

    Full Text Available Similar to other small cetacean species, Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis have been the object of concentrated behavioral study. Although mating and courtship behaviors occur often and the social structure of the population is well-studied, the genetic mating system of the species is unknown. To assess the genetic mating system, we genotyped females and their progeny at ten microsatellite loci. Genotype analysis provided estimates of the minimum number of male sires necessary to account for the allelic diversity observed among the progeny. Using the estimates of male sires, we determined whether females mated with the same or different males during independent estrus events. Using Gerud2.0, a minimum of two males was necessary to account for the genetic variation seen among progeny arrays of all tested females. ML-Relate assigned the most likely relationship between offspring pairs; half or full sibling. Relationship analysis supported the conservative male estimates of Gerud2.0 but in some cases, half or full sibling relationships between offspring could not be fully resolved. Integrating the results from Gerud2.0, ML-Relate with previous observational and paternity data, we constructed two-, three-, and four-male pedigree models for each genotyped female. Because increased genetic diversity of offspring may explain multi-male mating, we assessed the internal genetic relatedness of each offspring's genotype to determine whether parent pairs of offspring were closely related. We found varying levels of internal relatedness ranging from unrelated to closely related (range -0.136-0.321. Because there are several hypothesized explanations for multi-male mating, we assessed our data to determine the most plausible explanation for multi-male mating in our study system. Our study indicated females may benefit from mating with multiple males by passing genes for long-term viability to their young.

  14. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.; Plourde, S.; Castellani, C.; Licandro, P.; Pierson, J.; Jónasdóttir, S. H.; Johnson, C.; Broms, C.; Debes, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Gaard, E.; Gislason, A.; Heath, M. R.; Niehoff, B.; Nielsen, T. G.; Pepin, P.; Stenevik, E. K.; Chust, G.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a new, pan-North-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of eight representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000-2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus, including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size, with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US scientists and their institutions: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.820732, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.824423, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828393 (please also see Melle et al., 2013; Castellani and Licandro, 2013; Jónasdóttir et al., 2014).

  15. Two new land planarian species (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Almeida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest harbors the world's richest areas of land planarians (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida. Nevertheless, the number of undiscovered species from this biological unit remains seemingly high. Herein we describe Geoplana piriana Almeida & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Rio de Janeiro, and Geoplana tingauna Kishimoto & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Santa Catarina. Each species shows a dorsum with a unique color pattern among Geoplaninae species. Their internal morphology also differs: G. piriana sp. nov. shows a unique combination of features, including an extrabulbar, non-bifurcated prostatic vesicle, a non-folded male atrium, a horizontal, cylindrical penis papilla, a female atrium anteriorly narrowed, and lined with an epithelium with multilayered aspect. Geoplana tingauna sp. nov. possesses a prostatic vesicle constituted of a pair of branches opening into the very distal portion of a tubular, unpaired portion, a feature not seen in other Geoplaninae species.

  16. Assessing patterns of hybridization between North Atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, José Martin; Jacobsen, M.W.; Als, Thomas Damm

    2014-01-01

    The two North Atlantic eel species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. In this study, we used a RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approach to identify...... eel) collected in the Sargasso Sea. Our SNP survey showed that the majority of Icelandic eels are pure European eels but there is also an important contribution of individuals of admixed ancestry (10.7%). Although most of the hybrids were identified as F1 hybrids from European eel female × American......, no hybrids were observed in the Faroe Islands, the closest bodies of land to Iceland. It is possible that hybrids show an intermediate migratory behaviour between the two parental species that ultimately brings hybrid larvae to the shores of Iceland, situated roughly halfway between the Sargasso Sea...

  17. The ongoing violence against women: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2016-04-18

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.

  18. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 Protraction Limits (non-clipped)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  1. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  2. Atlantic NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...

  3. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  4. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  5. Atlantic NAD 83 Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Atlantic Region. Each SOBD describes a...

  6. Atlantic Sharpnose and Blacknose Shark Congressional Supplemental Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Life history data were collected from Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks during the Congressional Supplemental Program during 2011. Data collected include...

  7. Science and Society: The Third Dimension of the Atlantic Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarskis, Michel

    1983-01-01

    Discusses North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) activities related to science and society. NATO Scientific Exchanges Programme; pilot studies (pollution control, natural resources, health and technological risks, quality of life, and planning); and cultural exchanges are among the areas considered. (JN)

  8. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations...... in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L-1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which...... are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we...

  9. Atlantic City, New Jersey Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic City, New Jersey Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  10. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  12. Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Fishermen' s Atlantic City Windfarm, LLC, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm final report under US DOE Advanced Technology Demonstration project documents achievements developing a demonstration scale offshore wind project off the coast of New Jersey.

  13. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  14. Transport of salt and freshwater in the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.; Sandø, Anne Britt

    2016-09-01

    Transport of salt in the Irminger Current, the northern branch of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre coupling the eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic, plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a stronger SPG also transports less salt westward. In this study, we analyze a regional ocean model and a comprehensive global coupled climate model, and show that a stronger SPG transports more salt in the Irminger Current irrespective of lower salinities in its source region. The additional salt converges in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Basin by eddy transports, increases surface salinity in the western SPG, and favors more intense deep convection. This is part of a positive feedback mechanism with potentially large implications for climate variability and predictability.

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  16. Internationally Educated Female Teachers who have Immigrated to Nova Scotia: A Research/Performance Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walsh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research/performance text emerged from a study involving internationally educated female teachers who have immigrated to Atlantic Canada. The text features the words and artwork of the research participants as well as excerpts from newspapers, academic writing, and documents about immigration in Nova Scotia juxtaposed so as to foreground the complexity of the women's immigration and integration experiences. Introductory comments provide contextual information about the research project, the participants, and the evolution of, as well as rationale for, the text as performance piece.

  17. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  18. Assessing Impacts of Navigation Dredging on Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    fresh and saltwater interfaces, these areas may serve as juvenile nursery habitat. Deep-water habitats or “sturgeon holes ” are known to exist in the...James River. McCord (2003) reported that Atlantic sturgeon overwintered in deep channels and holes within coastal sounds and bays. Atlantic sturgeon...are known to be opportunistic benthivores, feeding primarily on mollusks, polychaete worms , amphipods, isopods, shrimps and small bottom-dwelling

  19. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  1. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-01-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  2. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  3. Atlantic effects on recent decadal trends in global monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Li, Xichen; Xie, Shang-Ping; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Natural climate variability contributes to recent decadal climate trends. Specifically the trends during the satellite era since 1979 include Atlantic and Indian Ocean warming and Pacific cooling associated with phase shifts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and enhanced global monsoon (GM) circulation and rainfall especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we evaluate effects of the oceanic changes on the global and regional monsoon trends by partial ocean temperature restoring experiments in a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Via trans-basin atmosphere-ocean teleconnections, the Atlantic warming drives a global pattern of sea surface temperature change that resembles observations, giving rise to the enhanced GM. The tropical Atlantic warming and the resultant Indian Ocean warming favor subtropical deep-tropospheric warming in both hemispheres, resulting in the enhanced monsoon circulations and precipitation over North America, South America and North Africa. The extratropical North Atlantic warming makes an additional contribution to the monsoon enhancement via Eurasian continent warming and resultant land-sea thermal gradient over Asia. The results of this study suggest that the Atlantic multidecadal variability can explain a substantial part of global climate variability including the recent decadal trends of GM.

