WorldWideScience

Sample records for fellow jurors reshapes

  1. From Group Member to Democratic Citizen: How Deliberating with Fellow Jurors Reshapes Civic Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, John; Black, Laura W.; Deess, E. Pierre; Leighter, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This investigation assesses the attitudinal impact of one of America's most distinctive and famous group activities--jury deliberation. Tocqueville and the U.S. Supreme Court have both reasoned that jury service can promote civic engagement and recent research supports this view. The present study examines whether the attitudinal impact of jury…

  2. Understanding Pretrial Publicity: Predecisional Distortion of Evidence by Mock Jurors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Memon, Amina; McGeorge, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Prejudicial pretrial publicity (PTP) constitutes a serious source of juror bias. The current study examined differences in predecisional distortion for mock jurors exposed to negative PTP (N-PTP) versus nonexposed control participants. According to work by K. A. Carlson and J. E. Russo (2001), predecisional distortion occurs when jurors bias new…

  3. Juror Reactions to Attorneys at Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shari Seidman Diamond; Jonathan D. Casper; Cami L. Heiert; Anna-Maria Marshall

    1996-01-01

    ...(1) and law journal articles.(2) The widely available litigation advice, though inconsistent, uniformly assumes that the lawyer's behavior is crucial to the outcome of the case. The empirical literature on juror reactions to attorneys reveals a less extensive collection of findings. Several studies have shown how variations in opening stateme...

  4. New procedures for Fellows nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    On January 30, 2000, the Union Fellows Committee met and elected 37 new members for Fellowship.The Fellows Committee's selection of Fellows is the last step in a process that begins with the nomination of members by their colleagues.

  5. Reshaping a mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatel, Fredric S

    2003-01-01

    A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth that is found in the midline of the maxilla. Fifteen percent erupt usually between the ages of 3 and 7. The standard treatment is extraction of the supernumerary to allow the permanent incisors to erupt properly. This case report describes an instance where the primary incisor was prematurely exfoliated due to the eruption of the mesiodens. Because of the favorable position of the mesiodens in the dental arch, it was decided to reshape the supernumerary to resemble a primary incisor. This was accomplished successfully, and the mesiodens is being monitored to assess any need to trim or add to the bonding material as the child grows.

  6. Calf lipo-reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Roberto; Meruane, Manuel; González, Dante; Wisnia, Pamela; Hasbún, Andrea; Villalobos, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    Augmentation and remodelling of the calf is becoming more and more frequent, representing a challenge for the surgeon who must consider this body zone as a functional and aesthetical whole. Historically, calf reshaping has been carried out with silicone implants, mainly in the subaponeurotic plane; nonetheless, as in other body sites it is possible to perform lipoinjection which is a reliable procedure with minimal scarring and a lasting outcome with rare, long-term complications. Between the years 2009 and 2011, five patients (three women and two men) underwent bilateral calf liporemodelling. Follow-up was between 6 and 18 months. The larger perimeter of each calf was measured for follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to localise the injected fat at the end of the follow-up period in two of the patients. An average of 126.8±21.2 cc was lipoinjected into each calf. The average final augmentation in the larger perimeter of each leg was 2.8 cm. All patients obtained a good aesthetical outcome and were satisfied. No important complications were seen in this series. According to our experience and outcomes we can recommend the liporemodelling technique of the calf as a valid alternative for the reshaping of the distal third of the inferior extremity. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  8. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  9. The emotional child witness: effects on juror decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alexia; Quas, Jodi A; Cleveland, Kyndra C

    2014-01-01

    Despite wide variations in child witness behavior while on the stand, little research has focused on how that behavior influences jurors' perceptions of the child's credibility or the case itself. In the current study, the impact of a child's emotional displays on credibility judgments and verdict preferences was examined in jury-eligible college students and jurors released from jury duty. No significant differences emerged in perceptions or verdicts based on whether a child was shown as crying or not while participants read a transcript of the child's testimony. However, participants who rated the child as more emotional (regardless of whether the image showed a crying child) were more likely to render guilty verdicts, were more certain of guilt, and found the child more credible and the defendant less credible than participants who rated the child as less emotional. Also, when the child was perceived as low in emotion, older children were rated as less credible than younger children. The results have implications for understanding how children's emotional displays and jurors' perceptions of children's emotionality influence decisions in sexual abuse cases.

  10. Effects of child interview tactics on prospective jurors' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonni L; Shelley, Alexandra E

    2014-01-01

    Although decisions in child sexual abuse (CSA) cases are influenced by many factors (e.g., child age, juror gender), case and trial characteristics (e.g., interview quality) can strongly influence legal outcomes. In the present study, 319 prospective jurors read about a CSA investigation in which the alleged victim was interviewed at a child advocacy center (CAC) or traditional police setting. The prospective jurors then provided legally relevant ratings (e.g., child credibility, interview quality, defendant guilt). Structural equation modeling techniques revealed that child credibility predicted greater confidence in guilt decisions and also mediated all associations with such decisions. Having fewer negative prior opinions and rating the interview as of better quality were associated with higher child credibility ratings. Mitigating factors (e.g., interview quality), as opposed to proxy indicators (e.g., participant gender), better predicted CSA case outcomes. Similar associations across groups (e.g., CAC interviews did not make child victims more or less credible) permit a tentative conclusion that CACs do not positively or negatively affect decisions made in hypothetical CSA cases. Ideas for future studies examining factors influencing decisions in CSA cases are discussed.

  11. Reshaping JSON with jq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lincoln

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available JSON (JavaScript Object Notation is a common data sharing format that can describe complex relationships. Many libraries, archives, museums, and social media sites expose their data through JSON-based APIs. (On accessing APIs, see downloading structured data with wget and the series of lessons on working with APIs. However, many tools for data analysis and visualization require input in flat tables (i.e. CSV, and because JSON is such a flexible data format, often with many nested levels of data, there is no one-size-fits-all graphical user interface for transforming JSON into other formats. Working with data from an art museum API and from the Twitter API, this lesson teaches how to use the command-line utility jq to filter and parse complex JSON files into flat CSV files. This lesson will begin with an overview of the basic operators of the jq query syntax. Next, you will learn progressively more complex ways of connecting these operators together. By the end of the lesson, you will understand how to combine basic operators to create queries that can reshape many types of JSON data.

  12. Gender Differences in Jurors' Perceptions of Infanticide Involving Disabled and Non-Disabled Infant Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L.; Kalder, Alaine K.; Stevenson, Margaret C.; Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Wiley, Tisha R.; Perona, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the influence of juror gender and infant victim disability on jurors' reactions to infanticide cases. Methods: Participants (men and women undergraduates) read a summary of a mock trial involving alleged father-perpetrated infanticide. The infant was described as severely mentally disabled or as not…

  13. Negative and Positive Pretrial Publicity Affect Juror Memory and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L.; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants…

  14. Expert testimony influences juror decisions in criminal trials involving recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Ayesha; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of expert witness orientation (researcher or clinical practitioner) and type of testimony (testimony for the prosecution, defense, both prosecution and defense, or no testimony) on mock jurors' decisions in a sexual abuse trial. Participants acted as mock jurors on a sexual abuse criminal trial based on recovered memory that included expert witness testimony. Results showed that expert witness testimony provided by a researcher did not impact mock jurors' guilt ratings any differently than the expert witness testimony provided by a clinical practitioner. However, type of testimony had a significant effect on jurors' guilt ratings such that jurors who read only defense or only prosecution testimony made decisions favoring the relevant side.

  15. 2004 Fellows Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    AGU congratulates the forty-one distinguished scientists who were selected by a committee of their peers to be AGU Fellows for 2004. This selection was based on the individuals' attainment of acknowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows selected annually is limited to no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership: Andrew D. Barry, Enrico Bonatti, Edward V. Bromwell, John P. Burrows, Philip R. Christensen, William B. Curry, Judith Curry, Margaret L. Delaney, Steven R. Emerson, Brian J. Evans, Donald H. Fairfield, Marvin Geller, David Green, William Holt, Roy Hyndman, David E. James, James F. Kasting, Peter Kelemen, Paul J. Kellogg, Michael J. Kirkby, Daniel Loucks, P.M. Mathews, Jean-Paul Montagner, William R. Normark, Gerald R. North, Michael O'Hara, Ronald S. Oremland, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Joseph Prospero, Karsten Pruess, Edmond C. Roelof, Gary Rottman, Allan Rubin, Ernest H. Rutter, John H. Seinfeld, Sharon Smith, Pieter Tans, John M. Toole, Jean-Pierre Valet, Lionel Wilson, and E. L. Winterer

  16. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2012-01-01

    in the surging wave area. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the erosion area based on recession formulae and the depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile is presented and is applicable for hardly reshaping to fully reshaping. Even when using the only very simple and inaccurate estimate...

  17. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  18. Goffman on the jury: real jurors' attention to the "offstage" of trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary R; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Baker, Kimberly M

    2010-08-01

    Social psychologist Erving Goffman, in his classic work The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, provides a framework that explains why jurors may turn their attention at the courthouse to information not formally presented from the witness stand. We dub this "offstage observation," a type of juror behavior that has not been systematically examined empirically. Analyzing a unique data source of 50 actual jury deliberations in civil trials, we find that jurors do look to the offstage in evaluating the claims of the parties. However, in contrast to predictions, these observations played a surprisingly minor role in the jury deliberation process.

  19. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Acapulco, Mexico. A formal ceremony was held on 25 May 2007, where President Tim Killeen introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by an honors fiesta at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees.

  20. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  1. Culture in the Courtroom: Ethnocentrism and Juror Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn M Maeder

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a culturally-based argument in a non-insane automatism defense would be detrimental or beneficial to the defendant. We also examined how juror ethnocentrism might affect perceptions of such a defense. Participants read a fictional filicide homicide case in which the defendant claimed to have blacked out during the crime; we manipulated whether culture was used as an explanation for what precipitated the defendant's blackout. We conducted path analyses to assess the role of ethnocentrism in predicting lower defendant credibility, and harsher verdict decisions. Results revealed an interaction between ethnocentrism and defense type, such that ethnocentrism related to lower perceived defendant credibility in the cultural condition, but not in the standard automatism condition. This study marks a starting point for empirically investigating the role of culture in the courtroom, which may aid scholars in discussing the merits of a standalone cultural defense.

  2. Culture in the Courtroom: Ethnocentrism and Juror Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Evelyn M; Yamamoto, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a culturally-based argument in a non-insane automatism defense would be detrimental or beneficial to the defendant. We also examined how juror ethnocentrism might affect perceptions of such a defense. Participants read a fictional filicide homicide case in which the defendant claimed to have blacked out during the crime; we manipulated whether culture was used as an explanation for what precipitated the defendant's blackout. We conducted path analyses to assess the role of ethnocentrism in predicting lower defendant credibility, and harsher verdict decisions. Results revealed an interaction between ethnocentrism and defense type, such that ethnocentrism related to lower perceived defendant credibility in the cultural condition, but not in the standard automatism condition. This study marks a starting point for empirically investigating the role of culture in the courtroom, which may aid scholars in discussing the merits of a standalone cultural defense.

  3. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The 2009 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. At a formal ceremony on 26 May 2009, AGU President Timothy L. Grove introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees. AGU Fellows are scientists who have attained “acknowledged eminence in the geophysical sciences.” Election to AGU Fellowship is a very high recognition by one's peers. The number of Fellows elected may not exceed 0.1% of the membership in any given year.

  4. 5 CFR 315.708 - Conversion based on service as a Fellow or Senior Fellow in the Presidential Management Fellows...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL... Conversion based on service as a Fellow or Senior Fellow in the Presidential Management Fellows Program. (a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion based on service as a Fellow...

  5. Town vs. gown: a direct comparison of community residents and student mock jurors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Harmon M; Culhane, Scott E; Tubb, V Anne; Granillo, Edgar A

    2011-01-01

    The use of students as mock jurors in the majority of legal psychology studies on jury behavior has been criticized (e.g., Bray & Kerr, 1979; Diamond, 1997). This study examined the degree to which student mock jurors' decisions were generalizable to those of real jurors. The participants of the study included 297 jury-eligible university students and 297 volunteers from the venire in the same community as that in which the students resided. All participants viewed one of six versions of a videotaped criminal trial. The defendant testified in English or in Spanish. In addition, the race of defendant was varied. Three bilingual individuals served as defendants with one appearing to be of northern European origin, one of Latino background, and one of African origin. Dependent variables included verdict and, for those who found the defendant guilty, the number of years to which he should be sentenced, and whether he should be fined. Student mock jurors differed reliably from their community counterparts on several demographic characteristics. However, the two groups had mixed results in relation to decision-making tasks. There was no difference in individual verdict preferences, but the students' sentence recommendations were more punitive. These results are interpreted in the context of the generalizability of mock juror studies.

  6. Juror sensitivity to false confession risk factors: Dispositional vs. situational attributions for a confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestehoff, Skye A; Meissner, Christian A

    2016-10-01

    Research on jurors' perceptions of confession evidence suggests that jurors may not be sensitive to factors that can influence the reliability of a confession. Jurors' decisions tend not to be influenced by situational pressures to confess, which suggests that jurors commit the correspondence bias when evaluating a confession. One method to potentially increase sensitivity and counteract the correspondence bias is by highlighting a motivation other than guilt for the defendant's confession. We conducted 3 experiments to evaluate jurors' sensitivity to false confession risk factors. Participants read a trial transcript that varied the presence of false confession risk factors within an interrogation. Some participants also read testimony that presented an alternative motivation for the confession (expert testimony, Experiments 1 and 3; defendant testimony, Experiment 2). Across 3 experiments, participants were generally able to distinguish between interrogation practices that can produce a false confession, regardless of the presence or absence of expert or defendant testimony. Experiment 3 explored whether participants' attributions for the confessor's motivation were affected by interrogative pressure and expert testimony, and whether these attributions affected verdicts. Participants' reluctance to convict when false confession risk factors were present was associated with situational, rather than dispositional, attributions regarding the defendant's motivation to confess. It is possible that increased knowledge is responsible for participants' improved sensitivity to false confession risk factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants: the influence of intellectual disability, abuse history, and confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Vargas, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Understanding jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants has become increasingly important as more and more juvenile cases are being tried in adult criminal court rather than family or juvenile court. Intellectual disability and child maltreatment are overrepresented among juvenile delinquents, and juveniles (particularly disabled juveniles) are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes. In two mock trial experiments, we examined the effects of disability, abuse history, and confession evidence on jurors' perceptions of a juvenile defendant across several different crime scenarios. Abused juveniles were treated more leniently than nonabused juveniles only when the juvenile's crime was motivated by self-defense against the abuser. Jurors used disability as a mitigating factor, making more lenient judgments for a disabled than a nondisabled juvenile. Jurors also completely discounted a coerced confession for a disabled juvenile, but not for a nondisabled juvenile. In fact, compared with when it was portrayed as voluntary, jurors generally discounted a juvenile's coerced confession. Implications for public policy and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  9. NISE Fellows Program: Feedback from Past Fellows. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paula A., Ed.

    The National Institute for Science Education (NISE) is an organization in which scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds work collaboratively to address the important issues in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (SMET) education. This document reports on NISE Fellows' experiences based on these questions: (1) How did you…

  10. Emotional evidence and jurors' judgments: the promise of neuroscience for informing psychology and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jessica M; Bottoms, Bette L

    2009-01-01

    This article is a review of psychological and neuroscience research addressing how juror decision making is influenced by emotion elicited from potentially disturbing evidence such as gruesome autopsy photographs, victim impact statements, and information about a defendant's tragic personal history presented as mitigating evidence. We review (a) converging evidence suggesting that the presence versus absence of such evidence results in more punitive juror judgments, (b) social cognition theories that provide potential explanations for these effects, and (c) neuroscience research aimed at understanding the role of emotion in moral judgments by identifying how brain activity is affected by emotion-eliciting stimuli. We argue that neuroimaging evidence showing that emotional stimuli cause heightened emotion and decreased effortful cognitive processing is relevant in understanding jurors' increased punitiveness after being exposed to emotional evidence, and in turn relevant to debates about the admissibility of emotional evidence in courts of law. Ultimately, we argue for more ecologically valid psychological research to clarify these important issues.

  11. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with stability of berm breakwaters designed to be hardly or sometimes partly reshaping. Burcharth (2008, 2011) showed by comparison to the performance of a prototype berm breakwater that the Van der Meer formulae for stability of conventional rock armour including low crests...... could predict the deformations of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The present paper verifies the method by comparison to model test results. It is found that the Van der Meer formula for plunging waves predicts very well the eroded area of the reshaped profile, even if it is applied...... of the depth of intersection the last method leads to scatter quite similar to the first method when considering hardly and partly reshaping berm breakwaters. The influence of the slope angle is though expected to be more correctly included for hardly reshaping breakwaters using the method for straight non...

  12. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  13. Reshaping technique for MOEM system fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyar, Murat M.; Sun, Xiqing; Carr, William N.

    1998-09-01

    Today, the fabrication of microactuators and micromechanical parts is merely based on IC fabrication technologies. However, the 2D world of microelectronics sets a limit to the 3D micromechanical world. With a new micromachining technology, reshaping, which combines advantages of 2D IC fabrication with the third dimension of the mechanical world, a surface micromachined polycrystalline structure can be deformed to any desired 3D shape. In this work, this technique is employed for the first time to realize 3D actuators, and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of a micromirror are discussed. The structure is reshaped in such a way that the mirror platform, which is placed between two bimorph actuators, is tilted at a desired angle. The experimental results of electro-thermally actuated structure are in good agreement with the numerical results carried out by using IntelliCAD, an FEA tool to design and simulate MEMS. The reshaped micromirror demonstrates how reshaping technology eliminates complicated, silicon area consuming actuators. The fabrication steps of the micromirror are much simpler than those of previously reported device. A barcode scanner system employing reshaped micromirrors and optical filters is proposed as one example of many possible reshaped 3D MOEM Systems.

  14. Who Is the Rotten Apple? Mock Jurors' Views of Teacher-Student Sexual Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alissa; Wingrove, Twila; Fox, Paul; McLean, Kyle; Styer, Erin

    2015-11-29

    The present study investigated mock jurors' (N = 541) perceptions of a hypothetical case of teacher-student sexual contact. Mock jurors read a brief vignette describing an alleged sexual encounter where the gender and age of both the teacher and student were manipulated. Participants rendered legal decisions (i.e., verdict, degree of guilt, and sentence length), as well as culpability judgments pertaining to both the teacher and the student (i.e., blame, cause, and desire for the sexual contact). In addition, the effects of mock juror gender and attitudes regarding both rape myth acceptance and homophobia were investigated. Teacher gender and both teacher and student age predicted mock jurors' recommended sentences, with male teachers, older teachers, and younger students leading to greater sentences. Overall, student age was most consistently related to multiple culpability judgments, and the culpability judgments regarding the victim were the most consistently predicted by the independent variables. We did not find any evidence of homosexist attitudes, meaning that same-gender teacher-student contact was not judged any differently than opposite-gender contact. Worth noting, we found an interaction such that male students victimized by female teachers were judged to have wanted the contact more than any other gender combination, especially by male participants. The authors discuss these findings in the context of the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature concluding that many of the findings of more prototypical CSA cases extend to the teacher-student context. We also discuss the implications of these findings in terms of gendered judgments of adolescents who are victimized by teachers, possibly decided by legal professionals, school administrators, and jurors themselves. In particular, the three-way gender interaction can be interpreted in the context of stereotypes regarding sexual development marking sexual contact between adolescent males and older females as a

  15. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average overto...

