Tanaka, N; Ueno, T; Takama, Y; Yamanaka, H; Tazuke, Y; Bessho, K; Okuyama, H
Breast FA is the most common breast tumor diagnosed in young women. Female renal transplant recipients on CsA have an increased risk of developing FA. However, reports of FA after LDLT have not been described. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of FA, analyze risk factors for FA, and evaluate treatment strategies in adolescent females after LDLT. A total of 18 female patients aged 10-19 years who underwent LDLT and survived at least one year after transplantation were enrolled in our study. The incidence of FA was 11.1%. To determine pre- or post-transplant conditions that are associated with FA after transplantation, the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of FA: FA group (n=2) and non-FA group (n=16). There were no differences in mean age at LDLT, mean age at breast evaluation, and mean duration between transplantation and breast evaluation between the two groups. However, there was a difference in the immunosuppressive regimen between the two groups. The FA group was maintained on CsA, whereas the non-FA group was maintained on tacrolimus. CsA might be implicated in FA development in adolescent females after LDLT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
18). A phenomenological psychology research approach focuses on the psychological meanings of research participants' lived experiences in their particular life worlds. (Giorgi 1997:252–254; Kruger 1988:37–38). An arts- ...
Alaine Souza Lima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.
Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R
To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.
Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Panek, S?awomir; Igny?-O?Byrne, Anna; G?owacki, Jakub; Igny?, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek
Summary Background There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and...
Shoko, Mercy; Ibisomi, Latifat; Levin, Jonathan; Ginsburg, Carren
SummaryThis study examined the relationship between orphanhood status, living arrangements and sexual debut. The study is important in the context of southern Africa, where a substantial number of children live apart from their parents because the parent is dead or living elsewhere, and where female adolescents face disproportionate sexual and reproductive health risks. Data for female adolescents were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in seven southern African countries. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of sexual debut were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazard models. The results from multivariate analyses showed that non-co-residence with biological parents was significantly associated with higher risk of sexual debut in five of the seven countries. Using pooled data, the results showed that father absence was associated with higher risk of sexual debut - whether the father was deceased or living elsewhere. Interventions to delay sexual debut among female adolescents should seek to promote father-adolescent co-residence and improve access to education.
Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek
There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.
Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw
Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…
Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.
Armond, Lindalva Carvalho; Boemer, Magali Roseira
This study aimed to understand the experience of parents living with a hospitalized adolescent. Fifteen parents of hospitalized adolescents were interviewed from August to October of 2002. Data were analyzed through Martin Heidegger's phenomenological approach. Four themes were identified: the impact of the illness on the family, the feelings of the family members and the adaptation to the hospital world, religiousness and the presence of friends in the process of coping with hospitalization; changes in the adolescent. The results showed the importance of seeing the adolescent and his/her family as a being there, being-in-the-world and being-in-the-world-with-others.
Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P
Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Valerie L Forman-Hoffman
Full Text Available Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954. Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school. Sex differences in the correlates of lifetime use and past year marijuana initiation were tested via interaction. Lifetime prevalence of marijuana use was 5.5%; 3.2% reported past year initiation. About 1 in 6 (16.8% past year initiates progressed to MUD within 12 months of first use. Although men had higher prevalence of lifetime use than women, past year initiation did not differ by sex. On examining the sex*race/ethnicity interaction effects, findings determined that non-Hispanic black and Hispanic men had higher prevalence estimates of ever using marijuana and incidence of past year initiation as compared with non-Hispanic white men; these race/ethnicity differences were not found among women. Identifying correlates of initiation and progression to MUD among young adolescents is critical to improve prevention and treatment program targets.
Shahhosseini, Z; Simbar, M; Ramezankhani, A; Alavi Majd, H; Moslemizadeh, Narges
Due to adolescents' future crucial roles, their health needs should be included in the national health system policy. In this cross-sectional study 2010 female adolescents were recruited from randomly selected schools in Iran. To obtain their health needs, the participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire. It was revealed that emotional needs were the most important health needs of adolescents. Furthermore, there was a meaningful relationship between health needs' score with the adolescents' age and their mothers' education level. Finally, the mean score of health needs was significantly higher in urban adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested that adolescents' emotional health needs to be paid attention; otherwise irrecoverable serious problems may occur in the next generation's health.
Brown, Kelly A; Dewoolkar, Aditya V; Baker, Nicole; Dodich, Colleen
The number of adolescent girls participating in sports has dramatically increased throughout the last few decades. In the early 1990's, an association between amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating was recognized and eventually labeled the 'Female Athlete Triad'. In 1997, the Task Force on Women's Issues of American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a position statement on this triad of conditions that were becoming increasingly more prevalent amongst female athletes. Initially, the 'Female Athlete Triad' was characterized by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, as the number of adolescent female athletes has continued to grow, there has been further research and investigation into this field and the triad has evolved in definition. It is essential for all health care practitioners and other professionals who care for adolescent athletes to be attentive to the clinical signs, detection, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad, as the sequelae can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of a young person both in the short and long-term.
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Herbert, Sarah E
This article focuses on considerations for natal females who present in the adolescent years with concerns related to their gender. They maybe individuals previously evaluated in their childhood years who have persisted with gender variance or gender identity disorder (GID) in DSM-IV, or they may be presenting for the first time in their adolescent years. The article discusses how to assess adolescents who come for evaluation and what treatments and other resources are available for them and their families. Where there seem to be differences between boys and girls with gender identity issues, they will be noted.
Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern
Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…
Chisholm, June F
Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.
Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R
Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Hope E. Yungblut
Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.
Juliana Hilario Maranhão
Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.
Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…
Sands, Toni; Howard-Hamilton, Mary
Research on depression among gifted adolescent females is reviewed. A psychotherapeutic model drawing on established feminist therapy strategies is presented for counselors working with gifted adolescent females. The model emphasizes recognizing harmful effects of patriarchal society, supporting females in self-exploration, and pursuing nonsexist…
Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine
Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…
Parnell, Kathy; And Others
White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…
Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.
The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…
The objective of this study was mainly to ascertain the knowledge and practice of oral health and to determine the prevalence of dental caries among female adolescents. It is a descriptive crosssectional study. The study population consisted of female adolescents in senior secondary schools in Umuahia. Two hundred and ...
Summers, Lauren; Lee, Young-Me; Lee, Hyeonkyeong
To identify contributing factors that increased the risk of pregnancy among African-American adolescent females living in economically disadvantaged communities and to evaluate the current pregnancy prevention programs addressing these factors in order to provide suggestions for the development of tailored pregnancy prevention programs for this target population. Pregnancy rates among adolescents in the United States have declined over the past several years. Despite this trend, the pregnancy rate for African-American adolescent females is disproportionately higher than the adolescent pregnancy rates for other ethnicities. Limited attempts have been made to compile and synthesize the factors that increase risk of pregnancy in this population or to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs for African-American females that incorporate these risk factors. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify the major contributing factors of pregnancy among African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged areas. Of the identified contributing risk factors for early pregnancy among African-American adolescent females, the five most supported risk factors were: parental influence, peer influence, social messages, substance use including alcohol, and pregnancy desire. Twelve pregnancy prevention programs were identified that addressed one or more of the five contributing factors to pregnancy. Parental influence and social messages were the most addressed factors among these programs. This review found five contributing factors related to teenage pregnancy; however, current intervention programs are not well addressed substance use as a component of alcohol use. Thus, development of a tailored pregnancy prevention program incorporating those factors will help decrease the high pregnancy rate among this target population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashcraft, Pamela F
The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.
This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…
Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
African-American female adolescents living in urban environments are at risk for adverse adjustment outcomes, and thus it is imperative to identify protective factors. Religion has been found to be a significant protective resource against many types of maladaptive adjustment outcomes among adolescent samples. The present study accomplishes the following: (1) Provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens; (2) examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Four-hundred ninety-two African-American females, ages 12-19, completed measures on religiosity, sexual activity, self-esteem, and psychological functioning. Most of the adolescents identified as Christian, reported a belief in God, and attended religious services. Greater overall religiosity was associated with greater self-esteem and better psychological functioning. Adolescents at different levels of self-religiosity, as well as family religiosity, evidenced significantly different self-esteem but not psychological distress or sexual activity. Adolescents with varying levels of church attendance demonstrated differences on all three outcomes. By identifying the ways in which religion may exert a positive impact on African-American female teens, mental health professionals can design interventions that have the potential to help improve the quality of life for these adolescents.
This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical research on personality disturbance in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. First we discuss the relationship between mental health in adolescents and HIV/AIDS, and second we provide an overview of personality disturbance in adolescence with particular attention ...
reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old).
The influence of dance and movement therapy (DMT) on the body image of female adolescents. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The excessive emphasis in the media on low body weight and body appearance may contribute to adolescents' dissatisfaction with their own physical appearance.
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body image and anthropometric indicators among adolescents living with HIV and healthy adolescents (control group. In addition, we verified the associations of anthropometric indicators, infection/treatment, sexual maturity, and sociodemographic characteristics with body image in adolescents living with HIV. One hundred and eleven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were divided into those living with HIV (n = 57 and a control group (n = 54. Body image was investigated using an eight-point body silhouette scale. Body weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were measured. Body image dissatisfaction was found in 54.4% of the adolescents living with HIV, with 38.6% of them wishing to increase their body size. Conversely, body image dissatisfaction was due to the desire to reduce body size in the control group (40.7%. No difference between the HIV and control groups was found for the anthropometric indicators analyzed. Gender (β = -0.52, age (β = 0.18, body weight (β = 0.07, body mass index (β = -0.19, and upper arm muscle area (β = -0.08 explained 42% of the variation in the body image score of adolescents living with HIV. Thinness is the main reason for body image dissatisfaction in adolescents living with HIV. Almost half the body dissatisfaction of adolescents living with HIV was explained by demographic and anthropometric variables.
A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor
van der Put, C.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hendriks, J.
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed
van der Put, C; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hendriks, J.
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed
Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita
Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescent female football players transitioning from disadvantaged communities to the South African Football Association's Female Football Academy at the TuksSport High School. This was done through collage-based (i.e., visual story) storytelling (i.e., verbal ...
Rucklidge, J J; Tannock, R
To characterize the psychiatric, psychosocial, and cognitive functioning of female adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with female controls and males with ADHD. Female controls were also compared with male controls to verify gender differences in a nonclinical sample. One hundred seven adolescents from Southern Ontario aged 13 to 16 were included: 24 females with ADHD, 35 males with ADHD, 28 control females, and 20 control males. All were assessed with semistructured interviews, questionnaires, and tests of achievement and intellectual functioning. After controlling for parental education and estimated Full Scale IQ, females with ADHD were more impaired than control females in depression, anxiety, distress, teacher relationships, stress, attributional styles, and locus of control and on all cognitive and achievement measures. Females with ADHD were more impaired than males with ADHD in self-reported anxiety, distress, depression, locus of control, and vocabulary scores. These group differences were confirmed by higher ratings by parents and teachers in symptoms of psychopathology. Males with ADHD were more impaired in processing speed. Some gender differences (locus of control and vocabulary scores) were eliminated when controlling for ADHD severity. The absence of any differences between male and female controls indicates gender differences were specific to the clinical groups. Females with ADHD are at high risk for more psychological impairment than both males with ADHD and control females. The identified psychosocial problems point to areas for intervention.
Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Obara, Tatsuro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki
Loneliness is one of the psychological characteristics in adolescence, during which sex hormones are elevated. The elevation of sex steroid hormones is known to sculpture and remodel neuronal circuits, which cause behavioral characteristics in adolescence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness and sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Fifty-eight adolescents (28 boys and 30 girls) participated in this study. The salivary levels of T and E2 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Loneliness was assessed by the UCLA loneliness scale, which is widely used as a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that Salivary E2 levels had positive relevance to loneliness in females, whereas there was no relationship in males. Salivary T level was not shown to be relevant with loneliness in either sex group. These findings suggest that E2 has gender specific effects on loneliness in adolescent females.
Gabriela Cássia Ritt; Marco Daniel Pereira; Daniela Centenaro Levandowski
AimAdolescent motherhood is considered a condition of vulnerability that can be further complicated by the presence of HIV infection, but little is known about how adolescent mothers experience this process. The aim of this study was to analyse the experience of motherhood among adolescents living with HIV.MethodSeven mothers (15-21 years) recruited in specialized services in Porto Alegre/Brazil, whose babies’ ages ranged from four to six months, were interviewed. Interviews were tape-recorde...
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the aging of HIV-positive pediatric cohorts and growing numbers of adolescents on treatment, coupled with high HIV incidence in this age group, means the number of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) will continue to grow. The clinical, psychological, social, and reproductive health needs of ...
Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; Pierce, Antonya; Sawyer, Mary; Papp, John R; Black, Carolyn M; Koumans, Emilia H
The highest rates of sexually transmitted infections in the U.S. occur among adolescent females. One prevention strategy promoted for sexually active adolescents is condom use: therefore, influences on correct and consistent condom use are worth examining. Because interventions and observational research into predicting and increasing condom use have yielded mixed results, we hypothesized that a theoretically driven model incorporating female adolescents' perceptions about partner sentiments along with their own perceptions, intentions, and behaviours would improve condom use predictions. We also measured condom use errors and consistency for a more precise estimate of effective use than is common in the literature. In three structural equation models tested on a sample of 519 female adolescents, we found that intentions were associated with both correct and consistent condom use; that females' expectancy beliefs about condom use were associated with intentions; and that females' expectancy beliefs about partners' sentiments reduced the impact of their expectancy beliefs about condom use. The implications of these relations upon condom use correctness and consistency are discussed with respect to informing interventions, among other future research.
Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma
To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.
Castro Burbano, José; Fajardo Vanegas, Pamela; Robles Rodríguez, Julieta; Pazmiño Estévez, Karina
The prevalence and magnitude of obesity in children and adolescents increase rapidly. Besides genetic and environmental factors, calcium intake has recently been identified as a dietary factor that is inversely related with body mass index and development of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between dietary calcium intake and body mass index and fat distribution in female adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study where anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference) were collected in 244 female adolescents to establish total body adiposity and fat distribution. A 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire were used to assess total calorie, calcium, and dairy products intake. Calcium intake was inversely related to body mass index (P.05), and waist to hip ratio (P<.05).Overweight (8.3%) and obese (0.7%) adolescents had a lower mean calcium intake than adolescents of normal weight (P=.06). Dietary calcium intake and, to a lesser extent, consumption of dairy products are inversely related to total and abdominal adiposity, and also to the prevalence of overweight in this group of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab
One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.
Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.
A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…
Bryla, Karen Y.
Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…
Grigg, M; Bowman, J; Redman, S
Dissatisfaction with body weight and the use of unhealthy weight reduction practices have been reported among adolescent females. There is a need for methodologically rigorous studies using large representative samples of adolescent females to accurately assess the prevalence of these behaviors and attitudes. Eight hundred sixty-nine Australian school girls ages 14-16 years were administered a self-report questionnaire to determine the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors, unhealthy dieting practices, and distorted body image. Anthropometric (height and weight) data were collected on each of these adolescent females. The prevalences of disordered eating, unhealthy dieting, and distorted body image were 33, 57, and 12%, respectively. Over one-third (36%) of the total sample had used at least one "extreme" dieting method in the past month, i.e., "crash" dieting, fasting, slimming tablets, diuretics, laxatives, and/or cigarettes to lose weight. Of the total sample, 77% wanted to lose weight and 51% had tried to lose weight in the past month. Motivating factors for disordered eating and unhealthy dieting behaviors were peer pressure, media pressure, and the perception that extreme dieting strategies were harmless. The prevalence of disordered eating and dieting behaviors among adolescent females shown by this study suggests the need for preventive programs encouraging appropriate eating and dieting behaviors.
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a culturally sanctioned practice common to the world's more tribally oriented people. Widely reported among pregnant and lactating women, geophagia is also practised by female adolescents (FA). This article presents preliminary findings on the incidence and reasons of ...
Davis, Sean; Huebner, Angela; Piercy, Fred; Shettler, Lauren; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Matheson, Jennifer
The present researchers used a multi-wave Delphi methodology to determine what 14 knowledgeable substance abuse professionals believe are the most appropriate smoking prevention practices for female adolescents. While there was some agreement with the emerging literature, particularly on weight control issues and parental involvement, there was…
Krauser, Barbara Z.; Ballif, Bonnie L.
Achievement attributions of adolescent females in the masculine domain of mathematics were investigated in relation to self-schemas for gender, expectancy of success, and mathematics achievement. The most important findings revealed by multiple regression analysis were that mathematics achievement and the self-schema for masculinity predicted…
This paper examines the timing of sexual initiation and contraceptive use among female adolescents in Kenya. Data are drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. The main analytical tools are regression models. A Cox regression model is used to consider the probability of a young woman having first ...
Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity. However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...
Background: In the era of HIV/AIDS epidemic understanding the nature of sexual debuts among female adolescents is critical in developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The objectives of the study where to investigate the specific age at sex-debuts, to identify the specific reasons for sex-debuts, and to examine ...
There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…
Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Parzer, Peter; von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna, Ina-Alexandra; Henze, Romy; Brunner, Romuald
A specific composition of temperament traits with high novelty seeking (NS), high harm avoidance (HA), and low reward dependence (RD) has been attributed to adult patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined whether an analogue personality profile is specifically associated with adolescent BPD. The female study sample comprised 33 adolescents with BPD, 35 clinical controls (CCs), and 31 healthy controls (HCs). Dimensions of temperament and character were measured according to Cloninger's biopsychosocial model of personality. Significantly higher means of NS and HA but lower means of RD could be determined in the adolescents with BPD compared with the CCs and the HCs. The comparable findings of this specific temperament constellation in adolescents and adult patients with BPD suggest that heritable factors such as temperamental traits may contribute to the vulnerability for developing BPD. Early identification of a "borderline temperament" may facilitate early intervention and lower the risk for developing BPD.
Gillis, A J
The relationship between health-promoting lifestyle and definition of health, perceived health status, self-efficacy, maternal and paternal health-promoting lifestyle, and selected demographics in adolescent females was investigated. Included in the study were 184 adolescents and their parents. A modification of Pender's (1982, 1987) Health Promotion Model provided the conceptual framework for the study. Two research questions evolving from the conceptual model guided the study. Results indicated that mothers' and fathers' health-promoting lifestyles were significantly correlated with their daughters' health-promoting lifestyles. A strong relationship existed between the predictor variables of definition of health (clinical, functional, and eudaemonistic subscales), self-efficacy, perceived health status, and ethnicity, and the criterion variable of adolescents' health-promoting lifestyles. Together these variables accounted for 41% of the variance in adolescent health-promoting lifestyle scores. Implications for nursing research and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.
Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.
Full Text Available Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11–19 years (n=203 were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7±2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1±2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P=.049 in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control.
Christoulas, K; Karamouzis, M; Mandroukas, K
To determine and compare the erythropoietic response and exercise performance of adolescent cross-country skiers, as a result of "living high-training high" (HH) and "living high-training low" (HL). Nine female and six male adolescent cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in separate trials. In the first trial (HH), the skiers lived and trained for 21 days at 1550-2050 m, while in the second trial (HL) they trained near sea level (450-500 m) but resided at 1550 m. All participants underwent maximal cycle ergometer tests for the determination of VO2max and cardiorespiratory parameters via an open circuit system at sea level before ascent to altitude, and 1-2 days after descent from altitude. Blood samples were drawn prior to and immediately after maximal cycle exercise testing, at sea level prior to ascent, on days 1 (D1) and 21 (D21) at altitude (1740 m), and 1-2 days post-altitude, for the determination of serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and red blood cell (RBC) volume. The results showed that both boys and girls cross-country skiers, significantly improved their sea level VO2max after 21 days of living at moderate altitude and training near sea level. The present study demonstrates that living at moderate altitude, 1550-2050 m and training low, near sea level (450-500 m) significantly increases VO2max and RBC mass for both boys and girls. Results indicate that applying the training concept "living high - training low" in adolescent athletes may improve their endurance performance.
Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C
The purposes of this study were to demonstrate, using longitudinal data, that the pubertal rise in testosterone (T) is associated with subsequent increases in female sexual interest and activity, and to examine these relationships within the context of a social control variable. Using data from a 2-year panel study of approximately 200 black and white postmenarcheal adolescent females, the relationships among semiannual measures of T, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), pubertal development, and self-reports of coital and noncoital sexual activity were assessed. Testosterone and changes in T were significantly related to the timing of subsequent transition to first coitus for blacks and whites. Frequency of attendance at religious services operated as a social control variable among white females, and was found to moderate T effects on sexual transition for this group. These results are consistent with a biosocial model proposing T as a causal factor in female sexual activity, and suggest that biological effects are moderated by relevant social variables.
Adams, G R
Past research has suggested that parents may contribute to the positive development of their daughter's identity formation. Theoretical notions from both social learning and symbolic interaction indicate that parents can either facilitate or hinder positive growth. Therefore, to test the predictions that (a) more mature (moratorium and achieved) identity status parents would have daughters with more mature identities, and (b) that both positive and negative parenting styles can be detected to differentiate between less (diffused and foreclosed) and more mature identity status youths, 45 families (145 subjects) were assessed on parent-child relations and identity status formation. In contrast to much past research, parent-child relations were assessed from both the adolescents' and the parents' perspectives. The findings indicate that parental identity status formation may have an effect on the adolescent's identity formation and that parent-child relations differentiate between less and more mature female adolescent identities.
Guerra, A; Rego, C; Castro, E; Laires, M J; Silva, D; Sinde, S; Monteiro, C; Silva, Z; Lebre, E; Bicho, M
Physical exercise may in vivo promote an increase of free radical formation. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are highly susceptible to oxidation, probably because of their high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, since lipid oxidation is an important factor in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect in a group of adolescent gymnasts, of intense and regular physical exercise on lipid profile and redox status. All members of the Portuguese National Team of Rhythm Gymnastics (1996) (n = 20). 1. Clinical evaluation 1.1 Anthropometric evaluation: weight, height, triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra- and supra-iliac skinfolds. NCHS were used as the standard of reference for weight and height, and Frisancho for the sum of skinfolds; 1.2. Evaluation of nutritional status (Quetelet body mass index) and body composition (Durnin and Siri). 2. Evaluation of biological parameters: a blood sample was collected after 12 hours fasting and 24 hours detraining, to evaluate: 2.1 Lipid profile: total cholesterol, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A1 and B, were measured using internationally recommended laboratory methods; 2.2. Plasma trace elements: zinc, copper and selenium, by atomic absorption; 2.3 Red blood cell enzymes; transmembranar reductase (TMR), metahemoglobin reductase (MethaHbRed) and acid phosphatase, by spectrophotometry; 2.4. Redox status: MDA and MDA-LDL were evaluated by spectrophotometry. 3. Evaluation of eating habits: 24 hr recall. Chronological age is 14.3 +/- 1.7 years. Nutritional assessment shows a mean value for height near the 50th percentile (99% +/- 3.8), and low mean values respectively for BMI (89.3% +/- 9) and sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (51.9% +/- 14). Study of lipid profile shows low mean values for total cholesterol (162.3 mg/dl +/- 27.7) LDL-cholesterol (87.6 mg/dl +/- 22.6) and Apo B (64.4 mg/dl +/- 11.5), but high values for
De Silva, Nirupama K
Breast development in the female is a process that becomes noticeable during puberty, and defines a girl's transition into adulthood. Various conditions can disrupt or alter the normal development, which may lead to abnormal breast changes and features. Further, the finding of a breast mass in adolescence can be unsettling to the patient and her family. While the majority of these breast changes and/or masses tend to be benign and self-limited, the appropriate evaluation is always warranted. This chapter will focus on the normal and abnormal development of breasts. We will also discuss the evaluation and management of breast masses that can be found in the adolescent female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH and reticulocytes (CHr, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr, the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm and reticulocytes (HYPOr with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm and reticulocytes (LowCHr with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent iron deficiency (ID. The second stage (latent ID was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects. In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001, CHr (p<.05, LowCHr (p<.05, HYPOr (p<.001 in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001 in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01 in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in reticulocytes
Ezer, Paulina; Leipert, Bev; Evans, Marilyn; Regan, Sandra
emerged from the analysis was a complex and non-linear process that involved prioritizing four influences within the rural context. The influences that participants of this study described as being part of their sexual decision-making process were personal values and circumstances, family values and expectations, friends' influences, and community influences. When influences coincided, they strengthened participants' sexual decisions, whereas when influences opposed each other, participants felt conflicted and prioritized the influence that had the most effect on their personal lives and future goals. Although these influences may be common to all adolescents, they impact the rural female adolescent sexual decision-making process by influencing and being influenced by geographical and sociocultural factors that make up the rural context. This study reveals important new and preliminary information about rural female adolescents' sexual decision-making process and factors that affect it. Findings improve understanding of how rural female adolescents make choices regarding sexual intercourse and pregnancy and can be used to guide future research projects that could facilitate effective development of sexual health promotion initiatives, inform rural health policy and practices, and enhance existing sexual education programs in rural communities.
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.
Issues of sexual and reproductive health have remained central to the lives of human beings, specifically as they relate to adolescent girls. The increasing incidences of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion and the ravaging effects of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS have made it imperative for a ...
Pitangui, Ana Carolina R; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A; Lima, Alaine Souza; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Albuquerque, Ana Paula dos S; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato
To determine the prevalence, characteristics and effects on the activities of daily living of menstruation disturbances among adolescent girls. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A public school in the city of Petrolina, Brazil. 218 female adolescents of ages between 12 and 17 years. We used a structured questionnaire addressing the socio-demographic and menstrual characteristics of the adolescents. The intensity of menstrual pain and its effect on the activities of daily living were measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale. The mean age of adolescent girls was 13.7 ± 1.5 years. The menstrual cycles of 67% were regular, while 33% were irregular. Dysmenorrhea had a prevalence of 73%, and school absenteeism was observed among 31% of the adolescents. In addition, 66% of the participants considered that dysmenorrhea affected their activities of daily living. Associations were found between the intensity of pain and the variables: school absenteeism; affected activities of daily living; need to use medications; and between affected activities of daily living and school absenteeism (P < .05). Among the menstrual disturbances observed dysmenorrhea stood out due to its high prevalence among adolescents with a negative effect on adolescents' activities of daily living. Early diagnosis and knowledge about menstrual disturbances are essential because in addition to reiterating the importance of implementing health education actions, they also help to choose appropriate treatments, thus minimizing the negative effects of these disturbances on the lives of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nkosiyazi Dube and Eleanor Ross
Dec 14, 2012 ... have their lives shaped by concerns of HIV transmission and .... dential care tend to develop long-standing emotional, behavioural .... assured of their right to withdraw from the study at any given time without any negative consequences. Confidentiality and anonymity were respected by not including any ...
Hasanpour, Marzieh; Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.