  4. Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Dietrich, Stephan; Fietzke, Jan; Fohlmeister, Jens; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Richter, Detlev K.; Sabaoui, Abdellah; Spötl, Christoph; Lohmann, Gerrit; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.

  5. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  6. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indy Jeane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

  7. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  8. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NCEI Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  9. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  10. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  11. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  12. Yoga in female sexual functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikav, Vikas; Karmarkar, Girish; Gupta, Richa; Verma, Myank; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Supriya; Anand, Kuljeet S

    2010-02-01

    Yoga is a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy. It is practiced both in developing and developed countries. Female sexual dysfunctions are common and do not always get adequate clinical attention. Pharmacotherapies for treating female sexual dysfunctions are available but suffer from drawbacks such as poor compliance, low efficacy, and side effects. Many patients and yoga protagonists claim that it is useful in improving sexual functions and treating sexual disorders. To establish the effect yoga can have on female sexual functions. We recruited 40 females (age range 22-55 years, average age 34.7 +/- 8.49 years) who were enrolled in a yoga camp and were given a standardized questionnaire named Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) before and after the 12 weeks session of yoga. FSFI scores. It was found that after the completion of yoga sessions; the sexual functions scores were significantly improved (P 45 years) compared with younger women (age Yoga appears to be an effective method of improving all domains of sexual functions in women as studied by FSFI.

  13. Recent demographic history and present fine-scale structure in the Northwest Atlantic leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea turtle population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Molfetti

    Full Text Available The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is the most widely distributed sea turtle species in the world. It exhibits complex life traits: female homing and migration, migrations of juveniles and males that remain poorly known, and a strong climatic influence on resources, breeding success and sex-ratio. It is consequently challenging to understand population dynamics. Leatherbacks are critically endangered, yet the group from the Northwest Atlantic is currently considered to be under lower risk than other populations while hosting some of the largest rookeries. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and the demographic history of contrasted rookeries from this group, namely two large nesting populations in French Guiana, and a smaller one in the French West Indies. We used 10 microsatellite loci, of which four are newly isolated, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of the control region and cytochrome b. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed that the Northwest Atlantic stock of leatherbacks derives from a single ancestral origin, but show current genetic structuration at the scale of nesting sites, with the maintenance of migrants amongst rookeries. Low nuclear genetic diversities are related to founder effects that followed consequent bottlenecks during the late Pleistocene/Holocene. Most probably in response to climatic oscillations, with a possible influence of early human hunting, female effective population sizes collapsed from 2 million to 200. Evidence of founder effects and high numbers of migrants make it possible to reconsider the population dynamics of the species, formerly considered as a metapopulation model: we propose a more relaxed island model, which we expect to be a key element in the currently observed recovering of populations. Although these Northwest Atlantic rookeries should be considered as a single evolutionary unit, we stress that local conservation efforts remain necessary since each nesting site hosts

  14. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  15. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  16. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness, skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  17. ATLANTIC BATS: a dataset of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Garbino, Guilherme Siniciato Terra; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André Luis; de Oliveira, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius Silva; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-09-06

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The dataset includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of 8 families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals/hour*m(2) (0.04+0.007 individuals/hour*m(2) ). Our dataset reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  19. Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianglin; Yang, Bao; Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Luterbacher, Jürg; Osborn, Timothy; Briffa, Keith; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) impacts the climate around the North Atlantic and in many other parts of the world. There is an ongoing debate about the extent to which AMV is driven by external (e.g., solar, volcanic, and/or aerosol) forcing versus internal variability. We provide new evidence for persistent multidecadal temperature variability during a millennium-long (AD 800-2010) summer AMV reconstruction using a network of 46 annually-resolved terrestrial proxy records from the circum-North Atlantic region. The reconstruction was produced using nested principal component regression (assessed using a pseudo-proxy ensemble) and is relatively insensitive to methodological choices including pre-screening proxies, exclusion of hydroclimate-sensitive proxies, and different options for calibration and verification. We find that both large volcanic eruptions and solar irradiation minima can induce cool phases of AMV and both forcings together explain approximately 30% of the variance of AMV (on timescales > 30 years). We define the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) as the internally-generated component of AMV, and calculate it by empirically estimating and removing the variations that are linearly correlated with natural external forcings. The AMO reconstruction shows persistent multidecadal variability throughout the last millennium and suggests that internal variability makes the largest contribution to AMV. The reconstructed AMV is significantly correlated with Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature reconstructions, perhaps partly because both are responding to common external forcings. However, the reconstructed AMO (i.e. with an empirical estimate of the forced component removed) also shows coherence with an estimate of NH temperature internal variability (i.e. also with an empirical estimate of the forced signal removed) and this is the case even when NH temperature is reconstructed using only proxies that are independent of the 46 used for our AMV

  20. Histological and morphological aspects of reproduction in the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, A N; Murie, D J; Gelsleichter, J J

    2016-05-01

    The reproduction of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico was examined using a combination of histological and morphological characteristics of C. plumbeus collected through fishery-dependent and -independent sampling programmes (n = 1,567). Indices of maturity were constructed using measurements of gonads, reproductive tracts and claspers, and sandbar sharks exhibited 50% maturity sizes of 140 and 148 cm fork length for males and females respectively. Gonado-somatic indices and variation in reproductive tract condition were used to determine seasonal trends in reproduction of mature C. plumbeus. Sandbar sharks have discrete seasonal reproductive cycles in which males produce sperm from January to May with a peak in May and females develop eggs from January to May with ovulation occurring in June. Females were shown to exhibit a >2 year reproductive cycle. Embryonic development was assessed through measurements of masses and lengths of uterine contents. Gestation was 12 months, from July to the following June, with parturition in late June. This research highlights a difference from previously reported data on the periodicity of female reproduction in C. plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which may have major effects on future C. plumbeus stock management.

  1. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles.

  2. Tuberculosis and female reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".

  3. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the male, the human female has a ... male gonads produce male gametes (sperm). After an egg is fertilized by the sperm, the fertilized egg is called the zygote (pronounced: ...