  16. Fellow's Apéro

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Let's get together, meet each other, exchange experiences and ideas, and share useful information on CERN and the Staff Association. Join us for Fellow's Apéro, organised by the Staff Association on Tuesday 21 February at 16.30 in Restaurant 1. There will be drinks and snacks for everybody! We look forward to seeing you there! Please confirm your participation on Doodle http://doodle.com/poll/skvm7ucm2z78i6bt or alternatively on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1862757017340069/. Your delegates in the Staff Association, Barbora & Jiri

  17. Understanding juror perceptions of forensic evidence: investigating the impact of case context on perceptions of forensic evidence strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa L; Bull, Ray; Holliday, Robyn

    2011-03-01

    The most widely accepted model of juror decision making acknowledges the importance of both the case-specific information presented in the courtroom, as well as the prior general knowledge and beliefs held by each juror. The studies presented in this paper investigated whether mock jurors could differentiate between evidence of varying strengths in the absence of case information and then followed on to determine the influence that case context (and therefore the story model) has on judgments made about the strength of forensic DNA evidence. The results illustrated that mock jurors correctly identified various strengths of evidence when it was not presented with case information; however, the perceived strength of evidence was significantly inflated when presented in the context of a criminal case, particularly when the evidence was of a weak or ambiguous standard. These findings are discussed in relation to the story model, and the potential implications for real juries.

  18. Econometric Fellows and Nobel Laureates in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Fai Chan; Benno Torgler

    2012-01-01

    An academic award is method by which peers offer recognition of intellectual efforts. In this paper we take a purely descriptive look at the relationship between becoming a Fellow of the Econometric Society and receiving the Nobel Prize in economics. We discover some interesting aspects: of all 69 Nobel Prize Laureates between 1969 and 2011, only 9 of them were not also Fellows. Moreover, the proportion of future Nobel winners among the Fellows has been quite high throughout time and a large ...

  19. Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsellem, Eric; West, Michael; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8-10 June 2009. This year's symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO's Fellowship programme. This year's symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today's competitive job market.

  20. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; W. van der Meer, Jentsje; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2012-01-01

    Stability of berm breakwaters has been dealt with by several authors like Van der Meer (1992) and Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2010). The work of Van der Meer (1992) gives a very good estimate of the full reshaped profile for dynamically stable structures with a stability number Hs/ΔDn50 > 3...... for reshaping berm breakwaters. The Lykke Andersen formula is a semi-empirical formula leading to a quite large application area regarding water depth and initial front slope compared to the other empirical formulae....

  1. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seaward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent...

  2. Expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome: its impact on jurors' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Regina A; Rzepa, Sara

    2002-12-01

    Participants (N = 200) were presented with a criminal homicide trial involving a battered woman who had killed her abuser. Within the trial, both the response history (passive, active) and presence of expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome (present, absent) were systematically varied. As well, half of the participants in each of these conditions were provided with a nullification instruction informing them that they were free to disregard the law and acquit should a strict application of the law result in an unjust verdict. Results indicated that, compared to the passive response condition, the mock jurors were no less receptive to the expert testimony in the active response condition. The impact of the testimony on participants' verdicts, however, was moderated by the nullification instruction. That is, although the presence of the testimony did result in greater verdict leniency, this only occurred when the mock jurors had been released from a strict application of the law. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Stability of Hardly Reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; W. van der Meer, Jentsje; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2012-01-01

    Stability of berm breakwaters has been dealt with by several authors like Van der Meer (1992) and Lykke Andersen & Burcharth (2010). The work of Van der Meer (1992) gives a very good estimate of the full reshaped profile for dynamically stable structures with a stability number Hs/ΔDn50 > 3 . How...

  4. On 3-Dimensional Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the 3-dimensional stability of the type of rubble mound breakwaters where reshaping of the mound due to wave action is foreseen in the design. Such breakwaters are commonly named sacrificial types and berm types. The latter is due to the relatively large volume of armour stones...

  5. Reshaping supervisory practice in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmueller, R N

    1988-06-01

    Reshaping supervisory practice in home care is not an if but a when issue. We need the best wisdom in how to reshape the practice so that it builds on the experience of the individual and the agency. It is time to deliberately plan to change from the paper-shuffling tendency among supervisors toward supporting more people-oriented activity and to rediscover the pivotal role that supervisors have in keeping a community healthy, staff stimulated, and the agency solvent. Some summary points to consider in reshaping supervisory practice include: (1) redefine supervision to reflect what is desired, needed, and possible, (2) recognize the contribution from change theory and apply it, (3) recapture the commitment and philosophy of supervision from the past, (4) reward the supervisor commensurate with the scope of practice expected, (5) reverse selection of supervisors from preservers of territory to manager as idea entrepreneur, (6) respond to varying and dynamic models of supervisory practice, (7) recharge the supervisor through timely in-service programs, continuing education, and formal academic study, (8) require educational content and practice from colleges and universities that stimulate creative supervisory skills and improve job satisfaction, (9) respect the work of the supervisor and provide appropriate support to achieve success, (10) reconsider current supervisory models and expand opportunities for professional growth among staff, and (11) reshape the supervisory role from one of controller to facilitator and innovator.

  6. Overtopping and Rear Slope Stability of Reshaping & Non-reshaping Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, H. F.

    2004-01-01

    Overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping and non-reshaping berm breakwaters have been studied in a wave flume. A total of 695 tests have been performed to cover the influence of crest freeboard, crest width, berm width, berm elevation, stone size and sea state. Formula for average...... overtopping discharge that includes these parameters has been derived. The measurements show good correlation between average overtopping discharge and rear slope damage....

  7. Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: a meta-analytic review of defendant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tara L; Haw, Ryann M; Pfeifer, Jeffrey E; Meissner, Christian A

    2005-12-01

    Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings.

  8. Fellow As Teacher Curriculum: Improving Rheumatology Fellows' Teaching Skills During Inpatient Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G; Jonas, Beth L; O'rourke, Kenneth S; McSparron, Jakob I; Bolster, Marcy B

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing rheumatology fellows' teaching skills in the setting of inpatient consultation may have a broad positive impact. Such efforts may improve fellows' clinical skills and overall patient care. Most importantly, effective resident-fellow teaching interactions may not only increase residents' knowledge of rheumatology but may influence their career choice. However, a number of barriers to the resident-fellow teaching interaction have been identified, including fellows' teaching skills. We developed the Fellow As Clinical Teacher (FACT) curriculum in order to enhance fellows' teaching skills during inpatient consultation. The FACT curriculum was delivered in two 45-minute workshops during the 3-day Winter Symposium of the Carolinas Fellows Collaborative. We evaluated its effect with self-assessment surveys and fellow performance on the objective structured teaching exercise (OSTE) before and after participation in the curriculum. Nineteen fellows from 4 rheumatology training programs participated in the pre- and post-curriculum OSTEs and 18 fellows completed pre- and post-curriculum surveys. OSTE scores improved on 5 of the 8 items assessed, and the total OSTE score improved as well (34.7 versus 29.5; P Rheumatology.

  9. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  10. GUO Lei honored as IFAC Fellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Prof. GUO Lei, an expert in systems science with the Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science (AMSS) under CAS, was recently elected a Fellow of International Federation of Autonomic Control (IFAC).

  11. Effects of false-evidence ploys and expert testimony on jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, William Douglas; Forrest, Krista D

    2009-01-01

    During interrogations, police may use false-evidence ploys or fabricated claims to convince suspects to confess. Mock jurors read trial materials containing interrogation transcripts with or without a false-evidence ploy and one of two expert witness conditions (present or absent). We examined jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of the interrogation. Although factual evidence and the defendant's confession remained constant across conditions, false-evidence ploys led to fewer convictions and shorter sentences. Jurors also perceived interrogations with ploys as more deceptive and coercive. Expert testimony reduced convictions and increased interrogation deception and coercion ratings. Across ploy types, participants rated demeanor ploys as less deceptive and recommended longer sentences for confessors. Outcomes reveal important, previously unrecognized consequences of false-evidence ploys.

  12. The RSNA Editorial Fellows: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Y; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-09-01

    Since its establishment in 1998, the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Editorial Fellowship has been offering unique opportunities to radiologists from around the world who have a strong interest in radiologic journalism. For the past 16 years, the selected RSNA Editorial Fellows have learned essential processes involved in the production of Radiology and RadioGraphics by working closely with the editors, associate editors, and staff. The editorial fellowship for radiology attending physicians was renamed the RSNA William R. Eyler Editorial Fellowship, in honor of the founding editor of RadioGraphics, with the first Eyler fellow selected in 2005. Additionally, several years ago, a second fellowship was created for radiology trainees, which is now named the RSNA William W. Olmsted Editorial Fellowship for Trainees, in honor of the most recent emeritus editor of RadioGraphics. For the special centennial year of the journal Radiology, several former editorial fellows were interested in knowing what the previous fellows are up to presently and how their experience and learning from the fellowship influenced and contributed to their academic career development. The invitation to share their experience of the RSNA Editorial Fellowship was sent to 19 previous RSNA Editorial Fellows. We report the findings from 16 of these fellows who responded. We found that almost all previous RSNA Editorial Fellows (15 of 16, 94%) stayed in academic radiology, and each is currently leading a successful academic career. All of them are currently actively serving in one or more positions as an editor, associate editor, reviewer, and/or editorial board member of various radiology journals and clinical journals related to their area(s) of academic expertise. Among the 16 previous editorial fellows who responded, there are four chairs and six vice-chairs of their respective radiology departments. All of them reported that the experience and knowledge they gained from the RSNA

  13. Competency Testing for Pediatric Cardiology Fellows Learning Transthoracic Echocardiography: Implementation, Fellow Experience, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jami C; Geva, Tal; Brown, David W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently great interest in measuring trainee competency at all levels of medical education. In 2007, we implemented a system for assessing cardiology fellows' progress in attaining imaging skills. This paradigm could be adapted for use by other cardiology programs. Evaluation consisted of a two-part exercise performed after years 1 and 2 of pediatric cardiology training. Part 1: a directly observed evaluation of technical skills as fellows imaged a normal subject (year 1) and a patient with complex heart disease (year 2). Part 2: fellows interpreted and wrote reports for two echocardiograms illustrating congenital heart disease. These were graded for accuracy and facility with communicating pertinent data. After 5 years of testing, fellows were surveyed about their experience. In 5 years, 40 fellows were tested at least once. Testing identified four fellows who underperformed on the technical portion and four on the interpretive portion. Surveys were completed by 33 fellows (83 %). Most (67 %) felt that intermittent observation by faculty was inadequate for assessing skills and that procedural volume was a poor surrogate for competency (58 %). Posttest feedback was constructive and valuable for 90, and 70 % felt the process helped them set goals for skill improvement. Overall, fellows felt this testing was fair and should continue. Fellow performance and responses identified programmatic issues that were creating barriers to learning. We describe a practical test to assess competency for cardiology fellows learning echocardiography. This paradigm is feasible, has excellent acceptance among trainees, and identifies trainees who need support. Materials developed could be easily adapted to help track upcoming ACGME-mandated metrics.

  14. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD.

  15. The impact of note taking style and note availability at retrieval on mock jurors' recall and recognition of trial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Baxter, Rebecca E; Lorek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Jurors forget critical trial information and what they do recall can be inaccurate. Jurors' recall of trial information can be enhanced by permitting them to take notes during a trial onto blank sheets of paper (henceforth called freestyle note taking). A recent innovation is the trial-ordered-notebook (TON) for jurors, which is a notebook containing headings outlining the trial proceedings and which has space beneath each heading for notes. In a direct comparison, TON note takers recalled more trial information than freestyle note takers. This study investigated whether or not note taking improves recall as a result of enhanced encoding or as a result of note access at retrieval. To assess this, mock jurors watched and freely recalled a trial video with one-fifth taking no notes, two-fifths taking freestyle notes and two-fifths using TONs. During retrieval, half of the freestyle and TON note takers could access their notes. Note taking enhanced recall, with the freestyle note takers and TON note takers without note access performing equally as well. Note taking therefore enhances encoding. Recall was greatest for the TON note takers with note access, suggesting a retrieval enhancement unique to this condition. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Direct Versus Indirect Supervision of Fellows Covering Football Events: A Survey of Fellows and Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, Charles A.; Stovak, Mark L.; Harvey, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) program requirements mandate “adequate supervision,” of residents, but there is little guidance for sports medicine fellowship directors regarding the transition from direct to indirect supervision of fellows covering football games. Objective We sought to gather evidence of current supervision practices in the context of injury outcomes. Methods Fellows and program directors of ACGME-accredited sports medicine fellowship programs were invited to complete an online survey regarding their experience and current supervision practice at football games. Criteria for transition to autonomy and desired changes in supervision practice were elicited. Player safety was quantified by noting the number of field-side emergencies, whether an attending was present, and whether better outcomes might have resulted from the presence of an attending. Results A total of 80 fellows and 50 program directors completed the online survey. Direct supervision was lacking in about 50% of high school games and 20% of college games. A resulting cost in terms of player safety was estimated to apply to 5% of serious injuries by fellows' report but less than 0.5% by directors' report. Written criteria for transitioning from direct supervision to autonomy were the exception rather than the rule. The majority of fellows and directors expressed satisfaction with the current level of supervision, but 20% of fellows would prefer more supervision through postgame review. Conclusions Football games covered by fellows are often not directly supervised. Absence of an attending affected the outcomes of 5% or less of serious injuries. Transition to autonomy does not usually require meeting written criteria. Fellows might benefit from additional off-site supervision. PMID:21976096

  18. Educating jurors about eyewitness testimony in criminal cases with circumstantial and forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Martin A; Murphy, Ryan P; Wise, Richard A; Bussey, Logan; Millett, Cristina; Holfeld, Brett

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the Interview-Identification-Eyewitness factors (I-I-Eye) educational aid could sensitize mock jurors to the quality of eyewitness evidence in criminal cases which also contained circumstantial and forensic evidence. After participants were randomly assigned to read either the I-I-Eye or a control aid, they read a trial transcript containing either strong or weak eyewitness evidence. The police consistently followed scientific interviewing and identification procedures in the strong case, but not in the weak case. In two experiments, the I-I-Eye participants were approximately three times more likely than the control participants to enter guilty verdicts in the strong case than in the weak case. Thus the I-I-Eye educational aid increased participants' sensitivity to the eyewitness evidence. The I-I-Eye method provides a valuable analytical framework for evaluating eyewitness evidence in criminal cases. It may be capable of becoming "a standard feature for criminal cases" with eyewitness evidence.

  19. Report on the ESO Fellows Days in Chile 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M.; Emsellem, E.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 ESO Fellows Days were held in Chile and brought together over 30 ESO Fellows from Garching and Chile. As well as presentations of research and social activities, the Fellows Days included a visit to San Pedro de Atacama and the ALMA site.

  20. International Fellows of NCI at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Employee Diversity Team (EDT) acknowledges members of the NCI at Frederick Community for their achievements and contributions towards the mission of facility.  Historically, the team has profiled the “Women of NCI at Frederick,” but this year, the team decided to instead shed light on the diverse and successful individuals who make up the international fellows community.

  1. International Fellows of NCI at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Employee Diversity Team (EDT) acknowledges members of the NCI at Frederick Community for their achievements and contributions towards the mission of facility.  Historically, the team has profiled the “Women of NCI at Frederick,” but this year, the team decided to instead shed light on the diverse and successful individuals who make up the international fellows community.

  2. Reshaping of the maize transcriptome by domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Myers, Chad L; Tiffin, Peter; Springer, Nathan M

    2012-07-17

    Through domestication, humans have substantially altered the morphology of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (teosinte) into the currently recognizable maize. This system serves as a model for studying adaptation, genome evolution, and the genetics and evolution of complex traits. To examine how domestication has reshaped the transcriptome of maize seedlings, we used expression profiling of 18,242 genes for 38 diverse maize genotypes and 24 teosinte genotypes. We detected evidence for more than 600 genes having significantly different expression levels in maize compared with teosinte. Moreover, more than 1,100 genes showed significantly altered coexpression profiles, reflective of substantial rewiring of the transcriptome since domestication. The genes with altered expression show a significant enrichment for genes previously identified through population genetic analyses as likely targets of selection during maize domestication and improvement; 46 genes previously identified as putative targets of selection also exhibit altered expression levels and coexpression relationships. We also identified 45 genes with altered, primarily higher, expression in inbred relative to outcrossed teosinte. These genes are enriched for functions related to biotic stress and may reflect responses to the effects of inbreeding. This study not only documents alterations in the maize transcriptome following domestication, identifying several genes that may have contributed to the evolution of maize, but highlights the complementary information that can be gained by combining gene expression with population genetic analyses.

  3. How Has the Internet Reshaped Human Cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kep Kee; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    Throughout our evolutionary history, our cognitive systems have been altered by the advent of technological inventions such as primitive tools, spoken language, writing, and arithmetic systems. Thirty years ago, the Internet surfaced as the latest technological invention poised to deeply reshape human cognition. With its multifaceted affordances, the Internet environment has profoundly transformed our thoughts and behaviors. Growing up with Internet technologies, "Digital Natives" gravitate toward "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifting and reduced deliberations. They engage in increased multitasking behaviors that are linked to increased distractibility and poor executive control abilities. Digital natives also exhibit higher prevalence of Internet-related addictive behaviors that reflect altered reward-processing and self-control mechanisms. Recent neuroimaging investigations have suggested associations between these Internet-related cognitive impacts and structural changes in the brain. Against mounting apprehension over the Internet's consequences on our cognitive systems, several researchers have lamented that these concerns were often exaggerated beyond existing scientific evidence. In the present review, we aim to provide an objective overview of the Internet's impacts on our cognitive systems. We critically discuss current empirical evidence about how the Internet environment has altered the cognitive behaviors and structures involved in information processing, executive control, and reward-processing.

  4. Effects of Mental Health and Neuroscience Evidence on Juror Perceptions of a Criminal Defendant: the Moderating Role of Political Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N; Edens, John F; Clark, John W; Sörman, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty. Main effects were detected for mental health testimony and political orientation, although interactions were noted as well. More negative reactions to defendants labeled as psychopaths were relatively consistent, whereas participants who identified as liberal generally were less punitive towards a defendant identified as schizophrenic than were more conservative jurors. Consistent with other recent research, juror perceptions of the defendant's level of psychopathic traits (independent of the effects of the experimental manipulations) predicted guilty verdicts and longer sentencing recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. May we eat our fellow creatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    for veganism holds that industrial meat production is by necessity cruel and partaking in it is not virtuous. Diamond agrees that fellow creatures should not be regarded as stages in the production of a meat product but she admits that this attitude to animals as worthy of respect and compassion does...... not necessarily lead to veganism. We suggest that one possible case of virtuous non-veganism is eating domestic animals that lead good lives and are humanely slaughtered. Another could be eating wild animals that could be worse off unless some of them are killed through humane hunting practices...

  6. A pharmacogenetics service experience for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R; Wong, Shan S; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2013-10-14

    To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Students', residents', and fellows' achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics.

  7. NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected fellows in three areas of astronomy and astrophysics for its Einstein, Hubble, and Sagan Fellowships. The recipients of this year's post-doctoral fellowships will conduct independent research at institutions around the country. "The new fellows are among the best and brightest young astronomers in the world," said Jon Morse, director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "They already have contributed significantly to studies of how the universe works, the origin of our cosmos and whether we are alone in the cosmos. The fellowships will serve as a springboard for scientific leadership in the years to come, and as an inspiration for the next generation of students and early career researchers." Each fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years. The fellows may pursue their research at any host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2009. "I cannot tell you how much I am looking forward to spending the next few years conducting research in the U.S., thanks to the fellowships," said Karin Oberg, a graduate student in Leiden, The Netherlands. Oberg will study the evolution of water and ices during star formation when she starts her fellowship at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space A diverse group of 32 young scientists will work on a wide variety of projects, such as understanding supernova hydrodynamics, radio transients, neutron stars, galaxy clusters and the intercluster medium, supermassive black holes, their mergers and the associated gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter and the reionization process. Other research topics include

  8. Characteristics of American Psychological Association Division 40 (clinical neuropsychology) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C

    2011-11-01

    Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.