Full Text Available Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72 who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7±8.4 and control (33.0±6.7 groups (t=.16, P=.87. A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2±5.7 versus 34.7±6.8, t=3.58, P=.001 and in one month follow-up scores (36.4±5.2 versus 33.0±5.2, t=2.25, P=.03. Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.
Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905
Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia
Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.
Ludäscher, Petra; von Kalckreuth, Clemens; Parzer, Peter; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Brunner, Romuald
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and often debilitating psychiatric disorder that begins during adolescence. Core features of BPD are affective dysregulation, dysfunctional self-concepts, and difficulties in social interactive domains. A widely accepted marker for severe emotion dysregulation in adult BPD is decreased pain sensitivity. Until now it is unclear whether this characteristic feature of BPD is already present during adolescence. Thus, this study aims to investigate pain sensitivity in adolescent patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD. 20 female adolescent patients with BPD (mean age 16.4 years) and 20 healthy age-matched control participants were investigated. Detection and pain thresholds for thermal stimuli were assessed on both hands. Furthermore, self-rating instruments were used to assess overall psychopathology, dissociation, and depression. We found significantly higher pain thresholds in patients with BPD than in healthy controls. Patients with BPD had higher intensities of depression, overall psychopathology, and dissociative symptoms, but there was no correlation between pain sensitivity and any of these measures of psychopathology. These findings are in line with previous findings in adult BPD patients concerning lower pain sensitivity as compared to healthy controls. This provides support for the idea that disturbed pain processing is not only a consequence of chronic BPD but is already present in early stages of BPD.
The educative practice of professional caregivers at shelters: coping with violence lived by female adolescents La práctica educativa de cuidadores profesionales en refugios para niñas: enfrentando la violencia vivida por mujeres adolescentes A prática educativa de profissionais cuidadores em abrigos: enfrentando a violência vivida por mulheres adolescentes
Lucia Helena Garcia Penna
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify strategies caregiving professionals at shelters discuss and use in care delivery to violence situations lived by female adolescents; and to discuss educative practice as a care technology for coping with violence. Based on qualitative research, the data were produced through interviews with caregivers at a municipal adolescent shelter and were interpreted according to content analysis. The results evidenced individual and institutional strategies for care delivery to the adolescents. In conclusion, educative actions are care technologies in the reframing process of life's value by female adolescents living on the streets or in shelters, considering the cultural diversity - a dialogical action systemized and institutionalized for coping with the violence they experience.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las estrategias discutidas y utilizadas por los profesionales cuidadores de refugios para niñas en la atención a las situaciones de violencia, vividas por las adolescentes, y discutir la práctica educativa como una tecnología de cuidado en el enfrentamiento de la violencia. Con base en la investigación cualitativa, los datos fueron producidos a través de entrevistas a cuidadores de un refugio municipal para adolescentes e interpretados bajo el marco teórico del análisis de contenido. Los resultados evidenciaron estrategias individuales e institucionales para atender a las adolescentes. Se concluye que las acciones educativas son tecnologías de cuidado en el proceso de dar un nuevo significado al valor de la vida para las adolescentes en situación de vivir en la calle o como refugiadas en abrigos, considerando la diversidad cultural - una práctica dialógica sistematizada e institucionalizada para el enfrentamiento de la violencia vivida.Este estudo objetivou identificar estratégias discutidas e utilizadas pelos profissionais cuidadores de abrigo na atenção às situações de violência, vividas
Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p consumption of healthy snacks was significantly associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p consumption of healthy snacks is associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.
Stancil, Stephani L; Miller, Melissa; Briggs, Holley; Lynch, Daryl; Goggin, Kathy; Kearns, Gregory
Rates of adult women receiving contraceptive provision when simultaneously prescribed a known teratogen are alarmingly low. The prevalence of this behavior among pediatric providers and their adolescent patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric provider behaviors for prescribing teratogens concurrently with counseling, referral, and/or prescribing of contraception (collectively called contraceptive provision) in the adolescent population. A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Within 4172 clinic visits, 1694 females received 4506 prescriptions for teratogenic medications. The most commonly prescribed teratogens were topiramate, methotrexate, diazepam, isotretinoin, and enalapril. The subspecialties prescribing teratogens most frequently were neurology, hematology-oncology, and dermatology. Overall, contraceptive provision was documented in 28.6% of the visits. Whites versus nonwhites and older versus younger girls were more likely to receive contraceptive provision. The presence of a federal risk mitigation system for the teratogen also increased the likelihood of contraceptive provision. Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Jandrić Slavica Đ.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Physical activity and sport can influence the extent of the presence of the postural disturbances in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of differences in the postural disturbances in female adolescents in relation to team handball training. Methods. This investigation involved 150 female adolescents with the average age of 13.4 ± 1.5 years divided into two groups (50 adolescents trained handball and 100 did non train it. Results. The study determined a statistically significant difference in the total number of postural disturbances between the two groups of adolescents (p 0.05. Conclusion. Handball adolescents players have less postural disturbances than untrained adolescents. Flat foot is significantly less frequent in female adolescents handball players than in untrained ones. Findings obtained in this investigation can help us in planning continuous prevention, observation and care for untrained and trained team handball female adolescents with postural disturbances.
Haglund, Kristin; Belknap, Ruth Ann; Garcia, Juanita Terrie
This study fills a gap regarding the perspectives of Mexican American female adolescents on dating relationships and dating violence (DV). This was a qualitative descriptive study. Focus groups included 20 Mexican American young women, primarily first and second generation, mean age 14.5 years (SD= 2.5). Data were analyzed with categorical analysis. Participants described key components of DV and identified cultural aspects that may serve to promote healthy dating relationships. Family-based interventions to promote exploration of gender roles and parent-child communication may foster biculturalism as well as promote healthy dating relationships and prevent violence within this cultural group. In the United States, 10% to 40% of teens experience DV. Hispanic females experience more physical DV than their White peers. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Blinn, Lynn M.; Pike, Gary
Investigated adolescent future time perspective in adolescents (N=125) aged 15 to 20 years. Found adolescents did not perceive divorce in their future although periods of singlehood, widowhood, and nuclear family life were perceived as extremely likely, particularly among female adolescents. (Author/ABL)
Joshi, Kavita S; Bhaware, Bhushan D; Pazare, Amar R
Statistics suggest that, HIV has now largely become the disease of young patients. Hence, the adolescent HIV/AIDS needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. Relatively fewer Indian data exist to characterize the associations in adolescents and young adults infected with HIV disease. The present study explores the current challenges in the management of HIV infected adolescents. The study was aimed at evaluating, relationship between CD4 count and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), effects of ART on body mass index and the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs in adolescent HIV positive patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 60 HIV positive adolescent patients attending tertiary care Institute KEM Hospital, Parel over duration of one year conducted at Mumbai. Patients on ART between age group 12 to 19 years. ART naïve patients were excluded from the study. 60 adolescent HIV positive patients attended our OPD including 37 males (61.67%) and 23 females (38.33%).The most common mode of transmission was vertical (80%). Education level was: school dropouts - 15%, primary education - 30%, Completed SSC - 31.7%, higher secondary - 23%. Among ADRs were 12 (63.15%) cases of anaemia due to Zidovudine, 4 (21.05%) hepatitis due to Nevirapine, 2 (10.52%) Tenofovir induced AKI and 1 (5.26%) Nevirapine rash. Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed a highly significant increase in the BMI (p <0.0001) post therapy. The mean CD4 of the patients at baseline and current presentation was 295.57 ± 109.81 and 630.93 ± 188.70 cells/mm3 respectively. The CD4 count was seen to be increasing with the increase in the duration of HAART treatment. High efficacy of HAART and availability of free ART under government programme has increased the duration of survival of the adolescent population with HIV. Treatment with HAART showed a favourable response with a statistical significant increase in CD4 count. Longer the duration of HAART, higher was the gain in CD4
Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C
This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth
This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.
M.Ed. The way in which an adolescent experiences authority is an important element of the educational process. Without authority, it can be said, there is no education. But adolescents’ experience of authority is something that is developed outside the classroom, primarily during their interactions with parents. This study explores how South African adolescents experience authority, but focused on the effect of living in institutions, and not at home with their parents. A 47-item questionn...
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using annual data collected from ages 12 to 19 for 496 adolescent females. Ethnic differences between African American (n = 37), Latina (n = 96), and European American (n = 348) adolescents were also compared. The prevalence of overweight decreased slightly across adolescence and remission rates exceeded incidence (onset). Obesity was more chronic, with increasing incidence accompanied by decreasing remission rates. Middle through late adolescence was the period of greatest risk for the transition from overweight to obesity. African American and Latina females had higher overweight and obesity prevalence than European American females throughout adolescence. Differences in prevalence were driven by higher onset rates for African American and Latina females, whereas remission rates were comparable across ethnic groups. Results suggest that adolescence is not a high-risk period for onset of obesity for European American adolescent females, but is for African American and Latina adolescent females. PMID:21499888
Gabriela Cássia Ritt
Full Text Available AimAdolescent motherhood is considered a condition of vulnerability that can be further complicated by the presence of HIV infection, but little is known about how adolescent mothers experience this process. The aim of this study was to analyse the experience of motherhood among adolescents living with HIV.MethodSeven mothers (15-21 years recruited in specialized services in Porto Alegre/Brazil, whose babies’ ages ranged from four to six months, were interviewed. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim.ResultsThe qualitative content analysis of the interviews revealed a positive vision of motherhood, related to satisfaction with the maternal role and personal fulfilment. Pregnancy and motherhood served to these adolescents as an encouragement for self-care. The mothers’ difficulties were related to HIV and to the repercussions of this clinical condition, especially feelings of frustration and incompleteness of motherhood on the impossibility of breastfeeding, as well as fear facing the risk of MTCT.ConclusionFuture research of longitudinal design and with larger samples will be important to extend the knowledge of the specificities of this experience over time for young people of different ages and social backgrounds.
The inverse relationship between reproduction and lifespan is one of the main concepts of life history theory. This association has been observed in most taxa, although exceptions have been found in which a breeding female outlives her non-reproductive cohorts. This relationship is well known in social insects, and it has ...
Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Full Text Available Group models are commonly used to treat eating disorders; however, research in this area remains largely underdeveloped. Interest in group work is likely to increase due to the demands on the public health system and the cost-effectiveness of group modalities. This scoping review sought to explore the evidence underpinning group therapy for adolescents living with an eating disorder. A literature search of 10 academic databases and four gray literature databases was undertaken in 2013. Selected Internet resources were searched and the author consulted professionals from Eating Disorders Victoria, the Butterfly Foundation, and the University of Melbourne. A total of 11 peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 were included for review. There was an overall lack of research with no randomized-controlled trials available. Six program evaluations and five program descriptions were found, and they reported on a range of eating disorders and group modalities. The program evaluations suggested the utility of group therapy for promoting weight restoration in underweight individuals living with an eating disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy groups were found to be more effective for bulimia nervosa and multifamily group therapy showed promise for anorexia nervosa. More rigorous research is needed to establish the effectiveness of group therapy for adolescents living with an eating disorder.
Kaufman, Annette R.; Augustson, Erik M.
This study examined how factors associated with body image predict regular smoking in adolescent females. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a study of health-related behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 through 12. Females in Waves I and II (n=6,956) were used for this study. Using SUDAAN to adjust for the sampling frame, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate if baseline body ima...
Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk
vandenBos, R; de Vries, Han
Associations between different agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns of female domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) were studied. In three groups of intact cats living in confinement frequencies of fourteen agonistic and affiliative behavioural patterns were recorded. The technique of
Conclusions: Our study shows safety of right lobe living donation in female donors with ongoing menstruation with no increased risk of intraoperative excessive bleeding and postoperative physiological impact on their general health.
Kakarla, Nirupama; Zurawin, Robert K
Progesterone-induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to an autoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused by exogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (AIPD) seen in an adolescent female. The patient is a 15-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and no prior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions. She noted that her dermatologic symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cc of progesterone was performed. The patient immediately developed a wheal, confirming the diagnosis of AIPD. The patient was begun on a continuous regimen of an oral contraceptive pill with 30 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel. The skin eruptions have not returned since the initiation of this therapy. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions. Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Diagnosis of AIPD is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone. Due to its rarity, AIPD should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. In cases believed to be due to an endogenous production of progesterone, several methods of therapy have been attempted. The ultimate goal of therapy is the suppression of ovulation, which will prevent endogenous hormone production as progesterone is only produced in ovulatory cycles. Currently, the first-line choice of therapy is a combination oral contraceptive. If this treatment is ineffective, patients have been treated with danazol, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs, tamoxifen, and oophorectomy with varying success.
DeJong, Jocelyn; Sbeity, Farah; Schlecht, Jennifer; Harfouche, Manale; Yamout, Rouham; Fouad, Fouad M; Manohar, Seema; Robinson, Courtland
The conflict in Syria that began in 2011 has resulted in the exodus of over 5 million Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries, with more than one million refugees currently registered by UNHCR in Lebanon. While some are living in tented settlements, the majority are living in strained conditions in rented accommodation or collective shelters in the Bekaa Valley next to Syria. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable in any crisis. In 2013-4, the American University in Beirut in collaboration with the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins and Save the Children, sought to understand the specific experiences of very young adolescents, those 10-14 years of age, in this protracted crisis context. The study was conducted in 2014 in Barelias and Qabelias - two urban areas located close to each other in the Beka'a valley that has a large concentration of Syrian refugees. Focus group discussions (FGDs), including community mapping and photo elicitation, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year old Syrian refugee adolescents, in order to obtain information about their experiences and perspectives. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year old Syrian refugees and separately also with adult refugees, to consider their perspectives on the needs and risks of these adolescents. A total of 16 FGD (8 for each sex, with 6-9 participants in each) were conducted in Arabic across the two sites, with 59 female participants and 59 male participants. The experiences and risks faced by these adolescents were significantly impacted by economic strain and loss of educational opportunities during displacement, and only a minority of adolescents in the study reported attending school. Additionally, on-going protection risks for girls were felt to be higher due to the crisis and displacement. In Lebanon this has resulted in increased risks of child marriage and limitations in mobility for adolescent girls. Adolescents, themselves expressed tensions with their Lebanese counterparts and
Examined 171 female alcoholic inpatients, including subjects' own childhood, offspring, and family environment. Found that female alcoholics resemble males alcoholics and have disturbed childhoods with a drug- or alcohol-abusing, suicidal parent. In particular, boys of female alcoholics are extremely vulnerable during adolescence and have a more…
Ramona C. Krauss
Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety. PMID:22121329
Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment......, 22.6% and 20.2% of cycles resulted in a live birth for abstainers and heavy consumers (>14 drinks/week), respectively. No statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and live birth were observed. Adjusted odds ratios from trend analyses were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.......99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after...
McCarvill, Rachael; Weaver, Kathryn
To identify the role of the nurse practitioner in caring for female adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus at risk for disordered eating behaviour and to formulate clinical recommendations for nurse practitioners in the primary care setting. Transition into adulthood can be difficult for female adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Challenges associated with management of this illness may place adolescent females at an increased risk for disordered eating. Discussion paper. Sourced literature from 1991-2013, located through CINAHL, Health Source, Proquest, PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and Medline databases. Nurses involved in the primary care of female adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus need to be aware of the increased risk for disordered eating behaviours and develop the competencies to care for both the adolescent and her family to reduce the serious consequences of these behaviours. Awareness and acquisition of the skills required to intervene will enable nurse practitioners to recognize clients at risk for disordered eating, gain appreciation of the motivation of female adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus towards disordered eating behaviours and give optimal opportunity for education, counselling and recovery. Future direction for research includes exploration of the experiences of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus; early interventions in the primary care setting; effective educational, preventative or supportive services for adolescents with this illness and their families; and outcomes to emerging technologies for insulin therapy on disordered eating occurrence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha
The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
To examine the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior in multiethnic, 14- to 17-year-olds, residing on the Big Island of Hawaii. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey design using a convenience sample of 98 female adolescents aged 14-17 who came to five different clinics on the Big Island of Hawaii for health care. Along with a brief demographic questionnaire, global self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, decision making was measured by the Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire, and sexual activity and contraception use was measured by a nonnormed Sexual History and Contraceptive Use Questionnaire developed for this study. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and correlations were used to analyze associations and correlations between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilant and maladaptive), and contraceptive use for sexually active female adolescents. No significant associations or correlations were found between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilance), and the decision to use contraception in sexually active adolescent females. There was, however, significant negative correlation (p sexually active female adolescents. This suggests that sexually active adolescent females with higher maladaptive scores are less likely to use contraception. There was also significant association (p sexually active female adolescents. For every one unit increase on the maladaptive scale, the odds of using contraception were estimated to decrease by 7%. Adolescence is a period of transition that involves biological, cognitive, psychological, and social changes. During the vulnerable transition period of adolescence, decisions relating to contraception may occur. Interventions focused on improving decision-making skills and stimulating thinking around not only sexual issues but also on relationship and communication
Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel
The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…
Full Text Available Research question: What is the effectiveness of health education among female teachers of senior secondary schools regarding problems in adolescence? Objective: To document the effectiveness of health education among female teachers of senior secondary schools regarding problems in adolescence before and after intervention. Study Design: An interventional study. Settings: Fifty senior secondary schools both private and government of Amritsar district. Participants: Teachers of senior secondary schools. Study variables: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding problems among adolescents and regarding help they extend Statistical analysis: Chi- square test Results: Result shows majority 145(63% teachers said they were consulted by the adolescents for their problems and 127(55.2% teachers had partial knowledge about adolescent problems. Maximum 87(37.8% teachers said that they counselled the girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that the overall knowledge of teachers regarding adolescent health problems is less.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Battaglia, Marissa R; Alemzadeh, Ramin; Katte, Heidi; Hall, Pamela L; Perlmuter, Lawrence C
To evaluate whether insulin pump therapy [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] is associated with a lower frequency of disordered eating, better glycemic control, and improved quality of life and self-efficacy compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This cross-sectional study included 22 adolescent females using CSII and 47 adolescent females using MDI who completed standardized questionnaires measuring disordered eating, quality of life, and self-efficacy. Most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1(c)) and measures of personal characteristics were drawn from medical records. The CSII group exhibited better glycemic control and reported higher quality of life and more self-efficacy. However, the groups did not differ significantly on disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. Insulin pump therapy may provide a means for improving glycemic control, quality of life, and self-efficacy in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes.
Tolman, Deborah L.
This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.
Claire, Carolyn A.; Alderson, Kevin G.
Individuals who express nonconforming gender identities challenge the dominant discourse in Western society, where the biological and reproductive sexed body is emphasized as the essential determinant of one's gender identity. The purpose of this study was to explore and gain understanding of the experiences of female masculinity. Participants who…
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…
Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook
Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
Schofield, Louise; Mummery, W. Kerry; Schofield, Grant; Hopkins, Will
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which physical activity among adolescent female friends is interdependent. The participants were 318 adolescent girls with a mean age of 16.0 years (range: 15-18 years). Pedometry was used to assess physical activity over 4 days. The relationship between an individual girl and her…
Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…
Sung, Kyung Mi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest…
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
When examining the experiences of adolescent girls, a study into the presumptions teachers have regarding female adolescent sexuality is a very important aspect to explore. This article presents the findings from a study we conducted with eleven middle- and high school teachers in a southeastern state from both rural and urban districts. In-depth…
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.
Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Salem, Benissa E; Hall, Elizabeth; Oleskowicz, Tanya; Ekstrand, Maria; Yadav, Kartik; Toyama, Joy; Turner, Susan; Faucette, Mark
The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = .011) and self-reported anger or hostility (p crimes (p = .001), while positive social interactions (p = .007), and anger/hostility (p = .015) were associated with greater number of violent crimes. Implications for developing a comprehensive array of strategies that can mitigate the pattern of violence often seen in the lives of homeless female who have recently exited jails and prisons is discussed.
Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Worldwide, adolescents contribute 11% of births, many of which are in low and middle-income countries. This study uses recently collected longitudinal data ...
Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and ...
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.
In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)
Walther, Julia; Aldrian, Ulrike; Stüger, Hans Peter; Kiefer, Ingrid; Ekmekcioglu, Cem
Due to an alarming trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, along with the sparse data on dietary habits and lifestyle factors, the present study aims to analyze the current nutritional behavior as well as the lifestyle and mental health of adolescents and young adults living in Austria. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 respondents (aged between 14 and 24 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on nutrition behavior, mental health, and lifestyle factors by Internet survey. Only 50% of the participants ate breakfast daily and 10% did not eat breakfast at all. About 47% of the respondents consumed milk and milk products daily. Furthermore, only 31% ate fruit and 21% ate vegetables at least once a day, and 46% ate fish seldom or never. Nearly 28% of young people liked to eat fast food twice or thrice a week and more, with males more often replacing a meal with a fast food product (36%) than females (21%). About 46% of the respondents engaged in physical activity only once a week (or more rarely). A fifth of our respondents (23%) spent more than 2 h a day using various social networks, with Facebook being the most popular social network among the respondents. Around 27% claimed to be smokers, with more female (33%) than male (20%) smoker. In terms of sleeping habits, 19% slept <6 h a day. Regarding well-being, 44% were more likely to feel stressed, 35% stated that they were tense, and 43% felt tired and listless. Eating together, physical activity, and sleep patterns showed positive effects on well-being, whereas higher consumption of fast food/snacks/soft drinks and alcoholic drinks/energy drinks was associated with relatively lower well-being. Unhealthy eating habits, suboptimal physical activity, and smoking are still prominent in a sample of Austrian adolescents and young people. In addition, stress and tiredness are also relevant problems in this collective.
Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.
Peterson, Shani H; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
This study sought to determine whether perceiving portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos was associated with adverse health outcomes among African American adolescent females. African American female adolescents (n = 522) were recruited from community venues. Adolescents completed a survey consisting of questions on sociodemographic characteristics, rap music video viewing habits, and a scale that assessed the primary predictor variable, portrayal of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos. Adolescents also completed an interview that assessed the health outcomes and provided urine for a marijuana screen. In logistic regression analyses, adolescents who perceived more portrayals of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos were more likely to engage in binge drinking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.32-11.04, p = 0.01), test positive for marijuana (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.19-9.85, p = 0.02), have multiple sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.01-3.71, p = 0.04), and have a negative body image (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.02-2.26, p = 0.04). This is one of the first studies quantitatively examining the relationship between cultural images of sexual stereotypes in rap music videos and a spectrum of adverse health outcomes in African American female adolescents. Greater attention to this social issue may improve the health of all adolescent females.
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs. © The Author(s) 2013.
SUPPORT FOR THE CO TI UATIO OF FEMALE GE ITAL. MUTILATIO AMO G ADOLESCE TS I JIMMA ZO E,. SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA. Abebe G.Mariam. 1. , Assefa Hailemariam. 2. , Tefera Belachew. 1. , Kifle W.Michael. 3. , David. Lindstrom. 4. ABSTRACT. BACKGROU D: Female genital mutilation/cutting is a harmful ...
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Krabbendam, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD = 0.6)
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P
The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.
Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; Samek, Diana R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents. Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood. Regressions of childhood inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were conducted to predict smoking outcomes by age 17. ADHD effects were divided into those shared between twins in the pair and those nonshared, or different within pairs. Adolescents who had more severe ADHD symptoms as children were more likely to initiate smoking and to start smoking younger. The association of ADHD symptoms with daily smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence was greater in females than in males. Monozygotic female twins with greater attentional problems than their co-twins had greater nicotine involvement, consistent with possible causal influence. These effects remained when co-occurring externalizing behaviors and stimulant medication were considered. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, while also more strongly related to smoking for female adolescents, appeared primarily noncausal. Smoking initiation and escalation are affected differentially by ADHD subtype and gender. The association of inattention with smoking in female adolescents may be causal, whereas hyperactivity-impulsivity appears to act indirectly, through shared propensities for both ADHD and smoking.
Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.
Ndongmo, Therese Ntigwa; Ndongmo, Clement Bertin; Michelo, Charles
As HIV infected adolescents mature into adulthood, they are confronted with issues related to sexuality and sexual reproductive health (SRH). An estimated 68,000 adolescents aged 10-19 years are living with HIV in Zambia. The current study explores their sexuality and SRH experience and needs. This was a mixed method analytical cross-sectional study. Adolescents at a tertiary hospital were surveyed on their sexuality and SRH experiences. Bivariate analyses on SPSS were used to assess factors associated with selected behaviors. Emerging themes from open-ended questions qualitative data were explored using content analysis. A total of 148 adolescents (63.5% females) aged 15-19 years were surveyed. Majority (77.0%) had secondary education; 77.2% currently in school; 40.1 % had a boy or girlfriend; 15.1% have ever had sex, of whom only 61.1 % reported consistent condom use. About 68.9 % expressed intention to have children; 2.1% of girls had been pregnant before. Of 52 respondents, 19.2% had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) before. Not being in school was a significant predictor, for knowing where to access information about sex (OR= 2.53; 95% CI:1.10-5.82; p=0.02), and also for ever gone there (OR=2.61; 95% CI:1.04-6.58; p=0.03). The survey of HIV infected adolescents attending a tertiary hospital in Zambia found that their sexuality and SRH needs remain similar to those of the general adolescent population in terms of counseling in sexual matters, family planning and STI services. More efforts are needed to provide for adolescent health care needs, especially those living with HIV.
Abdou Tarek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents rarely seek psychiatric help; they even hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents. However; the adolescents especially the females experience depressive symptoms more frequently than general population. Do they experience classic depressive symptoms? Are there symptoms specific to this subpopulation? Aim of the study Through this study, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in Egyptian adolescent female students. They also expected a characteristic profile of symptoms for the adolescent females. However available literature provides no guidance in the description of this profile of symptoms. Methods A number of 602 adolescent females were interviewed, and subjected to General Health Questionnaire (GHQ; Children Depression Inventory (CDI, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I, then Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D. Results were analyzed by the use of SPSS-15. Results The study revealed the prevalence of depression in the sample of the study to be 15.3% (measured by CDI, and 13.3% (measured by SCID-I. Fatigue was the most common presenting depressive symptom (81.3%, in addition to other emotional, cognitive and physiological symptoms. Suicidal ideations were the most common suicidal symptoms in depressed adolescent females (20%, with 2.5% serious suicidal attempts. Conclusions The somatic symptoms were by far the most common presenting symptom for female adolescents suffering from depressive disorders. Depressive phenomena including unexplained fatigue, decreased energy, psychomotor changes, lack of concentration, weight changes and suicidal ideations may be the presenting complaints instead of the classic sad mood.
Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela
Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mooney, E; Farley, H; Strugnell, C
The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of female adolescents living in the ROI on issues relating to body image and dietary practice. A qualitative study was selected to enable the issues to be explored in depth. Sixteen focus groups were executed with adolescent females (n=124) aged 15-16 years. Data collection took place during class time in both rural and urban schools in the ROI. Data were analysed using a qualitative thematic methodology, namely framework analysis. High levels of body dissatisfaction existed and dieting was found to be prevalent. The influence of media celebrities was significant. The girls not only aspired to be like them in terms of physique but also followed their alleged dieting regimes in detail. Peers also influenced body dissatisfaction and dieting practices. Consequently, eating habits were altered to accommodate this quest for thinness with a tendency to skip main meals as part of the dieting practice while maintaining an unhealthy snacking pattern. The results are of concern as the adolescent females were utilising unhealthy methods of weight control such as skipping meals and fasting in their quest to obtain a thin physique. A slim body image was deemed important for peer acceptance; hence 'crash' dieting was in existence. This mindset and the resultant dietary practices may have negative health consequences during both adolescence and later life. School interventions targeting adolescent females and focusing on healthy eating and body image are therefore urgently required.
This article features the art and poetry of two patients, and details the process of bringing creative, expressive arts into counseling with adolescents living with acute or chronic illness. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
Noone, Deirdre M; Willis, Thomas A; Cox, Jenny; Harkness, Frances; Ogilvie, Jayne; Forbes, Erika; Sterr, Annette; Gregory, Alice M
Catastrophizing about sleeplessness has been investigated in adults and children, but little is known about adolescents. This article aimed to (a) investigate whether early adolescent girls catastrophized about consequences of sleeplessness, (b) describe topics in catastrophizing sequences, (c) examine the association between sleep quality and catastrophizing, and (d) assess whether puberty moderated this association. Girls (n = 115) between 11 and 12 years old completed adapted versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Pubertal Developmental Scale, and the Catastrophizing Interview. Twenty-four (21%) participants produced catastrophizing sequences, including concerns about school and mood. Sleep quality was associated with catastrophizing (β = 0.19, p = .042); however, puberty did not moderate this association (β = 0.15, p = .126). Findings highlight the importance of sleep-related cognitions in adolescent girls.
Smith, Leann E.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal course of daily living skills in a large, community-based sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over a 10-year period. Method: Adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 397) were drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal study of individuals with ASD and their…
Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.
Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)
Maltby, John; Giles, David C; Barber, Louise; McCutcheon, Lynn E
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.
van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD=0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age=20.0, SD=1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustment problem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustment problems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta
This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…
Evalina van Wijk
Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Nourian, Manijeh; Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Tabrizi, Kian Nourozi; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar
Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13-17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. The themes obtained in this study included "going through life's hardships," "aspiring for achievement," "self-protection," "self-reliance," and "spirituality." Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents' lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.
There was significant interaction of adolescent impulsivity, authoritative parenting and marital satisfaction on parent-adolescent conflict. The results as well revealed that authoritarian parenting is significantly related to parent-adolescent conflict. It is therefore suggested that a good conflict management mechanism be put in ...
Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare
This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…
Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...
Galupo, M. Paz; St John, Sarah
Investigates benefits of cross-sexual orientation friendships on adolescent girls (N=20). Results indicate that cross-sexual orientation friendships function similarly in comparison to other friendship development in positive ways. Discusses overall benefits of cross-sexual orientation friendships and benefits that are unique to both heterosexual…
AJRH Managing Editor
109). Mots-clés: adolescents, contraception, déterminants, Ghana, EGDS. Introduction. It is estimated that the world population will reach. 7.2 billion by the mid-2013. Much of the population growth occurs in the least developed parts of the ...
Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) ... of social barriers to their accessing SRH services1-3. Addressing the SRH needs of ... particularly through interpersonal communication channels37. Of note is that ...
Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural (n=361) areas. The Body Figure Preference Test [BFPT] was administered. Results: Most urban respondents had a desire to be smaller (white=72%; black=61%), whereas rural black respondents were ...
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Ensign, Josephine; Panke, Aileen
The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of reproductive health-seeking behaviours, sources of advice, and access to care issues among a sample of clinic-based homeless adolescent women. Adolescent women are among the most vulnerable and medically underserved subgroups within the homeless population in the United States. Homeless youth are rarely invited to participate in research aimed at improving their access to appropriate health care. Also, the culture in which they live and the personal experience of being homeless are often not addressed. The research was descriptive, using focus groups and individual interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 female youth, aged 14-23 years. The women said that they seek health advice from other women, including their mothers even while they are homeless. They reported first trying self-care interventions, and going to clinics when self-care actions no longer worked. They stated that the main barriers to health care were lack of insurance, confusion over consent, transportation problems, lack of respect (from providers) for their own self-knowledge, and judgementalism from providers. Using the concept of cultural competency, the results provide insights into how to improve communication and health care services for these women. Health care providers need to recognize and appreciate the lifestyle, beliefs, and adaptive attitudes of homeless youth, rather than labelling them as 'deviant'. All personnel who interact with and on behalf of homeless youth must be adequately trained in general knowledge regarding the health of homeless youth as well as in an understanding of the role that culture plays in their health-seeking behaviours.
Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B
Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tishukaj, Faton; Shalaj, Ismet; Gjaka, Masar; Ademi, Besim; Ahmetxhekaj, Rrustem; Bachl, Norbert; Tschan, Harald; Wessner, Barbara
High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032) and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035), but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.34, p fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, p < 0.001). It could be shown that there is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, especially in 14 to 15 year old boys in Kosovo which does not differ between rural and urban areas. Worse physical performance is associated with a higher risk
Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Perry, Mark C
Neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common problem for adolescents and posture has been suggested as an important risk factor. The aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the relationship between prolonged NSP and habitual sitting posture in adolescents. The habitual sitting postures of 1593, 14-year-old adolescents with and without prolonged NSP were assessed using sagittal plane digital photographs. Cervicothoracic and lumbopelvic posture angles were calculated from the digital images using motion analysis software. Adolescents reported experience of NSP by questionnaire. Differences between postures of males and females and those with and without prolonged NSP were examined using independent t-tests. The relationships between cervicothoracic and lumbopelvic postures and presence of prolonged NSP were investigated using logistic regression models controlling for gender. Prolonged NSP was reported by 5.3% of the adolescents, with females reporting a higher prevalence rate (6.5%) than males (4.2%). Females also sat more erect with a more lordotic lumbar posture than males. Adolescents with prolonged NSP had more flexed cervicothoracic posture, more erect trunk and more lumbar lordosis. When gender was controlled, only lumbar lordosis was related to the presence of prolonged NSP.
Reichl, Corinna; Brunner, Romuald; Fuchs, Anna; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
Previous research revealed significant relations between the experience of childhood adversity (CA) and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. However, it is still uncertain whether parental CA could have a transgenerational association with adolescent BPD. We investigated associations between parents' CA (antipathy, neglect, physical abuse) and BPD traits within a clinical adolescent sample and tested for mediating variables. The sample consists of 91 female inpatients, along with 84 mothers and 59 fathers. Adolescent BPD traits were assessed using the BPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-II). Adolescent and parental CA and parental subclinical BPD traits were measured using validated self-report questionnaires (CECA.Q; PSSI). The findings revealed significant associations between parental CA and adolescent BPD traits, which were partially mediated by parental subclinical BPD traits and by paternal but not maternal CA. The results underline that early intervention of BPD must target the family environment, including fathers.
Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Kjellerup, Sanne; Smolina, Irina
Two key players in the Arctic and subarctic marine ecosystem are the calanoid copepods, Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis. Although morphologically very similar, these sibling species have different life cycles and roles in the Arctic pelagic marine ecosystem. Considering that the distribution...... of C. glacialis corresponds to Arctic water masses and C. finmarchicus to Atlantic water masses, the species are frequently used as climate indicators. Consequently, correct identification of the two species is essential if we want to understand climate-impacted changes on Calanus-dominated marine...... ecosystems such as the Arctic. Here, we present a novel morphological character (redness) to distinguish live females of C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus and compare it to morphological (prosome length) and genetic identification. The characters are tested on 300 live females of C. glacialis and C...
Gold, Melanie A; Duffy, Kaiyti
The purpose of this review is to present the most recent data on extended cycling and continuous use of hormonal contraception for female adolescents. Since 2003, several new products have been US Food and Drug Administration approved to provide extended cycling or continuous use of hormonal contraception. Clinical trials have been conducted with adult women of 18 years and older and not with adolescents under age of 18 years. Studies find successful menstrual suppression using extended cycling and continuous-use regimens that are safe and effective without negative effects on the endometrium or hemostasis. Extended cycling and continuous use improves menstrual symptoms attributed to the hormone-free interval in traditional cyclic regimens. Adolescent health providers report prescribing extended cycles of contraception with increasing frequency to adolescents. It is unknown how well female adolescents tolerate breakthrough bleeding, but data suggest that bleeding is the main reason for discontinuing. Supplementation with intermittent estrogen or instituting a 4-day hormone-free interval in response to persistent bleeding may decrease this side effect; adolescents should be counseled about these options. Extended cycling or continuous use of hormonal contraception offers adolescents an opportunity to decrease, delay or suppress monthly menstruation for health or personal reasons.
Poku, Brenda Agyeiwaa; Caress, Ann-Louise; Kirk, Susan
Sickle Cell Disease is the commonest monogenic haemoglobinopathy worldwide. Living with a long-term condition such as sickle cell disease during adolescence constitutes a significant challenge for the key stakeholders due to the combined effects of chronic illness and adolescent development. For adolescents with sickle cell disease to be cared for and supported appropriately and effectively, it is crucial that health professionals have a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of how adolescents experience living with the condition. While there is developing literature about how adolescent's experience sickle cell disease, this body of research has not been critically reviewed and synthesised. To identify, critically appraise and synthesise primary research exploring adolescents' experiences of living with sickle cell disease to make recommendations for practice and research. Integrative narrative review. A systematic search of 10 electronic databases and key journals was conducted to identify studies from the inception of databases to September 2016. Inclusion criteria: adolescents with sickle cell disease aged 12-19 years, primary data on adolescents' own perspectives, and published in English. Data were extracted on study contexts, methodology/design, theoretical constructs, participants, and key findings. Findings from included studies were synthesised using the integrative narrative approach. Additionally, the methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Hawker et al. (2002) appraisal checklist. 683 studies were identified, of which 40 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine broad themes emerged: knowledge and understanding of the condition, symptom experiences, self-management, attitude to treatment, healthcare experiences, social relationships, difference and striving for normality, school experiences, and emotional well-being and coping. Majority of the studies were of moderate quality methodologically. Quality assessment demonstrated a high
Adolescents nowadays socialize, network, and sort out their friendships and relationships online. As such, it is assumed that adolescents' experiences in the online world will influence their experiences in the face-to-face world and will play an important role in their development of social and moral knowledge. In this article, the author…
Sandra L Schnakenberg
Full Text Available Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC: Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1, which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2, which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1 reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2 causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.
Schnakenberg, Sandra L; Matias, Wilfredo R; Siegal, Mark L
Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC): Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1), which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2), which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1) reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2) causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.
Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A
This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent changes in obesity in a sample of urban Black youth in the USA. The current study followed 681 Black youth (335 male and 346 female) for up to 18 years from 1994 to 2012. All youth were selected from an economically disadvantaged urban area in MI, USA. The main independent variable was baseline depressive symptoms measured in 1994. The main outcome was change in body mass index (BMI) from 1999 to 2012, calculated based on self-reported height and weight. Scio-demographics (age, number of parents in the household, and parental employment) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We used linear regressions to test the predictive role of baseline depressive symptoms on change in BMI (from 1999 to 2012) in the pooled sample, and also based on gender. Among Black females, but not Black males, baseline depressive symptoms predicted the BMI change from 1999 to 2012. The association remained significant for Black females after controlling for covariates. High depressive symptoms at baseline better predict BMI change over the next decade for female than male Black youth. As a result, detection and reduction of depressive symptoms may be a vital element of obesity prevention programs for Black females. Policies and programs that address determinants of psychological distress as a strategy to prevent obesity among female Black youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods may be especially useful.
Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio
The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.
Mariam, Abebe G; Hailemariam, Assefa; Belachew, Tefera; Michael, Kifle W; Lindstrom, David
Female genital mutilation/cutting is a harmful practice which has effect on female's wellbeing. However, the practice has continued to prevail in many cultures. Research on the social determinants of the practice and its continuation are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess whether attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation is predicted by gender role perception among adolescents in Jimma zone. This study used data collected in the first round of Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth. A total of 2084 adolescents were identified from 3700 households and one adolescent were interviewed from each household using structured questionnaire. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity, access to electronic media, perception of gender role, attitude towards continuation of Female circumcision was collected. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Statically tests were performed at the level of significance of 5%. Of the 2084 adolescents, 1146 (55.0%) were aged 12-14 years, 1025 (49.2%) females and 749 (35.9%) from rural areas. The majority, 1289 (61.9%) were Muslims and 1351 (64.8%) Oromo. Five hundred seventy three (28.1%) of the male youth did not agree to the importance of marrying a circumcised girl. However, 149 (13.8%) and 258 (12.7%) agreed that it is very important and important, to marry a circumcised girl, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, perception of gender role, sex, place of residence, highest education in the household and religion remained to be important predictors of attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had low gender role perception were 1.4 times more likely to have a positive attitude towards the continuation of the female genital mutilation (OR: 95%CI, 1.41: 1.02-1.94). Female adolescents were 36% less likely to
Coupland, Ruth Louise
Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...
Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A
Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.
The following dissertation focuses on a case study that uses critical theory, social learning theory, identity theory, liberal feminine theory, and motivation theory to conduct a narrative describing the lived experience of females and their performance in two highly selective private university, where students can cross-register between school, while majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Through the use of narratives, the research attempts to shed additional light on the informal and formal science learning experiences that motivates young females to major in STEM in order to help increase the number of women entering STEM careers and retaining women in STEM majors. In the addition to the narratives, surveys were performed to encompass a larger audience while looking for themes and phenomena which explore what captivates and motivates young females' interests in science and continues to nurture and facilitate their growth throughout high school and college, and propel them into a major in STEM in college. The purpose of this study was to uncover the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors during their formal and informal education, their science motivation to learn science, their science identities, and any experiences in gender inequity they may have encountered. The findings have implications for young women deciding on future careers and majors through early exposure and guidance, understanding and recognizing what gender discrimination, and the positive effects of mentorships.
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM. Results Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:25970663
Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evalina van Wijk
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M
Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.
Folayan, Morenike O; Cáceres, Carlos F; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Stockman, Jamila K; Harrison, Abigail
Little is known about stressful triggers and coping strategies of Nigerian adolescents and whether or not, and how, HIV infection modulates these sources of stress and coping. This study evaluated differences in stressors and coping strategies among Nigerian adolescents based on HIV status. We analysed the data of six hundred 10-19 year old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 States of Nigeria who self-reported their HIV status. Data on stressors and coping strategies were retrieved by self-report from participants, using a validated structured questionnaire. We compared results between adolescents with and without HIV with respect to identification of specific life events as stressors, and use of specific coping strategies to manage stress. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) had significantly increased odds of identifying 'having to visit the hospital regularly' (AOR: 5.85; 95 % CI: 2.11-16.20; P = 0.001), and 'having to take drugs regularly' (AOR: 9.70; 95 % CI: 4.13-22.81; P coping strategies. Adolescents not living with HIV had significantly increased odds of identifying 'argument with a friend or family member' as a stressor (AOR: 6.59; 95 % CI: 3.62-11.98; P < 0.001). Life events related to adolescents' HIV positive status were significant stressors for ALHIV. Providing targeted psychosocial support could help reduce the impact of such HIV status-related stressors on ALHIV.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 fema...
Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis
The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…
van der Put, C.E.
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n = 25),
Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C
Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.
Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others
Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Jun 13, 2013 ... in a high intake of fast foods, a low intake of fruit, vegetables and dairy foods, and erratic eating behaviour, such as meal skipping.4-6. These practices may contribute to rising obesity levels. According to recent findings, obesity was identified in African female and male children as early as between two and ...
Adeniran, Abiodun S; Ijaiya, Munirdeen A; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Balogun, Olayinka R; Adesina, Kikelomo T; Olatinwo, Abdul Waheed O; Olarinoye, Adebunmi O; Adeniran, Peace I
The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 - 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.
Turnage, Barbara F.
This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…
Becnel, J N; Zeller, M H; Noll, J G; Sarwer, D B; Reiter-Purtill, J; Michalsky, M; Peugh, J; Biro, F M
There is an increasing adolescent population with severe obesity with impairments in social and romantic relationships that are seeking clinical weight management, including weight loss surgery (WLS). To document romantic, sexual and sexual risk behaviours in a clinical sample of adolescent females with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m 2 ) compared to those of healthy weight (HW). This multi-site study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having WLS-presents pre-operative/baseline data from 108 females undergoing WLS, 68 severely obese seeking lifestyle intervention and 118 of HW. Romantic and sexual risk behaviour and birth control information sources were assessed using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ). Severely obese females reported engaging in fewer romantic and sexual behaviours compared to HW. Similar to HW, a subgroup (25%) of severely females were engaging in higher rates of sexual risk behaviours and reported pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A considerable number (28-44%) reported receiving no birth control information from physicians. Discussion topics with the adolescent patient should extend beyond reproductive health needs (e.g. contraception, unintended pregnancies) to include guidance around navigating romantic and sexual health behaviours that are precursors to these outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma
Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…
Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.
Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)
Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald
We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…
Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…
Objectives: This study aims to assess the prevalence of premarital sexual practices and it several aspects among high schools' female adolescents in the city of Lomé. Patients and methods: It is a descriptive transversal study with a qualitative and quantitative approach. The survey was conducted anonymously among 465 ...
Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha
Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.
Edwards, Kemberly V.
The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…
Chaudhary, Sanjeev M; Dhage, Vasant R
To estimate the prevalence of anemia among adolescent females and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an urban area under Urban Health Training Center, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur. A total of 296 adolescent females (10-19 years old) were included in this study. The study took place from October 2002 to March 2003 (6 months). Statistical analyses were done using percentage, standard error of proportion, Chi-square test, and Student's 't' test. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 35.1%. A significant association of anemia was found with socio-economic status and literacy status of parents. Mean height and weight of subjects with anemia was significantly less than subjects without anemia. A high prevalence of anemia among adolescent females was found, which was higher in the lower socio-economic strata and among those whose parents were less educated. It was seen that anemia affects the overall nutritional status of adolescent females.
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among adolescent females and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an urban area under Urban Health Training Center, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur. A total of 296 adolescent females (10-19 years old were included in this study. The study took place from October 2002 to March 2003 (6 months. Statistical analyses were done using percentage, standard error of proportion, Chi-square test, and Student′s ′t′ test. Results: The prevalence of anemia was found to be 35.1%. A significant association of anemia was found with socio-economic status and literacy status of parents. Mean height and weight of subjects with anemia was significantly less than subjects without anemia. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anemia among adolescent females was found, which was higher in the lower socio-economic strata and among those whose parents were less educated. It was seen that anemia affects the overall nutritional status of adolescent females.
In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…
DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill
This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ferranti, Dina; Halstead, Valerie; Ilias, Vanessa M
Hispanic females in their late adolescence appear to be disproportionately affected by dating violence, yet the majority of victims never seek out formal services. The purpose of this study was to explore the dating violence and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Participants were recruited from a social service agency providing wrap-around services to individuals and families affected by abuse in South Florida. Eleven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence (18 to 24 years of age) in English or Spanish. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified four major themes: (a) conflict, culture, and context influences Hispanic couples; (b) missed opportunities to accessing help; (c) pivotal moments are needed to access formal services; and (d) family matters. Participants of this study believed that dating violence was more normative in Hispanic relationships than "American" relationships. Although participants had opportunities to seek formal services early in their relationships, formal services were only sought after pivotal moments. Families played an important role in supporting or further victimizing the participants. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing both informal and formal sources of support for Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence.
Tweedale, Charlotte; Kronborg, Leonie
The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females' talent development at a high-achieving girls' school. Using Kronborg's (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants' talent…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa; Stewin, Leonard L.; Madill, Helen M.; Montgomerie, T. Craig; Tovell, Dorothy R.; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Fitzsimmons, George W.
Examines the factors that affected the career decision-making of adolescent females and young women in undergraduate science, engineering, and technology programs. Qualitative analysis was used to uncover seven themes: transition from high school, educational influences, family influences, academic issues, coursework management, gender issues, and…
Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.
The present study tests the applicability of Carlson's theory for a sample of gifted and talented female adolescents by examining three dimensions of possible self-esteem antecedents: actual talent ratings, self-perceptions of talent, and personality attributes. (Author/LMO)
Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.
One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…
Joseph, Nicole M.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Bianco, Margarita
This article takes up the questions: (a) How do Black female adolescents define racism?, (b) What kind of experiences with racism to they report having in schools?, and (c) How can these perspectives and experiences inform educational reform efforts? The in-depth analysis of 18 student surveys and interviews revealed that most of the definitions…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Available evidence show that these behaviours are interrelated, but most previous studies and intervention measures have focused on single risky behaviour at a time. Aim: To determine the prevalence of behaviours leading to violence, risky sexual behaviours and substance use among female adolescents in Port Harcourt ...
Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…
Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas
Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…
Sheliia, G P; Chavchidze, A T
Assessment of adolescent's reproductive behaviour, identification of the factors affecting this kind of behavior, represented the main goal of the study. Comprehensive examination (n=136) and interviewing (n=825) was made in female adolescents aged 14 to 19 years (randomly formed via continuous selection). Information of the state of their health, their attitude towards child - bearing and their risky habits have been evaluated. Under the present conditions, the development of the reproductive system in female adolescents is characterized by the high frequency of menstrual irregulates (24,7%), the delayed formation of the bone pelvis (25,2%) the trend for retarted development of secondary sexual characters (12,3%), the high prevalence of chronic extra genital diseases. Thus, the results of the given study proves that reproductive disorders develop under the influence of a complex of sociomedical factors and lifestyle; They predetermine reproductive abnormalities, inadequate reproductive behaviour, the low standard of knowledge of contraception.
Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or
Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S
Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.
Full Text Available It is almost three decades since the sex reassignment surgery has been allowed in Iran and the number of sex reassignment surgeries has considerably increased since then. This study was conducted to examine the experience of male-to-female transsexual People after sex reassignment surgery in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach on seven male-to-female transsexuals using purposeful sampling method and in-depth semi-structured interviews. Van Manen’s method was also used to guide the study. The collected data were analyzed through holistic, selective, and detailed thematic analysis approach to extracted themes. The participants were 23-37 year-old (mean = 30.4 and mostly single. A mean period of 36 months has passed since their sex reassignment surgery. The main theme, “being satisfied in an insecure world”, was extracted from three sub-themes as follows “the promotion of life”, “living in the restricted world, and “seeking for acceptance”. Although the life of Iranian male-to-female transsexuals can be improved after surgery, they are still living with challenges including social discrimination, lack of family and social acceptance, and unexpected financial hardship.
Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.
Sung, Kyung Mi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest positivity with regard to family self-concept and the greatest negativity with regard to academic self-concept. The subjects most frequently used the seeking guidance strategy of approach coping and the seeking alternative rewards strategy of avoidance coping. Self-concept was positively or negatively related with various coping skills. Using content analysis, seven categories including discord in family relationships were identified. The results of this study provide information that will aid school nurses working with adolescents with regard to helping the adolescents develop a positive self-concept and more effective coping strategies.
Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Braat, D.D.M.
Fertility and sexuality are important aspects in the quality of life of long-term survivors of cancer. Adolescents in particular are in a very vulnerable period of their lives with respect to future fertility and sexuality. Special attention should be paid to preserve their fertility whenever
Freeman, Elizabeth DeHart
The present study investigated hypothesized links between subjects' perceptions of their own physical appearance and other aspects of psychosocial functioning (e.g., general anxiety, social acceptance, athletic competence, and global self-worth) as rated by self, peers, and counselors. In addition, the study attempted to isolate the age at which young females first experience a decline in perceptions of their own physical appearance. To investigate these relationships, 554 f...
Philippe R Mutwa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is vital for HIV-infected adolescents for survival and quality of life. However, this age group faces many challenges to remain adherent. We used multiple data sources (role-play, focus group discussions (FGD, and in-depth interviews (IDI to better understand adherence barriers for Rwandan adolescents. Forty-two HIV positive adolescents (ages 12-21 and a selection of their primary caregivers were interviewed. All were perinatally-infected and received (cART for ≥ 12 months. Topics discussed during FGDs and IDIs included learning HIV status, disclosure and stigma, care and treatment issues, cART adherence barriers. RESULTS: Median age was 17 years, 45% female, 45% orphaned, and 48% in boarding schools. We identified three overarching but inter-related themes that appeared to influence adherence. Stigma, perceived and experienced, and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status hampered adolescents from obtaining and taking their drugs, attending clinic visits, carrying their cARTs with them in public. The second major theme was the need for better support, in particular for adolescents with different living situations, (orphanages, foster-care, and boarding schools. Lack of privacy to keep and take medication came out as major barrier for adolescents living in congested households, as well the institutionalization of boarding schools where privacy is almost non-existent. The third important theme was the desire to be 'normal' and not be recognized as an HIV-infected individual, and to have a normal life not perturbed by taking a regimen of medications or being forced to disclose where others would treat them differently. CONCLUSIONS: We propose better management of HIV-infected adolescents integrated into boarding school, orphanages, and foster care; training of school-faculty on how to support students and allow them privacy for taking their medications. To provide better care and
Jonathan D. Cogen
Full Text Available Endobronchial carcinoid tumors are the most common intrabronchial tumors in children and adolescents. Common signs and symptoms include persistent cough and wheezing not responsive to bronchodilators, hemoptysis, and recurrent fever. Diagnosis is frequently made by imaging and direct visualization with flexible bronchoscopy; surgery remains the gold standard treatment, and lung-sparing resections should be performed whenever possible. Though carcinoid syndrome—characterized by flushing, palpitations, wheezing, shortness of breath, and diarrhea—has been found in association with adult bronchial carcinoid tumors, to our knowledge only one previous study has reported the presence of carcinoid syndrome in a pediatric patient with an endobronchial carcinoid. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic cough found to have an endobronchial carcinoid tumor and signs and symptoms consistent with carcinoid syndrome.
Bodson, Julia; Ding, Qian; Warner, Echo L; Hawkins, Amy J; Henry, Kevin A; Kepka, Deanna
Objectives We investigated the similarities and differences in the factors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of female adolescents in three sub-regions of the Intermountain West (IW). Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Respondents (parents) who were living in the IW and who had daughters aged 13-17 years old with provider-verified immunization records were included in our analyses. East, Central, and West sub-regions were defined based on geographic contiguity and similarity in HPV vaccination rates and sociodemographic characteristics. Survey-weighted Chi square tests and multivariable Poisson regressions were performed. Results In all three sub-regions, older teen age and receipt of other recommended adolescent vaccinations were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. In the East sub-region, providers' facility type and source of vaccines were significantly related to HPV vaccination. In the Central sub-region, teens with married parents were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were those with unmarried parents. In the West sub-region, non-Hispanic teens were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were Hispanic teens. Conclusions for Practice In order to improve HPV vaccine coverage in the IW, region-wide efforts to target younger teens and to promote the HPV vaccine with other recommended adolescent vaccinations should be supplemented with sub-regional attention to the health care system (East sub-region), to married parents (Central sub-region), and to non-Hispanic teens (West sub-region).
Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.
Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz
Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was
Ver Hoeve, E S; Kelly, G; Luz, S; Ghanshani, S; Bhatnagar, S
Accumulating evidence suggests that adolescence represents a sensitive period during which social stressors influence adult behavior and stress reactivity. However, relatively little is known about the impact of social stress in adolescence on behaviors or stress reactivity in females. In this study, we exposed adolescent or adult female rats to the repeated social stress of defeat for seven consecutive days. Repeated defeat resulted in distinctly different behavioral repertoires during defeat in adolescent compared to adult female rats. Adolescent females exhibited more play and avoidant behaviors and adult females exhibited more active and aggressive behaviors toward the resident female. Examination of the short-term effects of social defeat using the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) indicated that adolescents, regardless of their exposure to social defeat, showed increased time immobile and decreased time swimming compared to adults. Adolescent rats exposed to defeat also exhibited increased climbing compared to their age-matched naïve counterparts. These effects dissipated with age. Interestingly, no effects of defeat were observed in adult females, however, when these females were re-assessed in the FST 30 days after the end of defeat, we observed increased swimming at the expense of climbing. Using exposure to a novel restraint to assess stress reactivity, we found that stress during adolescence and adulthood led to lower basal adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations and that both stressed and control adolescent groups exhibited a delay in recovery in adulthood compared to stressed and control adult groups. Fos protein analysis further suggested that cortical/thalamic structures serve as potential substrates that mediate these long-term impacts of stress during adolescence. Thus, repeated social stress during adolescence produces different patterns of effects as compared with repeated social stress during adulthood. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by
N?stlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buv?, Anne
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV...
Victor, Susan M.
Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)
Kaess, Michael; von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna, Ina-Alexandra; Parzer, Peter; Chanen, Andrew; Mundt, Christoph; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is known to be associated with high rates of comorbidity and severe impairment of psychosocial functioning in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate Axis I and Axis II disorders, as well as psychosocial functioning, in a clinical sample of adolescents with BPD and to compare these with participants with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. Female adolescent patients were consecutively recruited from the child and adolescent psychiatry department of a university hospital. Axis I and Axis II diagnoses were assessed by experienced clinicians using well-established semistructured interviews, along with psychosocial functioning. The final sample (87 participants) comprised 31 participants with a diagnosis of BPD and 56 participants with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. The most common comorbid disorders in the adolescent BPD sample were mood, eating, dissociative, and substance use disorders in Axis I, and cluster C personality disorders in Axis II. The BPD group showed a significantly higher average number of comorbid Axis I and Axis II diagnoses and significantly lower psychosocial functioning compared with the clinical control group. Regression analyses revealed that psychosocial functioning was predicted by socioeconomic status and comorbid disorders, as well as the unique influence of BPD itself. Adolescent BPD in females is accompanied by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and poor psychosocial functioning. This underscores the need for diagnosis of BPD at its early stages, in order to facilitate appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D
Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.
Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J
To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leonardo de Sousa FORTES
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disordered eating. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores according to body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state classifications. Results The findings showed that body dissatisfaction (p=0.001, perfectionism (p=0.04, and mood state (p=0.05 were associated with disordered eating in the female adolescents evaluated. Despite the statistically significant results obtained for all independent variables, it is worth mentioning that body dissatisfaction was the main determinant of disordered eating in the multiple regression model. Conclusion It can be concluded that body dissatisfaction explains the variance in disordered eating; however, it is also important to note that perfectionism and mood state are also associated to the disordered eating in female adolescents, although to a lesser extent.
Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina; Hoiles, Kimberley J
Given the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs), the aim was to provide normative data on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for female adolescents presenting for treatment of an ED. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project registry (N = 1000), a prospective, ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Females (N = 256; 12-17 years) with DSM-5 EDs completed the CDI at intake. Results on the CDI revealed a pattern of increasing depressive scores with age and higher scores among patients with anorexic spectrum disorders. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was high and had the same pattern as CDI scores. The mean score on the CDI in the sample was higher than community samples and clinical samples of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other clinical disorders. Females adolescents with EDs are at high-risk of depression and suicidal ideation. These data provide information about variation in CDI scores to guide clinicians in interpretation of scores. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.
Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad
For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.
Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents.
Hezomi, Haleh; Nadrian, Haidar
Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013-2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables. Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400) and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689). In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P stress (β = -0.470, P psychological wellbeing, respectively (R 2 = 0.595, P stress (R 2 = 0.453, P psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.
McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N
Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio.
Cluver, Lucie; Pantelic, Marija; Orkin, Mark; Toska, Elona; Medley, Sally; Sherr, Lorraine
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015. All ART-initiated adolescents from 53 government health facilities were identified, and traced in their communities to include those defaulting and lost-to-follow-up. Potential mortality risk was assessed as either: viral suppression failure (1000+ copies/ml) using patient file records, or adolescent self-report of diagnosed but untreated tuberculosis or symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. SDG-aligned provisions were measured through adolescent interviews. Provisions aligned with SDGs 1&2 (no poverty and zero hunger) were operationalized as access to basic necessities, social protection and food security; An SDG 3-aligned provision (ensure healthy lives) was having a healthy primary caregiver; An SDG 8-aligned provision (employment for all) was employment of a household member; An SDG 16-aligned provision (protection from violence) was protection from physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Research partners included the South African national government, UNICEF and Pediatric and Adolescent Treatment for Africa. 20.8% of adolescents living with HIV had potential mortality risk - i.e. viral suppression failure, symptomatic untreated TB, or both. All SDG-aligned provisions were significantly associated with reduced potential mortality risk: SDG 1&2 (OR 0.599 CI 0.361 to 0.994); SDG 3 (OR 0.577 CI 0.411 to 0.808); SDG 8 (OR 0.602 CI 0.440 to 0.823) and SDG 16 (OR 0.686 CI 0.505 to 0.933). Access to multiple SDG-aligned provisions showed a
Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Huei-Shyong
To describe the essence of the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome in the context of peer interaction. Tourette syndrome has an adverse impact on adolescents' physical, psychological and interpersonal interactions. Peers provide adolescents with social interactions that are crucial to the formation of self-identity. Studies exploring the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome in the context of peer relationships are lacking. A qualitative, phenomenological research design was used. A total of 12 adolescents with Tourette syndrome from the Taiwan Tourette Family Association were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected using open-ended questions in one-on-one in-depth interviews that lasted 60-90 minutes. Giorgi's phenomenological methods were applied to analyse the data obtained. Four criteria were employed to evaluate methodological rigour. The findings showed that the self-experience of adolescents with Tourette syndrome during peer interaction reflected their lived experiences of peer identity, social identity and self-identity. Themes included: (1) the inexplicable onset of tics during encounters with other people, (2) sources inspiring the courage for self-acceptance and (3) strategies of self-protection in response to changes in situation. The self-experience of peer interaction among adolescents with Tourette syndrome is a dynamic and interactive process characterised by the symbolic meanings conferred on the tics by the interacting adolescents. The adolescents with Tourette syndrome obtain self-identity through peer responses and recognition, while the tolerance, respect and support of parents and teachers spark the adolescents' courage for self-acceptance. Healthcare providers who assist adolescents with Tourette syndrome must understand that tics occur in the context of peer interaction and how this affects the adolescents' relationships with their peers in various life situations. Furthermore, healthcare
Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Gyungjoo
The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle in the adolescent population has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among female adolescents using nationwide representative data from the South Korean population. This population-based, cross-sectional study used the data collected from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, and the data from 801 female adolescents were analyzed. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of menstrual cycle irregularity in relation to sleep duration. Subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity accounted for 15% (N = 120). The mean sleep duration in subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity was significantly shorter than that in those without (p = 0.003). Menstrual cycle irregularity prevalence tended to decrease as sleep duration increased (p for trend = 0.004), which was significantly different based on sleep duration and presence of depressive mood (p = 0.011). Sleep duration ≤5 h per day was significantly associated with increased risk of menstrual cycle irregularity compared with that in the subjects whose sleep duration is ≥8 h per day even after adjusting for confounding variables. The odds ratios of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase for shorter sleep duration in all adjusted models. This study found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among Korean female adolescents. Increasing sleep duration is required to improve the reproductive health of female adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika
Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females. Copyright Â© 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weiler, Rosa Maria Eid; Santos, Fernanda Malheiro; Kulic, Marco Antonio; De Souza Lima, Maria Paula C; Pardini, Selma Ribeiro; Mori, Matsuyoshi; de Souza Vitalle, Maria Sylvia
To compare the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and to examine the association between signs and symptoms of TMD in female adolescents in different Tanner stages. The subjects were 89 female basketball and handball players ages 10-18 years and 72 female non-athlete adolescents ages 10-19 years selected from the Department of Pediatrics (School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo) as a control group. A survey was used to assess the signs and symptoms of TMD. According to the answers on the survey the adolescents were classified in two categories: no signs or symptoms present (score A-absent), at least one sign or symptom present (score P-present). The ones who got score "P" were submitted to a standardized functional examination of the masticatory system by four previously calibrated examiners. Pubertal status was assessed based on physical examination by physicians from our Division. The adolescents were classified according to Tanner stages into three subgroups: subgroup 1 (before the growth spurt), subgroup 2 (growth spurt period), subgroup 3 (end of growth spurt). Significant differences between athletes and non-athletes were assessed for categorical variables (Chi-square and Fisher's exact test) and for continuous variables (Mann-Whitney test). The level of significance used was 5%. There was significant agreement between raters, kappa-values (0.621-1.000) and ICC values (0.757-0.899). There was no significant difference between the athletes and non-athletes in exhibiting at least one sign or symptom of TMD (p=0.301). When comparing the adolescents who presented at least one symptom of TMD to the different subgroups of Tanner stages no statistically significant differences were found (p=0.124). The lack of significant differences among female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and among the subgroups of Tanner stages may suggests that although contact sports
David W. Foy
Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon
Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from parent-adolescent dyads, including 1,219 females and 1,116 males. Important differences exist between male and female adolescents. Females with the nonparental role models or the family communication resource were more likely to report never having had sexual intercourse than were females without the resources. Among males, the aspirations for the future and responsible choices assets were associated with never having had sexual intercourse. Males and females had two assets or resources in common that were protective of never having had sex: peer role models and use of time (religion). Considering which youth assets and resources are more likely to positively influence sexual behaviors of males and females may be important when planning prevention programs with youth.
Foy, David W; Ritchie, Iya K; Conway, Alison H
While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders' trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy
Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol 30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Costa de Oliveira Forkert, E; de Moraes, A C F; Carvalho, H B; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; González-Gross, M; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A
Socioeconomic status has been associated with obesity in children and adolescents. This association may be dependent according with where adolescents lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different socioeconomic indicators such as parental education and occupation and socioeconomic status with abdominal obesity in adolescents from two observational studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (HELENA-CSS) and the Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH) study. European (n = 3192, aged 12.5-17.5 years, with 53.1% girls from HELENA-CSS) and Brazilian (n = 991, aged 14-18 years, with 54.5% girls from BRACAH study) adolescents from two cross-sectional studies were included in this analysis. Complete data on waist circumference (WC), height, socioeconomic status indicators and several confounders were collected. Socioeconomic indicators were measured using a self-reported questionnaire in order to assess the family social status of the adolescents. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations, and results were adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted results showed inverse associations between mother's and father's education levels (p adolescents, both indicators of abdominal obesity did not remain associated with the independents variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Abdominal obesity was associated with socioeconomic indicators in higher-income countries, but this association was not observed in a lower-middle-income country. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Cette sous-population de personnes vivant avec le VIH est en train de devenir un problème de santé publique et de la charge en termes de gestion des soins de santé et l'utilisation des services que prévu avant. Cet article donne un aperçu des défis du développement social auxquels sont confrontés les adolescents vivant ...
Luisa Del Río-Ospina
Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.
Billy, J O; Udry, J R
Using panel data from a junior high school system in an urban area of Florida, we examine whether adolescents' best same-sex and best opposite-sex friends' sexual intercourse behavior increases the likelihood that respondents who are virgins at round 1 will make the transition to intercourse between rounds of our study. We find no significant influence effects of friends of either sex for black males or females, or white males. In contrast, white females are influenced by the sexual behavior of both their best female friend and best male friend. A virgin white female whose best friends of both sexes were sexually experience at round 1 was almost certain to have sexual intercourse within the two years of our study.
Abraham, Amit; Dunsky, Ayelet; Hackney, Madeleine E; Dickstein, Ruth
Elevé is a fundamental dance movement practiced routinely by dance students and serving as an integral component of screening in dance. It consists of ankle plantar flexion (PF) movement and is considered to be a frequent cause of foot and ankle injuries among dancers, with adolescent female dance students being at greatest risk for such injuries. Therefore, gaining additional knowledge regarding elevé functional range of motion (ROM) and inter-leg weightbearing distribution (WBD) properties among adolescent dance students is warranted for pedagogic, screening, injury prevention, and rehabilitation purposes. The aims of this study were three-fold: 1. to report and compare dance-specific, functional kinematic (ankle PF maximum angle and ankle PF ROM), kinetic (inter-leg WBD), and self-reported level of difficulty (balance, muscular force, and concentration) properties of repeated and static elevé among adolescent female dance students; 2. to look for correlations between elevé properties and participants' demographics (age, height, weight, dance experience, and leg dominance); and 3. to describe the relationships between the two kinematic properties in both elevé tasks. Twenty-three adolescent female dance students (mean age 13.57 ± 0.50 years) were measured while performing two elevé tasks: 10 repetitions ("repeated elevé task") and 10 consecutive seconds hold ("static elevé task"). Data regarding ankle motion and WBD were collected and analyzed using three-dimensional motion capture and two force plates. The data gained from this study expand our current understanding of elevé dance movement and may contribute to clinical relevancy and applicability of screening procedures being conducted in pre-professional dance settings. This may help to identify adolescent dance students with the potential to undertake a career in professional dance as well as to investigate the parameters associated with risk of ankle injuries in this population.
Watson, Hunna J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina
To provide normative data on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) for female adolescents presenting for eating disorder (ED) treatment. This study is part of the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders Project registry (N ∼ 1,000), a prospective ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Female adolescents (N = 278; 13-17 years) with EDs completed the MASC at intake. Summary data including percentiles are given for the MASC total and subscales. MASC scores were higher than community norms as expected and increased with age (p future research to better understand the role of anxiety in the onset and maintenance of EDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soleimanieh Naeini, Tahereh; Keshavarzi Arshadi, Farnaz; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Bakhshi, Enayatollah
Although there are considerable researches on effectiveness of social skills training, little information is available on the effects of such training on perceived competence of adolescents with deafness. This study was conducted in special school settings to determine the effects of social skills training on perceived competence of female adolescents with deafness. A prepost quasi-experimental design was used to perform the study. Sixty nine female students with deafness who were enrolled in all of the four different special secondary schools in Tehran, Iran, between 2010 and 2011 participated in this research. Two of four secondary schools were randomly allocated to the intervention group (33 students), and the other two to the control group (36 students). The participants were between 11 and 21 years (Mean = 15.43; SD = 1.89), and more than three fourth of each groups ( i.e. 28 students in each groups) were affected by profound hearing impairment . The intervention group participated in twelve bi-weekly sessions. Pretest and posttest data were collected using the 'Hearing Impaired Children Self-Image Test'. The questionnaire was filled by an interviewer. This questionnaire asks students about their feeling toward their own competence in domains of cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The intervention led to significant improvement in total perceived competence scores of adolescents with deafness (P social skills in adolescents with deafness would improve their sense of competence, and emotional well being.
Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E
Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.
Machado, Daisy Maria; Succi, Regina C; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro
To review the literature on transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care and discuss this issue in the specific context of chronic conditions. MEDLINE and LILACS were searched for relevant English and French-language articles published between 1990 and 2010. The transition of adolescents with chronic diseases from pediatric care to adult-oriented services has been a growing concern among pediatric specialties. In recent years, young people living with HIV/AIDS have begun to reach adulthood, giving rise to several challenges. The studies reviewed herein discuss such relevant topics as: the difference between transfer, an isolated event, and transition, a gradual process; the transition models used in different services; the importance of transitioning in a planned and individualized manner; the need for comprehensive interaction between pediatric and adult-oriented care teams; the importance of joint participation of adolescents, their families, and health professionals in the process; barriers to and factors that promote successful transitions; and the special needs of adolescents with HIV/AIDS in this important period of life. Several authors agree that transitioning adolescents to adult-oriented health care should be a gradual process not determined by age alone. It requires a plan established with ample dialogue among adolescents, their families, and pediatric and adult care teams. However, there is little evidence to support any specific model of health care transition. This should prompt researchers to conduct more prospective studies on the theme, especially in more vulnerable groups such as adolescents living with HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Methods Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032 and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035, but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.34, p < 0.001 and high body fat content (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05–0.56, p < 0.001. In addition, higher handgrip strength, longer sprinting time and lower aerobic fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96, p < 0.001. Conclusions It could be
Eva M. Marco
Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674
Marco, Eva M.; Peñasco, Sara; Hernández, María-Donina; Gil, Anabel; Borcel, Erika; Moya, Marta; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Guerri, Consuelo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC) did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54). In the novel object recognition (NOR) test (pnd 63), a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC) of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure. PMID:29234279
Marco, Eva M.; Peñasco, Sara; Hernández, María-Donina; Gil, Anabel; Borcel, Erika; Moya, Marta; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Guerri, Consuelo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during...
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J
Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.
Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S
Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Mulrey, Colleen R; Shultz, Sandra J; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Taylor, Jeffrey B
To identify relationships between self-reported limb preferences and performance measures for determining limb dominance in adolescent female basketball players. Cross-sectional cohort study. Forty adolescent female basketball players. Participants provided self-reported preferred kicking and jumping limbs, then completed 3 trials of a single-limb countermovement hop (HOPVER) and unilateral triple hop for distance (HOPHOR) on each limb. Each test was used to independently define limb dominance by the limb that produced the largest maximum vertical height and horizontal distance, respectively. Chi-square tests for independence identified a significant relationship between self-reported preferred kicking and jumping legs (χ = 7.41, P = 0.006). However, no significant relationships were found when comparing self-reported preference to measures of performance during the HOPHOR (χ = 0.33, P = 0.57) or HOPVER (χ = 0.06, P = 0.80). In addition, the 2 performance measures did not consistently produce the same definition of limb dominance among individuals (χ = 1.52, P = 0.22). Self-selection of the dominant limb is unrelated to performance. Furthermore, limb dominance, as defined by vertical jump height, is unrelated to limb dominance defined by horizontal jump distance. The results of this study call into question the validity of consistently defining limb dominance by self-reported measures in adolescent female basketball players.
Schwartz, Ann E.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Downs, A. Chris
Most of the research literature on attachment and adolescent transitions has addressed youth in family settings. This article explores these issues with a sample of 25 pregnant and parenting teens living in a transitional shelter. Using case records and interview data as well as results of standardized measures of depression, self-esteem, child…
Balthip, Quantar; Purnell, Marguerite J
This grounded theory study aimed to understand how Thai adolescents living with HIV pursued meaning and purpose in life. Data were gathered from 11 adolescents in southern Thailand who were between ages 18 and 20 years, and who had lived with HIV for 2 or more years. Purposive and theoretical sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory method guided data analysis. The core category of "pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV" emerged out of a recursive process of uncertainty, inferiority, self-realization, and growth that comprised three categories: (a) condition: realizing self-value, (b) strategy: being connected to prolonging life, and (c) consequence: achieving peace and calm. The findings enhance knowledge that would benefit nurses helping adolescents living with HIV find meaning and purpose in life. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.
Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C
Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on
Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…
Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26 and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97 and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94. The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.
Pytash, Kristine E.
Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…
The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…
Due to a number of biological, social, developmental, and behavioural factors young people are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV and AIDS. Using the Health Belief Model, the study investigated factors influencing perception of risk of HIV among adolescents living in an urban slum in Ghana. Data were ...
Reports an error in "Resilience in Palestinian Adolescents Living in Gaza" by Rozanna J. Aitcheson, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Mary K. Howell, Deena Khalil and Salman Elbedour ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , Advanced Online Publication, May 30, 2016, np). There were grammatical errors to the Method section of the abstract and the Method subsection Participants. Corrected versions are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26488-001.) Objective: The pathogenic impact of ongoing political conflict on children and adolescents has been well-documented in the literature. The present study, by contrast, examined the factors that support adolescent health and utilized a salutogenic model to examine prevalence of depression and anxiety and predictors of resilience in a group of adolescents attending secondary school in Gaza. There were 335 Palestinian adolescents (n = 335) enrolled in 11th and 12th grades in secondary schools in Gaza refugee camps completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and self-report measures assessing coping skills, self-regulation, optimism, parenting style, family sense of coherence, national identity, ethnic identity, and other demographic variables. Participants with stronger national identity, stronger family sense of coherence, greater self-regulation, and more optimism reported less depressive and anxious symptoms. In a logistic regression analysis, significant predictors of resilience (minimal to no anxiety and depression, n = 135) were age, optimism, family sense of coherence, ethnic identity, self-regulation, and coping skills. These findings indicate that older age, optimism, perception of family seeing the world as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, stronger Arab ethnic identity, greater self-regulation and stronger coping skills promote adolescent adaptation and health. Salutogenesis frames information about how resilient youth
King, Christopher D; Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E; Barnett, Kimberly A; Pfeiffer, Megan; Ting, Tracy V; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Reduced pain thresholds have been documented in adult fibromyalgia, but there are no quantitative studies of altered pain sensitivity in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM). The current study examined differences in pressure pain sensitivity between adolescent females with JFM and healthy controls. The relationship between levels of anxiety and pain were also examined. A total of 34 JFM (15.4±1.4 y old) and 31 controls (14.5±1.3 y old) completed self-report measures of pain and anxiety. Pressure pain threshold was assessed (palm and forehead sites) with a hand-held algometer. Participants indicated the first sensation of pain and then rated the intensity of pain on a Numerical Rating Scale. Adolescents with JFM exhibited greater sensitivity to pressure pain compared with controls. While the difference between JFM and controls was only observed at the forehead, the intensity of pain produced by the pressure algometry at both sites was significantly higher in the JFM participants compared with controls. Correlations between clinical pain and anxiety were significant for the JFM group only. No relationships were observed between anxiety and pressure pain for either group. This study is a first step toward investigating mechanisms of altered pain processing in adolescents with JFM. Adolescents with JFM were found be more sensitive to pressure pain than their healthy peers, which suggests a propensity for sensitization of peripheral and/or central nociceptive information often reported in adult fibromyalgia, and which does not appear to be affected by anxiety.
Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D
Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males. PMID:24619539
Tomlin, Kristl; Mirea, Lucia; Williamson, Amy
The American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have identified the menstrual cycle as essential in assessing overall health of adolescent girls. Menses should be considered a "vital sign" and documentation of last menstrual period (LMP) is recommended at every patient encounter. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare LMP documentation among adolescent and pediatric health care providers. A retrospective cohort study identified a random sample of 50 female patients seen in the general pediatrics (PEDS), adolescent medicine (AM), and pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) ambulatory clinics at Phoenix Children's Hospital between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2016. Rates of LMP documentation were compared between clinics using the Pearson χ 2 test. Multivariable logistic regression analyses quantified the association of clinic and LMP documentation, with adjustments for visit reason, provider gender, and age at presentation. Rates of LMP documentation were 100% for adolescent gynecologists, but significantly lower for general pediatricians (14%) and AM (60%) providers (P < .0001). These findings were confirmed in multivariable analyses (PAG vs PEDS: odds ratio [OR], 280; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32-2331; PAG vs AM: OR, 34; 95% CI, 4.4-270; AM vs PEDS: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.0). Adolescent gynecologists document LMP routinely. In contrast, LMP documentation rates in AM, and especially in PEDS, were significantly lower. Quality improvement methods such as incorporation of an LMP section into the vitals portion of an electronic medical record could help improve rates of compliance. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Junice Y S Ng
Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.
Schram, D D; Giovengo, M A
The Threshold Project, a residential treatment program, was designed to work with homeless and alienated young women who were approaching 18 years of age but lacked the skills, values, and attitudes necessary to care for themselves and assume the responsibilities of adulthood. Project services were designed to prepare these young women for independent living and to break the intergenerational cycle of abuse and neglect experienced by this population. Threshold offered a series of progressively more independent living experiences to young homeless women ages 16-18 years, who had been sexually/physically/emotionally abused or neglected, and who had been involved in or at high risk for prostitution. A majority of the clients responded well to the requirements of the program, including the expectation that they maintain employment and participate in educational programs during the semi-independent living phase of the project. A follow-up assessment undertaken after clients left the project found that 42% of the young women met all "success" criteria, that is, they lived independently (or in stable situations), attended school and/or were employed, had not engaged in prostitution or other offense behavior, and did not abuse alcohol or other substances.
Maldonado, Antoniette M.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.
Adolescence is a period of transition that is associated with increased levels of stress and a heightened propensity to initiate drug use. Neuronal development is still occurring during this transitional period, which includes the continued development of the dopamine system during the adolescent period. In the present study, the effects of pre-test handling on cocaine-induced locomotor activity were investigated among female adolescent and young adult rats upon presentation to a novel enviro...
Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Story, Jon A; MacDonald-Clarke, Claire J; McCabe, Linda D; McCabe, George P; Weaver, Connie M
Soluble corn fiber (SCF; 12 g fiber/d) is shown to increase calcium absorption efficiency, associated with shifts in the gut microbiota in adolescent males and females who participated in a controlled feeding study. We evaluated the dose response of 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d delivered by PROMITOR SCF 85 (85% fiber) on calcium absorption, biochemical bone properties, and the fecal microbiome in free-living adolescents. Healthy adolescent females (n = 28; aged 11-14 y) randomly assigned into a 3-phase, double-blind, crossover study consumed SCF for 4 wk at each dose (0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d from SCF) alongside their habitual diet and were followed by 3-d clinical visits and 3-wk washout periods. Stable isotope ((44)Ca and (43)Ca) enrichment in pooled urine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fecal microbial community composition was assessed by high-throughput sequencing (Illumina) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Mixed model ANOVA and Friedman analysis were used to determine effects of SCF on calcium absorption and to compare mean microbial proportions, respectively. Calcium absorption increased significantly with 10 (13.3% ± 5.3%; P = 0.042) and 20 g fiber/d (12.9% ± 3.6%; P = 0.026) from SCF relative to control. Significant differences in fecal microbial community diversity were found after consuming SCF (operational taxonomic unit measures of 601.4 ± 83.5, 634.5 ± 83.8, and 649.6 ± 75.5 for 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d, respectively; P fiber/d from SCF, respectively; P < 0.05). Increases in calcium absorption positively correlated with increases in Clostridium (r = 0.44, P = 0.023) and unclassified Clostridiaceae (r = 0.40, P = 0.040). SCF, a nondigestible carbohydrate, increased calcium absorption in free-living adolescent females. Two groups of bacteria may be involved, one directly fermenting SCF and the second fermenting SCF metabolites further, thereby promoting increased calcium absorption. This trial was
Harrington, Deirdre M.
Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Wagner, Alyssa J; Bacon, Cailee E Welch
Previous studies have identified the effect of sport-related concussion on health-related quality of life through the use of patient-reported outcome measures. However, there has been little research exploring the underlying mechanisms that influence these perceptions of health-related quality of life among adolescent athletes who have sustained a sport-related concussion. To explore the psychosocial aspects of concussion among adolescent athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 12 interscholastic athletes (4 girls, 8 boys; mean ± SD age, 15.7 ± 1.7 years; grade level, 10.2 ± 1.4) were interviewed via a semistructured interview protocol between 15 and 30 days postinjury. Data analysis was guided by the consensual qualitative research tradition. Themes and categories emerged through consensus by a 3-person research team, and bias was minimized through the use of multiple-analyst triangulation. Participants identified numerous postconcussion symptoms that resulted in increasing difficulty with emotions (eg, irritable, easily frustrated), roles at school (eg, concentration difficulties, fatigue), and roles in their social environment (eg, letting the team down, not being able to contribute to sport). As a result, participants expressed how they tried to minimize or mask symptoms to decrease the potential of being viewed differently by their peers. Adolescent athletes perceived a significant effect of sport-related concussion on numerous areas of psychosocial and emotional health and well-being. Anticipatory guidance-with education regarding the possible signs and symptoms, risk factors, and recovery expectations following a concussion-is important to include in postinjury management. A better understanding of sport-related concussion and expected recovery could help to improve perceptions of this injury among interscholastic athletes. Additionally, best practices should be identified to assist health care professionals and school personnel in the
Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)
The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high
The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)
Quirk, Meghan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Singh, Rani H.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often used to estimate total energy needs. The Schofield equation based on weight and height has been reported to underestimate REE in female children with phenylketonuria (PKU). The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the agreement of measured REE with predicted REE for female adolescents with PKU. A total of 36 females (aged 11.5-18.7 years) with PKU attending Emory University’s Metabolic Camp (June 2002 – June 2008) underwent indirect calorimetry. Measured REE was compared to six predictive equations using paired Student’s t-tests, regression-based analysis, and assessment of clinical accuracy. The differences between measured and predicted REE were modeled against clinical parameters to determine to if a relationship existed. All six selected equations significantly under predicted measured REE (P< 0.005). The Schofield equation based on weight had the greatest level of agreement, with the lowest mean prediction bias (144 kcal) and highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.626). However, the Schofield equation based on weight lacked clinical accuracy, predicting measured REE within ±10% in only 14 of 36 participants. Clinical parameters were not associated with bias for any of the equations. Predictive equations underestimated measured REE in this group of female adolescents with PKU. Currently, there is no accurate and precise alternative for indirect calorimetry in this population. PMID:20497783
Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F
Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.
Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.
Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)
Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita
Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Titilola M Pedro
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.
Slogrove, Amy L; Mahy, Mary; Armstrong, Alice; Davies, Mary-Ann
With increasing survival of vertically HIV-infected children and ongoing new horizontal HIV infections, the population of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV is increasing. This review aims to describe the epidemiology of the adolescent HIV epidemic and the ability of national monitoring systems to measure outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents through the adolescent transition to adulthood. Differences in global trends between younger (age 10-14 years) and older (age 15-19 years) adolescents in key epidemic indicators are interrogated using 2016 UNAIDS estimates. National population-based survey data in the 15 highest adolescent HIV burden countries are evaluated and examples of national case-based surveillance systems described. Finally, we consider the potential impact of adolescent-specific recommendations in the 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. UNAIDS estimates indicate the population of adolescents living with HIV is increasing, new HIV infections in older adolescents are declining, and while AIDS-related deaths are beginning to decline in younger adolescents, they are still increasing in older adolescents. National population-based surveys provide valuable estimates of HIV prevalence in older adolescents and recent surveys include data on younger adolescents. Only a few countries have nationwide electronic case-based HIV surveillance, with the ability to provide population-level data on key HIV outcomes in the diagnosed population living with HIV. However, in the 15 highest adolescent HIV burden countries, there are no systems tracking adolescent transition to adulthood or healthcare transition. The strength of the 2016 WHO adolescent-specific recommendations on antiretroviral therapy and provision of HIV services to adolescents was hampered by the lack of evidence specific to this age group. Progress is being made in national surveillance and global monitoring systems
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
Duivis, Hester E.; Kupper, Nina; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; de Jonge, Peter
Objective: In adults, depression and inflammation are bidirectionally related. This association is less clear in adolescents. Moreover, somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms might be differentially related to inflammation. Lifestyle factors, as in adults, may play an important mediating role in
Duivis, Hester E; Kupper, Nina; Vermunt, Jeroen K; Penninx, Brenda W; Bosch, Nienke M; Riese, Harriëtte; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, P.
Objective: In adults, depression and inflammation are bidirectionally related. This association is less clear in adolescents. Moreover, somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms might be differentially related to inflammation. Lifestyle factors, as in adults, may play an important mediating role in
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.
Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D; Brand, Paul L P
To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. A 14-item questionnaire. Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma. Interviews were conducted by telephone (Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) or face-to-face (South Africa). Asthma symptoms, impact on activities, and quality of life. Of the 943 children/adolescents interviewed, 60% were male. Most (81%) described their asthma as "not too bad" or "I only get it every now and then," with only 4% reporting their asthma as being "very bad"; however, 92% experienced asthma-related coughing and 59% reported nocturnal awakening. Over half (57%) of children/adolescents believed they could predict when their asthma would make them ill; the most common initial symptoms being breathlessness (41%) and bad cough (33%). They considered the worst things about having asthma to be the symptoms of an asthma attack (32%) and not being able to play sport (25%). Almost half (47%) of children/adolescents felt that their asthma affected their ability to play sport or engage in physical activity. One in ten reported they had suffered asthma-related bullying. Children/adolescents underestimate the severity of their asthma, and overestimate its control, indicating that they expect their illness to be symptomatic. Asthma has a substantial impact on their daily lives, particularly on physical activity and social functioning. Efforts are required to improve asthma control and expectations of health in children/adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark
This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.
Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation would be mediated by the level of depressive symptoms. Seven hundred and eighty-eight high school girls completed the Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form, Children's Depression Inventory, and Reynolds Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Path analyses were conducted using the statistical program, AMOS version 4.0, to determine the best fitting model. The conduct, cognitive, and hyperactivity problems of the ADHD symptoms in each domain were associated positively with the depressive symptoms, with the depressive symptoms being associated with suicidal ideation. This initially proposed model represented an acceptable fit to the data (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA=0.077; normed fit index, NFI=0.998; non-NFI, NNFI=0.990; comparative fit index, CFI=0.998). The inclusion of a direct path from the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms to suicidal ideation significantly improved the model fit (RMSEA=0, NFI=1, NNFI=1, CFI=1). The results of our study suggest that depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation, and that the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms are associated with suicidal ideation both directly and indirectly via the depressive symptoms in Korean female adolescents. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Taymoori, P; Rhodes, R E; Berry, T R
Adolescent Iranian girls are at high risk for physical inactivity due to cultural barriers such as restrictions regarding exercising in public and research is needed to explore ethnic and gender-related factors associated with physical activity (PA) participation. Using social cognitive theory as the guiding model, the purpose of this study was to test the fit and strength of barriers self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation and social support in explaining PA in female Iranian adolescents (n = 558). Using path analysis, social support was modeled as an antecedent of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, while self-efficacy was modeled as an antecedent of outcome expectations, self-regulatory planning and PA. Outcome expectations and self-regulatory planning were subsequently modeled as additional antecedents of PA. The model explained 52% of the variance in PA. The two significant (P < 0.05) direct effects were from self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Social support from mothers, fathers and friends had significant indirect effects on PA through self-efficacy. These results will allow for future research and interventions not only for female Iranian adolescents but also for similar cultural and immigrant groups that have been neglected to date in the PA literature.
Full Text Available Sexual violence against females is a public health problem. This descriptive cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of sexual violence among out-of-school female adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria and examine the context in which it occurs. Three hundred and fifty adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, working in Sandgrouse market, Lagos, were selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Almost half (42.9% of the respondents have had sexual intercourse, and median age at initiation was 17 years. Forced initiation was reported by 15.8%, and 36.3% reported that first intercourse was due to coercion. Among the sexually active, only 12.3% stated that “it is what they desire.” Majority of respondents (64.1% believe that rape is common in their community, and 18% of the sexually active have experienced rape. Out-of-school adolescents in this community are at risk of sexual violence. The factors that make them vulnerable need to be addressed.
Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A
Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Full Text Available Background. Despite the frequency of traumatic or stressful events experienced by refugee children and adolescents prior to migration and following resettlement, the majority do not experience mental health problems emphasising the critical nature of resilience. While a host of factors deemed to be protective of mental health in young refugees have been identified, there has been little research exploring the role of resilience as a distinct psychological construct. This study aimed to explore the nature of psychological resilience in refugee adolescents and the relationship between resilience and depression, other emotional and behavioural problems, and mental health service uptake. Method. One hundred and seventy multiethnic refugee adolescents aged 13–17 from South Australia were administered a survey comprising the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results. Females tended to have higher resilience, as did those adolescents who had been living in Australia longer. Adolescents suffering from depressive symptoms or other emotional or behavioural problems had lower resilience. There was little evidence of an association between resilience scores and exposure to trauma or service utilisation. Discussion. Fostering resilience may be critical to efforts to prevent or reduce mental health problems in refugee adolescents.
Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu
Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, ca...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome with no cure. A thorough understanding of the illness experience is therefore key in the palliative care of patients with this condition. In search for supportive treatments fibromyalgia patients often attend a chiropractor or other manual therapist. Knowledge of the meaning and reality of living with this condition to the patient could be considered essential to any health care practitioner playing a role in the management. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the subjective experience of fibromyalgia, focusing on the personal, occupational and social impact of the condition on patients' lives. This included exploring the patients' views about the future. Methods This study employed descriptive phenomenology and adopted Husserl's concept of transcendental subjectivity or "bracketing". This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews and was undertaken to obtain rich data that reflected the essence of the participants' experience. Participants consisted of six female volunteers, diagnosed with fibromyalgia by the University Hospital Gent, Belgium. Data were analysed using a thematic framework. Results Fibromyalgia pervaded all aspects of life. Four main themes arose from data analysis, namely; the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' occupational and personal life, the impact on their future and aspects of social interaction. Nearly all participants had stopped working, giving rise to feelings of uselessness and loss of identity. Leisure activities were also greatly affected. Fibromyalgia was said to alter family bonds, some of which were reinforced, others were broken. The diagnosis was seen as a relief, marking an end to a period of uncertainty. Participants reported ambivalence in interaction. Despite some positive encounters, frustration arising from perceived incomprehension dominated. Consequently patients preferred not to share their experiences. Conclusions The
Weidt, Andrea; Lindholm, Anna K.; König, Barbara
Communal nursing, the provision of milk to non-offspring, has been argued to be a non-adaptive by-product of group living. We used 2 years of field data from a wild house mouse population to investigate this question. Communal nursing never occurred among females that previously lacked overlap in nest box use. Females nursed communally in only 33 % of cases in which there was a communal nursing partner available from the same social group. Solitarily nursing females were not socially isolated in their group; nevertheless, high spatial associations prior to reproduction predict which potential female partner was chosen for communal nursing. An increase in partner availability increased the probability of communal nursing, but population density itself had a negative effect, which may reflect increased female reproductive competition during summer. These results argue that females are selective in their choice of nursing partners and provide further support that communal nursing with the right partner is adaptive.
Richter, Julia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Stieltjes, Bram; Henze, Romy
Volumetric alterations in limbic structures have been detected in adults, but not in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We examined adolescents in the early stages of BPD to provide a unique opportunity to investigate which parts of the brain are initially affected by the disorder before confounding factors such as long-term medication or chronicity can mask them. A group of 60 right-handed female adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age (20 patients with BPD, 20 clinical controls, and 20 healthy controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Focus was on the examination of hippocampal and amygdalar volume differences. Furthermore, a cortical thickness analysis was conducted. FreeSurfer software detected significant group differences in the right and left hippocampus and in the right amygdala. Additionally, significant volume reductions in frontal (right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally), and parietal regions (superior parietal gyrus bilaterally) were found in adolescents with BPD compared with controls. No group differences in cortical thickness were revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
da Silva, Simone Guerra L; Sarni, Roseli O S; de Souza, Fabíola I S; Molina, Juliana; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A
To assess eating disorders, nutritional status, body composition, and food intake in adolescents presenting with fibromyalgia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status (z score of body mass index [ZBMI]), waist circumference, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis, symptoms of disordered eating, and possible eating disorders (Kids' Eating Disorders Survey [KEDS]) of 23 female adolescents with fibromyalgia and 23 matched healthy control subjects. Median age for both groups was 15 years. In the fibromyalgia group, the median time for diagnosis was 13.5 months. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the control and fibromyalgia groups in relation to ZBMI, fat mass percentage, food intake, and symptoms of disordered eating (KEDS). In the fibromyalgia group, there was a significant correlation between fat mass percentage and the total KEDS score (r = .587, p = .003); the same correlation was observed for ZBMI (r = .0778, p eating disorders in adolescents recently diagnosed with fibromyalgia that, in addition to the correlation between adiposity indexes and KEDS total score, emphasizes the importance of nutritional and body composition assessment, allowing an early and adequate nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is an important milestone that results in development of sexual and reproductive capacity of girls. Adolescent girls do not have adequate knowledge about the abnormalities and healthy practices to be followed during menstruation. Objective:To find out the knowledge, attitude, practices regarding menstruation and treatment seeking behaviour for menstrual problems in adolescent females.Material & methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut on adolescent girls. A sample of 384 was derived and girls were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Detailed information was collected on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results:38.5% girls were aware of menstruation prior to its onset out of which 66.9% learned from their mother. Only 14.6% of the menstruating girls were aware of at least one menstrual disorder. Dysmenorrhoea was found to be the most frequently occurring problem (58.4%, followed by oligomenorrhoea (16.2%, menorrhagia (13.9%, premenstrual tension (13.6%, infrequent menstruation (12.3% and polymenorrhoea (12.2%. Out of the 226(72.7% girls having menstrual problems 77.9% did not seek any treatment for their problems. 55.2% of the menstruating girls were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Conclusion: The adolescent girls are not well prepared and do not have adequate information regarding menstruation which is an important event of life.
Ortega, Pablo; Leal, Jorymar; Amaya, Daysi; Chávez, Carlos
Female adolescents in reproductive age are a susceptible group to anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to know the nutritional, anthropometric and dietetic status, the prevalence of anemia, depletion of iron deposits (FeD) and Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in female adolescents. Seventy-eight not pregnant female adolescents (15.9 +/- 1.1 years old), from an urban and a periurban zone of Maracaibo, and a rural zone near this city, without infectious and inflammatory processes, were analyzed. Anemia in adolescents was considered when Hb zone showed significant lower values of weight (p = 0.0024), height (p = 0.0027), body mass index BMI (p = 0.0487), fatty area (p = 0.0183), MCV (p = 0.0241), MCH (p = 0.0488), MHCC (p = 0.0228), and the highest prevalence of anemia (66.67%), anemia+FeD (33.33%), and anemia+FeD+RVAD (5.56%), with respect to adolescents from the urban zone. Although, anemic adolescents from the rural zone showed a non significant decrease of the iron percentage adjustment. Iron requirements are increased during adolescence, reaching a maximum at the peak of growth and remaining almost as high in girls after menarche, to replace menstrual losses. The low iron status among adolescents from the rural zone determine that this is a high risk group to anemia and FeD and they require prevention, control and suplementation strategies.
Full Text Available Studies have found that adolescents living with HIV are at risk of depression, which in turn affects adherence to medication. This study explored the experience and manifestation of depression in adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe in order to inform intervention development.We conducted a body mapping exercise with 21 HIV positive 15-19 years olds who had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants created a painted map of their body to assist them in expressing their somatic and emotional experiences in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed and thematically coded using NVivo 10.Participants attributed their experiences of depression to their relationships and interactions with significant people in their lives, primarily family members and peers. A sense of being different from others was common among participants, both due to their HIV status and the impact HIV has had on their life circumstances. Participants described a longing to be important or to matter to the people in their lives. A sense of isolation and rejection was common, as well as grief and loss, including ambiguous and anticipated loss. Participants' idioms of distress included 'thinking deeply' ('kufungisisa', 'pain', darkness, 'stress' or a lack of hope and ambiguity for the future. Suicidal ideation was described, including slow suicide through poor adherence. Supportive factors were also relational, including the importance of supportive relatives and peers, clinic staff and psychosocial support programmes.An understanding of HIV positive adolescents' own narratives around depression can inform the development and integration of appropriate mental health interventions within HIV care and treatment programmes. Study findings suggest that family and peer-led interventions are potentially useful in the prevention and management of depression in adolescents living with HIV.
Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.
The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…
Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma
The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Rathleff, Michael S; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L
BACKGROUND: Female adolescents with patellofemoral pain are characterized by altered neuromuscular knee control and reduced maximal quadriceps torque. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether exercise therapy and patient education are associated with larger improvements in neuromuscular...... knee control and maximal quadriceps torque compared with patient education alone. METHODS: This is an ancillary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of patient education and exercise therapy on self-reported recovery in 121 adolescents with patellofemoral pain...... flexion/extension kinematics and maximal quadriceps torque. FINDINGS: There was an 8-15% greater decrease in the complexity of surface electromyography suggesting an improvement in neuromuscular knee control among those randomized to exercise therapy (0.08exercise...
Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.
Jones, J M; Lawson, M L; Daneman, D; Olmsted, M P; Rodin, G
To determine the prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with that in their non-diabetic peers. Cross sectional case-control led study. Diabetes clinics and schools in three Canadian cities. 356 females aged 12-19 with type 1 diabetes and 1098 age matched non-diabetic controls. Eating disorders meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Eating disorders that met DSM-IV criteria were more prevalent in diabetic subjects (36, 10%) than in non-diabetic controls (49, 4%) (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.7; Peating disorders were also more common in those with diabetes (49, 14%) than in controls (84, 8%) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8; Peating disorder (9.4% (1.8)) than in those without (8.6% (1.6)), P=0.04). DSM-IV and subthreshold eating disorders are almost twice as common in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes as in their non-diabetic peers. In diabetic subjects, eating disorders are associated with insulin omission for weight loss and impaired metabolic control.
Vescovi, J D; VanHeest, J L
Female soccer players are three times more likely to suffer a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear compared with male soccer players. Several ACL injury prevention programs have been developed and are used to reduce injury risk. However, to date there is limited information on how such programs affect physical performance. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of the Prevent Injury Enhance Performance (PEP) program in adolescent female soccer players. Four soccer teams were randomly assigned to an intervention (PEP) or control (CON) group and assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks on linear sprinting, countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. A mixed model factorial ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess for treatment effects on the dependent variables. Improvements in 27.3 and 36.6 m sprint times (Performance on the Illinois and pro-agility tests declined in both groups. Our findings demonstrate that improvements in linear sprint performance were small and transient in adolescent female soccer players, and that there was no benefit of the PEP program on CMJ or agility performance. ACL injury prevention programs designed as a structured warm-up routine seem to lack the necessary stimulus to enhance athletic performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216 were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight
Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Wamai, Richard G; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon
The purpose of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer HPV vaccine and willingness to vaccinate among adolescent females aged 12-26 years at clinics and schools in the North West Region of Cameroon where the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) conducted a sensitization and education campaign. A questionnaire survey was administered among female adolescents in schools and clinics. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and proportions were generated for independent variables and bivariate analyses (Chi square test) were used to assess the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9.2. Out of a sample of 650 adolescent girls 553 willingly participated in this anonymous survey. Awareness of HPV (86.8%), cervical cancer (82.3%), and prevention of HPV infections through vaccination (75.9%) was significantly higher than in previous studies conducted in Cameroon and other developing countries. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with being sexually active (p = 0.0013), age (p = 0.0031) and level of education (p = 0.0274). Age and educational level were associated with HPV knowledge (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0008), respectively. The mean level of interest in HPV vaccination was 4.0 (SD = 1.27), which is above the mean. Our data indicate high awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among adolescents, and interest in receiving the vaccine and learning about the disease. CBCHS' community education strategy effectively raised acceptability and generated demand for HPV vaccine, making it a potential model for HPV immunization in Cameroon and other developing countries.
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (Pgang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.
Toscano Sharyl E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.
Nicole L. Johnson
Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E
Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. A survey of adolescent females ( N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.
Singh Pradhan, P M; Kalra, S
Rising trend of female tobacco use is a serious concern in South East Asia Region. Gender differences in tobacco use is likely to be reduced in the future with continuous modernization in low and middle income countries like Nepal. Pre tested self administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess tobacco use among the representative sample of 618 female adolescent students selected by stratified random sampling from different schools of Dharan Municipality from July 2011 to July 2012. Chi square test and binary logistic regression were applied. Probability of significance was set at 5%. Prevalence of ever tobacco use was 4% (95% CI 2.4% to 5.5%).The mean age of initiation of tobacco smoking was 13.58 years (SD =1.71) and that of tobacco chewing was 13.80 years (SD = 1.47). More than a third of the tobacco users (36%) consumed tobacco at home whereas three fifth (60%) of the users purchased tobacco directly from the shops.The major reasons behind initiation of tobacco use were for recreational use (32%), pressure from friends (32%) and to relieve pain or stress in life (28%). Multivariate analysis showed that ever tobacco use was significantly associated with ever use of alcohol (AOR: 7.54, 95% CI: 2.61 to 21.78). School and college based awareness raising campaigns are required for female adolescent students to counter the rising tobacco use (smoking and smokeless). Interventions like health education should focus on tobacco to prevent initiation during adolescence.
Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.
Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran
Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.
Marline L. Squance
Full Text Available Individuals living with lupus commonly experience daily backgrounds of symptoms managed to acceptable tolerance levels to prevent organ damage. Despite management, exacerbation periods (flares still occur. Varied clinical presentations and unpredictable symptom exacerbation patterns provide management and assessment challenges. Patient perceptions of symptoms vary with perceived impact, lifestyles, available support, and self-management capacity. Therefore, to increase our understanding of lupus’ health impacts and management, it was important to explore lupus flare characteristics from the patient viewpoint. Lupus flares in 101 Australian female patients were retrospectively explored with the use of a novel flare definition. Qualitative methods were used to explore patient-perceived flare symptoms, triggers, and management strategies adopted to alleviate symptom exacerbations. A mean of 29.9 flare days, with 6.8 discrete flares, was experienced. The study confirmed that patients perceive stress, infection, and UV light as flare triggers and identified new potential triggers of temperature and weather changes, work, and chemical exposure from home cleaning. The majority of flares were self-managed with patients making considered management choices without medical input. Barriers to seeking medical support included appointment timings and past negative experiences reflecting incongruence between clinician and patient views of symptom impact, assessment, and ultimately flare occurrence.
Marques, Leandro S; Filogônio, Cid A; Filogônio, Cíntia B; Pereira, Luciano J; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L
The aim of the present study was to determine the biopsychosocial impact of malocclusion on the daily living of Brazilian adolescents (14 to 18 years of age) through normative and subjective records and identify factors directly involved in the self-perception of malocclusions. Cross-sectional. Public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The sample was made up of 403 adolescents, with no prior history of orthodontic treatment, who were selected randomly from a population of 182,291 students in the same age range. The oral impact of malocclusion was assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP), whereas clinical criteria were assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS) and self-esteem was assessed using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation (GSE) scale. Other variables were assessed using questionnaires. The chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. Ninety five adolescents (24%) reported feeling embarrassed to smile (aesthetic impact). A logistic regression suggested that the following variables were directly involved in the self-perception of malocclusion: upper anterior crowding > or = 2 mm (P=0.009), median diastema > or = 2 mm (P=0.040), normative treatment need (highly desirable) (Plow economic level (PNegative repercussions on daily living were found in Brazilian adolescents with malocclusions affecting anterior dental aesthetics.
Grimley, D M; Lee, P A
This study examined the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods for birth control and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. The investigation was based on the stages-of-change construct from the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983, 1984). Results demonstrated that despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods (e.g., Depo-Provera), most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms and were further along in the stages of change for condom use as compared with other contraceptive methods. Moreover, the females perceived the male condom as an acceptable method for prevention of both pregnancy and STDs. These findings suggest that interventions designed to target consistent and correct condom use may result in better compliance, reducing the number of unintended pregnancies and STD cases among this populations.
Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven
Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.
Antonella Delle Fave
Full Text Available The influence of family relationships on adolescents' behavior and development has been widely investigated. This study examines the relationship between family structure and a adolescents' quality of experience in daily activities and social contexts b adolescents' perceived life influences, challenges and goals. To achieve this aim, Flow Questionnaire and Life Theme Questionnaire were administered to 50 Italian girls (15-21 years of age, 25 living in two-parent families, 25 entrusted to Institutions for Custody of Minors. The findings suggest tha adolescents' perception of a positive and supportive family enviroment fosters the active search for challenges and enjoyment in daily activities, and the involvement in productive and social contexts. On the contrary , negative family perception is related to lack of engagement and motivation, and to the prevalence of low-challenge activities as sources of enjoyment and satisfaction. Although the sample size does not allow us to draw conclusions about causality, the results confirm the crucial role of family in influencing adolescents' psychological and behavioral development.
Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Speranza, Mario; Taïeb, Olivier; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Corcos, Maurice; Révah-Levy, Anne
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how far identity and self-image disturbances are features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with a total of 50 adolescents with BPD and 50 controls, with a median age of 16 (SD 1.1; range 13 to 18) years. Data was analysed using a qualitative methodology, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Thematic statements representative of adolescents’ lived experience were extracted from the interviews. Results: Four main themes representing the day-to-day experiences of adolescents with BPD were identified: emotional experiences characterised by the feelings of fear, sadness and pessimism; interpersonal relationships characterised by the feelings of solitude and hostility from others; a conformist self-image characterised by a feeling of normality and difficulty in projecting into time; and, a structuring of discourse characterised by discontinuity in the perception of experiences. Conclusion: This qualitative study suggests that the day-to-day experiences of adolescents with borderline personality disorder is centred on the experience of the present. Discontinuity in self-image, alongside marked dysphoric manifestations, leads to distress and hinders compliance with care. These issues are highly relevant in psychotherapy and could lead to more effective treatment of the disorder in adolescents. PMID:24223047
Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Brazil and around the world.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaccination coverage against hepatitis B in adolescents and to identify the associated factors and reasons for non-adherence.METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study with sampling by clusters and in two stages, carried out from records of 702 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years old, non-institutionalized, living in an urban area of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008/2009. The data were obtained from the Health Survey in the city of Campinas (ISACamp.RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccination (3 doses was 72.2%. An independent and negative association with the vaccine was observed for the adolescents who were not born in the municipality. The orientation of a health care provider was positively and significantly associated with vaccination. The main reasons for non-adherence were the lack of orientation and not considering the vaccine necessary. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors and conditions did not restrict the access to vaccination, but the coverage was below the target established by the Ministry of Health in Brazil.CONCLUSION: Health education programs, addressing the importance of vaccination to prevent the disease; strategies to actively reach out adolescents that did not complete the schedule; as well as orientation from the health care professional about the benefits of the vaccine to the adolescents, parents and guardians can extend the vaccination coverage.
Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created 'obsessive-compulsive and related disorders' chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between males and females. All theoretical models of the classification of BDD had poor fit to the data. Good fit was found for a novel model where BDD symptoms formed a distinct latent factor, correlated with affective disorder and eating disorder latent factors. Metric non-invariance was found between males and females, and the majority of factor loadings differed between males and females. Correlations between some latent factors also differed by sex. Only cross-sectional data were collected, and the study did not assess a broad range of DSM-5 defined eating disorder symptoms or other disorders in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders chapter. This study is the first to statistically evaluate competing models of BDD classification. The findings highlight the unique features of BDD and its associations with affective and eating disorders. Future studies examining the classification of BDD should consider developmental and sex differences in their models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Toth, Graham; Mburu, Gitau; Tuot, Sovannary; Khol, Vohith; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhoun, Pheak; Yi, Siyan
Understanding the circumstances of adolescents living with HIV is critical in designing adolescent-friendly services that will facilitate successful transition from pediatric to adult care. This study describes access, utilization and ongoing social support needs among adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 328 adolescents, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics across the country. Descriptive analyses were conducted to summarize their characteristics, access to social support and ongoing support needs among male and female adolescents. Mean age of the study participants was 15.8 (SD = 0.8) years. Just over half (55.2%) were male. Most had at least one deceased parent (mother 50.9%; father 60.5%), and majority were living with biological parents (40.8%) or relatives (49.3%). A third came from families with an ID poor card, and 21.0% were working for pay. Almost half (46.6%) reported that their family had received social support for their health care, including food support (76.5%), school allowance (62.1%), transport allowance to ART clinics (53.6%), psychosocial counseling (35.3%), vocational training (22.9%) or home visits (11.1%). Several ongoing social support needs were identified, including ongoing inability to cover health expenses unless they are supported by health insurance or health equity fund (55.0%). In addition, adolescents reported having been asked to come back earlier than their scheduled appointment (13.7%), having had to purchase their own drugs (2.7%), experiencing HIV stigma (32.0%), having been denied housing or food due to HIV (8.2%) or failing to attend school within the past month partly because of HIV (16.8%). Two-thirds did not have access to peer support groups. Social protection mechanisms are reaching some adolescents in need, while other remain without social support due to discontinuities in health and
Hantash, Dania Abu; Van Belkum, Corrien
Aim: To explore the lived experiences of female undergraduate nursing students about nursing as a profession and the circumstances that have influenced their experience. Introduction: Nursing as a profession is a relatively new practice, and thus in the developmental stage, in the UAE. The number of national students (Emirati) who enrol in the…
Sumari-de Boer, I.M.; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Duinmaijer, A.; Lalashowi, J.M.; Swai, H.J.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Kinabo, G.
Objectives: To explore the relationship between Efavirenz (EFV) and neuropsychiatric symptoms among adults and adolescents living with HIV in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods: Cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults (age 18-65) and adolescents (age 12-17) on ART, attending Kilimanjaro
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R(2)=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R(2)=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Divanise S. Correia
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for abortion among female teenagers from 12 to 19 years of age in the city of Maceió, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in ten schools. The sample was calculated by considering the number of admissions for postabortion curettage, obtained from the Information System of Hospitalization. Data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire divided into three basic blocks of data: sociodemographic, sexual life, and pregnancy/abortion. To analyze the data, the logistic regression model was used. The Forward Method was chosen to set the final model that minimizes the number of variables and maximizes the accuracy of the model. The significant analysis between the dichotomous variables provided eight significant variables. Two of them are protective for abortion: the ages 12-14 years and talking with parents about sex. After the logistic regression, the receipt of support for abortion was the most significant variable of all. The adolescent with an active sexual life, a previous pregnancy, who is married, and has received support for an abortion has a 99.74% probability for an abortion. The results of this study, demonstrating the importance of the group in adolescence, and the statistical significance of having a partner to support and approve the pregnancy appears as a preventive factor for abortion. It shows the importance of support and companionship for adolescent women.
Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.
Bühren, K; Schwarte, R; Fluck, F; Timmesfeld, N; Krei, M; Egberts, K; Pfeiffer, E; Fleischhaker, C; Wewetzer, C; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To disentangle the effects of duration of illness on comorbid psychiatric symptoms, we investigated the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suicidality and self-harm behaviour in adolescent patients with a first onset of AN. In adolescent females (n = 148) with a first onset of AN, body mass index, psychiatric comorbidity (according to DSM-IV), depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour were assessed. Seventy patients (47.3%) met the criteria for at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The binge-purging subtype was associated with increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour. The severity of eating disorder-specific psychopathology influenced current psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal ideation. Prevalence rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation are considerably lower among adolescents with AN compared with adults. An early and careful assessment, along with adequate treatment of the eating disorder, might prevent the development of severe psychiatric comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional obesity is the most common cause of obesity (95% in childhood and adolescence. Morbid obesity (5%, which usually begins at an early age, can be caused by monogenic disorders, various genetic syndromes, endocrine diseases-disorders, central nervous system lesions or iatrogenic causes. Presentation of the patient: A female adolescent aged 13 is presented who was due to obesity referred to the Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity in children and adolescents at the Special Hospital “Cigota” at Mt. Zlatibor. Low height/stature and dysmorphic features: a face with a narrow bifrontal diameter, almond-shaped eyes, strabismus, small hands and feet, delay in puberty development and lagging in psychomotor development have indicated the morbid obesity. Anamnestic data on hypotonia and difficulty in feeding, psychomotor lagging behind, obesity since the third year of age, triggered a suspicion of Prader Willy’s syndrome. The suspicion of this syndrome was confirmed by a molecular DNA analysis which indicated a deletion on the long arm 15q11.2. Conclusion: Obesity, endocrinolopathies, retardation in psychomotor development and behavioral disorders in people with Prader Willy’s syndrome require a complex multidisciplinary treatment. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment prevent the occurrence of complications and improve the quality and length of life of the patients.
Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M
To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.
Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.
Wong, J.C.H.; Lewindon, P.J.; Mortimer, R.; Sheperd, R.W.; Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
Full text: Osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures have been shown to occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study evaluated adolescent females diagnosed with AN less than 12 months previously to determine the presence of any significant bone mass reduction at this early stage of diagnosis and to evaluate the correlation between total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral densities (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and nutritional indices (body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, fat mass and percentage fat). The subjects were 22 adolescent females aged 12-17 years (mean= 14.3 years) diagnosed with AN less than 12 months earlier (range 2.5-11 months; mean = 6.7 months). They had bone density measurements of the TB and LS using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Comparison was made with values of age-matched controls in the Lunar normative database. Although there was a tendency towards low TB and LS bone mass, these changes were not statistically significant. Bivariate analyses showed significant correlation between TB BMD and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.001) and between TB BMC and lean mass (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.01). There was similar significant correlation between LS BMD and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P<0.01), and between LS BMC and lean mass (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.01). With stepwise regression analysis, only lean mass remained significantly correlated with TB BMD and BMC and LS BMD and BMC. There was no longer any significant correlation with weight. In this study, the weight percentile was found to be correlated highly with the LS BMD Z-score (P < 0.01). Therefore, during adolescence, the lean mass in particular, but also body weight, are good indicators of bone densities. Adolescent females do not appear to show bone mass reduction in the early stages of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This suggests early intervention may preserve bone gain and attainment of normal peak bone mass
Chadi, Nicholas; McMahon, Audrey; Vadnais, Majorie; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Djemli, Anissa; Dobkin, Patricia L; Lacroix, Jacques; Luu, Thuy Mai; Haley, Nancy
To test the feasibility of a randomized-controlled trial measuring the impact of an adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in female adolescents with chronic pain. This was a single center, single-blind, prospective, experimental, longitudinal trial conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center. Participants had a history of chronic pain during at least three months. They were randomized into an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Both groups successively followed an adapted eight-week MBI designed specifically for adolescents with chronic pain. Pre-determined criteria were established to assess the feasibility, validity and acceptability of the study model. Data evaluating changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, psychological distress and salivary cortisol were collected throughout the 4-month study period. Nineteen female participants completed the study and had a mean age of 15.8 years (range 13.9 -17.8). Attrition rate was low (17%). Attendance to mindfulness sessions (84%) and compliance to study protocol (100%) were high. All participants reported a positive change in the way they coped with pain. No changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, and psychological distress were detected. Significant reductions in pre-and post-mindfulness session salivary cortisol levels were observed (padolescents with chronic pain. Our study indicates the feasibility of conducting such interventions in teenage girls. A large trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and bio-physiological impacts of MBIs in teenagers with chronic pain.
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873
Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.
Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean
Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.
Ross, Kharah M; Liu, Sarah; Tomfohr, Lianne M; Miller, Gregory E
There is mounting evidence that high levels of self-esteem are associated with better health outcomes, particularly in older adults dealing with serious medical illnesses. Much less is known about how this linkage unfolds developmentally, particularly during times like adolescence, when youngsters' self-views are typically in flux. Here we explore the self-esteem of adolescent females over a 2.5-year period, and how it covaries with trajectories of vascular function assessed over the same timeframe. One-hundred and thirty adolescent females completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale every 6 months for 2.5 years. Vascular function was measured three times over the same period, using peripheral artery tonometry. Indices of endothelial function and arterial stiffness were derived from these measurements. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed an association between self-esteem variability and arterial stiffness trajectories, β = 9.0 × 10-3, SE = 4.4 × 10-3, p = .04. To the extent that their self-esteem fluctuated over the 2.5-year study, participants showed increasing trajectories of arterial stiffness, independent of various demographic and biobehavioral confounders. This association was also independent of participants' trait-like self-esteem over the same period of time. Neither trait self-esteem nor self-esteem variability was related to endothelial function. These findings suggest that fluctuating self-esteem may accelerate the early stages of vascular stiffening in young women, regardless of whether self-views are generally positive or negative. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard
OBJECTIVES: Adolescent females with PFP have localised (around the knee) and distal (tibialis anterior muscle) hyperalgesia assessed by decreased Pressure Pain Thresholds (PPT). This may have implications for treating PFP as both localised and central pain mechanisms may contribute...... to the manifestations of pain. The objective of this study was to compare the change in localised and distal hyperalgesia among female adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) deeming themselves recovered compared to those not recovered 3 months after patient education with or without exercise therapy. METHODS...... adolescents. Changes in localised and distal hyperalgesia from baseline to follow-up were compared to self-reported recovery. Adolescents were categorized as recovered if they rated themselves as "completely recovered" or "strongly recovered" (category 1 or 2) on a 7-point Likert scale. RESULTS: 39...
Jozefiak, Thomas; Sønnichsen Kayed, Nanna
Child welfare services are aimed at providing care and protection, fostering well-being and prosocial behaviour. Thus, Quality of Life (QoL) should be an important outcome measure in Residential Youth Care (RYC) institutions. However, the dearth of research in this area gives rise to serious concern. The present study is the first large scale, nationwide study assessing QoL among adolescents living in RYC. To provide a reference frame, adolescent self- and primary contact proxy reports were compared to the general population and to adolescent outpatients in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). Also, we investigated the association between self-report of QoL in adolescents living in RYC and proxy reports of their primary contacts at the institution. All residents between the ages of 12-23 years living in RYC in Norway were the inclusion criteria. Eighty-six RYC institutions (with 601 eligible youths) were included, 201 youths/ parents did not give their consent. Finally, 400 youths aged 12-20 years participated, yielding a response rate of 67%. As a reference frame for comparison, a general population (N = 1444) and an outpatient sample of adolescents in CAMHS (N = 68) were available. We used the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). General Linear Model analyses (ANCOVA) were conducted with five KINDL life domains as dependent variables and group as independent variable. Self- and proxy reports of QoL in adolescents living in RYC revealed a significantly (p proxy reports in RYC differed significantly on two of five life domains, but correlated low to moderate with each other. The results in this study raise major concerns about the poor QoL of the adolescents living in RYC, thereby challenging the child welfare system and decision makers to take action to improve the QoL of this group. The use of QoL as outcome measures is highly recommended.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.
Sisco, Katherine M; Martins, Summer L; Kavanagh, Erin K; Gilliam, Melissa L
To identify correlates of parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant adolescents. Nonpregnant African-American females aged 14-17 years attending one of three charter schools on Chicago's South Side were recruited and surveyed regarding parental relationship quality, attitudes toward sexual health, and communication about sexual health. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for ever discussing abortion using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 265 adolescents, 43.0% had ever discussed abortion with a parent. While 72.3% would voluntarily tell a parent about an abortion plan, 19.2% feared a parent would physically hurt her, punish her, or evict her. Ever communicating about abortion was significantly associated with having a mother who had a teen pregnancy (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.78); having a prochoice abortion attitude (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.25); having discussed sexually transmitted infections (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.77) or birth control (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35-6.47) with a parent; and perceived parental approval of adolescent sexual activity (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.88). Ever communicating about abortion was inversely related to being sexually experienced (OR, .48; 95% CI, .23-.99) or anticipating supportive parental reactions to an abortion decision (OR, .31; 95% CI, .13-.75). Although almost half of our sample was sexually active, the majority had never talked to their parents about abortion. Some reported fears of harm should the situation arise. Public policy should focus on promoting parent-daughter communication before an unwanted pregnancy rather than forcing communication after it occurs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francis, Jenny K R; Fraiz, Lauren Dapena; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L
Structured Abstract Study Objective To explore adolescent’s perceptions of vaginal health, practices, and vaginally-placed products. Design Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed until achieving theoretical saturation. Setting Adolescent medicine clinics in NYC. Participants Adolescent females (n = 22) who were sexually experienced, predominately Hispanic (73%) with a mean age of 17.7 years (range 15–20 years). Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Interviews assessed perspectives on vaginal health, specific vaginal hygiene practices and attitudes about vaginally-placed products (contraceptive rings, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and proposed multi-purpose technologies (MPTs) administered as ring or gel). The interviews were transcribed and coded for relevant themes. Results Overlapping themes included young women’s view of their vagina as a space that needed to be healthy for sexual partners and future fertility. The vagina could not be presumed to be healthy and conversations about vaginal health were limited to only include specific individuals. All reported a variety of practices to maintain their vaginal health, including showering 1 to 5 times a day and using soaps specifically for the vagina. Attitudes about vaginally-placed products revealed concerns about the sensory experience of having a product in the vagina, safety concerns and interest in the product’s objective (prevention of pregnancy or infection). Conclusions Adolescents have very specific views and practices about their vaginas. Clinicians should initiate conversations about vaginal health and hygiene with adolescents and focus on the normalcy of the vagina. Development of vaginally-placed products should focus on the sensory experience, safety and purpose of the product. PMID:27133374
Kolar, David R; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Bürger, Arne
Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. 20 female adolescents with AN in outpatient treatment and 20 healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years participated in an ecological momentary assessment using their smartphones. Current states of aversive tension and events were assessed hourly for two consecutive weekdays. Mean and maximum values of aversive tension were compared. Multilevel analyses were computed to test the influence of time and reported events on aversive tension. The effect of reported events on subsequent changes of aversive tension in patients with AN were additionally tested in a multilevel model. AN patients showed higher mean and maximum levels of aversive tension. In a multilevel model, reported food intake was associated with higher levels of aversive tension in the AN group, whereas reported school or sport-related events were not linked to specific states of aversive tension. After food intake, subsequent increases of aversive tension were diminished and decreases of aversive tension were induced in adolescents with AN. Aversive tension may play a substantial role in the psychopathology of AN, particular in relation with food intake. Therefore, treatment should consider aversive tension as a possible intervening variable during refeeding. Our findings encourage further research on aversive tension and its link to disordered eating. German register of clinical trials (DRKS): DRKS00005228 (Date of registration: September 2, 2013).
Full Text Available Jill Thein-Nissenbaum,1 Erin Hammer2 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD. These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously. Because of the complex nature of the Triad, treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, nutritionist or dietitian, physical therapist, athletic trainer, coach, family members, and most importantly, the patient. A thorough physical examination by a primary care physician is essential to identify all organs/systems that may be impacted by Triad-related conditions. Laboratory tests, assessment of bone density, nutritional assessment, and behavior health evaluation guide the management of the female athlete with Triad-related conditions. Treatment of the Triad includes adequate caloric consumption to restore a positive energy balance; this is often the first step in successful management of the Triad. In addition, determining the cause of menstrual dysfunction (MD and resumption of menses is very important. Nonpharmacologic interventions are the first choice; pharmacologic treatment for MD is reserved only for those patients with symptoms of
Pounders, Kathrynn; Stowers, Kirsten; Wilcox, Gary; Love, Brad; Mackert, Michael
There has been an increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support. This work analyzes message blog posts from an anonymous online support community to better understand issues related to gender and identity among female adolescent and young adults. This work sheds further light into the nuances of gender and identity issues including motherhood and reproductive issues, physical appearance, and romantic relationships. Specifically, findings reveal that female adolescent and young adults experience issues pertaining to infertility, feeling like a bad mom, hair loss, scarring, dating, and intimacy. These findings of this work offer further guidance about how healthcare providers and caregivers can attempt to meet the needs of female adolescent and young adults.
Al-Hazzaa, H M; Al-Sobayel, H I; Abahussain, N A; Qahwaji, D M; Alahmadi, M A; Musaiger, A O
Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Feeley, Alison; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
To assess changes in the dietary habits and eating practices of a longitudinal cohort of adolescents over a 5-y period living in Soweto and Johannesburg. An interviewer-assisted questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary habits and eating practices across three environments: in the home, in the school, and in the community. Participants (n = 1451, 49.1% male, 89% black, and 11% with mixed ancestry) 13, 15, and 17 y old with complete data were included in the analyses. The weekday breakfast consumption decreased over the 5-y period, from 76% to 65% (P breakfast during the weekend more regularly but this also decreased with age. Snacking while watching television increased with age, from 3.6 ± 4.6 to 6.7 ± 5.9 snacks/week, with female subjects consistently consuming more snacks than male subjects (P portion/week over the 5 y and confectionery consumption stayed the same, around 9 items/week in male subjects and 10 items/week in female subjects (P < 0.02). Lunch box usage decreased with age; conversely, the number of tuck shop purchases increased. Poor eating habits in all three environments were found; the participants' propensity for foods that were energy dense and micronutrient poor was high. This study also found that dietary patterns are well established by 13 y of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D
To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.
Erin K. Kirschmann
Full Text Available Marijuana is a prevalent illicit substance used by adolescents, and several studies have indicated that adolescent use can lead to long-term cognitive deficits including problems with attention and memory. However, preclinical animal studies that observe cognitive deficits after cannabinoid exposure during adolescence utilize experimenter administration of doses of cannabinoids that may exceed what an organism would choose to take, suggesting that contingency and dose are critical factors that need to be addressed in translational models of consequences of cannabinoid exposure. Indeed, we recently developed an adolescent cannabinoid self-administration paradigm in male rats, and found that prior adolescent self-administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN resulted in improved working memory performance in adulthood. In addition, the doses self-administered were not as high as those that are found to produce memory deficits. However, given known sex differences in both drug self-administration and learning and memory processes, it is possible that cannabinoid self-administration could have different cognitive consequences in females. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effects of self-administered vs. experimenter-administered WIN in adolescent female rats on adult cognitive function. Female rats were trained to self-administer WIN daily throughout adolescence (postnatal day 34–59. A control group self-administered vehicle solution. The acute effects of adolescent WIN self-administration on memory were determined using a short-term spatial memory test 24 h after final SA session; and the long-term effects on cognitive performance were assessed during protracted abstinence in adulthood using a delayed-match-to-sample working memory task. In a separate experiment, females were given daily intraperitoneal (IP injections of a low or high dose of WIN, corresponding to self-administered and typical experimenter
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Leticia do Nascimento
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV.
Låftman, S B; Fransson, E; Modin, B; Östberg, V
The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied. The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents, and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin. This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research. ©2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587
Shilo J. Dormehl
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the expected progression of adolescent female swimming performances using a longitudinal approach. The performances of 514 female swimmers (12–19 year olds who participated in one or more FINA-regulated annual international schools’ swimming championships over an eight-year period were analysed. Quadratic functions for each of the seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley were determined using mixed linear models. The predicted threshold of peak performance ranged from 16.8 ± 0.2 (200 m individual medley to 20.6 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly years of age, preceded by gradual rates of improvement (mean rate of 1.6% per year. However, following cross validation, only three events (100 m backstroke, 200 m individual medley and 200 m freestyle produced reliable models. Identifying the factors that contribute to the progression of female performance in this transitory period of life remains challenging, not least since the onset of puberty is likely to have occurred prior to reaching 12 years of age, the minimum competition age for this championship.
Wedl, Jürgen S; Schoder, Volker; Friedrich, Reinhard E
The aim of this study was to determine the eruption times of permanent teeth, excluding third molars, in a defined area population of a country district in Lower Saxony. The authors investigated 2495 oral findings of 664 patients (male 315, female 349) in a longitudinal study. The minimum age was 3.00 years and the maximum age 24.00 years. The dental findings were collected over a period of about 20 years (1980-2002). The oral findings per child/adolescent were assessed between one and 16 times. The eruption times of teeth in females are earlier than those for the same teeth in males. Further, the permanent dentition in females is completed earlier than in males. The tooth eruption occurs symmetrically in both jaws. The comparison of both jaws revealed a slightly advanced eruption of the lower jaw teeth for both sexes. There is a noteworthy change in the eruption sequence of the teeth. In contrast to other reports we determined that the eruption of the canine proceeds the eruption of the second premolar. We found no acceleration of the dentition when compared to other reports and confirmed the rules of tooth eruption in man. Oral examination of teeth is a simple tool to calculate tooth eruption intervals. This first investigation on a population of Lower Saxony revealed a change in the eruption sequence of permanent teeth. The findings are relevant for dental treatment planning and should be reconfirmed at certain intervals.
Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.
Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J
Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.
Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.
Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic…
Rashid, Sabina Faiz
In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married
Bergold, Sebastian; Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Studies investigating the life satisfaction of intellectually gifted and non-gifted students are scarce and often suffer from methodological shortcomings. We examined the life satisfaction of gifted and non-gifted adolescents using a rather unselected sample of N = 655 German high-school students (n = 75 gifted), adequate comparison groups of non-gifted students, and a clear definition of giftedness (general intelligence g > 2 SD above the mean). There was no difference in life satisfaction between gifted and non-gifted adolescents (d giftedness but was instead found across the entire sample. Thus, gifted girls were not found to be especially unsatisfied with their lives. Our findings support previous research showing that giftedness is not a risk factor for impaired psycho-social well-being of boys or girls.
Rodriguez, Maria I; Seuc, Armando; Say, Lale; Hindin, Michelle J
To investigate the association between type of episiotomy and obstetric outcomes among 6,187 women with type 3 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). We conducted a secondary analysis of women presenting in labor to 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan between November 2001 and March 2003. Data were analysed using cross tabulations and multivariable logistic regression to determine if type of episiotomy by FGM classification had a significant impact on key maternal outcomes. Our main outcome measures were anal sphincter tears, intrapartum blood loss requiring an intervention, and postpartum haemorrhage. Type of episiotomy performed varied significantly by FGM status. Among women without FGM, the most common type of episiotomy performed was posterior lateral (25.4 %). The prevalence of the most extensive type of episiotomy, anterior and posterior lateral episiotomy increased with type of FGM. Among women without FGM, 0.4 % had this type of episiotomy. This increased to 0.6 % for women with FGM Types 1, 2 or 4 and to 54.6 % of all women delivering vaginally with FGM Type 3. After adjustment, women with an anterior episiotomy, (AOR = 0.15 95 %; CI 0.06-0.40); posterior lateral episiotomy (AOR = 0.68 95 %; CI 0.50-0.94) or both anterior and posterior lateral episiotomies performed concurrently (AOR = 0.21 95 % CI 0.12-0.36) were all significantly less likely to have anal sphincter tears compared to women without episiotomies. Women with anterior episiotomy (AOR = 0.08; 95%CI 0.02-0.24), posterior lateral episiotomy (AOR = 0.17 95 %; CI 0.05-0.52) and the combination of the two (AOR = 0.04 95 % CI 0.01-0.11) were significantly less likely to have postpartum haemorrhage compared with women who had no episiotomy. Among women living with FGM Type 3, episiotomies were protective against anal sphincter tears and postpartum haemorrhage. Further clinical and research is needed to guide clinical practice of
Francis, Jenny; Presser, Liandra; Malbon, Katherine; Braun-Courville, Debra; Linares, Lourdes Oriana
We examine the association between depressive symptoms and contraceptive method choice among adolescents initiating prescription contraception. This cross-sectional study analyzes baseline data of 220 urban, minority adolescent females (ages 15-19 years) presenting for prescription contraceptive initiation at a comprehensive, free-of-cost, adolescent health center in New York City. All participants met with a health care provider who provided standard contraception counseling before initiating contraception. Each participant then selected a short- or long-acting contraceptive: a 3-month supply of the pill, patch, ring or a medroxyprogesterone acetate depot injection (short-acting), or placement/referral for an intrauterine device (IUD; long-acting). We assess the independent association between contraceptive method selection and symptoms of depression [assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale]. Ten percent (n=21/220) of adolescent females selected an IUD. Bivariate analysis revealed that those with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to select an IUD as compared to those with minimal symptoms (mean CES-D score 20 vs. 13; t=3.052, p=.003). In multivariate logistic regressions, adolescent females had increased odds of selecting an IUD if they reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=4.93; confidence interval, 1.53-15.83; p=.007) after controlling for ethnicity/race, education, number of lifetime partners and gravidity. Inner-city, minority adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression who present for prescription contraceptive initiation may be more likely to select an IUD rather than shorter-acting methods. By recognizing adolescent females with depressive symptoms, providers can strategize their approach to effective contraception counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It is known that wrong and inappropriate hygienic applications damage the vaginal flora and causes a lot of health problems. The aim of this study was to define the females behaviors on genital hygiene, who live in a health center neighborhood. This descriptive study has been based on 400 females aged 15-49 living at the Firat Health Clinic neighborhood in Malatya. The randomized sampling method was used. The females were asked questions from a questionnaire form in their houses. The data were evaluated by using the SPSS for Windows version 10.0. Of the 37% females included in this study are graduated from the primary school, 66.3% of them are married, 87.8% of females are unemployed, and 54% are in average economic situation. Of the 71% women have a shower in every two-three days, 38% of them do not shower during their menses period, 56% of them change their underwear in every 2-3 days, 23.5% of the females use wash-and-use diaper during their menses period, 46.5% of them change 1-2 pads daily, 43% have a vaginal lavage. In addition 27% of the females are being diagnosed now and were being diagnosed before having genital tract infection. As a result of the study, some inadequate and improper applications regarding hygiene habits were detected among women. Thus, taking the educational and socio-economic status of the women into consideration, they should be given some training about protecting and improving health. Also it would be beneficial if the nurses and midwives questioned and informed the women about the genital hygiene behaviors during their house visits under the health services at first stage. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 325-330
Full Text Available It is known that wrong and inappropriate hygienic applications damage the vaginal flora and causes a lot of health problems. The aim of this study was to define the females behaviors on genital hygiene, who live in a health center neighborhood. This descriptive study has been based on 400 females aged 15-49 living at the Firat Health Clinic neighborhood in Malatya. The randomized sampling method was used. The females were asked questions from a questionnaire form in their houses. The data were evaluated by using the SPSS for Windows version 10.0. Of the 37% females included in this study are graduated from the primary school, 66.3% of them are married, 87.8% of females are unemployed, and 54% are in average economic situation. Of the 71% women have a shower in every two-three days, 38% of them do not shower during their menses period, 56% of them change their underwear in every 2-3 days, 23.5% of the females use wash-and-use diaper during their menses period, 46.5% of them change 1-2 pads daily, 43% have a vaginal lavage. In addition 27% of the females are being diagnosed now and were being diagnosed before having genital tract infection. As a result of the study, some inadequate and improper applications regarding hygiene habits were detected among women. Thus, taking the educational and socio-economic status of the women into consideration, they should be given some training about protecting and improving health. Also it would be beneficial if the nurses and midwives questioned and informed the women about the genital hygiene behaviors during their house visits under the health services at first stage. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 325-330
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0 while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2. Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0. In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9. However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5. Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents
Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet
Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15-19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5-3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5-1.5). The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent
Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bakker, A. H.; Janssen, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.