  4. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  5. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  6. Fish histology: female reproductive systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillan, D.B

    2007-01-01

    ... on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Table of Contents Preface Chapter 1 Female Genital Systems of Fish Chapter 2 Ovarian Follicles Chapter 3 Ovulation Chapter 4 Events Associated with Fertilization Chapter 5 Oviducts and Oviparity Chapter 6 Viviparity References Index...

  7. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  8. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    , socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  9. 豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、饲料利用及体成分影响的研究%The Influence of Replacing Fish Meal Partially in the Diet with Soybean Meal on Growth, Body Composition and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Giant Croaker Nibea japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骥腾; 韩涛; 胡水鑫; 姜宇栋; 李莉; 林黑着

    2011-01-01

    开展了为期63d的饲养试验以评价豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、体组成和饲料利用率的影响。配制了3种等氮饲料,以豆粕蛋白分别替代0%、20%和40%的鱼粉蛋白,饲养初始重大约5.67~5.77g/尾的幼鱼。结果显示,各组间的增重率和特定生长率值没有显著差异性存在(P〉0.05)。然而添加豆粕的D2和D3组的摄食率和FCR值显著地高于鱼粉组,PER的值显著地低于鱼粉组(P〈0.05)。日本黄姑鱼的内脏比、肠脂比和丰满度的值在各组之间无显著性差异存在(P〉0.05),但高水平豆粕添加组(D3)的肝体比最低,且显著地低于D2组(P〈0.05)。不同饲料处理对日本黄姑鱼体成分和背肌组织成分组成没有显著性影响(P〉0.05)。总之,在本实验条件下,豆粕可以替代40%的饲料鱼粉蛋白而没有引起日本黄姑鱼生长的下降。%A 63-day growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially replacing fish meal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of giant croaker (Nibeajaponica). Three isonitrogenous diets containing SBM at protein replacement levels of 0, 20% and 40% were offered by hand twice daily. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 18 fish per aquarium (5.67-5.77 g on average). Specific growth rate and Growth rate were not significantly different between fish fed the FM and SBM diets, ranged from 142 9.38 to 173 1.78% and 4.32 to 4.61% day-1, respectively. But fish fed FM diet had significantly (P〈0.05) lower FCR (0.7) and higher PER (3.13) than fish fed with the other diets. Fish fed the SBM diets had a higher feed intake (84.68-86.70) than those fed the FM diet (56.99). The final biometric parameters were not affected by the diets, except that the hepatosomatic index in fish fed with 40% SBM pro- tein diet was significantly lower

  10. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  11. Kin-bias, breeding site selection and female fitness in a cannibalistic Neotropical frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, P; de Sá, F P; Haddad, C F B; Zamudio, K R

    2014-02-01

    Resource availability influences sexual selection within populations and determines whether behaviours such as territoriality or resource sharing are adaptive. In Thoropa taophora, a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest of Brazil, males compete for and defend limited breeding sites while females often share breeding sites with other females; however, sharing breeding sites may involve costs due to cannibalism by conspecific tadpoles. We studied a breeding population of T. taophora to determine (i) whether this species exhibits polygynous mating involving female choice for territorial males and limited breeding resources; (ii) whether limited breeding resources create the potential for male-male cooperation in defence of neighbouring territories; and (iii) whether females sharing breeding sites exhibit kin-biased breeding site choice, possibly driven by fitness losses due to cannibalism among offspring of females sharing sites. We used microsatellites to reconstruct parentage and quantify relatedness at eight breeding sites in our focal population, where these sites are scarce, and in a second population, where sites are abundant. We found that at localities where the appropriate sites for reproduction are spatially limited, the mating system for this species is polygynous, with typically two females sharing a breeding site with a male. We also found that females exhibit negative kin-bias in their choice of breeding sites, potentially to maximize their inclusive fitness by avoiding tadpole cannibalism of highly related kin. Our results indicate that male territorial defence and female site sharing are likely important components of this mating system, and we propose that kinship-dependent avoidance in mating strategies may be more general than previously realized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. North Atlantic ventilation using chlorofluorocarbons and idealised-tracer simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chun He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulated chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 and 29 geographically defined CFC-11 tracers, as well as 29 geographically defined idealised tracers, are used to quantify the regional contribution to the ventilation of the North Atlantic Ocean in a global version of the Miami Isopycnal Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM driven by the daily NCEP/NCAR forcing. Age tracers attached to 29 idealised tracers are also used to estimate the timescales for the water masses’ transports. Our results show that the simulated overturning circulation matches the available observed data for both intensity and variability, and the simulated distribution of CFC-11 concentration in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean is in good agreement with the observations, particularly above 800 m in depth. We found that the sandwich-like distribution of CFC-11 concentration in the subtropical North Atlantic in both the observations and simulations is mainly caused by subduction from the western and eastern subpolar North Atlantic, but the contribution of the former (56.0% is almost four times larger than that of the latter (15.7%. We demonstrated that the ocean dynamics, instead of the source function, determine the annual and inter-annual variability in both dynamically active tracer (such as water temperature and salinity and passive tracer (such as CFC-11 and idealised tracer concentrations in the deep North Atlantic. The ‘apparent age’ distribution shows that the surface water in the western subpolar North Atlantic takes about 12 yr to reach the Nordic Seas and takes 20 yr from the Nordic Seas to the subtropical deep North Atlantic. The transit-time derived by ‘optimum time lag’ approach shows a 9.3–13.6 yr lag for the signals propagating from the western subpolar North Atlantic to the subtropical North Atlantic, which is generally consistent with that of about 10 yr derived from the ‘apparent age’. The study suggests that geographically defined tracers can be used as

  13. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  14. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  15. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  16. 微颗粒饲料与冷藏桡足类对大黄鱼稚鱼消化酶活力、肠和肝脏显微结构的影响%EVALUATION OF MICRODIETS AND FROZEN COPEPODS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES, INTESTINAL AND LIVER MICROSTRUCTURES OF LARGE YELLOW CROAKER (PSEUDOSCIAENA CROCEA R.) LARVAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海瑞; 艾庆辉; 麦康森; 马洪明; José Luis Zambonino-Infante; Chantal Louise Cahu