  9. Scientific writing courses for pediatrics fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B G; Schatz, D A; Van Mierop, L H

    1990-10-01

    A six-week course in scientific writing and publishing was developed for pediatrics fellows at the University of Florida College of Medicine in 1984. It covered three areas: (1) grammar, syntax, and prose style; (2) construction of scientific papers; and (3) the submissions and review process. Increasing enrollment and the requests of course graduates led to the development of a second course, Advanced Scientific Writing; both courses are now offered annually. Class materials consist of texts in scientific writing, comprehensive syllabi, and handouts; the focus is on workshop activities, exercises, collaboration with peers, and individual consultations with the instructor. At the end of each course, participants complete detailed evaluation instruments, and the data obtained are used to modify the course's structure and content the following year.

  10. Fellows as teachers: a model to enhance pediatric resident education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles V. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on academic faculty to perform beyond their role as educators has stimulated interest in complementary approaches in resident medical education. While fellows are often believed to detract from resident learning and experience, we describe our preliminary investigations utilizing clinical fellows as a positive force in pediatric resident education. Our objectives were to implement a practical approach to engage fellows in resident education, evaluate the impact of a fellow-led education program on pediatric resident and fellow experience, and investigate if growth of a fellowship program detracts from resident procedural experience.This study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU where fellows designed and implemented an education program consisting of daily didactic teaching sessions before morning clinical rounds. The impact of a fellow-led education program on resident satisfaction with their NICU experience was assessed via anonymous student evaluations. The potential value of the program for participating fellows was also evaluated using an anonymous survey.The online evaluation was completed by 105 residents. Scores were markedly higher after the program was implemented in areas of teaching excellence (4.44 out of 5 versus 4.67, p<0.05 and overall resident learning (3.60 out of 5 versus 4.61, p<0.001. Fellows rated the acquisition of teaching skills and enhanced knowledge of neonatal pathophysiology as the most valuable aspects of their participation in the education program. The anonymous survey revealed that 87.5% of participating residents believed that NICU fellows were very important to their overall training and education.While fellows are often believed to be a detracting factor to residency training, we found that pediatric resident attitudes toward the fellows were generally positive. In our experience, in the specialty of neonatology a fellow-led education program can positively contribute to both

  11. [Cartilage reshaping by laser in stomatology and maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, S

    2004-02-01

    The restoration of congenital and traumatic malformations of the head and neck, together with the defects resulting from the trauma of ablative surgery, continue to pose significant problems to surgeons. The post-operative results are not always satisfactory because of the difficulty of shaping the cartilage and because of the tendency of cartilage to return to its original shape. Better understanding of laser-cartilage interaction and the development of a specific instrumentation Lasers (CO2, Nd: YAG, Ho: YAG) has enabled ex situ and in situ cartilage reshaping. A recent clinical study has demonstrated that nondestructive laser irradiation can reshape septal deviations

  12. Introducing the Newest APPA Fellows: Maggie Kinnaman and Mo Qayoumi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    Few APPA members have contributed as much in as many areas over as many years as the 2010 recipients of APPA's highest individual honor, the APPA Fellow. This article introduces two recipients of the 2010 APPA Fellows, Margaret "Maggie" Kinnaman, who retired as director for business administration for the facilities division at the University of…

  13. Jack Colby Continues Stellar Legacy of APPA Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles 2011 APPA Fellow Jack K. Colby, assistant vice chancellor for facilities operations at North Carolina State University. Colby has a history of nonstop service to his profession and to APPA that makes that ever-active, never-stop rabbit look like a piker. Like previous APPA Fellows, Colby could easily rest on his laurels of…

  14. Recruiting post-doctoral fellows into global health research: selecting NIH Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburger, Douglas C; Warner, Tokesha L; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 to 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program (FICRF) provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international post-doctoral health professionals. We examined the FICRF applicant pool, proposed research topics, selection process, and characteristics of enrollees to assess trends in global health research interest and factors associated with applicant competitiveness. The majority (58%) of 67 US and 57 international Fellows were women, and 83% of Fellows had medical degrees. Most applicants were in clinical fellowships (41%) or residencies (24%). More applicants proposing infectious disease projects were supported (59%) than applicants proposing non-communicable disease (NCD) projects (41%), although projects that combined both topic areas were most successful (69%). The numbers of applicants proposing research on NCDs and the numbers of these applicants awarded fellowships rose dramatically over time. Funding provided to the FICRF varied significantly among NIH Institutes and Centers and was strongly associated with the research topics awarded. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  16. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  17. Overtopping And Rear Slope Stabillity Of Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Lykke Andersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of overtopping and rear slope stability of reshaping breakwaters has been carried out. The variation of those two parameters with crest width, crest freeboard and sea state was investigated. The tests showed that the variation in overtopping discharge with crest freeboard...

  18. Where Are They Now? A Survey of Woodrow Wilson Fellows and Woodrow Wilson Dissertation Fellows Elected Between 1945 and 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Princeton, NJ.

    Woodrow Wilson Fellows and Dissertation Fellows elected between 1945 and 1971 were surveyed to trace their educational careers, judge the effectiveness of the selection process, and determine what they are now doing with their education. Some elements covered by other national studies were included to make possible a comparison of the Woodrow…

  19. The testimony of elderly victim/witnesses and their impact on juror decisions: the importance of examining multiple stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N; McCoy, M L; Clark, H L; Shaw, L A

    1999-08-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to determine how jurors may be influenced by elderly victim/witnesses. Stereotypes of elderly victim/witnesses were hypothesized to differentially impact jurors' perceptions and decisions. Participants (255 college and 229 community members who were jury-eligible) read a trial summary describing the aggravated assault of a man. The described case hinged on the victim's eyewitness identification of the defendant. The description of the victims was varied in order to examine five types of victim/witnesses: (1) a generic adult victim, described as being 31 years of age, (2) a generic elderly witness, described as being 66 years of age, (3) a 66-year-old senior citizen described to elicit the vulnerable-senior stereotype, (4) a 66-year-old grandfather, and (5) a 66-year-old statesman. Contrary to expectations, no significant differences were found between the college and community samples. Further, ratings of the victims' believability did not vary as a function of the different victim types. However, verdict differences were found for the different victim types. The proportion of guilty verdicts awarded in the statesman condition was significantly higher than those awarded when the victim was a generic adult, senior citizen, or grandfather. A significant difference was also found between the vulnerable senior citizen and the generic elderly case, with the generic elderly victim receiving a greater proportion of guilty verdicts than the vulnerable senior citizen.

  20. National Academy of Engineering selects Engineering Education Fellows

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Gary Downey, of Blacksburg, professor of science and technology in society in the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences at Virginia Tech, has been named a Boeing Company Engineering Education Senior Fellow by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE).

  1. John Brozovsky appointed Wayne E. Leininger Junior Faculty Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    John Brozovsky, associate professor of accounting and information systems in the Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech, has been appointed the Wayne E. Leininger Junior Faculty Fellow by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  2. Woodrow Wilson Fellows--Who Are They Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson Senior Fellows are prominent leaders in business and government that are sent to college campuses for a week instead of a one-night lecture. This program has proved to be immensely popular on campuses. (PG)

  3. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  4. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Cardiology Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Munes; Alahdab, Fares; Alsaied, Tarek

    2016-07-01

    Participating in a scholarly activity is one of the training requirements for cardiology fellows. However, it can be very challenging to complete a research project during such a busy period of clinical training. To help the cardiology fellows in choosing and starting off a research project, a light has been shed on the process of conducting a systematic review, and the importance of this research activity, as well as its limitations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Double Fellowships in Radiology: A Survey of 2014 Graduating Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas Y; Moriarity, Andrew; Lall, Neil; Hoffmann, Jason C; Katz, Douglas S; Flug, Jonathan A

    Radiology fellowship training has evolved from being an uncommon option to being a near requisite for post-training employment in the United States. A subset of fellows elect to pursue second fellowships with potentially substantial implications on both the private sector and academic radiology workforce. The purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of current radiology fellows pursuing multiple years of post-residency fellowship training. After obtaining IRB approval, an anonymous web-based survey was emailed to 1,269 radiology fellows listed as "completing fellowship" in the American College of Radiology database in June 2014. Questions were asked regarding current fellowship training, post-fellowship employment plans, and individual experience pursuing employment. Results were analyzed using the survey analytical software. There were 219 responses received, representing a 17.3% response rate. Ten-percent of respondents were currently completing their second radiology fellowship. Of those completing their first year of fellowship training, 11% indicated plans to complete a second radiology fellowship. This survey provides a snapshot of the percentage of radiology trainees who pursue a second year of fellowship training, currently in the range of 10%. Pursuing a second radiology fellowship may represent a safety net to a substantial subset of fellows who are not able to obtain satisfactory employment following training. Academic programs who rely heavily on fellows should be aware of the proportion of fellows pursuing two fellowships and should be prepared to adapt should this change over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (PHO) Fellows Receive Communication Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Wilson; Bylund, Carma L.; Kesselheim, Jennifer; Leonard, David; Leavey, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has established communication as a core competency for physicians in training. However, data suggest that most pediatric residents perceive inadequate training in the delivery of bad news and the majority of former trainees in pediatric oncology received no formal training in the delivery of bad news during fellowship. The study examines communication training in ACGME accredited US pediatric hematology-oncology (PHO) fellowship programs. Methods An online survey was distributed to 315 PHO fellows in training via the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) fellow email registry. Each fellow received an initial request to participate and 2 reminders, while participation was encouraged through a random incentive drawing. Results One hundred and ten fellows (35%) responded. Eighty percent of respondents perceived communication training to be important to fellow education, however only 32% reported receiving communication training (other than direct observation). The most common reported teaching method of fellowship communication training was formal lecture (42%). Twenty-three percent of respondents reported neither communication training nor frequent feedback on their communication skills from faculty observation. This same group was the least satisfied with their programs’ approach to teaching communication (P communication training in PHO fellowships despite ACGME requirements and fellows’ interest in this training. Didactic learning remains the most frequently described training method, yet educational theory identifies the limitation of didactic lectures alone. Communication training employing novel teaching methods and emphasizing communication challenges identified by fellows should be developed and evaluated. PMID:24039096

  7. Geritalk: communication skills training for geriatric and palliative medicine fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amy S; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B; O'Neill, Lynn B

    2012-02-01

    Expert communication is essential to high-quality care for older patients with serious illness. Although the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatric and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. The current study drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges that geriatric and palliative medicine fellows face. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques before the course. Geriatric and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n = 18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on a 5-point scale). After the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, P skills practice (mean 4.3 on 5-point scale). In sum, the intensive communication skills program, customized for the specific needs of geriatric and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows' self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills.

  8. Immersive bilingualism reshapes the core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; DeLuca, Vincent; Moschopoulou, Elisavet; Saddy, James Douglas

    2017-05-01

    Bilingualism has been shown to affect the structure of the brain, including cortical regions related to language. Less is known about subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia, which underlie speech monitoring and language selection, processes that are crucial for bilinguals, as well as other linguistic functions, such as grammatical and phonological acquisition and processing. Simultaneous bilinguals have demonstrated significant reshaping of the basal ganglia and the thalamus compared to monolinguals. However, it is not clear whether these effects are due to learning of the second language (L2) at a very young age or simply due to continuous usage of two languages. Here, we show that bilingualism-induced subcortical effects are directly related to the amount of continuous L2 usage, or L2 immersion. We found significant subcortical reshaping in non-simultaneous (or sequential) bilinguals with extensive immersion in a bilingual environment, closely mirroring the recent findings in simultaneous bilinguals. Importantly, some of these effects were positively correlated to the amount of L2 immersion. Conversely, sequential bilinguals with comparable proficiency and age of acquisition (AoA) but limited immersion did not show similar effects. Our results provide structural evidence to suggestions that L2 acquisition continuously occurs in an immersive environment, and is expressed as dynamic reshaping of the core of the brain. These findings propose that second language learning in the brain is a dynamic procedure which depends on active and continuous L2 usage.

  9. Endoscopic laser reshaping of rabbit tracheal cartilage: preliminary investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Walter; Lam, Anthony; Protsenko, Dmitry; Wong, Brian J.

    2005-04-01

    Background: Tracheal cartilage deformities due to trauma, prolonged endotracheal intubation or infection are difficult to correct. Current treatment options such as dilation, laser ablation, stent placement, and segmental resection are only temporary or carry significant risks. The objectives of this project were to design and test a laser activated endotracheal stent system that can actively modify the geometry of tracheal cartilage, leading to permanent retention of a new and desirable tracheal geometry. Methods: Ex vivo rabbit tracheal cartilage (simulating human neonate trachea) were irradiated with an Er: Glass laser, (λ= 1.54um, 0.5W-2.5W, 1 sec to 5 sec). Shape change and gross thermal injury were assessed visually to determine the best laser power parameters for reshaping. A rigid endoscopic telescope and hollow bronchoscope were used to record endoscopic images. The stent was constructed from nitinol wire, shaped into a zigzag configuration. An ex vivo testing apparatus was also constructed. Results: The best laser power parameter to produce shape change was 1 W for 6-7 seconds. At this setting, there was significant shape change with only minimal thermal injury to the tracheal mucosa, as assessed by visual inspection. The bronchoscopy system functioned adequately during testing in the ex vivo testing apparatus. Conclusion: We have successfully designed instrumentation and created the capability to endoscopically reshape tracheal cartilage in an ex vivo rabbit model. The results obtained in ex vivo tracheal cartilage indicated that reshaping using Er: Glass laser can be accomplished.

  10. ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

    CERN Multimedia

    Visual Media Office

    2013-01-01

    ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

  11. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  12. Maeve Boland selected as AGU Congressional Science Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chell, Kaitlin

    2009-10-01

    Maeve Boland, research assistant professor at the Colorado School of Mines, is AGU's 2009-2010 Congressional Science Fellow. Boland, who has a Ph.D. in geology from the Colorado School of Mines, is spending a year working in the office of U.S. Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-N. D.). She was selected in March by AGU's Committee on Public Affairs after a competitive interview process, and she is AGU's 32nd Congressional Science Fellow. In September, Boland and 31 other Congressional Science Fellows participated in a 2-week course in politics and the legislative process put on by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She then interviewed with a number of congressional offices and was offered a position in the office of Sen. Dorgan, who chairs the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development and is a member of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Boland is working as a legislative fellow carrying out a range of duties such as organizing congressional hearings, crafting legislation, advising legislators on votes, meeting with lobbyists, and writing speeches. Fellows also are often asked to assist their senator or representative during committee hearings and on the U.S. House or Senate floors during legislative debates.

  13. Geritalk: Communication Skills Training for Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amy S.; Back, Anthony L.; Arnold, Robert M.; Goldberg, Gabrielle R.; Lim, Betty B.; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B.; O’Neill, Lynn B.

    2011-01-01

    Expert communication is essential to high quality care for older patients with serious illness. While the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. We drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method, to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges faced by geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques prior to the course. Geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n=18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on 5-point scale). Compared to before the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, pskills practice (mean 4.3 on 5-point scale). In sum, the intensive communication skills program, tailored to the specific needs of geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows’ self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. PMID:22211768

  14. The Critical Care Communication project: improving fellows' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert M; Back, Anthony L; Barnato, Amber E; Prendergast, Thomas J; Emlet, Lillian L; Karpov, Irina; White, Patrick H; Nelson, Judith E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based communication skills training workshop to improve the communication skills of critical care fellows. Pulmonary and critical care fellows (N = 38) participated in a 3-day communication skills workshop between 2008 and 2010 involving brief didactic talks, faculty demonstration of skills, and faculty-supervised small group skills practice sessions with simulated families. Skills included the following: giving bad news, achieving consensus on goals of therapy, and discussing the limitations of life-sustaining treatment. Participants rated their skill levels in a pre-post survey in 11 core communication tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 38 fellows, 36 (95%) completed all 3 days of the workshop. We compared pre and post scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall, self-rated skills increased for all 11 tasks. In analyses by participant, 95% reported improvement in at least 1 skill; with improvement in a median of 10 of 11 skills. Ninety-two percent rated the course as either very good/excellent, and 80% recommended that it be mandatory for future fellows. This 3-day communication skills training program increased critical care fellows' self-reported family meeting communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An experimental study on reshaping C110 deformed casing with spinning casing swage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Casing deformation affects the implementation of stimulation and development measures of oilfields directly; however, the reshaping force and torque usually are determined by experience when the deformed casing is repaired with the spinning reshaping technology; if the repairing force or torque is too large, it will result in the damage of casing and cement sheath as well as sticking accident. So, the collapse experiments were performed on the YAW-200 pressure testing machine by using one production casing which is often used in the oilfield and then the reshaping test of deformed casing (C110 was performed in turn by using two spinning casing swages of which the diameter is 126 mm and 129 mm respectively. The continuous rotator and thrust bearing were used to provide the torque and reshaping force respectively in the repairing process. The reshaping force and torque required to reshape the deformed casing, the deformation law and the springback value of deformed casing were obtained. Test results show that the diameter differential between the two spinning casing swages is reasonable. Furthermore, in order to ensure the safety and reliability of the implementation of post-production technologies, the mechanical properties of deformed casing before and after reshaping were tested. It was found that all the mechanical parameters of the deformed casing after reshaping reduced, which resulted in the decrease of the strength of the reshaped casing. These research achievements would provide important experimental data in optimizing the structure and construction parameters of spinning casing swages.

  16. Educating Jurors about Forensic Evidence: Using an Expert Witness and Judicial Instructions to Mitigate the Impact of Invalid Forensic Science Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Joseph; Caldwell, Jiana

    2015-11-01

    Invalid expert witness testimony that overstated the precision and accuracy of forensic science procedures has been highlighted as a common factor in many wrongful conviction cases. This study assessed the ability of an opposing expert witness and judicial instructions to mitigate the impact of invalid forensic science testimony. Participants (N = 155) acted as mock jurors in a sexual assault trial that contained both invalid forensic testimony regarding hair comparison evidence, and countering testimony from either a defense expert witness or judicial instructions. Results showed that the defense expert witness was successful in educating jurors regarding limitations in the initial expert's conclusions, leading to a greater number of not-guilty verdicts. The judicial instructions were shown to have no impact on verdict decisions. These findings suggest that providing opposing expert witnesses may be an effective safeguard against invalid forensic testimony in criminal trials.

  17. A jolly good call for Marie Curie Fellows

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A new funding opportunity to train young researchers has just been announced by the European Commission. One of the calls within FP7 Marie Curie Actions requests proposals for Initial Training Network (ITN) projects, with a deadline of 22 December 2009. Project proposals are strongly encouraged at CERN and authors can receive support and guidance from the Marie Curie Steering Group. Winnie Wong: "I wouldn’t have considered a PhD if I hadn’t been a Marie Curie fellow" Dan Savu: "It’s the best of both worlds: training plus working in an international organisation" ITN projects have one key aim: training. Academic and industrial partners work together to form a network to recruit and train Marie Curie Fellows. Fellows are young researchers (typically PhD-level) from any country who combine project-based research with tailor-made training programmes, ...

  18. Book Review: Digital consumers reshaping the information profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The introductory paragraph to Digital consumers reshaping the information profession (p.1, explaining the choice of the title as "Digital consumers …" and not "Digital information consumers …", set the tone for a thought provoking outlook on the challenges faced. Although the book focuses on the behaviour of people visiting the virtual space of information, the Internet has redefined and widened the information domain, and since people use the Internet like a superstore for many things and many purposes, "it is almost impossible to say what information is and what it is not …".

  19. Nonlinear reshaping of terahertz pulses with graphene metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yu.; Grimalsky, V.; Iorsh, I.; Kalinich, N.; Koshevaya, S.; Castrejon-Martinez, Ch.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a slab of graphene metamaterial composed of the layers of graphene separated by dielectric slabs. Starting from the kinetic expression for two-dimensional electric current in graphene, we derive a novel equation describing the nonlinear propagation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses through the layered graphene-dielectric structure in the presence of losses and non-linearities. We demonstrate strong nonlinearity-induced reshaping of transmitted and reflected terahertz pulses through the interaction with the thin multilayer graphene metamaterial structure.