To determine whether physical disability, pain, depressive mood, and criticism by the spouse are differentially related to intrusiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on sexuality in male and female patients. Physical and psychological aspects of health were assessed in 102 male and 118 female RA
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to illustrate the ways in which female university presidents navigate the male-dominated world of higher education. The pathways female university presidents followed in order to reach the upper tiers of higher education administration were explored through interviews with presidents of 4-year…
Bartling, Ellen M.
This study was explored the leadership experiences of female principals of rural high schools in a Midwestern state. The study sought to describe the leadership styles used by these principals to make changes within their schools. Qualitative methodology was used, and four female rural high school principals were interviewed during a series of…
Evans, Karlin S.
Female identity is centered on interconnectedness, and it is often based on a secure attachment with the family. This study addressed the relationship between attachment and self-esteem in African American and White female college students. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) was used to assess the cognitive or…
Amy L Slogrove
Full Text Available Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia.Through the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER, individual retrospective longitudinal data from 12 cohort networks were pooled. All children infected with HIV who entered care before age 10 years, were not known to have horizontally acquired HIV, and were followed up beyond age 10 years were included in this analysis conducted from May 2016 to January 2017. Our primary analysis describes patient and treatment characteristics of APHs at key time points, including first HIV-associated clinic visit, antiretroviral therapy (ART start, age 10 years, and last visit, and compares these characteristics by geographic region, country income group (CIG, and birth period. Our secondary analysis describes mortality, transfer out, and lost to follow-up (LTFU as outcomes at age 15 years, using competing risk analysis. Among the 38,187 APHs included, 51% were female, 79% were from sub-Saharan Africa and 65% lived in low-income countries. APHs from 51 countries were included (Europe: 14 countries and 3,054 APHs; North America: 1 country and 1,032 APHs; South America and the Caribbean: 4 countries and 903 APHs; South and Southeast Asia: 7 countries and 2,902 APHs; sub-Saharan Africa, 25 countries and 30,296 APHs. Observation started as early as 1982 in Europe and 1996 in sub-Saharan Africa, and continued until at least 2014 in all regions. The median (interquartile range [IQR] duration of
Slogrove, Amy L; Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Williams, Paige; Balkan, Suna; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; Calles, Nancy; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Duff, Charlotte; Eboua, Tanoh François; Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Adeodata; Maxwell, Nicola; Pinto, Jorge; Seage, George; Teasdale, Chloe A; Wanless, Sebastian; Warszawski, Josiane; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Yotebieng, Marcel; Timmerman, Venessa; Collins, Intira J; Goodall, Ruth; Smith, Colette; Patel, Kunjal; Paul, Mary; Gibb, Diana; Vreeman, Rachel; Abrams, Elaine J; Hazra, Rohan; Van Dyke, Russell; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mofenson, Lynne; Vicari, Marissa; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina; Anabwani, Gabriel; Q Mohapi, Edith; N Kazembe, Peter; Hlatshwayo, Makhosazana; Lumumba, Mwita; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Thorne, Claire; Galli, Luisa; van Rossum, Annemarie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Marczynska, Magdalena; Marques, Laura; Prata, Filipa; Ene, Luminita; Okhonskaia, Liubov; Rojo, Pablo; Fortuny, Claudia; Naver, Lars; Rudin, Christoph; Le Coeur, Sophie; Volokha, Alla; Rouzier, Vanessa; Succi, Regina; Sohn, Annette; Kariminia, Azar; Edmonds, Andrew; Lelo, Patricia; Ayaya, Samuel; Ongwen, Patricia; Jefferys, Laura F; Phiri, Sam; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Sawry, Shobna; Renner, Lorna; Sylla, Mariam; Abzug, Mark J; Levin, Myron; Oleske, James; Chernoff, Miriam; Traite, Shirley; Purswani, Murli; Chadwick, Ellen G; Judd, Ali; Leroy, Valériane
Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. Through the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER), individual retrospective longitudinal data from 12 cohort networks were pooled. All children infected with HIV who entered care before age 10 years, were not known to have horizontally acquired HIV, and were followed up beyond age 10 years were included in this analysis conducted from May 2016 to January 2017. Our primary analysis describes patient and treatment characteristics of APHs at key time points, including first HIV-associated clinic visit, antiretroviral therapy (ART) start, age 10 years, and last visit, and compares these characteristics by geographic region, country income group (CIG), and birth period. Our secondary analysis describes mortality, transfer out, and lost to follow-up (LTFU) as outcomes at age 15 years, using competing risk analysis. Among the 38,187 APHs included, 51% were female, 79% were from sub-Saharan Africa and 65% lived in low-income countries. APHs from 51 countries were included (Europe: 14 countries and 3,054 APHs; North America: 1 country and 1,032 APHs; South America and the Caribbean: 4 countries and 903 APHs; South and Southeast Asia: 7 countries and 2,902 APHs; sub-Saharan Africa, 25 countries and 30,296 APHs). Observation started as early as 1982 in Europe and 1996 in sub-Saharan Africa, and continued until at least 2014 in all regions. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) duration of adolescent follow
Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls. Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity.
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.
Nora A. ALFaris
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M
Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.
Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229
Cheng, Hsu-Sheng; Law, Cheung-Lun; Pan, Hui-Fang; Hsiao, Yueh-Ping; Hu, Jeng-Ho; Chuang, Fu-Kai; Huang, Mao-Hsiung
Twenty-six female student dancers of Chung-hua school of Art (mean age 17.5 ± 0.5 years) and twenty-five healthy active female collegiate students (mean age 18.1 ± 1.0 years) participated in this study to investigate the effects of dancing exercise on postural stability of adolescent female through a comparison study of two cohorts. The groups were matched in height and weight. Participants were excluded for left-side dominance, sustained lower extremity injury, any known vestibular system dysfunction, uncorrected visual problems, and other neurological conditions. Static and dynamic standing balances were measured by means of Biodex Stability System in six conditions include bilateral, dominant, and nondominant single leg stances with eye-open and eye-closed conditions. To investigate the difference between static and dynamic stabilities, two protocols were performed: the first protocol consisted of four positions including static position, Level 8, Level 4, and Level 1, respectively. They were instructed to maintain a level platform as stably as possible for a period of 30 seconds for each test and given a 30-second rest between tests. The second protocol was descending stability level that was gradually changed from Level 12 to Level 1 for 60 seconds. Balance indices included overall stability index, anterior-posterior stability index (APSI), and medial-lateral stability index. The results of first protocol showed that there were significant differences in overall stability index score between study and control groups at Level 8 with dominant single leg standing in the eye-open condition and the APSI score at Level 8 and at Level 4 with dominant single-leg standing in the eye-closed condition. There was no significant difference in the second protocol. The possible explanation is loss of familiarization adaptation because of level change consequently in both the groups, not step-by-step as in the first protocol study. Furthermore, a positive correlation was
Knopik, Valerie S; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Waldron, Mary
Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention.
Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Browne, Felicia A.; Zule, William A.; Novak, Scott P.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Carry, Monique G.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.
HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions are needed to address the complex risk behaviors among African-American female adolescents in disadvantaged communities in North Carolina. In a two-group randomized trial, we reached 237 sexually active, substance-using African-American female adolescents, to test a…
van der Put, C.E.
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample
Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.
The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78
Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.
This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…
Farideh Zafari Zangeneh
Full Text Available Early life events influence life-long patterns of emotionality and stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging. Much research attention has focused on the programming effects of the hypothalamus pituitary axis (HPA in early life and on understanding HPA function in response to stressors in adulthood. In comparison, there has been relatively little research on adolescence, a time of significant brain development particularly in the frontal lobe and a time which is of great importance for mental and physical health. The hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex undergo stress-induced structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Stress reactivity is markedly influenced by both the pubertal maturation and the experience of the individual. The frequency of the pulses is increased in chronic stress, since the neuroendocrine system is such a good candidate for mediators of many diseases linked to chronic stress. The activity of HPA axis in life time of female, sex maturity, pregnancy or lactation is a plasticity of the diurnal rhythm of pulse amplitude; chronic stress can change this program for formation disorder in behavioral and physiological responses.
Bazargan, Yasaman; Pakdaman, Shahla
The internalizing and externalizing problems relating to childhood and adolescent have always been significant. Because there is special considerations in establishing communication with them and hence, the therapeutic methods for these problems must take into account these considerations. As establishing a therapeutic relationship is an important component of effective counseling, it seems that art therapy may help alleviate these problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of art therapy in reducing internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescent girls (14 - 18 years old). This is a semi-experimental study carried out in the form of a pre-test/post-test design with control group. The population of this study includes female students of Gole Laleh School of Art in district 3 of Tehran, Iran, out of which 30 students with internalizing problems and 30 individuals with externalizing problems were selected through targeted sampling. Students were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Experimental groups participated in 6 painting sessions designed based on Art therapy theories and previous studies. The material used for diagnosis of the problems in posttest and pretest was an Achenbach self-assessment form. Data were analyzed using a mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Our results showed that Art therapy significantly reduced internalizing problems (F = 17.61, P Art therapy as a practical therapeutic method can be used to improve internalizing problems. To reduce externalizing problems, more sessions may be needed. Thus, future studies are required to insure these findings.
Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette
Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Archundia-Herrera, Carolina; Macias-Cervantes, Maciste; Ruiz-Muñoz, Bernardo; Vargas-Ortiz, Katya; Kornhauser, Carlos; Perez-Vazquez, Victoriano
Exercise stimulates the production of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is cleaved to release a protein called irisin. This protein induces browning of white adipose tissue resulting in increased thermogenesis. Different studies have measured circulating irisin at baseline and in response to exercise among a wide variety of individuals; yet, regarding the effect of different exercise intensities in obese adolescent girls, limited insight is available. This study compares the effect of acute aerobic exercise of moderate intensity and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on irisin levels in skeletal muscle and plasma of sedentary overweight or obese female adolescents. The aerobic group (n = 15) and HIIT group (n = 15) underwent anthropometric and metabolic measurements, electrocardiogram, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), and two vastus lateralis muscle biopsies before and after session of workout. The session of aerobic exercise included cycling at 65% of their peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 40 min. In the HIIT group, exercise included six bouts of 1 min at 85-95% HRpeak separated by 1 min of recovery. Irisin levels were evaluated in samples of skeletal muscle (western blot) and plasma (ELISA). The levels of expression of irisin in skeletal muscle increased significantly after a session of HIIT (p HIIT session. No increases in plasma irisin concentration were observed.
Hueg, Anne; Resch, Franz; Haffner, Johann; Poustka, Luise; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald
Based on the personality model outlined by Robert C. Cloninger, studies in adult patient samples demonstrated that according to distinct personality profiles patients with anorexia nervosa could be differentiated from those with bulimia nervosa, as well as from healthy controls. The current study examines whether these personality-related differences also exist in adolescent patients with eating disorders and a short duration of illness. The sample studied consists of 73 consecutively admitted female patients aged 12 to 18 years, with eating disorders. The German version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) was administered to 29 patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R), to 16 patients with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type (AN-B), and to 28 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Different temperamental factors were most pronounced between AN-R and BN patients, whereas AN-B patients exhibited a personality profile between those of AN-R and BN. BN patients scored higher on Novelty Seeking but lower on Persistence than AN-R patients. In contrast to AN-R patients, both BN and AN-B patients scored lower on Self-Directedness. The current results of differential temperamental dimensions in adolescent patients with eating disorders tended to be similar to findings for adult patients, which strengthens the assumption that distinct personality factors underlie the different subtypes of eating disorders.
Kahana, Shoshana Y; Jenkins, Richard A; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Bauermeister, Jose A
The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer-assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single-headed households, percent
Shoshana Y Kahana
Full Text Available The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States.The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer-assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1 being on antiretroviral therapy (ART currently; (2 being on ART for at least 6 months; (3 missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments over the past 12 months; and (4 viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability.Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%; ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%; at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50; and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%. After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single-headed households, percent
Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Jenkins, Richard A.; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Bauermeister, Jose A.
Background The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. Methods The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer–assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Results Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single
McKenna, A A; Ilich, J Z; Andon, M B; Wang, C; Matkovic, V
There is increasing evidence that calcium intake up to the threshold amount (1480 mg/d) increases bone mass during growth. However, there is concern that such a high calcium intake may interfere with the utilization of other nutrients such as zinc, which is also important for skeletal development. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of long-term calcium supplementation on zinc utilization in 26 adolescent females (mean +/- SD age 11.3 +/- 0.5 y) during a 14-d period. Each day subjects consumed a metabolic diet containing 722 mg Ca and 6.3 mg Zn. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or a calcium supplement containing 1000 mg supplemental Ca/d as calcium citrate malate. Supplementation began 15 wk before the balance period to allow for adaptation to the greater calcium intake. Mean (+/-SD) zinc balance (0.8 +/- 0.8 compared with 0.3 +/- 1.1 mg/d, P = 0.23), fecal zinc (4.3 +/- 0.6 compared with 4.7 +/- 1.4 mg/d, P = 0.27), urinary zinc (0.4 +/- 0.2 compared with 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/d, P = 0.55), and net zinc absorption (21% compared with 15%, P = 0.33) were not significantly different between the high- and low-calcium groups. Our results suggest that increasing the recommended dietary allowance of calcium to 1500 mg/d as recommended by the National Institutes of Health consensus panel will not have adverse effects on zinc utilization in adolescent females.
Smith, Jennifer L; Skinner, S Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer
The findings presented in this paper describe the beliefs and attitudes of three different groups of adolescent females about teen motherhood. These were elicited from a larger analysis that explored and theorized contraceptive pathways in a sample of young Australian women. A purposive sample of females aged 14 to 19 years was recruited from three distinct populations in the city of Perth, Western Australia: (1) never-pregnant; (2) pregnant-terminated; and (3) pregnant-continued. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze data generated from 69 semi-structured interviews conducted over a 21 month period (2006-2008). Two categories that described teenagers' attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood were elicited from the analysis. These explained the level of priority that teenagers placed on using contraception and postponing the transition to parenthood. The category labeled 'life derailment' represented how those who had never had a pregnancy or had terminated a pregnancy constructed teen motherhood as potentially restricting their personal, career and social transition to adulthood. The alternative category, 'life-line', reflected how those who continued with their pregnancy perceived teen motherhood as a positive and transformative experience that fostered personal growth. The findings from this study contribute further insight into the complex nature of adolescent contraceptive use and pregnancy risk. The analysis has strengthened evidence of the critical role of self-perceptions of pregnancy and childbearing on teenagers' fertility outcomes. It has also emphasized the broader life circumstances that shape these attitudes, intentions and related behavior. Strategies directed toward academic support and vocational skill development may broaden teenage girls' perceived future options and achievement capacity, thus influencing key reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir
Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.
Potoupnis, Michael E; Kenanidis, Eustathios; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Kapetanos, George A
The report of 2 cases and review of the literature. To report the cases of a pair of female monozygotic (high-class athletes) twins discordant for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The relation between scoliosis and exercising is rather unclear. The latter has often been considered both as a therapeutic means and a causative factor of the former. The existence of genetic predisposition in the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is commonly accepted. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a pair of female monozygotic (high-class athletes) twins, discordant for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS.: A pair of 13.5-year-old female monozygotic twins, high-class level athletes of synchronized swimming, was clinically examined during a school screening program. Both girls were observed in the standing erect position for asymmetries of the lateral contours of the trunk, shoulders, and scapulas and their limb's length was measured. The "forward bending test" was performed to determine the existence of rib hump asymmetry. One of the sisters was considered to be suspicious of suffering from scoliosis. The radiologic evaluation that followed confirmed the existence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (left thoracolumbar curve of 32 degrees as measured by the Cobb angle). The clinical and radiologic evaluation of her sibling failed to reveal the existence of any spinal deformity. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis seems to be a multifactorial skeletal disorder. The role of exercising and heredity in its development remain controversial.
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…
Bui, Hong N.; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Klink, Daniel T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.
In our hospital, female-to-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the end of the
Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…
Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.
Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the
Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.
BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve
Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…
Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja
. Analyses were adjusted for age and smoking at treatment initiation and results stratified by BMI groups and presented by IVF/ICSI treatment. RESULT(S): In total, 12,566 women and their partners went through 25,191 IVF/ICSI cycles with 23.7% ending in a live birth. Overweight and obese women with regular......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent and combined associations between female and male body mass index (BMI) on the probability of achieving a live birth after treatments with in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) under adjustment for relevant covariates....... DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Danish national registers. PATIENT(S): Patients with permanent residence in Denmark receiving IVF or ICSI treatment with use of autologous oocytes from January 1, 2006, to September 30, 2010. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth...
Kiere, Lynna Marie; Drummond, Hugh
activity. In addition to increasing general self-maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care, or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer-term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females' mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long-lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.
de Carvalho, Erica Bloes; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gama, Cíntia Mendes; Lopez, Fabio Ancona; Taddei, José Augusto C; de Morais, Mauro Batista
This study evaluated the dietary fiber intake of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city and any association between low dietary fiber intake with constipation and overweight. In total, 716 adolescents were included within the study, of whom 314 attended private school and 402 attended public school. Evaluation of fiber intake was based on a 24-h daily intake record and a frequency questionnaire. Data concerning bowel movements and height and weight measurements were also taken. Fiber consumption, below that recommended ("age + 5"), was found in 61.8% and 41.4% (P = 0.000) of girls attending private and public schools, respectively, and in 44.1% and 25.6% of boys (P = 0.001). Adolescents who did not eat beans on more than 4 d/wk presented a higher risk of fiber intake below that recommended (age + 5; P fiber intake below that recommended was associated with a greater risk (P overweight in students attending public schooling (odds ratios 2.84 and 2.95 for males and females, respectively). Low dietary fiber intake was not associated with constipation. Intake of beans more than four times per week is associated with the appropriate level of fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake below the recommendation was not associated with constipation but was associated with being overweight among those students attending public schooling.
Pantelic, Marija; Boyes, Mark; Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska
Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. From 2013 to 2015, a survey using t otal population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted. Community-tracing ensured inclusion of ALHIV who were defaulting from ART or lost to follow-up. 90.1% of eligible ALHIV were interviewed ( n = 1060, 55% female, mean age = 13.8, 21% living in rural locations). HIV stigma mechanisms (internalized, enacted, and anticipated), HIV-related disability, violence victimization (physical, emotional, sexual abuse, bullying victimization) were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretically informed model of risk pathways from HIV-related disability to internalized HIV stigma. The model controlled for age, gender and urban/rural address. Prevalence of internalized HIV stigma was 26.5%. As hypothesized, significant associations between internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, as well as depression were obtained. Unexpectedly, HIV-related disability, victimization, and enacted stigma were not directly associated with internalized stigma. Instead significant pathways were identified via anticipated HIV stigma and depression. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = .023; CFI = .94; TLI = .95; WRMR = 1.070). These findings highlight the complicated nature of internalized HIV stigma. Whilst it is seemingly a psychological process, indirect pathways suggest multi-level mechanisms leading to internalized HIV stigma. Findings suggest that protection from violence within homes, communities and schools may interrupt risk pathways from HIV
Full Text Available Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9% adolescents (11 to 19 completed years were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; . Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (. Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9% form followed by moderate (29.7% anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents.
Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B
Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko
Although increasing attention has been paid to the adverse effects of skipping breakfast on quality of life, there are very few reports concerning the relationship between skipping breakfast and reproductive function. Therefore, we examined this issue by conducting a questionnaire survey of female college students aged from 18 to 20 years old. The 5 annual surveys of questionnaire demonstrated that the severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher in the population that skipped breakfast. The incidence of irregular menses was also higher in the population that skipped breakfast, although there was no difference in the incidence of premenstrual symptoms. The group that skipped breakfast showed a tendency to suffer from constipation. In addition, despite no difference in body mass index, there was a significantly higher incidence of a self-perception of poor general health among the group that skipped breakfast. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is associated with menstrual disorders, and affects the physical condition of female college students who are undergoing post-adolescent maturation. Since these menstrual disorders may influence the quality of life of young women not only in the present but also in the future, skipping breakfast should be re-evaluated from the perspective of future reproductive function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Padfield, Gareth J; Escudero, Carolina A; DeSouza, Astrid M; Steinberg, Christian; Gibbs, Karen; Puyat, Joseph H; Lam, Pei Yoong; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Sherwin, Elizabeth; Potts, James E; Sandor, George; Krahn, Andrew D
Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit abnormal myocardial repolarization and are susceptible to sudden cardiac death. Exercise testing is useful in unmasking QT prolongation in disorders associated with abnormal repolarization. We characterized QT adaptation during exercise in anorexia. Sixty-one adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers performed symptom-limited cycle ergometry during 12-lead ECG monitoring. Changes in the QT interval during exercise were measured, and QT/RR-interval slopes were determined by using mixed-effects regression modeling. Patients had significantly lower body mass index than controls; however, resting heart rates and QT/QTc intervals were similar at baseline. Patients had shorter exercise times (13.7±4.5 versus 20.6±4.5 minutes; Padolescent anorexic females have impaired repolarization reserve in comparison with healthy controls. Further study may identify impaired QT dynamics as a risk factor for arrhythmias in anorexia nervosa. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gibson, J T; Baker, C E; Showalter, S M; Al-sarraf, Q; Atakan, S A; Borgen, W A; Guimaraes, I R; Giusti-ortiz, A L; Ishiyama, F I; Robertson, M
This is the second report of a multinational project undertaken in 1988 by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counseling that sought, among other things, to compare and contrast the reported problems, coping strategies, and help-seeking behavior of 2129 male and 2307 female adolescents from a total of three different socioeconomic backgrounds in each of 16 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan Kuwait, the Netherlands, the Philippines, China, Puerto Rico, Turkey, the US, and Venezuela) and from a "classless" background in Russia. The first report described the study and research methodology and cited preliminary findings that 1) problems and coping strategies tended to be universal and age-related; 2) impoverished subjects from Brazil, India, the Philippines, and Venezuela had more problems than any other adolescents; 3) problems were usually related to school, family, and identity rather than to sexuality; and 4) the most common coping strategy was individual problem-solving. This report compares male/female identification of up to three problems that cause worry, response to such problems, and help-seeking behavior. All adolescents cited problems in school, identity, and family. Males and females reported similar coping strategies and showed a strong dependence on individual coping strategies. Both males and females choose personal friends and family members as those most likely to help with problems. Males exhibited a higher percentage of problems related to school and a lower percentage of family problems. Russian adolescents reported more problems relating to altruism than any other group, especially males. These results imply that strong similarities exist for males and females, and the findings are worrisome in that problems related to sexuality were not cited. Counselors should expect the concerns of adolescents to be developmentally related and to overwhelm gender differences.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a neuromuscular warm-up program in preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football (soccer) players. Cluster randomized (by team) controlled trial, stratified by geographical district. Sample size was calculated (n = 8118) with 80% power to show a reduction of 50% in an estimated 1.15% annual incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at P ≤ 0.05. Clubs in 8 regional districts of the Swedish Football Association, during the 2009 season (April through October). Female under-14 to under-18 football clubs (ages 12-17 years) were recruited. Reasons for the exclusion of clubs were lack of response, injuries. Diagnosis was confirmed, as appropriate, by a physician and by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes were the rates of serious knee injury and any acute knee injury, defined as those with sudden onset during play that led to a player being unable to participate in training or competition. Severe injuries were those that caused absences of >4 weeks. Two study therapists evaluated the injuries. The coaches recorded data, including when the intervention was performed, any injuries, individual playing times, and periods of absence. Assessment of the primary outcome was done by physicians blinded to group assignment. During 278 298 hours of play, 96 knee injuries occurred in 92 players (intervention group 48, control group 44). The rate did not differ between groups. Of the 21 ACL injuries, 7 occurred in the intervention group and 14 in the control group, giving a rate ratio (RR) of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.85; P = 0.02). Severe injuries (intervention group 26, control group 31) did not differ between groups. They included 22 collateral or capsular sprains, 21 ACL injuries, 7 patella dislocations or subluxations, 6 meniscal or chondral lesions, and 1 tibial plateau fracture. Compliant players (those who performed ≥ 1 exercise session per week; 1303 players) had a lower rate of ACL injury
Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515
Kersten, Linda; Prätzlich, Martin; Mannstadt, Sandra; Ackermann, Katharina; Kohls, Gregor; Oldenhof, Helena; Saure, Daniel; Krieger, Katrin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Popma, Arne; Freitag, Christine M; Trestman, Robert L; Stadler, Christina
In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands. It is intended to enhance psychosocial adjustment and well-being as well as reduce oppositional and aggressive behaviour. We present the study protocol (version 4.1; 10 February 2016) of the FemNAT-CD intervention trial titled 'Group-Based Treatment of Adolescent Female Conduct Disorders: The Central Role of Emotion Regulation'. The study is a prospective, confirmatory, cluster-randomised, parallel-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial with 128 institutionalised female adolescents who fulfil the diagnostic criteria of ODD and/or CD. Institutions/wards will be randomised either to provide the 12-week skills training as an add-on intervention or to provide treatment as usual. Once the first cycle is completed, each institution will run a second cycle with the opposite condition. Primary endpoints are the pre-post change in number of CD/ODD symptoms as assessed by a standardised, semi-structured psychiatric interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, CD/ODD section) between baseline and the end of intervention, as well as between baseline and a 3-month follow-up point. Secondary objectives include pre-post change in CD/ODD-related outcome measures, most notably emotional regulation on a behavioural and neurobiological level after completion of START NOW compared with treatment as usual. To our
Duncan, Amie; Ruble, Lisa A; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Thomas, Carrie; Stark, Lori J
Daily living skills deficits are strongly associated with poor adult outcomes for individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, and yet, there are no group interventions targeting daily living skills. Seven adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents participated in a feasibility pilot of a 12-week manualized group treatment targeting specific daily living skills (i.e. morning routine, cooking, laundry, and money management). Outcomes included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) age equivalence scores and four goal attainment scaling scores. Adolescents demonstrated significant improvement on two Vineland-II subdomains and on all goal attainment scaling scores at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. The intervention has promise for improving critical daily living skills' deficits that affect independent living and employment. Limitations and implications for future studies are discussed.
Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Gregory D; Chen, Stephen S; Hewett, Timothy E
Anterior knee pain is a common disorder in female athletes with an undefined cause. The relative prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders associated with anterior knee pain in adolescent females remains undetermined. To determine the prevalence of specific patellofemoral disorders obtained using the differential diagnosis of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes during preparticipation screening. Descriptive epidemiology study. Preparticipation screening evaluations at a county public school district in Kentucky. A total of 419 unique middle and high school-aged female athletes. Participants were evaluated by physicians for anterior knee pain over 3 consecutive basketball seasons. Given the longitudinal nature of this study, some participants were tested longitudinally over multiple years. Over the course of 3 basketball seasons, 688 patient evaluations were performed. Of these, 183 (26.6%) were positive for anterior knee pain. A statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of anterior knee pain by school level, with 34.4% (n = 67) in high school-aged athletes versus 23.5% (n = 116) in middle school-aged athletes (P patellar tendinopathy, with 38 cases (9.7%) in high school-aged and 31 (3.1%) in middle school-aged athletes (P < .05). Anterior knee pain was present in 26.6% of the adolescent female athletes screened over 3 years. Symptoms of anterior knee pain likely persist after middle school-aged onset and reach peak prevalence during the high school years.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Brown, Brandon
Very little is known about the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) in general and the needs of those in Nigeria specifically. A review was conducted to identify the SRH of ALHIV, assess if these are different from the SRH of adolescents who are free from HIV infection, and from those of adults living with HIV. Few research have been conducted on how ALHIV deal with sexual and reproductive health challenges faced in their everyday lives - as adolescents and as persons living with HIV living in sub-Saharan Africa - to help make any meaningful inferences on these differing needs. The review suggests that the SRH needs and practices of ALHIV may differ from that of other adolescents and that of adults living with HIV. ALHIV would require support to cope with sex and sexual needs, through full integration of individualized SRH services into the HIV services received. Service providers need to appreciate the individualistic nature of health problems of ALHIV and address their health care from this holistic perspective. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach for designing SRH programmes for ALHIV would not be appropriate. We conclude that research evidence should inform the design and implementation of ALHIV friendly SRH programmes services in both urban and rural settings in Nigeria.
Rossman, Sam; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stolen, Megan; Barros, Nélio B.; Gandhi, Hasand; Stricker, Craig A.; Wells, Randall S.
We examine individual specialization in foraging habits (foraging habitat and trophic level) of female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, by analyzing time series of stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) values in sequential growth layer groups within teeth. The isotope data provide a chronology of foraging habits over the lifetime of the individual and allowed us to show that female bottlenose dolphins exhibit a high degree of individual specialization in both foraging habitat and trophic level. The foraging habits used by adult females are similar to those they used as calves and may be passed down from mother to calf through social learning. We also characterized the foraging habits and home range of each individual by constructing standard ellipses from isotope values and dolphin sightings data (latitude and longitude), respectively. These data show that Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphins forage within a subset of the habitats in which they are observed. Moreover, females with similar observational standard ellipses often possessed different foraging specializations. Female bottlenose dolphins may demonstrate individual specialization in foraging habits because it reduces some of the cost of living in groups, such as competition for prey.
Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka
In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Full Text Available In 1993-1994, a psychosocial intervention conducted in New York City significantly improved outcomes for parents living with HIV and their adolescent children over six years. We examine if the intervention benefits are similar for adolescents of mothers living with HIV (MLH in 2004-2005 in Los Angeles when MLH's survival had increased substantially.Adolescents of MLH in Los Angeles (N = 256 aged 12-20 years old were randomized with their MLH to either: 1 a standard care condition (n = 120 adolescent-MLH dyads; or 2 an intervention condition consisting of small group activities to build coping skills (n = 136 adolescent-MLH dyads, 78% attended the intervention. At 18 months, 94.7% of adolescents were reassessed. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined if intervention participation impacted adolescents' relationships with parents and their sexual risk behaviors.Compared to the standard care, adolescents in the intervention condition reported significantly more positive family bonds 18 months later. Greater participation by MLH predicted fewer family conflicts, and was indirectly associated with less adolescent sexual risk behavior at the 18 month follow-up assessment. Anticipated developmental patterns were observed--sexual risk acts increased with age. Reports were also consistent with anticipated gender roles; girls reported better bonds with their mothers at 18 months, compared to boys.Adolescents of MLH have better bonds with their mothers as a function of participating in a coping skills intervention and reduced sexual risk-taking as a function of MLH intervention involvement.
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from
Bermudez, Laura Gauer; Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia; Mellins, Claude; McKay, Mary
Studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that children made vulnerable by poverty have been disproportionately affected by HIV with many exposed via mother-to-child transmission. For youth living with HIV, adherence to life-saving treatment regimens are likely to be affected by the complex set of economic and social circumstances that challenge their families and also exacerbate health problems. Using baseline data from the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) funded Suubi+Adherence study, we examined the extent to which individual and composite measures of equity predict self-reported adherence among Ugandan adolescents aged 10-16 (n = 702) living with HIV. Results showed that greater asset ownership, specifically familial possession of seven or more tangible assets, was associated with greater odds of self-reported adherence (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.85). Our analyses also indicated that distance to the nearest health clinic impacts youth's adherence to an ARV regimen. Youth who reported living nearest to a clinic were significantly more likely to report optimal adherence (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 0.92-2.40). Moreover, applying the composite equity scores, we found that adolescents with greater economic advantage in ownership of household assets, financial savings, and caregiver employment had higher odds of adherence by a factor of 1.70 (95% CI: 1.07-2.70). These findings suggest that interventions addressing economic and social inequities may be beneficial to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among economically vulnerable youth, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This is one of the first studies to address the question of equity in adherence to ART among economically vulnerable youth with HIV.
Ryan, Catherine Agnes
The public school superintendent is the least progressive position in education at integrating women and balancing the scales of equitable representation. Statistical data indicates there are far fewer females than males serving as superintendents. Current statistics show women make up: 1) over 70 percent of all public school educators; 2) nearly…
Okomo, Uduak; Ogugbue, Miriam; Inyang, Elizabeth; Meremikwu, Martin M
Female sexual dysfunction is the persistent or recurring decrease in sexual desire or arousal, the difficulty or inability to achieve an orgasm, and/or the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse. Impaired sexual function can occur with all types of female genital mutilation (FGM) owing to the structural changes, pain, or traumatic memories associated with the procedure. To conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies into the effects of sexual counseling with or without genital lubricants on the sexual function of women living with FGM. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, African Index Medicus, SCOPUS, LILACS, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, and other databases were searched to August 2015. The reference lists of retrieved studies were checked for reports of additional studies, and lead authors contacted for additional data. Studies of girls and women living with any type of FGM who received counselling interventions for sexual dysfunction were included. No relevant studies that addressed the objective of the review were identified. Despite a comprehensive search, the authors could not find evidence of the effects of sexual counseling on the sexual function of women living with FGM. Studies assessing this intervention are needed. CRD42015024593. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
da Costa, Natália Ferreira; Schtscherbyna, Annie; Soares, Eliane Abreu; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves
To verify associations among body composition, biochemical parameters, and food intake in adolescent female swimmers with and without disordered eating (DE). Seventy-seven athletes 11 to 19 y old from clubs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. DE was assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; and Body Shape Questionnaire), body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and food intake by a 3-d diet record. Biochemical parameters related to iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were analyzed. The Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Spearman coefficient were calculated. DE was found in 44.2% of the sample. DE-positive compared with DE-negative athletes presented greater body fat percentage (11-14 y: 27.5% versus 23.4%, P = 0.023; 15-19 y: 30.2% versus 24.1%, P = 0.006) and fat mass (11-14 y: 13.8 versus 10.3 kg, P = 0.010; 15-19 y: 17.0 versus 13.2 kg, P = 0.027). In relation to food intake, DE-positive athletes presented lower protein consumption in the 11- to 14-y-old group and lower calcium intake adequacy in the 15- to 19-y-old group. Most other dietary parameters showed a low adequacy of consumption, with no difference between athletes with and without DE. Four DE-positive athletes presented anemia or iron deficiency. DE-positive compared with DE-negative athletes presented a higher percentage of body fat and fat mass, lower protein consumption in the 11- to 14-y-old group, and lower calcium intake adequacy in the 15- to 19-y-old group. Greater attention should be given to the nutritional state of these athletes, considering the number of adolescents with anemia and an inadequate dietary intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andon, M B; Ilich, J Z; Tzagournis, M A; Matkovic, V
Increasing emphasis is being placed on optimizing calcium intake during growth as a way to enhance peak bone mass. Although some studies in adults have shown that high calcium intake may negatively affect magnesium utilization, few data are available regarding the interaction of calcium and magnesium in healthy children. The purpose of our study was to measure the effect of calcium intake on magnesium balance in 26 adolescent girls (mean age 11.3 y) during a 14-d period. Subjects ate a controlled basal diet containing 667 mg Ca and 176 mg Mg. In addition to the basal diet, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume 1000 mg elemental Ca/d as calcium citrate malate or a placebo. Magnesium use did not differ between the low-calcium and high-calcium groups as measured by absorption (50% compared with 55%), urinary excretion (70 compared with 74 mg/d), and fecal excretion (88 compared with 79 mg/d). Accordingly, magnesium balance was not different in subjects consuming 667 or 1667 mg Ca/d and averaged 21 mg Mg/d for the whole study group. Magnesium balance was significantly correlated with magnesium intake (r = 0.511, P = 0.008) and magnesium absorption (r = 0.723, P or = 8.5 mg/d in 95% of the girls. This value appears consistent with long-term accretion rates needed to account for the expansion of the total-body magnesium pool during growth. In summary, our observations support the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and indicate that alterations in magnesium utilization should not be anticipated in adolescent females consuming a high-calcium diet.
Secor-Turner, Molly; McMorris, Barbara; Sieving, Renee; Bearinger, Linda H.
CONTEXT Understanding the interplay of multiple contexts of adolescents’ sexual risk behaviors is essential to helping them avoid pregnancy and STDs. Although a body of research has identified multiple individual- and family-level variables associated with adolescents’ sexual risk behaviors, relatively few studies have examined relationships between these behaviors and latent indicators of unstable, chaotic environments. METHODS In 2007–2008, a sample of 241 sexually active adolescent females who were at high risk for pregnancy and STDs were recruited through two school-based clinics and two community clinics in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Confirmatory factor analysis was used with baseline data to specify latent constructs of individual risk and family disengagement. Structural equation models examined longitudinal relationships between baseline measures of these constructs and sexual risk behaviors assessed six months later. RESULTS The latent construct of individual risk encompassed substance use, violence perpetration, violence victimization and having witnessed violence; that of family disengagement included family disconnection, poor family communication and perceived lack of safety at home. Baseline level of individual risk was positively associated with number of male sex partners six months later (path coefficient, 0.2); it was not associated with consistent condom use at follow-up. Level of family disengagement was negatively associated with condom use consistency six months later (−0.3), but was not associated with number of male sex partners. CONCLUSIONS To meet the health needs of vulnerable adolescents, health systems should incorporate coordinated and interdisciplinary services that acknowledge adolescents’ relevant familial and social contexts. PMID:23750624
Toro, Josep; Gomez-Peresmitré, Gilda; Sentis, Joan; Vallés, Antoni; Casulà, Vanesa; Castro, Josefina; Pineda, Gisela; Leon, Rodrigo; Platas, Silvia; Rodriguez, Rosalia
To compare the prevalence of eating disorders (ED), socio-cultural risk factors, and body image characteristics in two populations of female adolescents, one Mexican and one Spanish, from similar socio-economic backgrounds. A total of 467 Spanish and 329 Mexican girls aged from 11-12 to 17-18 years were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), the CETCA (Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire), the CIMEC (Questionnaire on Influences on Body Shape Model), and a survey of socio-demographic and risk factors produced for this study. One out of four subjects showed a significant risk of an eating disorder and 6-7% probably already had one. No significant differences were found between the two samples. Significant differences were found in risk behaviors: more Spanish girls reported body dissatisfaction and binging; more Mexican girls had a history of psychiatric and psychological treatment, pressure from parents and friends to lose weight, dieting, physical activity and vomiting to lose weight, and a history of greater weight loss. In both the groups around 50% of subjects wanted to increase the size of their breasts. However, significantly more Mexican girls desired thinner arms and narrower shoulders and back, and more Spanish girls wanted thinner hips, buttocks, and legs, parts of the body that many Mexicans wanted to increase. Risk behaviors and the ideal body models of these Spanish and Mexican adolescent girls varied significantly, indicating major socio-cultural differences. However, the prevalence of ED was similar. Further research should aim to clarify whether the similarities found between this Spanish sample and a Mexican sample taken from an upper-middle class urban environment, a minority that is unrepresentative of the general population, are also observed in samples from other sectors of Mexican society.
Jozefiak, T; Kayed, NS; Ranoyen, I; Greger, HK; Wallander, JL; Wichstrom, L
Purpose Many adolescents living in residential youth care (RYC) institutions perceive their quality of life (QoL) to be low. Enhancing QoL is thus important, but little is known about the potential contributors to their QoL. Early interpersonal trauma and subsequent removal from home and repeated relocations to new placements are expected to affect mental health and self-esteem. We therefore investigated if domain-specific self-esteem contributed to QoL among adolescents living in RYC ins...
This study addressed the lived experience of corporate executive women who have had a trusted advisor. The relayed impact and significance of trusted advisors for their career development was portrayed. Traditionally, women lagged behind men in numbers in key corporate positions. Due to increased international efforts to level the playing field…
Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla
Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and its influence on school-attendance in Northeast Ethiopia. We conducted a mixed-method research combining quantitative and qualitative methods in Northeast Ethiopia. The quantitative study was conducted among 595 randomly selected adolescent school girls. Nine in-depth interviews; five school-dropout girls and four female teachers, and four focus group discussions among school girls were conducted in 2013. The mean age at menarche was 13.98 (±1.17) years. About 51% of girls had knowledge about menstruation and its management. Only a third of the girls used sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent during their last menstruation. Girls from urban areas, had mothers of secondary and above education and, families of higher monthly expenditure had more chance of using sanitary napkins than their counterparts. More than half of the girls reported to have been absent from school during their menstruation period. Those who did not use sanitary napkins were more likely to be absent from school [AOR-95% C.I: 5.37 (3.02 - 9.55)]. Fifty eight percent of girls reported that their school-performance had declined after they had menarche. In addition, the qualitative study indicated that school-dropout was common among girls who experienced teasing and humiliation by classmates when their clothes were stained with blood as they do not use sanitary napkins. Though there is an effort to increase girls' school enrollment, lack of basic needs, like sanitary napkins that facilitate routine activates of girls
Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.
Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maldonado, Antoniette M; Kirstein, Cheryl L
Adolescence is a period of transition that is associated with increased levels of stress and a heightened propensity to initiate drug use. Neuronal development is still occurring during this transitional period, which includes the continued development of the dopamine system during the adolescent period. In the present study, the effects of pre-test handling on cocaine-induced locomotor activity were investigated among female adolescent and young adult rats upon presentation to a novel environment. On postnatal days (PND) 41-44 and 56-59 animals were handled (b.i.d.) in the colony room for 3 min. On PND 45 or PND 60, animals were removed from the colony room, weighed, and administered an acute injection of either cocaine or saline and presented to a novel environment where behavior was recorded for 30 min. Adolescent females (PND 45) that were handled prior to cocaine administration demonstrated elevated levels of cocaine-induced activity relative to their age-matched non-handled counterparts and also to their handled-adult counterparts. In contrast, among non-handled animals, young adults (PND 60) exhibited elevated drug-induced locomotion at several time points during the trial. Non-handled adolescent animals demonstrated the previously described "hyporesponsive" behavioral profile relative to their non-handled adult counterparts. The results from the present experiment indicate that adolescent animals may be more sensitive to basic laboratory manipulations such as pre-test handling, and care must be taken when utilizing adolescent animals in behavioral testing. Handling appears to be a sensitive manipulation in elucidating differences in cocaine-induced behavioral activation between ages.
Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo
Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.
Rao, D. Raghunatha; Vijayapushpam, T.; Rao, N. Amulya; Dube, Anilkumar; Venkaiah, K.
Purpose: Consumption of right diet during the adolescent phase is a critical issue among the adolescent population as their eating behavior is significantly influenced by the peers. Therefore, a study was carried out to educate the school-going adolescent girls living in urban slums of Hyderabad, Telangana, India on right nutrition. Methods: The…
Welch, Elisabeth; Ghaderi, Ata; Swenne, Ingemar
Eating disorders (ED) are serious disorders that have a negative impact on both the psychological and the physiological well-being of the afflicted. Despite the fact that ED affect both genders, males are often underrepresented in research and when included the sample sizes are often too small for separate analyses. Consequently we have an unclear and sometimes contradictory picture of the clinical characteristics of males with ED. The aim of the present study was to improve our understanding of the clinical features of adolescent males with eating disorders. We compared age at presentation, weight at presentation, history of significantly different premorbid weight and psychiatric (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)) and somatic comorbidity (celiac disease and diabetes) of 58 males to 606 females seeking medical care for eating disorders at the Children's Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden during the years 1999-2012. As all boys were diagnosed with either AN or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) atypical AN, the age and weight comparisons were limited to those girls fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for AN or OSFED atypical AN. There was no significant difference in age at presentation. Differences in weight at presentation and premorbid weight history were mixed. A significantly higher percentage of males had a history of a BMI greater than two standard deviations above the mean for their corresponding age group. As well, there was a higher prevalence of ADHD among the males whereas celiac disease and diabetes only was found among the females. A better understanding of the clinical characteristics of males with ED at presentation should improve our ability to identify males with ED and thereby aid in tailoring the best treatment alternatives.
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339
Cenker Zeki Koyuncuoğlu
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate oral health status and oral hygiene practices of female adolescents under state protection. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-five female participants between the age of 12 and 18 who are under the care of The Child Protection Institution were included in this study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding knowledge of oral health and habits. Dental caries status was scored according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, using the indices of Decayed (D, Missing (M, Filled (F, Surfaces (S (DMFS. In addition, Gingival Index (GI and Plaque Index (PI were recorded during periodontal assessment. Data were statistically analyzed by using Oneway analysis of variance, Tukey’s HSD and Student’s t tests. Results: Fourteen children had dental fear and 52.7% of them were not satisfied with their esthetic appearance. Although 78.2% of the children knew that brushing prevents dental caries, only 18 of them were brushing regularly twice per day. Mean DMFS, GI and PI scores were 13.18±5.68, 1.35±0.37 and 1.33±0.45, respectively. Only 20% of the children were using dental floss. There was statistically no significant difference between the DMFS scores of the children in terms of flossing. However, the difference between the mean GI and PI of the same group was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Children under state protection were found to have a reasonable knowledge of the causes of dental caries and gingival bleeding. Therefore, adequate management of this positive attitude can significantly improve the oral health of this population.
Wolfe, Kristin L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Owen, Victoria J; Rial, Katherine V; Moorehead, Alexandra P; Kennard, Beth D; Emslie, Graham J
We examined hopelessness as a predictor of suicide ideation in depressed youth after acute medication treatment. A total of 158 depressed adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) as part of a larger battery at baseline and at weekly visits across 6 weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was administered at baseline and week 6. A negative binomial regression model via a generalized estimating equation analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate suicide ideation over the 6 weeks of acute treatment from baseline measure of hopelessness. Depression severity and gender were included as covariates in the model. The negative binomial analysis was also conducted separately for the sample of males and females (in a gender-stratified analysis). Mean CDRS-R total scores were 60.30 ± 8.93 at baseline and 34.65 ± 10.41 at week 6. Mean baseline and week 6 BHS scores were 9.57 ± 5.51 and 5.59 ± 5.38, respectively. Per the C-SSRS, 43.04% and 83.54% reported having no suicide ideation at baseline and at week 6, respectively. The analyses revealed that baseline hopelessness was positively related to suicide ideation over treatment (p = .0027), independent of changes in depression severity. This significant finding persisted only for females (p = .0024). These results indicate the importance of early identification of hopelessness. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.
The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)
Iva A. E. Bicanic
Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.
Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. It is the most common deformity of the immature spine. The essential goal of treatment is to allow patients with scoliosis to avoid cardiopulmonary and neurological problems, and to improve the patient's appearance and future quality of life. Kinesio Taping is a method used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. The effects of Kinesio Taping is to relieve pain or abnormal feeling on the skin and fascia, supports the muscle in movement, removes congestion of lymphatic fluid or hemorrhages under the skin, and corrects misalignment of the muscle, fascia, and joint. Forty adolescent females complain from scoliosis their ages ranged from 11 to 17 years old, and their BMI was from 15 to 25 kg/m². They were divided randomly into two groups. Group A received therapeutic exercises for scoliosis, while group B received therapeutic exercise in addition to kinesio taping. X ray plain used for measuring of Cobb’s angle and present pain intensity (Ppi for pain assessment before and after treatment. There was a significant reduction of Cobb's angle and pain intensity at post treatment at both groups (p<0.05. There were significant reduction p<0.0001 in Ppi and this significant reduction in favor of group B. There was no significant differences between both groups in Cobb’s angle. Exercises for scoliosis and exercises augmented by kinesio taping had a significant effects on reduction of both Cobb’s angle and pain intensity.
Full Text Available Introduction: Bilateral gluteus muscle contracture is a rare entity. “Idiopathic contracture of gluteus maximus” a term proposed by Gao is a rare condition.It present as typical complain of inability to squat with patient assuming a typical frog leg position.Case Report: We report a case of idiopathic gluteal muscle contracture in adolescent female presenting with inability to squat, sit cross legged and painless awkward gait. The patient could not sit comfortably except in a high chair position. No history of repeated intramuscular injections in the buttocks or signs suggestive of post-polio residual paralysis. All her investigations were within normal limit. Our patient belonged to type III according to GMC classification and underwent surgical release of fibrotic band of gluteal maximus muscle. Patient had remarkable recovery with patient able to squat and sit cross-legged within 4 weeks of surgery.Conclusion: Gluteal maximus contracture, though rare, present with characteristic clinical symptom and should not be missed. Our patient though presented late showed excellent result after surgical release.
Pathak, Abhishek; Shukla, Jiten
Bilateral gluteus muscle contracture is a rare entity. "Idiopathic contracture of gluteus maximus" a term proposed by Gao is a rare condition. It present as typical complain of inability to squat with patient assuming a typical frog leg position. We report a case of idiopathic gluteal muscle contracture in adolescent female presenting with inability to squat, sit cross legged and painless awkward gait. The patient could not sit comfortably except in a high chair position. No history of repeated intramuscular injections in the buttocks or signs suggestive of post-polio residual paralysis. All her investigations were within normal limit. Our patient belonged to type III according to GMC classification and underwent surgical release of fibrotic band of gluteal maximus muscle. Patient had remarkable recovery with patient able to squat and sit cross-legged within 4 weeks of surgery. Gluteal maximus contracture, though rare, present with characteristic clinical symptom and should not be missed. Our patient though presented late showed excellent result after surgical release.
Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad
Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381
Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual health education at schools in 2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was completed by the healthcare workers in order to assess their competence in sexual health education at healthcare centers of Khuzestan, Iran. To assess the competence of the participants (i.e., knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance, descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative variables. Also, mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the subjects’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance. Also, the association between demographic variables and participants’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance was evaluated, using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and confidence of healthcare workers in sexual health education were desirable. However, the subjects showed a poor performance in teaching students the required skills to control their emotions, instincts, homosexual tendencies, and masturbation. There was a significant correlation between performance, attitude, and confidence, knowledge and attitude, performance and confidence, and confidence, performance, and attitude (P
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period that implies a series of rapid changes that might complicate the role of parents. This study evaluates changes in parental monitoring and the strategies to solve family conflicts reported by parents who participated in the "Living Adolescence in Family" program in local social services and school centers. In addition, the study analyses the moderating role of family and facilitator variables that may affect the final results. The participants were 697 parents attending the social services (438 in the intervention group and 259 in the control group and 1283 parents from school centers (880 in the intervention group and 403 in the control group. The results showed that families from local social services decreased the amount of control and improved monitoring in education and leisure spheres as well as self-disclosure whereas the families coming from school centers improved supervision in leisure and in self-disclosure. In addition, both groups of families improved their strategies for solving family conflicts, increasing the use of integrative strategies and decreasing the use of dominant strategies. There were differences across contexts: the results of the program in the social services context differed according to the participant and professional profiles whereas program results were more homogeneous in the school context. In sum, the program appears to be an efficient work tool, both for the professionals who work with at-risk families with adolescents and for the teachers who make use of the program for families with children at risk of early school dropout.