    2012-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate effects of three newly developed microdiets (MDs: Diet 1-Diet 3), a mixed diet (Diet 4: Diet 3 combined with frozen copepods) and frozen copepods (Diet 5, control) on digestive enzymatic activities, intestine and liver microstructures of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) larvae, which had an initial mean body weight of (13.80 ?0.40) mg from 25 to 60 days after hatching (DAH). The results showed that trypsin activities exhibited no significant difference between fish fed with the MDs at 35 and 60 DAH, although those at 25 DAH showed lower trypsin activities, and there was no significant difference between fish fed with mixed diet and frozen copepods. No significant differences were observed between fish fed with the experimental diets except frozen copepods, the latter led to higher amylase activity at 35 DAH than at 25 and 60 DAH. As fish grew older, aminopepti-dase N and alkaline phosphatase activities increased in fish fed with the experimental diets except for Diet 4 and Diet 5. No lipid droplets were observed in anterior-mediate intestinal mucosa in 35-day-old fish that were fed with the experimental diets with the exception of the Diet 4. Fish fed with the MDs presented deeper intestinal mucosa folds and su-pranuclear vacuoles in the rectum, while rectal folds from fish fed with the frozen copepods were nearly flat and lacked supranuclear vacuoles. Fish fed with the MDs displayed numerous lipid vacuoles in hepatocytes with nuclear migration. Liver from fish fed with the mixed diet had numerous lipid vacuoles in hepatocytes with nuclear migration at 35 DAH but such vacuoles decreased at 60 DAH. Liver from fish fed with the frozen copepods resulted in some intercellular spaces, collapsed cytoplasm and pycnotic nuclei of hepatocytes that were similar to starvation condition. These results indicated that suitable MDs could improve the development of digestive system of large yellow croaker larvae. Diet 1 can

  17. Biofilmes nanocompósitos obtidos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri e Montmorilonita: avaliação das propriedades físicas, mecânicas e de barreira Nanocomposite biofilms obtained from Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri protein isolate and Monmorilonite: Evaluation of the physical, mechanical and barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Renzo Cortez-Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades de biofilmes nanocompósitos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri com argila organofílica. Inicialmente, foi obtido isolado proteico de corvina (IPC utilizando-se o processo de mudança de pH. O IPC foi obtido a partir de subprodutos da industrialização de corvina. Para o desenvolvimento dos filmes, foi executado um planejamento experimental de Box e Behnken, com três níveis de IPC (2; 3,5; 5 g.100 g-1 de solução, argila montmorilonita MMT (0,3; 0,5; 0,7 g.100 g-1 de solução e glicerol (25, 30, 35 g.100 g-1 IPC. Os filmes poliméricos foram desenvolvidos pela técnica de casting. Os valores de resistência à tração variaram entre 7,2 e 10,7 MPa, e os valores de alongamento, de 39,6 a 45,8%. Os valores de permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA variaram entre 3,2 e 5,5 g mm m-2 d-1kPa-1. O IPC apresentou teor médio de proteína de 97,87% (b. s.. Pode-se concluir que os filmes nanocompósitos produzidos a partir de IPC com MMT foram promissores, desde o ponto de vista das propriedades mecânicas, da aparência visual e do fácil manuseio até a baixa permeabilidade ao vapor de água e a baixa solubilidade. Com relação às propriedades mecânicas, as concentrações de IPC e MMT foram os principais fatores que influenciaram o desenvolvimento dos filmes nanocompósitos. Os resultados obtidos no planejamento experimental utilizado indicaram que 3,5 g de IPC.100 g-1 de solução, 0,5 g de MMT.100 g-1 de solução e 30 g de glicerol.100 g-1 IPC seriam os parâmetros ideais para a preparação de filmes nanocompósitos por casting.The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of nanocomposite biofilms based on Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri protein isolate with organophilic clays. Initially the croaker protein isolate (CPI was obtained using the pH shifting process from by-products of croaker industrialization. A Box and Behnken experimental

  18. EVALUATION OF MICRODIETS VERSUS FROZEN COPEPODS ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND SELECTED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LARGE YELLOW CROAKER PSEUDOSCIAENA CROCEA LARVAE%微颗粒饲料与冰冻桡足类对大黄鱼稚鱼生长、存活和体成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海瑞; 麦康森; 马洪明; 艾庆辉; 段青源; José Luis Zambonino-Infante; Chantal Louise Cahu

    2012-01-01

    评估三种新开发的微颗粒饲料(Diet 1,Diet 2和Diet 3)、一种混合饲料(Diet 4:Diet 3和冰冻桡足类混合投喂)和冰冻桡足类(Diet 5)对25-60日龄大黄鱼稚鱼的饲喂效果.Diet 1组大黄鱼稚鱼的特定生长率(SGR,7.97%/d)和成活率(40.0%)最高,而Diet 5组稚鱼的SGR(4.15%/d)和成活率(20.4%)最低.Diet4组稚鱼的成活率与Diet 1组差异不显著,但其SGR低于后者.从稚鱼的SGR和成活率看,三种微颗粒饲料中,Diet 1要优于Diet 2和Diet 3.各处理组中每桶稚鱼的生物量与SGR有相似的变化趋势.各微颗粒饲料组稚鱼的体蛋白含量差异不显著,低于Diet 4组,但高于Diet 5组.而微颗粒饲料组稚鱼的脂肪含量(10.6%-13.3%)均显著高于Diet 4组(7.6%)和Diet5组(7.2%).尽管冷冻桡足类中C20:4n-6(AA)的含量稍低于微颗粒饲料,但Diet4和Diet 5组稚鱼的AA含量均显著高于微颗粒饲料组.Diet 4和Diet 5组稚鱼的C22:6n-3(DHA)分别高于其相应饲料中的含量.相反地,微颗粒饲料组稚鱼的C20:5n-3(EPA)低于微颗粒饲料中的含量.这些结果表明,Diet 4和Diet 5组稚鱼体内AA、DHA和EPA的沉积效率高于微颗粒饲料组.研究表明,大黄鱼稚鱼可用微颗粒饲料“断奶”.基于Diet 1优于Diet 2和Diet 3,可将其作为进一步研究的基础配方.此外,有必要对各处理组大黄鱼稚鱼消化酶和消化道的变化进行研究以综合评估微颗粒饲料的效果.%Three newly developed microdiets (MDs:Diet 1,Diet 2 and Diet 3),one co-feeding diet (Diet 4,combined Diet 3 with frozen copepods) and frozen copepods (Diet 5) were tested for weaning large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) larvae from 25 to 60 days after hatching (DAH).The highest final specific growth rate (SGR,7.97%/d) and survival (40.0%) were observed in fish fed Diet I,while those were the lowest in fish fed Diet 5 (4.15%/d and 20.4%,respectively).The survival of larvae fed Diet 4 showed no significant

  19. The segregation patterns of 22 microsatellite markers in an F1 family of large yellow croaker( Larimichthys crocea)and correlation analysis with growth-related traits%大黄鱼22个微卫星标记在F1家系中的分离方式及与生长性状的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤德; 韦信键; 蔡明夷; 刘洋; 王志勇