  20. (Re)Shaping History in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Lozic

    2015-01-01

    The current article explores how political changes in the past 130 years have shaped and reshaped three major museums in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The overall aim is to describe structural processes of national museum building in BiH and the ways the museological representation of history is connected to state and nation making and to political transitions and crises. The analysed museums are the National Museum of BiH, the History Museum of BiH, and the Museum of the Republic of Srpska. ...

  1. "Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: A meta-analytic review of defendant treatment": Correction to Mitchell et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner (Law and Human Behavior, 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-00971-001.) Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Theories of Specialized Discourses and Writing Fellows Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Carol; Trachsel, Mary

    2008-01-01

    How much do specialized academic discourse communities matter to undergraduate writers? To what degree should theories of specialized discourses influence the design of undergraduate Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) programs? At the University of Iowa, where an undergraduate Writing Fellows program engages peer tutors in writing-intensive…

  3. Practicing Statistics by Creating Exercises for Fellow Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebermeier, Sarah; Reiss, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the execution of a workshop in which students were encouraged to actively review the course contents on descriptive statistics by creating exercises for their fellow students. In a first-year statistics course in psychology, 39 out of 155 students participated in the workshop. In a subsequent evaluation, the workshop was…

  4. Former Nonproliferation Graduate Fellow Served at U.S. Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2014-10-01

    Because of her training and professional experiences, Rosalyn Leitch, a Security Specialist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and former Nonproliferation Graduate Fellow with NIS (2012-2013) was able to transition into temporary assignment as UNVIE Acting Nuclear Security Attaché from November 2013 through February 2014.

  5. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Bezanson, Rachel; Tremblay, Grant

    2017-01-01

    The Physics GRE has long been a required element of the graduate admissions process in many U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selection "successful" applicants had not been quantitatively examined until recently. In the fall of 2015 we circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores. The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample was unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses revealed that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, including 60% of the female fellows. From these data, we found no evidence that the Physics GRE could be used as an effective predictor of "success" either in or beyond graduate school. Following this work and last year's official recommendation from the AAS, several astronomy departments have recently decided to eliminate the Physics GRE as a requirement for graduate applicants.

  6. 34 CFR 1100.20 - How is a fellow selected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM How Does the Director Award a Fellowship? § 1100.20 How is a fellow selected? (a) The Director selects applications for fellowships on the... Register and are applicable to the selection of applications. (b)(1) The Director may use experts from the...

  7. The Advanced Technology Environmental Education Center Summer Fellows Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depken, Diane E.; Zeman, Catherine L.; Lensch, Ellen Kabat; Brown, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the background, activities, and outcomes of the Advanced Technology Environmental Education Center (ATEEC) and its Summer Fellows Institutes as a model for disciplinary and cross-disciplinary infusion of environmental science and technology content, curriculum, and methods into the classroom. Presents experiences, themes, and activities…

  8. 77 FR 61791 - System of Records; Presidential Management Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Personnel Management Human Resource Solutions will now be collected by a contractor. A routine use was added... existing OPM Human Resource Services (HRS) operated system in Macon, GA will continue to function in... MANAGEMENT System of Records; Presidential Management Fellows Program AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...

  9. Why is Danish so difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Hilton, Nanna; Gooskens, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    It has consistently been shown that among the three mainland Scandinavian languages, Danish is most difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians. Recent research suggests that Danish is spoken significantly faster than Norwegian and Swedish. This finding might partly explain the asymmetric intel

  10. Communication skills training curriculum for pulmonary and critical care fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Jennifer W; Gustin, Jillian L; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; Way, David P; Mastronarde, John G

    2015-04-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires physicians training in pulmonary and critical care medicine to demonstrate competency in interpersonal communication. Studies have shown that residency training is often insufficient to prepare physicians to provide end-of-life care and facilitate patient and family decision-making. Poor communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) can adversely affect outcomes for critically ill patients and their family members. Despite this, communication training curricula in pulmonary and critical care medicine are largely absent in the published literature. We evaluated the effectiveness of a communication skills curriculum during the first year of a pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship using a family meeting checklist to provide formative feedback to fellows during ICU rotations. We hypothesized that fellows would demonstrate increased competence and confidence in the behavioral skills necessary for facilitating family meetings. We evaluated a 12-month communication skills curriculum using a pre-post, quasiexperimental design. Subjects for this study included 11 first-year fellows who participated in the new curriculum (intervention group) and a historical control group of five fellows who had completed no formal communication curriculum. Performance of communication skills and self-confidence in family meetings were assessed for the intervention group before and after the curriculum. The control group was assessed once at the beginning of their second year of fellowship. Fellows in the intervention group demonstrated significantly improved communication skills as evaluated by two psychologists using the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist, with an increase in total observed skills from 51 to 65% (P ≤ 0.01; Cohen's D effect size [es], 1.13). Their performance was also rated significantly higher when compared with the historical control group, who demonstrated only 49% of observed skills

  11. Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu

    2014-05-01

    A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.

  12. Society News: RAS Fellows are honoured with awards; Patrick Moore Medal; Best theses win prizes; New Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Congratulations to several Fellows of the RAS who have received prestigious awards this year. Congratulations to the winners of the annual prizes for the best PhD theses in astronomy and geophysics, awarded by the RAS and sponsored by Wiley-Blackwell. Winners receive a cheque for £1000, runners-up £50.

  13. Reshaping chromatin after DNA damage: the choreography of histone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Sophie E

    2015-02-13

    DNA damage signaling and repair machineries operate in a nuclear environment where DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and packaged into chromatin. Understanding how chromatin structure is restored together with the DNA sequence during DNA damage repair has been a topic of intense research. Indeed, chromatin integrity is central to cell functions and identity. However, chromatin shows remarkable plasticity in response to DNA damage. This review presents our current knowledge of chromatin dynamics in the mammalian cell nucleus in response to DNA double strand breaks and UV lesions. I provide an overview of the key players involved in regulating histone dynamics in damaged chromatin regions, focusing on histone chaperones and their concerted action with histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers and repair factors. I also discuss how these dynamics contribute to reshaping chromatin and, by altering the chromatin landscape, may affect the maintenance of epigenetic information.

  14. How Big Data Reshapes Knowledge for International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    The aim of this paper is conceptualize and illustrate how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. Based on a review of relevant literature on the uses of big data in the context of development, we unpack how...... digital traces from cell phone data, social media data or data from internet searches are used as sources of knowledge in this area. We draw on insights from governmentality studies and argue that big data’s impact on how relevant development problems are governed revolves around (1) new techniques...... of visualizing development issues, (2) a reliance on algorithmic operations that synthesize large-scale data, (3) and novel ways of rationalizing the knowledge claims that underlie development efforts. Our discussion shows that the reliance on big data challenges some aspects of traditional ways to collect...

  15. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  16. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovski, D

    2010-01-01

    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the...

  17. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system.

  18. Fellow eye treatment in excimer photo refractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Srinivas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe symmetry of response in fellow eyes of patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for myopia, analyse the risk factors leading to asymmetry in response and to determine if delayed treatment of the second eye increases safety and predictability of PRK. Methods: Retrospective review of case records of 133 patients who underwent bilateral myopic PRK and had a minimum follow up of 6 months in both eyes. Results: Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent (SE refraction within ±1D of emmetropia, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and corneal haze were not significantly different in fellow eyes of patients undergoing PRK for myopia. Of 87 eyes in group 1 (myopia <6D, 96.6% had uncorrected visual acuity ≥6/ 12, 89.7% were within ±1D of emmetropia, none lost ≥1 line BCVA, and none had haze ≥grade 3. Similar results for 98 eyes in group II (myopia 6 to 9.9D were 75.6%, 55.1%, 2.0% and 2.0% respectively. For 81 eyes in group III (myopia ≥ 10D the results were 42.7%, 33.3%, 8.6%, and 4.9% respectively. Among 84 patients with similar preoperative myopia in both eyes, 54 (64.3% patients had a postoperative SE difference ≤ ID in fellow eyes. Risk factors for asymmetric response among fellow eyes included increasing preoperative myopia (p<0.001 and dissimilar treatment technique in the two eyes (p=0.03. Corneal haze did not increase significantly after the third postoperative month. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that considerable symmetry of response exists in fellow eyes of patients undergoing myopic PRK. Early PRK in the fellow eye of patients with < 6 D myopia is safe and allows quick visual rehabilitation of the patient. In patients with myopia ≥6D, a 3-month interval before treating the second eye may improve the safety of the procedure.

  19. 34 CFR 663.22 - How does the J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board select fellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board select fellows? 663.22 Section 663.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Scholarship Board select fellows? The J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board selects fellows on...

  20. New AGU Mass Media Fellow Initiated College Science Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Marissa Weiss, this year's AGU Mass Media Fellow, feels so strongly about communicating science that she and a fellow graduate student started a course on the subject. Three years ago, she and the other student in the biogeochemistry and environmental biocomplexity program at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., developed—with the aid of mentors—a semester­long science communication class. The course has since become a regular offering at Cornell, where Weiss defended her dissertation in ecology this past August. A soil ecologist, Weiss showed in her thesis research that nitrogen pollution can cause slowing of soil decomposition because of a declining abundance of microbes that break the soil down.

  1. Training residents/fellows in paediatric cardiology: the Emory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert M

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric cardiology fellowship is a very busy time, with new responsibilities, new knowledge, new technology and fast pace. Above and beyond the science and art of pediatric cardiology, we emphasize that our cardiology fellows are in the middle of the "people business", with additional roles and responsibilities as they serve their patients and communities. This manuscript provides insight into these opportunities for our pediatric cardiac professionals.

  2. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, Emily M; Tremblay, Grant R

    2015-01-01

    The Physics GRE is currently a required element of the graduate admissions process in nearly all U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selecting "successful" applicants has never been examined. We circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores (this should not in any way be interpreted as a belief that a prize fellowship is the best or only metric of "success" in astronomy). The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample is unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses reveal that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, in...

  3. CERN Fellows, don’t splash that cash!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    When their CERN contracts expire and they leave the Organization, Fellows recoup the amounts paid into the Pension Fund by and for them every month. If they invest this money well, right from the outset, it can grow into a nice little nest-egg by the time they reach retirement age.   As employed members of the CERN personnel, Fellows are members of the Organization’s Pension Fund. Accordingly, a specific amount is withheld from their salary every month (see first box) and, as the months go by, this gradually accumulates into their transfer value (i.e. their capital). When their contracts expire, Fellows may opt to transfer that money directly into another pension fund (subject to the national laws of the destination country and, unfortunately, not possible everywhere), or take it in cash. This is because only employed members of the personnel who have at least five years of service with the Organization are entitled to remain beneficiaries of the CERN Pension Fund for life*. But the capi...

  4. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  5. Santa Elena. Ready to reshape its transport energy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2012-07-01

    The renewable energy issue opens the door to an ambient of opportunities. Santa Elena, one of the coastal provinces of Ecuador has the chance to go from a fossil fuel energy culture to a new energy scheme based on the use of environmental friendly fuels like natural gas and other renewable energy carriers like hydrogen. The marginal production of oil and natural gas from the Gustavo Galindo Velasco field and the updated gas reserves from the Gulf of Guayaquil make it possible. Infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution for vehicles is almost ready and any of the three refineries can generate hydrogen from natural gas. This provides the opportunity to reshape the Santa Elena transport energy matrix, where vehicles can burn natural gas and inter country buses can work with hydrogen. Traditional Fishing boats can be fitted with hydrogen storage and fuel systems later on. Santa Elena should face this challenge through a joint effort of public and private parties. Santa Elena State University and its partners as a focus point to create: The Campus of Energy Knowledge, where research, science and technology will serve companies that work in the energy business with a strong synergy, which will create jobs for the Santa Elena people. (orig.)

  6. Leadership and Reshaping Schooling in a Networked World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Finger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is initiated from a position that, until recently, the nature of schooling globally has remained largely unchanged since its design in the last century, and there has been a hegemony that supported its form to be enduring and largely unchanged. However, in a digital, networked world, there is a need to rethink and redefine schooling. Following an examination of schooling in the 21st Century, summarising the context and critical challenges presented by new and emerging digital technologies, suggestions about what schooling might look like in an increasingly digital, networked world are presented. Guidance is provided in relation to key questions for leadership to reshape schooling in a networked world, including: -    how might schools move into the networked mode? -    what is required to lead and manage a networked school community? -    how will a networked school become defined less by its physical space and timetabled lessons, but by being networked and that learning can take place anywhere, anytime?

  7. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  8. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Turcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.. Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined application performance model. A first goal of our performance measurements is to determine an optimal file size for our application to consume. Using the subset-sum first fit heuristic we reshape the input data by merging files in order to match as closely as possible the desired file size. This also speeds up the task of retrieving the results of our application, by having the output be less segmented. Using predictions of the performance of our application based on measurements on small data sets, we devise an execution plan that meets a user specified deadline while minimizing cost.

  9. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yao; Sheng Yongzhi; Liu Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific poly-nomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law. © 2016 Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  10. In vitro study of the aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, R; Leopaldi, A M; Mangini, A; Romagnoni, C; Contino, M; Antona, C; Fiore, G B

    2014-01-22

    Aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping (AITR) is a surgical approach to aortic valve incontinence that involves placing three stitches at half of the interleaflet triangles height. In this work, the relationship between the actual stitch height and valve functioning, and the safety margin that the surgeon can rely on in applying the stitches were systematically investigated in vitro. AITR surgery was applied to six swine aortic roots placing the stitches empirically at 50%, 60% and 75% of the triangle heights. Then the actual stitch heights were measured and the hydrodynamic performances were evaluated with a pulsatile hydrodynamic mock loop. Actual stitch heights were 45±2%, 61±4% and 79±6%. As compared to untreated conditions, the 50% configuration induced a significant variation in the effective orifice area. With stitches placed at 60%, the mean systolic pressure drop increased significantly with respect to the untreated case, but no significant changes were recorded with respect to the 50% configuration. At 75%, all the hydrodynamic parameters of systolic valve functioning worsened significantly. Summarizing, the AITR technique, when performed in a conservative manner did not induce significant alterations in the hydrodynamics of the aortic root in vitro, while more aggressive configurations did. The absence of a statistically significant difference between the 50% and 60% configurations suggests that there is a reasonably limited risk of inducing valve stenosis in the post-op scenario due to stitch misplacement.

  11. Ergonomics-inspired Reshaping and Exploration of Collections of Models

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2015-06-22

    This paper examines the following question: given a collection of man-made shapes, e.g., chairs, can we effectively explore and rank the shapes with respect to a given human body – in terms of how well a candidate shape fits the specified human body? Answering this question requires identifying which shapes are more suitable for a prescribed body, and how to alter the input geometry to better fit the shapes to a given human body. The problem links physical proportions of the human body and its interaction with object geometry, which is often expressed as ergonomics guidelines. We present an interactive system that allows users to explore shapes using different avatar poses, while, at the same time providing interactive previews of how to alter the shapes to fit the user-specified body and pose. We achieve this by first constructing a fuzzy shape-to-body map from the ergonomic guidelines to multi-contacts geometric constraints; and then, proposing a novel contact-preserving deformation paradigm to realize a reshaping to adapt the input shape. We evaluate our method on collections of models from different categories and validate the results through a user study.

  12. The National Pancreas Foundation fellows symposium program 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelrud, Andres; Whitcomb, David C

    2010-04-01

    Clinical and translational research is critical for the development of improvement in care of pancreatic diseases. Major concerns are the lack of dedicated trainees in pancreatic research and the difficulty for the remaining trainees to develop independent research careers to be included into the pancreas research community. This article describes the efforts of Solvay Pharmaceuticals and American academic leaders working through the National Pancreas Foundation to facilitate the development and expansion of a new generation of pancreas-related clinical and translational researchers through a 3-year fellows symposium.

  13. Training fellows in paediatric cardiology: the Harvard experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W; Allan, Catherine K; Newburger, Jane W

    2016-12-01

    The Fellowship Program of the Department of Cardiology at Boston Children's Hospital seeks to train academically oriented leaders in clinical care and laboratory and clinical investigation of cardiovascular disease in the young. The core clinical fellowship involves 3 years in training, comprising 24 months of clinical rotations and 12 months of elective and research experience. Trainees have access to a vast array of research opportunities - clinical, basic, and translational. Clinical fellows interested in basic science may reverse the usual sequence and start their training in the laboratory, deferring clinical training for 1 or more years. An increasing number of clinical trainees apply to spend a fourth year as a senior fellow in one of the subspecialty areas of paediatric cardiology. From the founding of the Department to the present, we have maintained a fundamental and unwavering commitment to training and education in clinical care and research in basic science and clinical investigation, as well as to the training of outstanding young clinicians and investigators.

  14. Career choice selection and satisfaction among US adult nephrology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Jhaveri, Kenar D; Sparks, Matthew A; Mattana, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Although many anticipate that there will be an eventual shortage of practicing nephrologists, a complete understanding is lacking regarding the current factors that lead US adult nephrology fellows to choose nephrology as a career and their satisfaction with this choice. It is of great concern that interest in obtaining nephrology fellowship training continues to decline in the United States, especially among US medical graduates, and the reasons for this are unclear. The exposure that students and residents have to nephrology is likely to play an important role in the career choices that they make and their ultimate satisfaction with this career choice is likely influenced by several factors, including job opportunities. Some of the findings presented here suggest that there may be a high percentage of nephrology fellows who are dissatisfied with their career choice. Failure to understand the factors that influence trainees to choose nephrology as a career and those that affect their satisfaction with this choice may impair the ability to graduate a sufficient number of nephrologists to meet projected demand. In this article, a number of variables related to the choice of nephrology as a career and satisfaction with a career in nephrology are discussed. Some steps that the nephrology training community might take to help promote interest in nephrology and optimize the satisfaction that nephrology graduates derive from their careers are also proposed.

  15. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  16. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  17. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  18. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  19. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Kianoush; Carrera, Perliveh; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Sood, Amit; Onigkeit, James A; Ramar, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited.Objectives: To assess 1) levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2) the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes.Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-o...

  20. Presidential Management Fellows (PMF) Talent Acquisition System, PMF-TAS (ACCESS CONTROLLED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Application and Assessment system for Presidential Management Fellows (PMF) and PMF Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) programs. This sytem is access...

  1. Society News: Workshop helps new GJI authors; Free eBook for schools; EGU awards medal; AGU elects Fellow; Support your Society; New Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Early-career researchers and postgraduates are invited to attend an Author Workshop at the 2012 European Geosciences Union General Assembly in Vienna. The following were elected Fellows of the Society on 10 February 2012:

  2. Evaluation of a web-based portal to improve resident education by neonatology fellows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Lakshmanan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integration of web-based educational tools into medical training has been shown to increase accessibility of resources and optimize teaching. We developed a web-based educational portal (WBEP to support teaching of pediatric residents about newborn medicine by neonatology fellows. Objectives: 1 To compare residents’ attitudes about their fellow-led education in the NICU pre- and post-WBEP; including assessment of factors that impact their education and usefulness of teaching tools. 2 To compare fellow utilization of various teaching modalities pre- and post-WBEP. Design/methods: We queried residents about their attitudes regarding fellow-led education efforts and various teaching modalities in the NICU and logistics potentially impacting effectiveness. Based on these data, we introduced the WBEP – a repository of teaching tools (e.g., mock code cases, board review questions, journal articles, case-based discussion scenarios for use by fellows to supplement didactic sessions in a faculty-based curriculum. We surveyed residents about the effectiveness of fellow teaching pre- and post-WBEP implementation and the type of fellow-led teaching modalities that were used. Results: After analysis of survey responses, we identified that residents cited fellow level of interest as the most important factor impacting their education. Post-implementation, residents described greater utilization of various teaching modalities by fellows, including an increase in use of mock codes (14% to 76%, p<0.0001 and journal articles (33% to 59%, p=0.02. Conclusions: A web-based resource that supplements traditional curricula led to greater utilization of various teaching modalities by fellows and may encourage fellow involvement in resident teaching.

  3. A reshaped excitation regenerating and mapping method for waveform correction in Lamb waves dispersion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion effect of Lamb wave will cause wave-packets to spread out in space and time, making received signals hard to be interpreted. Though the conventional dispersion compensation method can restrain dispersion effect, waveform deformation still remains in the compensated results. To eliminate dispersion effect completely, a reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method is proposed in this paper. The method compensates the dispersed signal to the same shape as the original excitation by generating a reshaped excitation and then mapping the received signal from time domain to distance domain. Simulations and experiments are conducted for the validation of the waveform correction of the reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method. Applied in the traditional delay-and-sum algorithm, the new dispersion compensation method can effectively enhance the resolution of the damage imaging.

  4. 34 CFR 662.22 - How does the J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board select fellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board select fellows? 662.22 Section 662.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Foreign Scholarship Board select fellows? (a) The J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board...

  5. High-Quality Ultrashort Pulse Generation Utilizing a Self-Phase Modulation-Based Reshaper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An ultrashort 10-GHz pulse generation scheme was successfully demonstrated using a bulk material InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator to generate the seed pulse. A self-phase modulation-based reshaper was used after the adiabatic soliton compression in a comb-like dispersion profiled fiber. Experiments and simulations confirm that the reshaper effectively removes the pulse pedestal and improves the pulse extinction ratio. As a result, the 10-GHz pulse had no pedestal, a high extinction ratio, and a pulse width of only 1.4 ps.

  6. What should a fellow-in-training expect at national cardiovascular conferences? The interventional cardiology fellows' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Didier, Romain; Koifman, Edward; Negi, Smita I

    It has become challenging for cardiovascular fellows-in-training (FIT) to determine which national cardiovascular conference (NCC) to attend given the broad range of meetings and the breadth of information offered. The aim of this study was to report our own experiences of the utility and individual strengths of the NCCs and to further understand the interventional cardiology (IC) FITs' viewpoint regarding the benefits of the individual NCCs. A survey was formulated with questions and scenarios regarding topics deemed to be of highest importance for an IC-FIT. The survey emphasized experiences regarding the utility and benefits of the NCCs, time management, optimization of acquired education, and specific interests in clinical and research topics. The completely anonymous survey was sent via an email format to a total of 234, majority of IC (fourth and fifth years) and a minority of general (third year), FITs. A completed survey response was received from 131 of the fellows (56%). The results demonstrated that the IC-FITs endorsed that the small, focused sub-specialty interventional meetings vs. the large society general meetings were more beneficial in regard to the didactic education offered. In addition, the IC-FITs indicated that pre-planning for the meetings is the most beneficial approach in optimizing one's education and that the caliber of expert faculty, case-based and live-case presentations are among the most important aspects of the meetings. Interventional cardiology FITs prefer the small sub-specialty interventional meetings over the large society general NCCs in regard to the benefits of didactic learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited. Objectives: To assess 1 levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2 the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes. Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-one of the 58 critical care fellows who were in the first year of training at the time of this initial survey participated in a pre-test and 1-year post-test to determine the effects of a brief, 90-min stress management intervention. Results: Based on responses (n=58 to the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, reported burnout was significantly lower in Asian fellows (p=0.04 and substantially higher among graduating fellows (versus new and transitioning fellows (p=0.02. Among the intervention cohort, burnout did not significantly improve – though two-thirds of fellows reported using the interventional techniques to deal with stressful situations. Fellows who participated in the intervention rated the effectiveness of the course as 4 (IQR=3.75–5 using the 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions: In comparison with the new and transitioning trainees, burnout was highest among graduating critical care fellows. Although no significant improvements were found in first-year fellows’ burnout scores following the single, 90-min training intervention, participants felt the training did provide them with tools to apply during stressful situations.

  8. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  9. Palliative care experience of US adult nephrology fellows: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Monga, Divya; Caperna, April; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2014-02-01

    Palliative care (PC) training and experience of United States (US) adult nephrology fellows was not known. It was also not clear whether nephrology fellows in the US undergo formal training in PC medicine during fellowship. To gain a better understanding of the clinical training and experience of US adult nephrology fellows in PC medicine, we conducted a national survey in March 2012. An anonymous on-line survey was sent to US adult nephrology fellows via nephrology fellowship training program directors. Fellows were asked several PC medicine experience and training questions. A total of 105 US adult nephrology fellows responded to our survey (11% response rate). Majority of the respondents (94%) were from university-based fellowship programs. Over two-thirds (72%) of the fellows had no formal PC medicine rotation during their medical school. Half (53%) of the respondents had no formal PC elective experience during residency. Although nearly 90% of the fellows had a division or department of PC medicine at their institution, only 46.9% had formal didactic PC medicine experience. Over 80% of the respondent's program did not offer formal clinical training or rotation in PC medicine during fellowship. While 90% of the responding fellows felt most comfortable with either writing dialysis orders in the chronic outpatient unit, seeing an ICU consult or writing continuous dialysis orders in the ICU, only 35% of them felt most comfortable "not offering" dialysis to a patient in the ICU with multi-organ failure. Nearly one out of five fellows surveyed felt obligated to offer dialysis to every patient regardless of benefit. Over two-thirds (67%) of the respondents thought that a formal rotation in PC medicine during fellowship would be helpful to them. To enhance clinical competency and confidence in PC medicine, a formal PC rotation during fellowship should be highly considered by nephrology training community.

  10. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotovskaya, S. A.; Tyrk, M. A.; Stalmashonak, A.; Gillespie, W. A.; Abdolvand, A.

    2016-10-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs’ surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  11. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotovskaya, S A; Tyrk, M A; Stalmashonak, A; Gillespie, W A; Abdolvand, A

    2016-10-28

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs' surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  12. MESSENGER Educator Fellows Taking the Nation on a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhala, H. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Weir, H. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) Educator Fellows are making sure classrooms across the U.S. are treated to quite a show. The Fellows, a nationally selected team of 30 master science educator volunteers, conduct workshops to teachers on how to bring educational materials developed in support of the mission into the classroom. The goal of the program is to provide teachers and school districts with exceptional educational materials and professional development strongly tied to the space science curriculum, and the materials are designed to inspire the next generation of America's scientists and engineers through NASA missions. Since the program's inception in 2003, more than 17,000 educators have been trained by the Fellows. On the basis of data gathered from the Fellows, this figure could translate to over two million student experiences. The success of the Fellowship program can also be gauged by determining how well it has maintained its volunteer corps over the years. The Fellows, selected to the program through a national announcement of opportunity every two years, reflect a geographically and institutionally diverse mix of individuals from a variety of settings such as science centers, museums, school districts, and universities. The Fellows sign up to the program for two years at a time, and at the end of their term they have the option to reapply. To keep the number of Fellows at 30 in each cadre, new Fellows are recruited to replace those who have retired. The current, fourth cadre of Fellows includes 30 individuals in 19 states and territories. Of these, seven have been in the program since the first cadre, and the other 23 include Fellows from the second, third, and fourth recruitment campaigns in 2006, 2008, and 2010. The current cadre is conducting its work

  13. Reshaping the Role of a Special Educator into a Collaborative Learning Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the practices of effective collaboration and co-teaching among Special and General Educators as it relates to the social justice concept of inclusion. Data was gathered through interviews, faculty surveys, student surveys, and personal journal reflections. The study explores the key components to reshaping the role of a…

  14. Transplantation of rib cartilage reshaped with 1.56 μm laser radiation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Baum, O.; Alexandrovskaya, Yu.; Shekhter, A.; Selezneva, L.; Svistuskin, V.

    2017-02-01

    As cartilage is an ideal natural material for transplantation, its use in the ENT surgery is limited by a difficulty to get proper shape of cartilage implants. Aim of the work is to make ring-shaped cartilage implants, to check their stability after laser reshaping and to perform transplantation into rabbits in vivo. We experimented with costal cartilages of 1-2 mm in thickness obtained from 3rd and 4rd ribs of a rabbit. 1.56 μm laser (Arcuo Medical Inc.) was used for cartilage reshaping. The laser settings were established taking into account anisotropy of cartilage structure for different orientation of the implants. The reshaped cartilage implants were surgically sewn to rib cartilages of the other rabbits. The rabbits were slaughtered in 3.5-4 months after surgery. The results have shown that (1) all reshaped implants kept circular form, and (2) the implants were adhered to the native rabbit cartilage sites (3) pronounced signs of regeneration in the intermediate zones were observed. The prospects of the cartilage implants use in larynx stenosis surgery are discussed.

  15. Monitoring of Biological Changes in Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage Using Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical reshaping (EMR is a promising surgical technique used to reshape cartilage by direct current and mechanical deformation. It causes local stress relaxation and permanent alterations in the shape of cartilage. The major advantages of EMR are its minimally invasive nature and nonthermal electrochemical mechanism of action. The purpose of this study is to validate that EMR does not cause thermal damage and to observe structural changes in post-EMR cartilage using several imaging modalities. Three imaging modality metrics were used to validate the performance of EMR by identifying structural deformation during cartilage reshaping: infrared thermography was used to sense the temperature of the flat cartilages (16.7°C at 6 V, optical coherence tomography (OCT was used to examine the change in the cartilage by gauging deformation in the tissue matrix during EMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show that EMR-treated cartilage is irregularly arranged and the thickness of collagen fibers varies, which affects the change in shape of the cartilage. In conclusion, the three imaging modalities reveal the nonthermal and electromechanical mechanisms of EMR and demonstrate that use of an EMR device is feasible for reshaping cartilage in a minimally invasive manner.

  16. Quantum-state-preserving optical frequency conversion and pulse reshaping by four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinstrie, C. J.; Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Raymer, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing driven by two pulsed pumps transfers the quantum state of an input signal pulse to an output idler pulse, which is a frequency-converted and reshaped version of the signal. By varying the pump shapes appropriately, one can connect signal and idler pulses...

  17. Changes in the tangent modulus of rabbit septal and auricular cartilage following electromechanical reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Amanda; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J F

    2011-09-01

    Transforming decades' old methodology, electromechanical reshaping (EMR) may someday replace traditionally destructive surgical techniques with a less invasive means of cartilage reshaping for reconstructive and esthetic facial surgery. Electromechanical reshaping is essentially accomplished through the application of voltage to a mechanically deformed cartilage specimen. While the capacity of the method for effective reshaping has been consistently shown, its associated effects on cartilage mechanical properties are not fully comprehended. To begin to explore the mechanical effect of EMR on cartilage, the tangent moduli of EMR-treated rabbit septal and auricular cartilage were calculated and compared to matched control values. Between the two main EMR parameters, voltage and application time, the former was varied from 2-8 V and the latter held constant at 2 min for septal cartilage, 3 min for auricular cartilage. Flat platinum electrodes were used to apply voltage, maintaining the flatness of the specimens for more precise mechanical testing through a uniaxial tension test of constant strain rate 0.01 mm/s. Above 2 V, both septal and auricular cartilage demonstrated a slight reduction in stiffness, quantified by the tangent modulus. A thermal effect was observed above 5 V, a newly identified EMR application threshold to avoid the dangers associated with thermoforming cartilage. Optimizing EMR application parameters and understanding various side effects bridge the gap between EMR laboratory research and clinical use, and the knowledge acquired through this mechanical study may be one additional support for that bridge.

  18. Adaptive reshaper for high dynamic range and wide color gamut video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taoran; Pu, Fangjun; Yin, Peng; Pytlarz, Jaclyn; Chen, Tao; Husak, Walt

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wider Color Gamut (WCG) content represents a greater range of luminance levels and a more complete reproduction of colors found in real-world scenes. The characteristics of HDR/WCG content are very different from the SDR content. It poses a challenge to the compression system which is originally designed for SDR content. Recently in MPEG/VCEG, two directions have been taken to improve compression performances for HDR/WCG video using HEVC Main10 codec. The first direction is to improve HDR-10 using encoder optimization. The second direction is to modify the video signal in pre/post processing to better fit compression system. The process therefore is out of coding loop and does not involve changes to the HEVC specification. Among many proposals in the second direction, reshaper is identified to be the key component. In this paper, a novel luma reshaper is presented which re-allocates the codewords to help codec improve subjective quality. In addition, encoder optimization can be performed jointly with reshaping. Experiments are conducted with ICtCp color difference signal. Simulation results show that if both joint optimization of reshaper and encoder are carried out, there is evidence that improvement over the HDR-10 anchor can be achieved.

  19. Mass Media Fellow Westley spends summer publishing in Newsweek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Harvey

    If you are a subscriber to Newsweek, you probably remember these stories from the past few months: “Vaccine Revolution,” “Aliens Invade America!,” “A Gymnast's Long Fall,” “Is AIDS Forever?,” and a cover story, “Science Finds God.” They all had something in common, aside from their science focus: at the end of each article was the credit line, “With Marian Westley.” In addition, a story titled “A Long, Wacky Summer,” on recent weather patterns, carried Marian Westley's byline. Who, you may have wondered, is this Marian Westley, who reports with equal aplomb on matters as diverse as epidemiology, meteorology, the predations of nonnative plant species, and the interface between scientists and theologians? Actually, Westley is a graduate student in biological oceanography at the University of Hawaii and a member of AGU. She spent the summer of 1998 as the AAAS/AGU Mass Media Fellow at Newsweek in New York.

  20. A pilot study of palliative medicine fellows' hospice home visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Laura K; Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Hullihen, Barbara; Khan, Mohammed I Ahmed; Russell, Kraig M; Davis, Mellar P; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan

    2012-12-01

    This was a prospective descriptive study of hospice physician home visits (HVs) conducted by Hospice and Palliative Medicine Fellows. Our objectives were 1) to improve our knowledge of hospice care at home by describing physician HVs 2) to identify the indications for physician HVs and the problems addressed during the HV. Data was collected on 58 consecutive patients using a standardized form completed before and after the home visit. More than half of the persons were women. Most were Caucasian. Median age was 75 years; 57% had cancer; 77% were do-not-resuscitate. 76% HV occurred in the home. The median visit duration was 60 minutes; median travel distance and time 25 miles and 42 minutes, respectively. A hospice nurse case manager was present in 95%. The most common issues addressed during HVs were: health education, symptom management, and psychosocial support. Medication review was prominent. Physicians identified previously unreported issues. Symptom control was usually pain, although 27 symptoms were identified. Medications were important; all home visits included drug review and two thirds drug change. Physicians had unique responsibilities and identified important issues in the HV. Physicians provided both education and symptom management. Physician HVs are an important intervention. HVs were important in continuity of care, however, time-consuming, and incurred considerable travel, and professional time and costs.

  1. Audiology: student perception of preceptor and fellow student ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clifford; Vesely, Brian; White, Letitia; Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Franklin, Clay

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to uphold high ethical standards. Recently, ethical practices in health care have received increased scrutiny and study in an effort to ensure that clinicians meet such high ethical standards in serving their patients and clients. The American Academy of Audiology's Code of Ethics establishes professional standards that allow for the proper discharge of an audiologist's responsibilities while maintaining the integrity of the profession. Under this code, student academy members are included and required to abide by the code, the same as practicing members. The code is composed of a preamble and eight principles. The present study provides an overview of students' perceptions across a broad spectrum of ethical topics governing our profession. Specifically, this study examined audiology students' perceptions of preceptor ethics relating to these eight principles using an online survey. Responses were collected from 143 of 600 audiology students contacted and indicated that they believed that their preceptors consistently followed each of the eight principles. Results also indicated that students believe fellow students also behave ethically and that it is the primary responsibility of academic faculty, not preceptors, to teach ethics. It can be concluded that preceptors are perceived by their students to be acting with high ethical standards. However, more research and discussion may be needed to determine who should teach these ethics to students.

  2. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  3. Detection of Keratoconus in Clinically and Algorithmically Topographically Normal Fellow Eyes Using Epithelial Thickness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z.; Archer, Timothy J.; Urs, Raksha; Gobbe, Marine; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the effectiveness of a keratoconus-detection algorithm derived from Artemis very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (ArcScan Inc., Morrison, CO) epithelial thickness maps in the fellow eye from a series of patients with unilateral keratoconus. METHODS The study included 10 patients with moderate to advanced keratoconus in one eye but a clinically and algorithmically topographically normal fellow eye. VHF digital ultrasound epithelial thickness data were acquired and a previously developed classification model was applied for identification of keratoconus to the clinically normal fellow eyes. Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany) Belin-Ambrósio Display (BAD) data (5 of 10 eyes), and Orbscan (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) SCORE data (9 of 10 eyes) were also evaluated. RESULTS Five of the 10 fellow eyes were classified as keratoconic by the VHF digital ultrasound epithelium model. Five of 9 fellow eyes were classified as keratoconic by the SCORE model. For the 5 fellow eyes with Pentacam and VHF digital ultrasound data, one was classified as keratoconic by the VHF digital ultrasound model, one (different) eye by a combined VHF digital ultrasound and Pentacam model, and none by BAD-D alone. CONCLUSIONS Under the assumption that keratoconus is a bilateral but asymmetric disease, half of the ‘normal’ fellow eyes could be found to have keratoconus using epithelial thickness maps. The Orbscan SCORE or the combination of topographic BAD criteria with epithelial maps did not perform better. PMID:26544561

  4. Training gastroenterology fellows to perform gastric polypectomy using a novel ex vivo model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Ching-Chung Lin; Chia-Yuan Liu; Chih-Jen Chen; Chen-Wang Chang; Ching-Wei Chang; Chien-Wei Lee; Shou-Chuan Shih; Horng-Yuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of hands-on training of gastroenterology fellows in gastric polypectomy using an ex vivo simulator.METHODS: Eight gastroenterology fellows at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei were evaluated in gastric polypectomy techniques using a pig stomach with artificial polyps created by a rubber band ligation device. The performance of four second year (year-2) fellows who had undergone one year of clinical training was compared with that of four first year (year-1) fellows both before and after a 4-h workshop using the ex vivo simulator. The workshop allowed for hands-on training in the removal of multiple artificial polyps and the placement of hemoclips at the excision site. Evaluation included observation of technical skills, procedure time, and the fellows' confidence scale.RESULTS: One week after the workshop, the year-1 fellows were re-evaluated and had significantly improved mean performance scores (from 17.9 ± 1.8 to 22.5 ± 0.7), confidence scale (from 4.5 ± 1.0 to 7.8 ± 0.5) and procedure time (from 615.0 ± 57.4 s to 357.5 ± 85.0 s) compared with their baseline performance. After 4 h of training using the ex vivo simulator, the skills of the year-1 fellows were statistically similar to those of the year-2 fellows.CONCLUSION: Use of this ex vivo simulator significantly improved the endoscopic gastric polypectomy skills of gastroenterology fellows who had not had previous clinical training in gastric polypectomy.

  5. ABCs of Safety and Quality for the Pediatric Resident and Fellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Emily; Sethuraman, Usha

    2016-04-01

    The role of resident and fellow trainees in patient-centered improvement processes is critical to a health care system's success. There is a growing impetus to incorporate patient safety and quality improvement into the educational framework of physicians in training. As part of the Next Accreditation System, practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice domains mandate that residents and fellows be assessed on their ability to enhance the quality of care and advocate for patient safety. Best practices for incorporating quality improvement and patient safety into the curriculum of residents and fellows remains an area of interest for educators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maury Nussbaum reappointed as Hal G. Prillaman Professor Fellow in Industrial and Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Maury Nussbaum, professor of industrial and systems engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been reappointed as the Hal G. Prillaman Professor Fellow in Industrial and Systems Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  7. Recent advances towards an International Year of Planet Earth——A letter to fellow geoscientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.J. de Mulder

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dear fellow geoscientist, I write to draw your attention to recent advances towards an International Year of Planet Earth, which is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO.