    2012-01-01

    研究了1个大黄鱼F1家系150个个体22个微卫星位点的基因型分布,并分析了标记位点与生长性状的相关性.结果显示,22个位点共检测到60个等位基因,平均等位基因数为2.73,平均有效等位基因数为2.37;平均观测杂合度与期望杂合度分别为0.75和0.73,部分位点基因型分布严重偏离孟德尔定律,暗示其可能与适应性基因相连锁,其中LYC0446位点附近可能存在隐性纯合致死基因.LYC0077位点与体质量、体长和体高均呈显著相关(P<0.05),其中等位基因A(165 bp)对应的生长性状表型值最大,可以作为选育快长性状的有效分子标记;LYC0015和LYC0243与体高呈显著相关(P<0.05),与体长、体质量的相关不显著(P>0.05),LYC0015位点的等位基因C(110 bp)和LYC0243位点的等位基因A(160 bp)为有利的等位基因.对LYC0015、LYC0077和LYC0243进行不同基因型个体表型值的多重比较,找到3种对生长性状有利的基因型,分别为BC、AA和AB.同时,以体质量性状为参照,对3个位点不同基因型组合进行比较,找到一个最优基因型组合( BC/AA/AB),与3个位点单独分析对应的最优基因型完全一致,符合加性作用模型.%The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea is one of the most important fish species in Chinese mariculture, and the research about correlation analysis between growth-related traits and microsatellite markers is very rare. In this study, the genotype distribution of twenty-two microsatellite markers was investigated in an F1 family of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea of 20-month old, and the correlation between growth-related traits and microsatellite markers was also analyzed using statistical method. The results are as follows; A total of 60 alleles were detected, and the average number of alleles and effective number of alleles were 2. 73 and 2. 37 , respectively. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were 0. 75

  20. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  1. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit; Horseshoe Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  2. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC689 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  3. 77 FR 55457 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC220 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  4. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AY41 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Such action is authorized under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act...

  5. 77 FR 38775 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC042 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop originally scheduled for August 9, 2012, in Rosenberg, TX, has been... 77471. The July and September workshop dates remain unchanged. Atlantic Shark Identification...

  6. 77 FR 70149 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) and its Visioning and Strategic Planning ] Working Group will hold public...

  7. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Atlantic federal waters. All wells in the Atlantic Region were completed and abandoned...

  8. Inventory of Atlantic White-Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report addresses Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration in North Carolina refuges. The ecology, use, and historical distribution of Atlantic white-cedar (AWC)...

  9. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  10. Reproductive strategies in black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839 from the NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonads of the NE Atlantic black scabbardfish were examined to give an insight into the reproductive biology of this species. It was concluded that black scabbardfish had determinate fecundity because: (i a distinct hiatus in oocyte size was observed between pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes; (ii vitellogenic oocytes increased in size during the spawning season; (iii the number of vitellogenic oocytes did not increase during the spawning season; and (iv the intensity of atresia was low in pre-spawning and spawning ovaries. Fecundity estimates ranged from 73 to 373 oocytes g-1 female. Comparison of developing ovaries from mainland Portugal and Madeira revealed that those from Madeira were more advanced in development, with more cortical alveoli stage oocytes and a higher gonadosomatic index. Starting in July, the reproductive development of all females from mainland Portugal was interrupted by a generalised atresia of developing oocytes. Completion of gametogenesis and spawning only occurred for fish from Madeira but some fish from this area also failed to complete oocyte development due to mass follicular atresia of vitellogenic oocytes. The percentage of Madeiran fish that failed to spawn due to follicular atresia ranged from 21.2% in 2006 to 37.4% in 2005.

  11. Mother-Offspring Signature Whistle Similarity and Patterns of Association in Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Bebus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the degree of similarity between signature whistles of mother and offspring pairs in free-living Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis. As a means of qualitative evaluation, judges compared the time-frequency contour patterns of signature whistle spectrograms. We also evaluated quantitative measurements of whistle frequency and duration. All five female offspring produced signature whistles that were similar to their mothers’ whistles by a least one means of comparison, whereas two of the four male offspring produced signature whistles that were dissimilar from their mothers’ by both methods of comparison. However, statistically, male offspring were just as likely to produce signature whistles like their mothers’ as female offspring (p = 0.167. We compared whistle similarity between mothers and offspring to the degree of association for each pair. Offspring that most often associated with their mothers when they were four years of age had whistles that were more similar to their mothers’ whistles both qualitatively (r(4 = 0.92, p = 0.009 and quantitatively (r(4 = 0.92, p = 0.004. Because signature whistles are developed within a dolphin’s first year, our finding likely reflects the level of bond between mother and calf.

  12. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  13. Plasma Vitellogenin in Free-Ranging Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Smelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin is the egg yolk precursor protein produced by oviparous vertebrates. As endogenous estrogen increases during early reproductive activity, hepatic production of vitellogenin is induced and is assumed to be complete in female sea turtles before the first nesting event. Until the present study, innate production of vitellogenin has not been described in free-ranging sea turtles. Our study describes circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. We collected blood samples from juveniles and adults via in-water captures off the coast of the Southeast USA from May to August, and from nesting females in June and July at Hutchinson Island, Florida. All samples were analyzed using an in-house ELISA developed specifically to measure Caretta caretta vitellogenin concentration. As expected, plasma vitellogenin declined in nesting turtles as the nesting season progressed, although it still remained relatively elevated at the end of the season. In addition, mean vitellogenin concentration in nesting turtles was 1,000 times greater than that measured in samples from in-water captures. Our results suggest that vitellogenesis may continue throughout the nesting season, albeit at a decreasing rate. Further, vitellogenin detected in turtles captured in-water may have resulted from exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  14. Diet of the lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii (Gymnophthalmidae in Atlantic Rainforest, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the diet of the gymnophthalmid lizard Ecpleopus gaudichaudii Duméril & Bibron, 1839, a typical inhabitant of the forest-floor leaf litter, in an Atlantic Forest area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The 26 individuals sampled during the study had a mean snout-vent length (SVL of 36.2 ± 4.2 mm and a mean jaw width (JW of 4.1 ± 0.5 mm. We did not find differences in SVL between males and females, though the sexes differed in JW when the effect of body size was factored out, with females presenting higher values. The diet of the lizards was composed exclusively of arthropods, especially isopods and orthopterans. The similarity in trophic niches among seasons (volumetric and numerical proportions of prey categories consumed were 0.096 and to 0.43, respectively. There were also no detectable seasonal differences in mean number and mean volume of prey ingested, as well as no significant influence of lizard SVL on prey number and of lizard JW on mean prey volume, which may reflect the tendency of E. gaudichaudii to feed on few, relatively large prey.

  15. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  16. Seasonal Variability of South Atlantic Central Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega Passos, E.; de Freitas Assad, L.; Landau, L.