  8. Frank Gwazdauskas honored with the American Dairy Science Association Fellow Award

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Frank C. Gwazdauskas of Blacksburg, Va., the David and Margaret Lincicome Professor in the Department of Dairy Science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, received the 2008 American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) Fellow Award.

  9. Leo Piilonen appointed William E. Hassinger, Jr. Senior Faculty Fellow in Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Leo Piilonen, professor of physics in the College of Science at Virginia Tech, was recently appointed the William E. Hassinger, Jr., Senior Faculty Fellow in Physics by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  10. Graduate Medical Education in Humanism and Professionalism: A Needs Assessment Survey of Pediatric Gastroenterology Fellows

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B; WOOLF, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...

  11. Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahya, Shubhada N; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Tuazon, Jennifer; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that simulation-based education (SBE) improved temporary hemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion skills by nephrology fellows. SBE, featuring deliberate practice and rigorous achievement standards, was a powerful method to enhance THDC insertion skills in nephrology fellows. However, experts have called for further research to evaluate skill transfer from the simulated environment to actual clinical care and skill retention. This is a prospective observational cohort study of THDC insertion skills. Twelve nephrology fellows from three academic centers in Chicago were evaluated using a skills checklist from July 2008 to June 2009. Simulator-trained fellows were tested after the SBE intervention and expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. To assess transfer of skill to clinical care, three simulator-trained fellows were assessed at 6 months on actual patient THDC insertions using the checklist. To assess retention of skill, 11 of 12 simulator-trained fellows were reassessed at 1 year using the checklist and central venous catheter simulator. Outcomes were determined by THDC insertion skill performance. Simulator-trained fellows scored similarly during 6-month THDC insertions on actual patients and immediate posttest (M = 86.2%, SD = 22.3% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.32). However, 1 year after SBE, simulated THDC insertion scores were significantly lower than at immediate posttest (M = 73.4%, SD = 22.2% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.01). Our results show that nephrology fellows who completed SBE displayed high levels of performance during THDC insertions on actual patients 6 months later. At 1 year, there was statistically significant skills decay. We recommend booster training at 6 months.

  12. Burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being among US neurology residents and fellows in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kerry H; Shanafelt, Tait D; Keran, Christopher M; Busis, Neil A; Foster, Laura A; Molano, Jennifer Rose V; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Ratliff, Jeffrey B; Schwarz, Heidi B; Sloan, Jeff A; Cascino, Terrence L

    2017-08-01

    To study prevalence of and factors contributing to burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurology residents and fellows. A total of 938 US American Academy of Neurology member neurology residents and fellows were surveyed using standardized measures of burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being from January 19 to March 21, 2016. Response rate was 37.7% (354/938); about 2/3 of responders were residents and 1/3 were fellows. Median age of participants was 32 years and 51.1% were female. Seventy-three percent of residents and 55% of fellows had at least one symptom of burnout, the difference largely related to higher scores for depersonalization among residents. For residents, greater satisfaction with work-life balance, meaning in work, and older age were associated with lower risk of burnout; for fellows, greater satisfaction with work-life balance and effective support staff were associated with lower risk of burnout. Trainees experiencing burnout were less likely to report career satisfaction. Career satisfaction was more likely among those reporting meaning in work and more likely for those working in the Midwest compared with the Northeast region. Burnout is common in neurology residents and fellows. Lack of work-life balance and lack of meaning in work were associated with reduced career satisfaction and increased risk of burnout. These results should inform approaches to reduce burnout and promote career satisfaction and well-being in US neurology trainees. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Renal Ultrasound, Dialysis Catheter Placement, and Kidney Biopsy Experience of US Nephrology Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Mala; Ross, Daniel W; Shah, Hitesh H

    2016-08-01

    Procedures are a key component to the practice of nephrology. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires nephrology fellows to acquire skills and demonstrate competency in the performance of several procedures during fellowship training, including temporary hemodialysis catheter placement, biopsy of native and transplanted kidneys, and various dialytic therapies. It is also required that fellows acquire competency in the interpretation of renal imaging, including renal ultrasound, during their training. To gain a more recent perspective of nephrology fellows' experiences regarding renal ultrasonography, dialysis catheter placement, and kidney biopsies, we carried out a national survey of nephrology fellows in May 2014. A majority of the programs did not offer formal clinical training in renal ultrasonography. In addition, a significant percentage of fellows in adult nephrology may not be acquiring the required procedural skills and competency during fellowship training. In this perspective, we explore some of the reasons for this occurrence and propose some measures that the nephrology training community can take to enhance procedural skills and competency of fellows. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphene oxide-promoted reshaping and coarsening of gold nanorods and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hanqing; Low, Serena; Weerasuriya, Nisala; Shon, Young-Seok

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes thermally induced reshaping and coarsening behaviors of gold nanorods and nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of ∼3.5 (54:15 nm) and glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles with an average core size of ∼3 nm were synthesized and self-assembled onto the surface of graphene oxide. The hybrid materials were then heated at different temperatures ranging from 50 to 300 °C. The effects of heat treatments were monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were directly compared with those of heat-treated free-standing gold nanorods and nanoparticles without graphene oxide to understand the heat-induced morphological changes of the nanohybrids. The obtained results showed that the gold nanorods would undergo a complete reshaping to spherical particles at the temperature of 50 °C when they are assembled on graphene oxide. In comparison, the complete reshaping of free-standing gold nanorods to spherical particles would ultimately require a heating of the samples at 200 °C. In addition, the spherical gold nanoparticles immobilized on graphene oxide would undergo a rapid coarsening at the temperature of 100-150 °C, which was lower than the temperature (150-200 °C) required for visible coarsening of free-standing gold nanoparticles. The results indicated that graphene oxide facilitates the reshaping and coarsening of gold nanorods and nanoparticles, respectively, during the heat treatments. The stripping and spillover of stabilizing ligands promoted by graphene oxide are proposed to be the main mechanism for the enhancements in the heat-induced transformations of nanohybrids.

  15. Nonlinear Pulse-reshaping of Sub-picosecond Pulses by Non-degenerate Four-wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper; Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Rottwitt, Karsten

    Four-wave mixing does according to various models allow for arbitrary pulse-reshaping of the generated idler. Using subpicosecond pulses, we investigate numerically whether nonlinear effects and dispersion broadening begin to prevent this ability.......Four-wave mixing does according to various models allow for arbitrary pulse-reshaping of the generated idler. Using subpicosecond pulses, we investigate numerically whether nonlinear effects and dispersion broadening begin to prevent this ability....

  16. Creation and Assessment of a Bad News Delivery Simulation Curriculum for Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B; Lorin, Martin I

    2016-05-01

    Background  Bad news in the context of health care has been broadly defined as significant information that negatively alters people's perceptions of the present or future. Effectively delivering bad news (DBN) in the setting of the emergency department requires excellent communication skills. Evidence shows that bad news is frequently given inadequately. Studies show that trainees need to devote more time to developing this skill through formalized training. This program's objectives were to utilize trained standardized patients in a simulation setting to assist pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows in the development of effective, sensitive, and compassionate communication with patients and family members when conveying bad news, and to recognize and respond to the patient/parent's reaction to such news. Methods PEM fellows participated in a novel curriculum utilizing simulated patients (SPs) acting as the patient's parent and immersive techniques in a realistic and supportive environment. A baseline survey was conducted to ascertain participant demographics and previous experience with simulation and DBN. Experienced, multi-disciplinary faculty participated in a training workshop with the SPs one week prior to course delivery. Three scenarios were developed for bad news delivery. Instructors watched via remote video feed while the fellows individually interacted with the SPs and then participated in a confidential debriefing. Fellows later joined for group debriefing. Fellow characteristics, experience, and self-perceived comfort pre/post-course were collected.   Results Baseline data demonstrated that 78% of fellows reported DBN two or more times per month. Ninety-three percent of fellows in this study were present during the delivery of news about the death of a child to a parent or family member in the six-month period preceding this course. Fellows' self-reported comfort level in DBN to a patient/family and dealing with patient and parent emotions

  17. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    to animals presented in such completeness and thoroughness, together with the distance and objectivity originating in the legal stance. The book is of invaluable significance in particular for the commentators of the German animal protection law as amended in 1998: For the first time, they are now in a position to draw from an abundance of facts and evaluations relevant to animal protection. It appears as a fortunate circumstance in this context, that not only the traditional Lorz-commentary is being continued (Albert Lorz and Ernst Metzger: "Tierschutzgesetz" [Animal Protection Law], commentary, 5th edition) but also a completely new commentary is being developed by the team of Hans Georg Kluge, ed., Antoine F. Goetschel, Jörg Hartung, Eisenhart von Loeper, Jost Dietrich Ort and Kerstin Reckwell: "Kommentar zum Tierschutzgesetz" (Commentary to the Animal Protection Law). "Moral Status" is not only the title of an important investigation by Mary Anne Warren (in the introductory chapter she describes and evaluates the basics of the Status-discussion to date) but also a topic singularly dominating the scientific discourse. Out of rejection or reservation regarding the biocentrical position of Albert Schweitzer or Paul W. Taylor, time after time new restricting concepts have been introduced. In the same way, the criterion of the ability to suffer as developed by Bentham was considered by some as too far reaching. In considering animals ethically the line can be drawn so tightly that, aside from apes and maybe some large marine mammals, the whole of the animal kingdom can be degraded to at best, the ecological worthy resources of man; and all this without being suspected of an adversary position to animal protection. At times, the impression arises that science is seeking and finding ever new hurdles in order to keep the number of morally considered fellow-creatures as small as possible. Following common opinion, even animals with moral status are only entitled to

  18. Reshaping of Gaussian light pulses transmitted through one-dimensional photonic crystals with two defect layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoenkova, Yu S; Dadoenkova, N N; Lyubchanskii, I L; Sementsov, D I

    2016-05-10

    We present a theoretical study of the reshaping of subpicosecond optical pulses in the vicinity of double-peaked defect-mode frequencies in the spectrum of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with two defect layers and calculate the time delay of the transmitted pulses. We used the transfer matrix method for the evaluation of the transmittivity spectra, and the Fourier transform technique for the calculation of the transmitted pulse envelopes. The most considerable reshaping of the pulses takes place for pulses with a carrier frequency in the defect-mode center and with a spectrum wider than the half-width of the defect mode. For pulses with the carrier frequency at the low- and high-frequency peaks of the defect mode, reshaping is strong for the twice as wide pulses. The maximal time delay of a spectrally narrow pulse is of the order of the pulse duration and demonstrates extrema at the frequencies of the defect-mode peaks. The time delay of a wide pulse does not depend on the carrier frequency, but is one order of magnitude larger than the pulse duration.

  19. Assessment of Abilities of Gastroenterology Fellows to Provide Information to Patients With Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Noami; Lucero, Catherine; Villanueva, Gerald; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Patient education is critical in ensuring patient compliance and good health outcomes. Fellows must be able to effectively communicate with their patients, delivering enough information for the patient to understand their medical problem and maximize patient compliance. We created an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with 4 liver disease cases to assess fellows' knowledge and ability to inform standardized patients (SPs) about their clinical condition. We developed 4 cases highlighting different aspects of liver disease and created a 4-station OSCE: hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C, new diagnosis of cirrhosis, and an end-stage cirrhotic nontransplant candidate. The SP with hepatitis B was minimizing the fact that she could not read English. The acute hepatitis C SP was a nursing student who is afraid that having hepatitis C might jeopardize her career. The SP with the new diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis needed to stop drinking, and the end-stage liver disease patient had to grapple with his advanced directives. Twelve fellows from 4 GI training programs participated. Our focus was to assess the fellows' knowledge about liver diseases and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies of health literacy, shared decision making, advanced directives, and goals of care. The goal for the fellows was to communicate effectively with the SPs, and acknowledge that each patient had an emotionally charged issue to overcome. The SPs used a checklist to rate fellows' performance. Faculty and the SPs observed the cases and provided feedback. The fellows were surveyed on their performance regarding the case. The majority of fellows were able to successfully summarize findings and discuss a plan with the patient in the new diagnosis of cirrhosis (76.92%) and hepatitis C case (100%), but were less successful in the hepatitis B case (30.77%) and the end-of-life case (41.67%). Overall, a small percentage of fellows reflected that they did a good

  20. The effect of the deliberation process and jurors' prior legal knowledge on the sentence: the role of psychological expertise and crime scene photo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Rémi; Bastounis, Marina

    2010-01-01

    An experiment with simulated juries (N = 198) tested the impact of the deliberation process and two extra legal variables on the determination of sentence. Participants were either social science students without prior instruction in criminal law (prior legal knowledge: low-level group) or future professional magistrates completing their final year of training (high-level group). We manipulated the presence versus absence of (i) a non-diagnostic observation of the defendant by a psychology expert and (ii) a realistic crime scene photograph. After controlling for participants' gender and age, our results show that the high-level group was both less sensitive to the manipulated variables and more severe in their sentence than low-level jurors. We observed a post-deliberation increase in pre-deliberation bias such that the non-diagnostic psychological expertise had a stronger post-deliberation impact on the sentence. Finally, an unexpected effect showed that aggressive responses during the psychological observation tended to operate as exculpatory rather than accusatory evidence. Our results are discussed on the basis of previous research and proposals for future research are made.

  1. Teaching geriatric fellows how to teach: a needs assessment targeting geriatrics fellowship program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Veronica; Yukawa, Michi; Aronson, Louise; Widera, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The entire healthcare workforce needs to be educated to better care for older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fellows are being trained to teach, to assess the attitudes of fellowship directors toward training fellows to be teachers, and to understand how to facilitate this type of training for fellows. A nine-question survey adapted from a 2001 survey issued to residency program directors inquiring about residents-as-teachers curricula was developed and administered. The survey was issued electronically and sent out three times over a 6-week period. Of 144 ACGME-accredited geriatric fellowship directors from geriatric, internal medicine, and family medicine departments who were e-mailed the survey, 101 (70%) responded; 75% had an academic affiliation, 15% had a community affiliation, and 10% did not report. Academic and community programs required their fellows to teach, but just 55% of academic and 29% of community programs offered teaching skills instruction as part of their fellowship curriculum; 67% of academic programs and 79% of community programs felt that their fellows would benefit from more teaching skill instruction. Program directors listed fellow (39%) and faculty (46%) time constraints as obstacles to creation and implementation of a teaching curriculum. The majority of fellowship directors believe that it is important for geriatric fellows to become competent educators, but only approximately half of programs currently provide formal instruction in teaching skills. A reproducible, accessible curriculum on teaching to teach that includes a rigorous evaluation component should be created for geriatrics fellowship programs. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Orion: a web-based application designed to monitor resident and fellow performance on-call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Kim, Woojin; Scanlon, Mary H

    2011-10-01

    Radiology residency and fellowship training provides a unique opportunity to evaluate trainee performance and determine the impact of various educational interventions. We have developed a simple software application (Orion) using open-source tools to facilitate the identification and monitoring of resident and fellow discrepancies in on-call preliminary reports. Over a 6-month period, 19,200 on-call studies were interpreted by 20 radiology residents, and 13,953 on-call studies were interpreted by 25 board-certified radiology fellows representing eight subspecialties. Using standard review macros during faculty interpretation, each of these reports was classified as "agreement", "minor discrepancy", and "major discrepancy" based on the potential to impact patient management or outcome. Major discrepancy rates were used to establish benchmarks for resident and fellow performance by year of training, modality, and subspecialty, and to identify residents and fellows demonstrating a significantly higher major discrepancy rate compared with their classmates. Trends in discrepancies were used to identify subspecialty-specific areas of increased major discrepancy rates in an effort to tailor the didactic and case-based curriculum. A series of missed-case conferences were developed based on trends in discrepancies, and the impact of these conferences is currently being evaluated. Orion is a powerful information technology tool that can be used by residency program directors, fellowship programs directors, residents, and fellows to improve radiology education and training.

  3. Assessment of email communication skills of rheumatology fellows: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuper, Sonal; Siva, Chokkalingam; Fresen, John L; Petruc, Marius; Velázquez, Celso R

    2010-01-01

    Physician–patient email communication is gaining popularity. However, a formal assessment of physicians' email communication skills has not been described. We hypothesized that the email communication skills of rheumatology fellows can be measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) setting using a novel email content analysis instrument which has 18 items. During an OSCE, we asked 50 rheumatology fellows to respond to a simulated patient email. The content of the responses was assessed using our instrument. The majority of rheumatology fellows wrote appropriate responses scoring a mean (±SD) of 10.6 (±2.6) points (maximum score 18), with high inter-rater reliability (0.86). Most fellows were concise (74%) and courteous (68%) but not formal (22%). Ninety-two percent of fellows acknowledged that the patient's condition required urgent medical attention, but only 30% took active measures to contact the patient. No one encrypted their messages. The objective assessment of email communication skills is possible using simulated emails in an OSCE setting. The variable email communication scores and incidental patient safety gaps identified, suggest a need for further training and defined proficiency standards for physicians' email communication skills. PMID:20962134

  4. Assessment of email communication skills of rheumatology fellows: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mayank K; Dhuper, Sonal; Siva, Chokkalingam; Fresen, John L; Petruc, Marius; Velázquez, Celso R

    2010-01-01

    Physician-patient email communication is gaining popularity. However, a formal assessment of physicians' email communication skills has not been described. We hypothesized that the email communication skills of rheumatology fellows can be measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) setting using a novel email content analysis instrument which has 18 items. During an OSCE, we asked 50 rheumatology fellows to respond to a simulated patient email. The content of the responses was assessed using our instrument. The majority of rheumatology fellows wrote appropriate responses scoring a mean (±SD) of 10.6 (±2.6) points (maximum score 18), with high inter-rater reliability (0.86). Most fellows were concise (74%) and courteous (68%) but not formal (22%). Ninety-two percent of fellows acknowledged that the patient's condition required urgent medical attention, but only 30% took active measures to contact the patient. No one encrypted their messages. The objective assessment of email communication skills is possible using simulated emails in an OSCE setting. The variable email communication scores and incidental patient safety gaps identified, suggest a need for further training and defined proficiency standards for physicians' email communication skills.

  5. Training satisfaction for subspecialty fellows in internal medicine: Findings from the Veterans Affairs (VA Learners' Perceptions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne John M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Learner satisfaction assessment is critical in the design and improvement of training programs. However, little is known about what influences satisfaction and whether trainee specialty is correlated. A national comparison of satisfaction among internal medicine subspecialty fellows in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA provides a unique opportunity to examine educational factors associated with learner satisfaction. We compared satisfaction across internal medicine fellows by subspecialty and compared factors associated with satisfaction between procedural versus non-procedural subspecialty fellows, using data from the Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS, a validated survey tool. Methods We surveyed 2,221 internal medicine subspecialty fellows rotating through VA between 2001 and 2008. Learners rated their overall training satisfaction on a 100-point scale, and on a five-point Likert scale ranked satisfaction with items within six educational domains: learning, clinical, working and physical environments; personal experience; and clinical faculty/preceptor. Results Procedural and non-procedural fellows reported similar overall satisfaction scores (81.2 and 81.6. Non-procedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with 79 of 81 items within the 6 domains and with the domain of physical environment (4.06 vs. 3.85, p Conclusions Internal medicine fellows are highly satisfied with their VA training. Nonprocedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with most items. For both procedural and non-procedural fellows, clinical faculty/preceptor and personal experience have the strongest impact on overall satisfaction.