    2013-05-01

    The South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is constituted by different density water masses. Among these, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is formed on the Brazil-Falkland Confluence region (BFC) and once formed, it becomes part of the Subtropical Gyre. When approaching again the Brazilian coast, this water mass bifurcates next to São Tomé Cape and part of it flows to the North and part to the South. There is another bifurcation that formed the sub-gyre of the SAO and occurs near 30°S. This work aims to analyze the seasonal variability associated to the SACW trajectory on the SAO basin. To achieve this goal, ECCO2 project's time series of prognostic fields were analysed. The parameters evaluated were temperature, salinity and the zonal and meridional velocity components in averaged monthly fields between January 1992 and November 2010. First a climatological year was calculated and was composed by means from all time series for each month. And second, it was estimate seasonally means for the south hemisphere to summer, autumn, winter and springer. For the analysis, the SACW was separated from the rest of the water masses by isolating it for its temperature, salinity and density index. Then the volume transport (VT) was calculated for seven different sections: A (10°S and 36°W-30°W), B (35°S and 55°W-45°W), C (40°W and 37°S-43°S), D (34°S and 7°E-20°E), E (20°E and 34°S-45°S), F (20°W and 27°S-33°S) and G (10°W and 20°S-25°S). The VT integrated on the water column occupied by SACW was calculated from the zonal and meridional velocities. The analysis showed that the VT balance between the sections is consistent with the climatologic analysis, according to scientific references. The analysis of the climatological VT showed that the VT field integrated in SAWC levels is also consistent with scientific reference. On the seasonal analysis, the sections A and F show a stronger VT during autumn. Since section A is formed from part of the flux of section

  17. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  18. Array Analysis of North Atlantic Microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Möllhoff, Martin; Donne, Sarah; Lokmer, Ivan; Le Pape, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Oceans generate persistent low frequency background seismic signals known as microseisms through a mechanical coupling with the Earth's crust. Microseism energy originates as regions of low barometric pressure (depressions) over the oceans where it is transmitted to the sea-floor and propagates as elastic energy in the Earths crust. Consequently microseisms carry important meteorological information relating to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The significance of microseisms as climate indicators has previously been investigated in several studies (Essen et al., 1999; Aster et al., 2010) and to estimate ocean wave parameters using onshore seismometer data (Bromirski et al., 1999). Also many modern seismological methods make use of microseism signals, for example "noise tomography" (Shapiro et al., 2005); spectral ratio techniques ; and cross-correlation techniques (Wapenaar et al., 2011; Brenguier et al., 2014). The continental shelf near Ireland is a known generation are for microseisms and an important region for European weather forecasting and climate studies. There has also been seismometers in the region since the 1960s. There is a single station in Valentia observatory in south-west Ireland and a small scale seismic array in Scotland which offer potential climate records for the region. To make use of this information it is first necessary to understand how microseisms recorded in Ireland relate to the local ocean wavefield. The WAVEOBS project was set established with three primary goals; to get a better fundamental understanding of microseism sources; to investigate the use of ocean generated microseisms as real time ocean wave height data; and to investigate their use as a climate proxy. Using spectral analysis and array methods the microseism wavefield in the North-East Atlantic near Ireland is described with reference to the ocean wavefield.

  19. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  20. Correlates of females' sexual fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J J; Hart, D H

    1977-12-01

    The intent of the study was to obtain data on the incidence of female sexual fantasy and on the relationship of background, personality, and attitudinal factors to the quantity of sexual fantasies. The participants were 102 university women students between the ages of 19 and 45 yr. An original Female Sexual Fantasy Questionnaire, a short form of the Attitude Toward Women Scale, the 16 PF, and the background variables of age, sexual experience, marital status, and religion provided data for the analysis. Conclusions were that 99% of the women engaged in sexual fantasy at least occasionally and that age, sexual experience, anxiety, independence, and liberal attitudes toward women are all related to frequency of sexual fantasy.

  1. Diabetes and the female disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark; Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R

    2015-11-01

    We have produced compelling evidence that women are subject to a higher relative increase in their risk of coronary heart disease and stroke following a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, in terms of vascular risk, diabetes confers a female disadvantage. This excess risk could be due to three main factors. First, it is conceivable that this is merely a mathematical artifact caused by the relatively low background rate for cardiovascular diseases among women, compared with men. Second, it could be due to women receiving poorer care following their diagnosis of diabetes than men; for instance, due to physician bias. Third, certain underlying biological differences in women and men, most likely related to the distribution of body fat, could explain this female disadvantage.

  2. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  3. Endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) experience repeated, concurrent exposure to multiple environmental neurotoxins produced by marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Gregory J; Mikulski, Christina M; King, Kristen L; Roth, Patricia B; Wang, Zhihong; Leandro, Luis F; DeGrasse, Stacey L; White, Kevin D; De Biase, Daniela; Gillett, Roxanne M; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-01-01

    The western North Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the most critically endangered of any whale population in the world. Among the factors considered to have potentially adverse effects on the health and reproduction of E. glacialis are biotoxins produced by certain microalgae responsible for causing harmful algal blooms. The worldwide incidence of these events has continued to increase dramatically over the past several decades and is expected to remain problematic under predicted climate change scenarios. Previous investigations have demonstrated that N. Atlantic right whales are being exposed to at least two classes of algal-produced environmental neurotoxins-paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and domoic acid (DA). Our primary aims during this six-year study (2001-2006) were to assess whether the whales' exposure to these algal biotoxins occurred annually over multiple years, and to what extent individual whales were exposed repeatedly and/or concurrently to one or both toxin classes. Approximately 140 right whale fecal samples obtained across multiple habitats in the western N. Atlantic were analyzed for PSTs and DA. About 40% of these samples were attributed to individual whales in the North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog, permitting analysis of biotoxin exposure according to sex, age class, and reproductive status/history. Our findings demonstrate clearly that right whales are being exposed to both of these algal biotoxins on virtually an annual basis in multiple habitats for periods of up to six months (April through September), with similar exposure rates for females and males (PSTs: ∼70-80%; DA: ∼25-30%). Notably, only one of 14 lactating females sampled did not contain either PSTs or DA, suggesting the potential for maternal toxin transfer and possible effects on neonatal animals. Moreover, 22% of the fecal samples tested for PSTs and DA showed concurrent exposure to both neurotoxins, leading to questions of interactive

  4. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Stuart A; Roberts, Christopher D; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-12-16

    [1] Observations show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales.

  5. Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the Tropical Northern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schepanski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three exemplary months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.

  6. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics.

  7. Predicted slowdown in the rate of Atlantic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Stephen G.; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate models initialized from historical climate states and subject to anthropogenic forcings can produce skillful decadal predictions of sea surface temperature change in the subpolar North Atlantic. The skill derives largely from initialization, which improves the representation of slow changes in ocean circulation and associated poleward heat transport. We show that skillful predictions of decadal trends in Arctic winter sea ice extent are also possible, particularly in the Atlantic sector. External radiative forcing contributes to the skill of retrospective decadal sea ice predictions, but the spatial and temporal accuracy is greatly enhanced by the more realistic representation of ocean heat transport anomalies afforded by initialization. Recent forecasts indicate that a spin-down of the thermohaline circulation that began near the turn of the century will continue, and this will result in near-neutral decadal trends in Atlantic winter sea ice extent in the coming years, with decadal growth in select regions.