  6. Attitudes and Knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellows Regarding Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Paul; Hardisty, Emily; Sayres, Lauren; Wiegand, Samantha; Vora, Neeta

    2016-02-01

    Using cell-free DNA in maternal serum to detect fetal aneuploidy has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes and knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) fellows regarding noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). A 13 question survey was sent via listserv to US-based MFM fellows. One hundred sixteen fellows responded, a 42.3% response rate, with >75% reporting they are comfortable ordering NIPT. Most (82%) preferred that a patient discuss options with a provider or genetic counselor. Three common methods used to learn about NIPT were: formal educational activities (n = 78, 69%), self-review of the literature (n = 76, 67%), and discussions with peers (n = 73, 65%). On questions related to trisomy 21, accuracy was >70%. However, accuracy was lower regarding use in twin pregnancies (42%) and monosomy X screening (50%).

  7. Measuring pediatric hematology-oncology fellows' skills in humanism and professionalism: A novel assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Agrawal, Anurag K; Bhatia, Nita; Cronin, Angel; Jubran, Rima; Kent, Paul; Kersun, Leslie; Rao, Amulya Nageswara; Rose, Melissa; Savelli, Stephanie; Sharma, Mukta; Shereck, Evan; Twist, Clare J; Wang, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Educators in pediatric hematology-oncology lack rigorously developed instruments to assess fellows' skills in humanism and professionalism. We developed a novel 15-item self-assessment instrument to address this gap in fellowship training. Fellows (N = 122) were asked to assess their skills in five domains: balancing competing demands of fellowship, caring for the dying patient, confronting depression and burnout, responding to challenging relationships with patients, and practicing humanistic medicine. An expert focus group predefined threshold scores on the instrument that could be used as a cutoff to identify fellows who need support. Reliability and feasibility were assessed and concurrent validity was measured using three established instruments: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Flourishing Scale (FS), and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE). For 90 participating fellows (74%), the self-assessment proved feasible to administer and had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.81). It was moderately correlated with the FS and MBI (Pearson's r = 0.41 and 0.4, respectively) and weakly correlated with the JSPE (Pearson's r = 0.15). Twenty-eight fellows (31%) were identified as needing support. The self-assessment had a sensitivity of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31-69) and a specificity of 77% (95% CI: 65-87) for identifying fellows who scored poorly on at least one of the three established scales. We developed a novel assessment instrument for use in pediatric fellowship training. The new scale proved feasible and demonstrated internal consistency reliability. Its moderate correlation with other established instruments shows that the novel assessment instrument provides unique, nonredundant information as compared to existing scales. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Humanism and professionalism education for pediatric hematology-oncology fellows: A model for pediatric subspecialty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Atlas, Mark; Adams, Denise; Aygun, Banu; Barfield, Ray; Eisenman, Kristen; Fulbright, Joy; Garvey, Katharine; Kersun, Leslie; Nageswara Rao, Amulya; Reilly, Anne; Sharma, Mukta; Shereck, Evan; Wang, Michael; Watt, Tanya; Leavey, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Humanism and professionalism are virtues intrinsic to the practice of medicine, for which we lack a standard, evidence-based approach for teaching and evaluation. Pediatric hematology-oncology (PHO) fellowship training brings new and significant stressors, making it an attractive setting for innovation in humanism and professionalism training. We electronically surveyed a national sample of PHO fellows to identify fellows' educational needs in humanism and professionalism. Next, we developed a case-based, faculty-facilitated discussion curriculum to teach this content within pilot fellowship programs. We assessed whether fellowships would decide to offer the curriculum, feasibility of administering the curriculum, and satisfaction of fellow and faculty participants. Surveys were completed by 187 fellows (35%). A minority (29%) reported that their training program offers a formal curriculum in humanism and/or professionalism. A majority desires more formal teaching on balancing clinical practice and research (85%), coping with death/dying (85%), bereavement (78%), balancing work and personal life (75%), navigating challenging relationships with patients (74%), and depression/burn out (71%). These six topics were condensed into four case-based modules, which proved feasible to deliver at all pilot sites. Ten fellowship programs agreed to administer the novel curriculum. The majority (90%) of responding fellows and faculty reported the sessions touched on issues important for training, stimulated reflective communication, and were valuable. Pediatric hematology-oncology fellows identify numerous gaps in their training related to humanism and professionalism. This curriculum offers an opportunity to systematically address these educational needs and can serve as a model for wider implementation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:335-340. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Nephrology Fellows' Communication Skills Course: An Educational Quality Improvement Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A; Jackson, Vicki A; Norwich, Diana; Schell, Jane O; Schaefer, Kristen; Ship, Amy N; Sullivan, Amy M

    2016-08-01

    Nephrology fellows need expertise navigating challenging conversations with patients throughout the course of advanced kidney disease. However, evidence shows that nephrologists receive inadequate training in this area. This study assessed the effectiveness of an educational quality improvement intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication with patients who have advanced kidney disease. Quality improvement project. Full-day annual workshops (2013-2014) using didactics, discussion, and practice with simulated patients. Content focused on delivering bad news, acknowledging emotion, discussing care goals in dialysis decision making when prognosis is uncertain, and addressing dialysis therapy withdrawal and end of life. Participants were first-year nephrology fellows from 2 Harvard-affiliated training programs (N=26). Study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication skills. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported patient communication skills, attitudes, and behaviors related to discussing disease progression, prognostic uncertainty, dialysis therapy withdrawal, treatments not indicated, and end of life; responding to emotion; eliciting patient goals and values; and incorporating patient goals into recommendations. Surveys measured prior training, pre- and postcourse perceived changes in skills and values, and reported longer term (3-month) changes in communication behaviors, using both closed- and open-ended items. Response rates were 100% (pre- and postsurveys) and 68% (follow-up). Participants reported improvement in all domains, with an overall mean increase of 1.1 (summed average scores: precourse, 2.8; postcourse, 3.9 [1-5 scale; 5 = "extremely well prepared"]; Pskills taught, such as "Ask-Tell-Ask" and using open-ended questions. Self-reported data may overestimate actual changes; small sample size and the programs' affiliation with a single medical school may limit generalizability. A day

  10. Fellow Eye Macular Edema Improvement after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Radiation Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis A. S. Brito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation retinopathy (RR is a progressive, chronic condition directly related to the amount of radiation administered to the retina. We report a 37-year-old patient with medulloblastoma that was treated with external beam radiation and presented to us with bilateral cystoid macular edema. He was treated with monthly bevacizumab injections only in his worst seeing eye. There was a significant improvement in his fellow eye, with marked retinal thickness reduction. Therefore, we present clinical evidence of systemic absorption and fellow eye activity of the drug (bevacizumab. One must be aware of distant side effects after intravitreal injections.

  11. Let's Talk Critical. Development and Evaluation of a Communication Skills Training Program for Critical Care Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Aluko A; Hsieh, S Jean; Howes, Jennifer M; Keene, Adam B; Fausto, James A; Pinto, Priya A; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2015-04-01

    Although expert communication between intensive care unit clinicians with patients or surrogates improves patient- and family-centered outcomes, fellows in critical care medicine do not feel adequately trained to conduct family meetings. We aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a communication skills program that could be easily integrated into a U.S. critical care fellowship. We developed four simulation cases that provided communication challenges that critical care fellows commonly face. For each case, we developed a list of directly observable tasks that could be used by faculty to evaluate fellows during each simulation. We developed a didactic curriculum of lectures/case discussions on topics related to palliative care, end-of-life care, communication skills, and bioethics; this month-long curriculum began and ended with the fellows leading family meetings in up to two simulated cases with direct observation by faculty who were not blinded to the timing of the simulation. Our primary measures of effectiveness were the fellows' self-reported change in comfort with leading family meetings after the program was completed and the quality of the communication as measured by the faculty evaluators during the family meeting simulations at the end of the month. Over 3 years, 31 critical care fellows participated in the program, 28 of whom participated in 101 family meeting simulations with direct feedback by faculty facilitators. Our trainees showed high rates of information disclosure during the simulated family meetings. During the simulations done at the end of the month compared with those done at the beginning, our fellows showed significantly improved rates in: (1) verbalizing an agenda for the meeting (64 vs. 41%; Chi-square, 5.27; P = 0.02), (2) summarizing what will be done for the patient (64 vs. 39%; Chi-square, 6.21; P = 0.01), and (3) providing a follow-up plan (60 vs. 37%; Chi-square, 5.2; P = 0.02). More than 95% of our participants (n = 27

  12. Simple Reshaping of the Breast in Massive Weight Loss Patients: Promising Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikander, Peder; Gad, Dorte; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Boljanovic, Slaven; Salzberg, Andrew; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2017-02-01

    The challenging breast reshaping after massive weight loss (MWL) has been increasingly performed as the number of bariatric surgery procedures increase worldwide. The breasts often appear wide, lateralized, and deflated, with significant ptosis. The aim of this article is to share our initial experience using the lower pole subglandular advancement mastoplasty (LOPOSAM) technique to reshape the breasts in MWL patients and to elaborate the technical details and simplicity of the method in the attached video. We performed 30 LOPOSAM procedures in 15 MWL women aged 24 to 63 years from February to September 2015. We used a wise pattern mark-up and a superior based pedicle for the relocation of the nipple areola complex. The key step for the autoaugmentation was an inferior and central mound based parabola-shaped flap, which was placed in a subglandular pocket to reshape the breast and lift the inframammary crease. The median operation time for the LOPOSAM procedure was 81 minutes (range, 35-160 minutes) by 2 surgeons. The median weight loss was 64 kg (range, 45-103) and 22 body mass index units (range, 16-33) per patient. The median follow-up was 240 days (range, 105 Powered by Editorial Manager and ProduXion Manager from Aries Systems Corporation to 345). The surgical goal was achieved in all cases. Four complications occurred in 3 patients, 1 major, a hematoma-requiring surgery and 3 minor wound dehiscence. The self-reported patient satisfaction was high, 13 were very satisfied with the result, 1 satisfied, and 1 less satisfied. The LOPOSAM technique is quick and simple to perform, and the preliminary results are promising. However, a longer follow-up is needed to confirm this.

  13. Direct optical imaging of graphene in vitro by nonlinear femtosecond laser spectral reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baolei; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Yi, Congwen; Brown, April S; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S

    2012-11-14

    Nonlinear optical microscopy, based on femtosecond laser spectral reshaping, characterized and imaged graphene samples made from different methods, both on slides and in a biological environment. This technique clearly discriminates between graphene flakes with different numbers of layers and reveals the distinct nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide as compared to mechanically exfoliated or chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The nonlinearity makes it applicable to scattering samples (such as tissue) as opposed to previous methods, such as transmission. This was demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of breast cancer cells incubated with graphene flakes.

  14. Advanced Shape Memory Technology to Reshape Product Design, Manufacturing and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guang Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review on the advanced shape memory technology (ASMT with a focus on polymeric materials. In addition to introducing the concept and fundamentals of the ASMT, the potential applications of the ASMT either alone or integrated with an existing mature technique (such as, 3D printing, quick response (QR code, lenticular lens and phenomena (e.g., wrinkling and stress-enhanced swelling effect in product design, manufacturing, and recycling are demonstrated. It is concluded that the ASMT is indeed able to provide a range of powerful approaches to reshape part of the life cycle or the whole life cycle of products.

  15. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Loogma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an  important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools.

  16. Epiglottis reshaping using CO2 laser: a minimally invasive technique and its potent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourolias, Constantinos; Hajiioannou, Jiannis; Sobol, Emil; Velegrakis, George; Helidonis, Emmanuel

    2008-07-25

    Laryngomalacia (LRM), is the most common laryngeal abnormality of the newborn, caused by a long curled epiglottis, which prolapses posteriorly. Epiglottis prolapse during inspiration (acquired laryngomalacia) is an unusual cause of airway obstruction and a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We present a minimally invasive technique where epiglottis on cadaveric larynx specimens was treated with CO2 laser. The cartilage reshaping effect induced by laser irradiation was capable of exposing the glottis opening widely. This technique could be used in selected cases of LRM and OSAS due to epiglottis prolapse as an alternative, less morbid approach.

  17. Epiglottis reshaping using CO2 laser: A minimally invasive technique and its potent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velegrakis George

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laryngomalacia (LRM, is the most common laryngeal abnormality of the newborn, caused by a long curled epiglottis, which prolapses posteriorly. Epiglottis prolapse during inspiration (acquired laryngomalacia is an unusual cause of airway obstruction and a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. We present a minimally invasive technique where epiglottis on cadaveric larynx specimens was treated with CO2 laser. The cartilage reshaping effect induced by laser irradiation was capable of exposing the glottis opening widely. This technique could be used in selected cases of LRM and OSAS due to epiglottis prolapse as an alternative, less morbid approach.

  18. Reshaping Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1987-01-01

    at The Hydraulics Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg. The object was to study the stability/erosion of the breakwater head and the trunk, the latter exposed to both head-on and oblique irregular waves. To avoid too many parameters a simple breakwater geometry and only one class...

  19. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  20. From Communication Skills to Skillful Communication: A Longitudinal Integrated Curriculum for Critical Care Medicine Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Doig, Christopher J; Couillard, Philippe; Lord, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Communication with patients and families in critical care medicine (CCM) can be complex and challenging. A longitudinal curricular model integrating multiple techniques within classroom and clinical milieus may facilitate skillful communication across diverse settings. In 2014-2015, the authors developed and implemented a curriculum for CCM fellows at the Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, to promote the longitudinal development of skillful communication. A departmental needs assessment informed curriculum development. Five 4-hour classroom sessions were developed: basic communication principles, family meetings about goals and transitions of care, discussing patient safety incidents, addressing conflict, and offering organ donation. Teaching methods-including instructor-led presentations incorporating a consistent framework for approaching challenging conversations, simulation and clinical practice, and feedback from peers, trained facilitators, family members, and clinicians-supported integration of skills into the clinical setting and longitudinal development of skillful communication. Seven fellows participated during the first year of the curriculum. CCM fellows engaged enthusiastically in the program, commented that the framework provided was helpful, and highly valued the opportunity to practice challenging communication scenarios, learn from observing their peers, and receive immediate feedback. More detailed accounts of fellows', patients', and family members' experiences will be obtained to guide curricular development. The curriculum will be expanded to involve other members of the multidisciplinary intensive care unit team, and faculty education initiatives will be offered to enhance the quality of the feedback provided. The impact of the curriculum on initial skill development, retention, and progression will be assessed.

  1. 2012 APPA Fellow Encourages Colleagues to Say Yes to Opportunities to Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    It should be no surprise that the 2012 APPA Fellow is William (Bill) Elvey, P.E., FMP. He has served the association from the grassroots level up through its highest ranks and created a still-continuing legacy of excellence and engagement--his theme when serving as APPA President--that has led to new services, programs, and partnerships for the…

  2. Perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of hematology/oncology fellows toward incorporating geriatrics in their training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Ronald J; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Levine, Stacie K; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    The aging of the U.S. population continues to highlight emerging issues in providing care generally for older adults and specifically for older adults with cancer. The majority of patients with cancer in the U.S. are currently 65 years of age or older; therefore, training and research in geriatrics and geriatric oncology are viewed to be integral in meeting the needs of this vulnerable population. Yet, the ways to develop and integrate best geriatrics training within the context of hematology/oncology fellowship remain unclear. Toward this end, the current study seeks to evaluate the prior and current geriatric experiences and perspectives of hematology/oncology fellows. To gain insight into these experiences, focus groups of hematology/oncology fellows were conducted. Emergent themes included: 1) perceived lack of formal geriatric oncology didactics among fellows; 2) a considerable amount of variability exists in pre-fellowship geriatric experiences; 3) shared desire to participate in a geriatric oncology-based clinic; 4) differences across training levels in confidence in managing older adults with cancer; and 5) identification of specific criteria on how best to approach older adults with cancer in a particular clinical scenario. The present findings will help guide future studies in evaluating geriatrics among hematology/oncology fellows across institutions. They will also have implications in the development of geriatrics curricula and competencies specific to hematology/oncology training. © 2013.

  3. Student Research in Asia Overview of 2007 Student-Faculty Fellows Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Symons

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2007, mentors from fourteen different small college/universities in North America, each with from two to five students, conducted undergraduate research in East and Southeast Asia as part of the 9th annual Student-Faculty Fellows Program. Each project was generously funded by the Freeman Foundation and administered by ASIANetwork.

  4. Teach For America/Teaching Fellows and Effective Teaching in Secondary Math

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Clark

    2013-01-01

    Secondary math teachers from Teach For America are more effective than other math teachers in the same schools; secondary math teachers from Teaching Fellows programs are as effective as, and in some cases more effective than, other math teachers in the same schools.

  5. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210004_1: Prof. Ugo Amaldi, University of Milano Bicocca and Tera Foundation, Italy. Addressing the Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Research Developments on Medical Physics". Photo 0210004_2: Marie Curie Fellows at CERN. Participating in Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002.

  6. High-Impact Social Work Scholars: A Bibliometric Examination of SSWR and AASWSW Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the bibliometric contributions of high-impact social work faculty. Methods: Toward this end, we used a sample comprising fellows (N = 143) affiliated with the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) and the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare (AASWSW). To quantify…

  7. Resources and Practices to Help Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Fellows Write Statements of Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Katherine D.; Sullivan, Carol Subino

    2011-01-01

    Students and postdoctoral fellows currently encounter requests for a statement of teaching philosophy in at least half of academic job announcements in the United States. A systematic process for the development of a teaching statement is required that integrates multiple sources of support, informs writers of the document's purpose and audience,…

  8. Geriatric Medicine Fellows' Experiences and Attitudes toward an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Anita S.; Zaw, Khin M.; Milanez, Marcos N.; Palacios, Juan J.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Bliss, Linda A.; Roos, Bernard A.; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 8 geriatric medicine fellows participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessing communication skills and clinical reasoning in common geriatric syndromes. To determine their perceptions about the experience, we conducted surveys and semistructured interviews. We analyzed the survey data using descriptive…

  9. Geriatric Medicine Fellows' Experiences and Attitudes toward an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Anita S.; Zaw, Khin M.; Milanez, Marcos N.; Palacios, Juan J.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Bliss, Linda A.; Roos, Bernard A.; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 8 geriatric medicine fellows participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessing communication skills and clinical reasoning in common geriatric syndromes. To determine their perceptions about the experience, we conducted surveys and semistructured interviews. We analyzed the survey data using descriptive…

  10. Lilead Fellows Program: An Innovative Approach to Professional Development for School Library Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Christie; DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson; Barlow, Diane L.; Jacobs, Leah; Hall, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Lilead Fellows Program, funded by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). This innovative approach to professional development (PD) is for school district library supervisors. It is based upon widely accepted principles of quality PD, and is in its second year of operation with an…

  11. 34 CFR 535.40 - How does the Secretary select Fellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary select Fellows? 535.40 Section 535.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL EDUCATION:...

  12. Providing a setup and opportunities for better training of postdoctoral research fellows in an academic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghayur Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of young researchers come from different parts of the world every year to take up postdoctoral (postdoc research fellowship positions in the developed countries. In the US alone, there were 48,601 postdocs in the year 2005 working in different labs in the fields of science, health and engineering. Many pursue this option for lack of other alternatives. Expectedly, these individuals face a lot of difficulties in making this transition from being a student to becoming an employee of an institution. Many institutions are prepared to make this transition and period of stay easy for their fellows while others are not equipped at all. The presence of a postdoc office (established by an institution or an association (formed by the fellows can be of immense help to postdocs. Additionally, the availability of institutional professional development and leadership programs can also help to nurture and polish postdoc fellows into future faculty members and valuable members of the community at large. To name a few, these professional development programs can focus on communication and presentation skills, medical education, teaching and learning, bioethics and mentorship. There is an urgent need to address some or all of these issues so that better training environment and opportunities are available to this group of postdoc fellows.