  8. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  9. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  10. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North... maintenance of the NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald...

  11. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific.

  12. 76 FR 64074 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop scheduled for November 17, 2011, in Charleston, SC, has been changed. This.... Atlantic Shark Identification workshops are mandatory for Atlantic Shark Dealer permit holders or...

  13. 75 FR 54598 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW44 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... cancelling the Atlantic Shark Identification workshop that was scheduled for September 2, 2010, in Wilmington... South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403. DATES: The Atlantic Shark Identification Workshop...

  14. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  15. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  16. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific. T

  17. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  19. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  20. Melanoma of the female urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed a friable lesion at the level of the urethral meatus, with heterogeneous digitations, dark brown to black, and irregular polycyclic borders. No inguinal adenomegalies were palpated. Cystourethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion confirm the diagnosis. Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely infrequent pathology. Due to lack of published case reports and the absence of prospective randomized trials on treatment outcomes, treatment must be directed using the same anatomical and surgical criteria for female urethral tumors, adding also the concepts of treatment of mucosal melanoma, even though its prognosis is different from the before mentioned.

  1. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  2. An evaluation of management strategies for Atlantic tuna stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Kell

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available International agreements for the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT convention area imply that Atlantic tuna stocks should be managed by strategies based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY; however, there is concern whether this will actually ensure sustainability with sufficiently high probability consistent with the principals of the precautionary approach. Therefore, the performance of MSY management strategies based on current assessment procedures was evaluated using a computer simulation framework. The framework includes the data collection, assessment, prediction, and management processes, as well as the implementation of management regulations. It therefore provides an integrated way to evaluate the relative importance of and the interactions between each component of the system with regard to the overall success of the management strategy. The study elucidates guidelines about assessment and management that are general enough to be applied to all tunas in the Atlantic Ocean. It does so by comparing different hypotheses about management and assessment for three stocks (North Atlantic albacore, Atlantic bigeye and East Atlantic skipjack, which are representative of the variety encountered (i.e. from data rich to poor and tropical to temperate waters in ICCAT stocks. Management performance was especially sensitive to the carrying capacity of the stock. The type of proxy used for MSY was more important to the success of the procedure than the frequency of assessment or the number of indices used in the assessment. Whilst the procedure was successful at achieving the management objectives for albacore, it was only partially successful for bigeye and was too conservative for skipjack.

  3. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  4. Ventilation of the equatorial Atlantic by the equatorial deep jets

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard John; Claus, Martin; Didwischus, Sven-Helge; Hormann, Verena; Funk, Andreas; Hahn, Johannes; Krahmann, Gerd; Fischer, Jürgen; Körtzinger, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Equatorial deep jets (EDJs) are a prominent flow feature of the equatorial Atlantic below the Equatorial Undercurrent down to about 3000 m. Here we analyze long-term moored velocity and oxygen observations, as well as shipboard hydrographic and current sections acquired along 23{degree sign}W and covering the depth range of the oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical North and South Atlantic. The moored zonal velocity data show high-baroclinic mode EDJ oscillations at a period of about 4...

  5. Life cycle assessment of Icelandic Atlantic salmon Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the environmental impacts of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in sea cages in Tálknafjörður, North West of Iceland. Methodologically the study was based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the functional unit was 1 metric tonne of the whole Atlantic salmon produced in sea cage system and delivered to a processing plant in Patreksfjörður. The life cycle model included the feed production (including feed raw materials production), hatchery, sea-cage farm, faming equipmen...

  6. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in the arctic Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wiig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the management of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus past and present in the four range states—Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia—which have permanent populations of Atlantic walruses. Populations in all four countries have been depleted, although the extent of depletion is not well known. Inuit in Arctic Canada and Greenland hunt Atlantic walruses for subsistence while they have been protected at Svalbard (Norway since 1952 and in the western Russian Arctic since 1956. Since the second half of the 20th Century Canada and Greenland have increased protection of their walrus. Generally the number of walruses landed in Canada is governed by the number of hunters and/or people in the settlement and not by stock-specific quotas. Although quotas have been set in few communities, it is not known if they are adequate to prevent overhunting. A quota system for walrus hunting in Greenland began in 2006. The current control system is largely effective in ensuring the quotas are applied and that reporting is correct. Greenland currently sets quotas based on recommendations from scientific assessments using recent population estimates to allow population growth from a depleted population.  A challenge with respect to managing walrus hunting remains the variable and sometimes high rates of lost animals. Since the 1960s changes in socio-economics in hunting areas of Arctic Canada and Greenland (and the use of snowmobiles instead of dog sleds in Canada have led to a general decrease in interest in hunting of walruses and reduced harvest on walrus stocks in these countries. Although there is an active ongoing cooperation between Canada and Greenland scientists regarding assessments of shared populations of walruses currently there is no formal agreement between the two range states on co-management of shared stocks. Protection of walrus from other anthropogenic impacts generally focusses on large-scale industrial activity. The level

  7. The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program: The North Atlantic Study, 1981; The Tropical Atlantic Study, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Smethie, William M.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific papers here collected result from the Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program. The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographie expedition took place in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1981 and in the Tropical Atlantic in 1983 on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution. The expeditions, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy (North Atlantic only), were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the ocean. The foundations for such an experiment were laid in the 1972-1978 GEOSECS program. Here, for the first time, a systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep ocean of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which terminated with the nuclear test ban treaty in 1962.

  8. The South Atlantic Anticyclone as a key player for the representation of the tropical Atlantic climate in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry V.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Fink, Andreas H.; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Alvarez, Francisco; Izquierdo, Alfredo; Keenlyside, Noel; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    The key role of the South Atlantic Anticyclone (SAA) on the seasonal cycle of the tropical Atlantic is investigated with a regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model for two different coupled domains. Both domains include the equatorial Atlantic and a large portion of the northern tropical Atlantic, but one extends southward, and the other northwestward. The SAA is simulated as internal model variability in the former, and is prescribed as external forcing in the latter. In the first case, the model shows significant warm biases in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Angola-Benguela front zone. If the SAA is externally prescribed, these biases are substantially reduced. The biases are both of oceanic and atmospheric origin, and are influenced by ocean-atmosphere interactions in coupled runs. The strong SST austral summer biases are associated with a weaker SAA, which weakens the winds over the southeastern tropical Atlantic, deepens the thermocline and prevents the local coastal upwelling of colder water. The biases in the basins interior in this season could be related to the advection and eddy transport of the coastal warm anomalies. In winter, the deeper thermocline and atmospheric fluxes are probably the main biases sources. Biases in incoming solar radiation and thus cloudiness seem to be a secondary effect only observed in austral winter. We conclude that the external prescription of the SAA south of 20°S improves the simulation of the seasonal cycle over the tropical Atlantic, revealing the fundamental role of this anticyclone in shaping the climate over this region.

  9. Chlorofluorocarbon-113 in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.; Watson, Andrew J.; Liddicoat, Malcolm I.

    1995-06-01

    An automated gas Chromatographic technique to measure the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113:CCl2FCClF2) dissolved in seawater has been developed. The method also quantifies chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 (CFC-11:CCl3F and CFC-12:CCl2F2). Seawater collected from Niskin bottles in ground-glass syringes is stripped by a gas stream and concentrated on a cryogenic trap in the manner of Bullister and Weiss (1988) and Gammon et al. (1982). By isolating and heating the trap, the chlorofluorocarbon compounds are reliberated and injected onto a high-resolution capillary gas Chromatographie column, followed by electron-capture detection. The analysis time for each sample is less than 15 min. Surface seawater precisions are 2.9%, 2.4%, and 1.2% for CFC-113, CFC-11, and CFC-12, with detection limits of 0.003-0.004, 0.02, and 0.03-0.05 pmol L-1, respectively. Although these statistics do not compare favorably with other CFC-11 and CFC-12 techniques (precision ˜1%, detection limit ˜0.005 pmol L-1 (Bullister and Weiss, 1988)), the dynamic ranges of the CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 "ventilation ages" are 20:1, better than that of the best CFC-11:CFC-12 age, albeit with inferior precisions. Estimates of the solubility ratios of CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 are 0.303 and 1.22, disagreeing with the work of Wisegarver and Gammon (1988), whose CFC-113 results are believed to be boosted by coelution with methyl bromide. The optimum tracer ventilation age resolution is ±0.9 years for both CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 from a cast considered in the northeastern Atlantic. A plot of CFC-113:CFC-12 ventilation age is presented on an outcropping isopycnal. A strong correlation with pressure and dissolved oxygen concentration is noted and an oxygen utilization rate between 4.2 and 5.5±0.4 μmol L-1 yr-1 is implied, depending on the choice of CFC-113 atmospheric history.

  10. Imaging riometer observation in South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kazuo; Hoshino, Mituo; Kato, Yasuo; Masanori, Nishino; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Foppiano, Alberto J.; Ovalle, Ellias; Tanaka, Yoshi; Monreal, Ricardo

    The total geomagnetic field intensity is especially weak around the southern part of Latin America. This region is called South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We named this singularity region as "Geomagnetic Hole". High energetic particles larger than 100keV are precipitating into Geomagnetic Hole from Radiation belt. Since the intensity of Geomagnetic Hole is sharply decreasing now, the quantity of particle precipitation in this region will become more large near future. In order to examine Geomagnetic Hole phenomena, imaging riometer, photometer and other instruments are installed at INPE southern space observatory (SSO) and started observation since 1997. We also installed similar instruments and continue the observation at Concepcion / Punta Arenas in Chile and Kakioka in Japan. We study Cosmic Noise Absorption (CNA) obtained by imaging riometer and their relationships to particle data by GOES Satellite. From our analysis results, typical CNA events are observed in associated with big geomagnetic storm period at SSO and GOES particle date shows sharp decrease of energetic particle in this time. It suggests that radiation belt particles are precipitating to Geomagnetic Hole during ge-omagnetic storm period. Sometimes, CNA events are also observed during big substorm period and during the X-ray flare event. We also examined Punta Arenas, Concepcion and Kakioka imaging riometer data during geomagnetic storm time. However, typical CNA corresponding to SSO event is not found in our analysis. Our preliminary result suggests that particle precip-itation region is confined in a limited area around SSO, Brazil. On the other hands, Traveling Ionosphere Disturbance (TID) events are also observed at Concepcion and Kakioka as well as SSO by imaging riometer. Generally, number density of ionosphere electron increases and electron density disturbance with stripe-like structures are traveling during TID event. From imaging riometer observation, similar stripe-like CNA structure are

  11. Age and growth of black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839 in the southern NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Though whole otoliths are commonly adopted in age assignment of black scabbardfish, this study showed that sectioned otoliths are more appropriate because growth increments are more evident and ageing of larger specimens is easier. Vertebrae are not the most appropriate structure for ageing but, in the absence of otoliths, this structure may be useful in age assignment of this species. To verify possible differences between age and growth among specimens from the southern NE Atlantic, 1075 sectioned otoliths from specimens from mainland Portugal, 436 from Madeira and 107 from the Azores were analysed and the distribution of length-at-age obtained for each sex and region was determined. Significant differences were obtained in the comparison of the distribution of length-at-age between Madeira, the mainland and the Azores. The von Bertalanffy growth model was applied to back-calculated mean length-at-age data from Madeira (Lt = 1586 [1 – e –0.119(t+2.282] females; Lt = 1461 [1 – e –0.146(t+1.441] males and mainland (Lt = 1354 [1 – e –0.170(t+2.040] females; Lt = 1240 [1 – e –0.208(t+1.654] males, and significant differences in the growth equations were obtained. Furthermore, a regression tree model was used to investigate how growth is conditioned by reproduction. The results showed a clear separation between individuals from the two areas, both females and males from the mainland (non-reproductive individuals being characterised by a lower gonadosomatic index and a lower age.

  12. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by...

  13. 78 FR 57337 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ..., 2011, NMFS published a notice of agency action (76 FR 78245) designating the South Atlantic Council as..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval,...

  14. Remote acoustic monitoring of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis reveals seasonal and diel variations in acoustic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna P Matthews

    Full Text Available Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the "gunshot" sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities.

  15. Remote acoustic monitoring of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) reveals seasonal and diel variations in acoustic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P; McCordic, Jessica A; Parks, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the "gunshot" sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities.

  16. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mannocci

    Full Text Available Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality, age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality. Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR, based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the

  17. Procamacolaimus Dorylaimus Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Leptolaimidae) from the southern atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Procamacolaimus dorylaimus sp. nov. is described from the Southern Atlantic (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The species is characterised by 3.4-3.5 mm long body; coarsely annulated cuticle without lateral field, epidermal glands and body pores absent, somatic setae present; labial sensilla pap

  18. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  19. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an int

  20. President Ilves at the Atlantic Council / Ago Ambre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ambre, Ago

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest 19. märtsil 2010 Washingtonis transatlantilisi suhteid arendavas rahvusvahelises välis- ja julgeolekupoliitilises mõttekojas ja poliitikakeskuses Atlantic Council. Kohtumisest Atantic Council'i Ameerika Ühendriikide poolsete juhtidega. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 17.-23.03.2010