  13. Second Year New York City Teaching Fellows: Navigating the Gap between Vision and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Eliza S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the teacher visions, or idealized images of classroom practices, held by second-year alternatively certified special education teachers. In particular, it explores the range of visions maintained by New York City Teaching Fellows who begin teaching in "hard-to-staff" subjects and schools after minimal pre-service…

  14. The effects of the addition of a pediatric surgery fellow on the operative experience of the general surgery resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Alexander; Garwe, Tabitha; Adeseye, Ademola; Ruiz-Elizalde, Alejandro; Churchill, Warren; Tuggle, David; Mantor, Cameron; Lees, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Adding fellows to surgical departments with residency programs can affect resident education. Our specific aim was to evaluate the effect of adding a pediatric surgery (PS) fellow on the number of index PS cases logged by the general surgery (GS) residents. At a single institution with both PS and GS programs, we examined the number of logged cases for the fellows and residents over 10 years [5 years before (Time 1) and 5 years after (Time 2) the addition of a PS fellow]. Additionally, the procedure related relative value units (RVUs) recorded by the faculty were evaluated. The fellows averaged 752 and 703 cases during Times 1 and 2, respectively, decreasing by 49 (P = 0.2303). The residents averaged 172 and 161 cases annually during Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, decreasing by 11 (P = 0.7340). The total number of procedure related RVUs was 4627 and 6000 during Times 1 and 2, respectively. The number of cases logged by the PS fellows and GS residents decreased after the addition of a PS fellow; however, the decrease was not significant. Programs can reasonably add an additional PS fellow, but care should be taken especially in programs that are otherwise static in size.

  15. 34 CFR 1100.24 - What are the procedures for payment of a fellowship award directly to the fellow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM How Does the Director Award a Fellowship? § 1100.24 What are the procedures for payment of a fellowship award directly to the fellow? (a) If the Director pays fellowship award directly to the fellow after the Director determines the amount of a fellowship award, the fellowship...

  16. 34 CFR 1100.25 - What are the procedures for payment of a fellowship award through the fellow's employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM How Does the Director Award a Fellowship? § 1100.25 What are the procedures for payment of a fellowship award through the fellow's employer? (a) If the Director pays a fellowship award through the fellow's employer, the employer shall submit a payment schedule to the Director for approval...

  17. DNA reshaping by MukB. Right-handed knotting, left-handed supercoiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushenko, Zoya M; Lai, Chien-Hung; Rai, Rachna; Rybenkov, Valentin V

    2006-02-24

    MukB is a bacterial SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein required for faithful chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli. We report here that purified MukB introduces right-handed knots into DNA in the presence of type-2 topoisomerase, indicating that the protein promotes intramolecular DNA condensation. The pattern of generated knots suggests that MukB, similar to eukaryotic condensins, stabilizes large right-handed DNA loops. In contrast to eukaryotic condensins, however, the net supercoiling stabilized by MukB was negative. Furthermore, DNA reshaping by MukB did not require ATP. These data establish that bacterial condensins alter the shape of double-stranded DNA in vitro and lend support to the notions that the right-handed knotting is the most conserved biochemical property of condensins. Finally, we found that MukB can be eluted from a heparin column in two distinct forms, one of which is inert in DNA binding or reshaping. Furthermore, we find that the activity of MukB is reversibly attenuated during chromatographic separation. Thus, MukB has a unique set of topological properties, compared with other SMC proteins, and is likely to exist in two different conformations.

  18. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D23 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Nabe, C.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S.; Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J.; Boots, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Ortner, A.; Busch, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems and Electric Drives, Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna (Austria); Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Junginger, M.; Hoefnagels, R. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cusumano, N.; Lorenzoni, A. [Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-02-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. This report marks the end of the research project RE-Shaping and summarizes its research activities, results, and recommendations.

  19. a Line-Based 3d Roof Model Reconstruction Algorithm: Tin-Merging and Reshaping (tmr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional building model is one of the major components of a cyber-city and is vital for the realization of 3D GIS applications. In the last decade, the airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is widely used for 3D building model reconstruction and object extraction. Instead, based on 3D roof structural lines, this paper presents a novel algorithm for automatic roof models reconstruction. A line-based roof model reconstruction algorithm, called TIN-Merging and Reshaping (TMR), is proposed. The roof structural line, such as edges, eaves and ridges, can be measured manually from aerial stereo-pair, derived by feature line matching or inferred from ALS data. The originality of the TMR algorithm for 3D roof modelling is to perform geometric analysis and topology reconstruction among those unstructured lines and then reshapes the roof-type using elevation information from the 3D structural lines. For topology reconstruction, a line constrained Delaunay Triangulation algorithm is adopted where the input structural lines act as constraint and their vertex act as input points. Thus, the constructed TINs will not across the structural lines. Later at the stage of Merging, the shared edge between two TINs will be check if the original structural line exists. If not, those two TINs will be merged into a polygon. Iterative checking and merging of any two neighboured TINs/Polygons will result in roof polygons on the horizontal plane. Finally, at the Reshaping stage any two structural lines with fixed height will be used to adjust a planar function for the whole roof polygon. In case ALS data exist, the Reshaping stage can be simplified by adjusting the point cloud within the roof polygon. The proposed scheme reduces the complexity of 3D roof modelling and makes the modelling process easier. Five test datasets provided by ISPRS WG III/4 located at downtown Toronto, Canada and Vaihingen, Germany are used for experiment. The test sites cover high rise buildings and residential

  20. Survey of minimally invasive general surgery fellows training in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaligram, Abhijit; Meyer, Avishai; Simorov, Anton; Pallati, Pradeep; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2013-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery fellowships offer experience in robotic surgery, the nature of which is poorly defined. The objective of this survey was to determine the current status and opportunities for robotic surgery training available to fellows training in the United States and Canada. Sixty-five minimally invasive surgery fellows, attending a fundamentals of fellowship conference, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their demographics and experiences with robotic surgery and training. Fifty-one of the surveyed fellows completed the questionnaire (83 % response). Seventy-two percent of respondents had staff surgeons trained in performing robotic procedures, with 55 % of respondents having general surgery procedures performed robotically at their institution. Just over half (53 %) had access to a simulation facility for robotic training. Thirty-three percent offered mechanisms for certification and 11 % offered fellowships in robotic surgery. One-third of the minimally invasive surgery fellows felt they had been trained in robotic surgery and would consider making it part of their practice after fellowship. However, most (80 %) had no plans to pursue robotic surgery fellowships. Although a large group (63 %) felt optimistic about the future of robotic surgery, most respondents (72.5 %) felt their current experience with robotic surgery training was poor or below average. There is wide variation in exposure to and training in robotic surgery in minimally invasive surgery fellowship programs in the United States and Canada. Although a third of trainees felt adequately trained for performing robotic procedures, most fellows felt that their current experience with training was not adequate.

  1. Impact of GK-12 Fellows on Middle School Students Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, E. A.; Miller, K. C.; Kennedy, J.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present key results of a 3-year quasi-experimental impact study of NSF GK-12 fellows on middle school students. The GK-12 program at the University of Texas at El Paso, placed ten science or engineering graduate students into middle school science classrooms for 10 hours per week. In the first year, the fellows were placed with 6th grade students. In successive years, fellows were placed in 7th and then 8th grade classrooms. Most middle school students had a fellow in their classroom for two or three years. The five participating schools had demographic characteristics that included a greater than 75% Hispanic population and greater than 75% free and reduced lunch participation. Five similar middle schools were chosen as a control group. We hypothesized that participating students would not only learn more science than their control group peers but would express more interest in science careers. The graduate fellows and their partner teachers participated in an extensive professional development program focusing on using inquiry science methods effectively in the classroom. Teachers and fellows spent two weeks in a summer institute that included one week at a remote desert research facility and one week at the university. In addition to the summer institute, fellows took a weekly seminar course that focused on current science learning research and inquiry teaching. Several times per semester the teachers and fellows met for shared inquiry science workshops. Two critical components of our impact study were monitoring student progress in science through existing standardized tests (district benchmarks and the 8th grade state science exam) and a yearly open-ended questionnaire asking “what 3 things would you like to do when you are an adult?” We have statewide science test results for the 794 students who had a GK-12 fellow in their classroom for each of the 3 years and 854 students in the control group who had been in their same school for each of the 3

  2. Educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop on 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M A; Villaseñor-Ovies, P; Harfush, L A; Navarro-Zarza, J E; Canoso, J J; Cruz-Domínguez, P; Vargas, A; Hernández-Díaz, C; Chiapas-Gasca, K; Camacho-Galindo, J; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Kalish, R A

    2016-05-01

    We aim to study the educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop in 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. First-year rheumatology fellows (N = 17) and a convenience sample of 1st-year orthopedic fellows (N = 14) from Mexico City in the 9th month of training participated in the study. The pre- and the post- workshop tests included the same 20 questions that had to be answered by identification or demonstration of relevant anatomical items. The questions, arranged by anatomical regions, were asked in five dynamic stations. Overall, the 31 participants showed an increase of correct answers, from a median of 6 (range 1 to 12) in the pre-workshop test, to a median of 14 (range 7 to 19) in the post-workshop test. In the pre-workshop test, the correct median answers were 7 (range 2 to 12) in the orthopedic fellows and 5 (range 1 to 10) in the rheumatology fellows (p = 0.297). Corresponding scores in the post-workshop were 15 (range 10 to 19) and 12 (range 7 to 18) (p = 0.026) showing a significant difference favoring the orthopedic group. Our clinical anatomy workshop was efficacious, in the short term, as a teaching instrument for 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. The post-workshop scores, although significantly improved in both groups, particularly in the orthopedic fellows, were still suboptimal. Further refinements of our workshop might yield better results.

  3. Beyond the Elementary Classroom Walls: Exploring the Ways Participation within Web 2.0 Spaces are Reshaping Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirangee, Krystle

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study involving four full-time elementary teachers, who incorporated technology into their teaching to various degrees. The study was guided by the overarching question: How is participation within Web 2.0 spaces reshaping teaching and learning in the elementary classroom? To explore this question, a…

  4. Difference in Outcomes between First-Operated vs. Fellow-Operated Eyes in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Trabeculectomies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younhea Jung

    Full Text Available To compare the course and outcome of first- and fellow-operated eyes in patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies and to investigate the factors associated with the difference.Preoperative characteristics, including the interval between surgeries, were compared between the first- and fellow-operated eyes in 42 patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies. Postoperative intraocular pressure and bleb vascularity, using postoperative anterior segment photos, were compared at various time points between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Surgical success was evaluated at 1 year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Factors affecting the difference between the first and fellow eyes were analyzed.There was no significant difference in success or failure rates at 1 year postoperatively and at the final follow-up between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Early postoperative IOP and the degree of bleb vascularity were higher in the fellow-operated eyes (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively at week 1 postoperative. The difference in IOP between the first- and fellow-operated eyes was greater in patients whose interval between surgeries was shorter than 3 weeks (P = 0.026.In patients undergoing bilateral trabeculectomies, early postoperative IOP was higher in the fellow-operated eyes than the first-operated eyes; the difference was greater when the interval between surgeries was shorter. The first-operated eye may influence the early postoperative inflammatory response in the fellow-operated eye. Our findings have clinical implications for planning treatment of patients who may need bilateral surgery.

  5. Deterministic reshaping of single-photon spectra using cross-phase modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The frequency conversion of light has proved to be a crucial technology for communication, spectroscopy, imaging, and signal processing. In the quantum regime, it also offers great potential for realizing quantum networks incorporating disparate physical systems and quantum-enhanced information processing over a large computational space. The frequency conversion of quantum light, such as single photons, has been extensively investigated for the last two decades using all-optical frequency mixing, with the ultimate goal of realizing lossless and noiseless conversion. I demonstrate another route to this target using frequency conversion induced by cross-phase modulation in a dispersion-managed photonic crystal fiber. Owing to the deterministic and all-optical nature of the process, the lossless and low-noise spectral reshaping of a single-photon wave packet in the telecommunication band has been readily achieved with a modulation bandwidth as large as 0.4 THz. I further demonstrate that the scheme is applicabl...

  6. Chromosomes. CENP-C reshapes and stabilizes CENP-A nucleosomes at the centromere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Samantha J; Guo, Lucie Y; Sekulic, Nikolina; Smoak, Evan M; Mani, Tomoyasu; Logsdon, Glennis A; Gupta, Kushol; Jansen, Lars E T; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Lampson, Michael A; Black, Ben E

    2015-05-01

    Inheritance of each chromosome depends upon its centromere. A histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), is essential for epigenetically marking centromere location. We find that CENP-A is quantitatively retained at the centromere upon which it is initially assembled. CENP-C binds to CENP-A nucleosomes and is a prime candidate to stabilize centromeric chromatin. Using purified components, we find that CENP-C reshapes the octameric histone core of CENP-A nucleosomes, rigidifies both surface and internal nucleosome structure, and modulates terminal DNA to match the loose wrap that is found on native CENP-A nucleosomes at functional human centromeres. Thus, CENP-C affects nucleosome shape and dynamics in a manner analogous to allosteric regulation of enzymes. CENP-C depletion leads to rapid removal of CENP-A from centromeres, indicating their collaboration in maintaining centromere identity.

  7. Reshaped destinies: confronting our human future the need for and promise of an interdisciplinary colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C

    2008-12-01

    The genomic revolution is bringing with it simultaneous needs for both scientists and nonscientists to understand and assess, in an unvarnished and nonjudgmental way, the implications of genometry. This is the field of science and technology that is taking the genetic code and what we have learned from its secrets, and reshaping our individual and collective human destinies. Together with the editor-in-chief of Gender Medicine, the authors propose an interdisciplinary group-populated by those in science, law, ethics, social policy, and the interested public-to observe, understand, and disseminate information about what is occurring in the fields of biology and chemistry that is the driving force of the genomic revolution. This article discusses the background to the Redefined Destinies Colloquium (RDC) and summarizes 4 of the topics the RDC is studying.

  8. POLITICAL RESHAPING IN THE POST-SOVIET TIME REFLECTED BY THE CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Nikolayevich SHKEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined emergence and further evolving of theacademic concepts aimed at explaining the logic and cause-and-effect relations within the post-Soviet political reshaping. The study outlined three stages of evolution of a political thought, and disclosed the essential features specific for each stage. Particular attention has been given to procedures of cognitive interference between the academic schools of politics from Russian and foreign political science, and to the disputed aspects of conceptualperceiving of the course of democratic changes across the countries of post-Soviet domain. The study inferred that the structured approach within the framework of Russianschool of political studies that prevailed on the first stagewas recently replaced by the large conceptual and proceduralvariety and attempts to adopt some foreign concepts.

  9. Pulse reshaping in nearly resonant interaction of femtosecond pulses with dense rubidium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdović, Silvije; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Pichler, Goran

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of intense femtosecond pulses resonant with the atomic rubidium vapor results in phenomenon known as conical emission. The origin of this phenomenon is connected with self-phase modulation in time domain accompanied with spatial self-focusing for blue-detuned pulses. When the laser central wavelength is red-detuned the self-defocusing occurs. Using frequency-resolved optical gating measurements and simple modeling of pulse propagation within the linear dispersion theory it is shown that the retrieved phase of the propagated pulse, and the associated instantaneous frequency, shows evidence of both linear dispersion and self-phase modulation. These results are consistent with the theory of the intensity dependent nonlinear refraction index in medium where linear dispersion contributes significantly to pulse reshaping.

  10. Minimizing Superficial Thermal Injury Using Bilateral Cryogen Spray Cooling During Laser Reshaping of Composite Cartilage Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Jen; Cheng, Sally M.H.; Chiu, Lynn L.; Wong, Brian J.F.; Ting, Keen

    2014-01-01

    Composite cartilage grafts were excised from New Zealand rabbit ears. Flat composite grafts (of cartilage and overlying skin graft on both surfaces) were obtained from each ear and cut into a rectangle measuring 50 mm by 25 mm (x by y) with an average thickness of approximately 1.3 mm (z), skin included. Specimens were manually deformed with a jig and maintained in this new position during laser illumination. The composite cartilage grafts were illuminated on the concave surface with an Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm, 3 mm spot) at 10 W, 20 W, 30 W, 40 W, 50 W. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) was applied to both exterior (convex) and interior (concave) surfaces of the tissue to reduce thermal injury to the grafts. CSC was delivered: (1) in controlled applications (cryogen released when surface reached 40°C, and (2) receiving only laser at above wattage, no CSC [representing the control group]. The specimens were maintained in a deformation for 15 minutes after illumination and serially examined for 14 days. The control group with no CSC caused injury to all specimens, ranging from minor to full thickness epidermal thermal injury. Although most levels of laser and CSC yielded a high degree of reshaping over an acute time period, after 14 days specimens exposed to 30 W, 40 W, 50 W retained shape better than those treated at 10 W and 20 W. The specimens exposed to 50 W with controlled CSC retained its new shape to the highest degree over all others, and thermal injury was minimal. In conclusion, combinations of laser and CSC parameters were effective and practical for the reshaping of composite cartilage grafts. Lasers Surg. PMID:18727025

  11. Case-based education at the 2009 pediatric nephrology fellows conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Ferris, Maria E

    2010-01-01

    The hallmark of the professional is continued development and expanded expertise based on acquisition of new knowledge and refinement of clinical skills. Medical knowledge acquisition is a key component of professional development for fellows in training as well as practicing physicians. New medical knowledge may be acquired via experience/instruction in the clinical setting (clinic, hospital, etc), self-directed or teacher-directed reading, case-based discussions, lecture presentations, recorded enduring presentations (vodcasts, podcasts, etc.), online learning modules, review- and board-type questions/answers, and small-group discussions. All of these methods have value for continued expansion of medical knowledge, and for many learners, a combination of methods is far superior to reliance on one or two methods alone. The following four cases demonstrate the benefit of case-based discussions to further pediatri nephrology fellow education.

  12. The DOE fellows program-a workforce development initiative for the US department of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Leonel E. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC2100, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only six years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 100 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management (WM) Symposia since 2008 with a total of 84 student

  13. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  14. Impact of contra-lateral breast reshaping on mammographic surveillance in women undergoing breast reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falco, Giuseppe; Capalbo, Emanuela; Marano, Luigi; Bordoni, Daniele; Spano, Andrea; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    The ultimate goal of breast reconstruction is to achieve symmetry with the contra-lateral breast. Contra-lateral procedures with wide parenchymal rearrangements are suspected to impair mammographic surveillance. This study aims to evaluate the impact on mammographic detection of mastopexies and breast reductions for contralateral adjustment in breast reconstruction. We retrospectively evaluated 105 women affected by uni-lateral breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and immediate two-stage reconstruction between 2002 and 2007. We considered three groups according to the contra-lateral reshaping technique: mastopexy or breast reduction with inferior dermoglandular flap (group 1); mastopexy or breast reduction without inferior dermoglandular flap (group 2); no contra-lateral reshaping (group 3). We assessed qualitative mammographic variations and breast density in the three groups. Statistically significant differences have been found when comparing reshaped groups with non reshaped groups regarding parenchymal distortions, skin thickening and stromal edema, but these differences did not affect cancer surveillance. The surveillance mammography diagnostic accuracy in contra-lateral cancer detection was not significantly different between the three groups (p = 0.56), such as the need for MRI for equivocal findings at mammographic contra-lateral breast (p = 0.77) and the need for core-biopsies to confirm mammographic suspect of contra-lateral breast cancer (p = 0.90). This study confirms previous reports regarding the safety of mastopexies and breast reductions when performed in the setting of contra-lateral breast reshaping after breast reconstruction. Mammographic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are not affected by the glandular re-arrangement. These results provide a further validation of the safety of current reconstructive paradigms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. My Experience of Interviewing a “Crusader Participant” Tips for Fellow Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Garg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author describes the experience of interviewing a crusader participant where audio recording of the interview was not consented to, although she was allowed to take handwritten notes. A crusader participant is someone who is committed to the social justice aims of the research and wants to bring about change by his or her contribution to it. The author provides the lessons learned from this interview as tips for fellow researchers.

  16. My experience of interviewing a “Crusader Participant” : tips for fellow researchers.

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Garg

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experience of interviewing a crusader participant where audio recording of the interview was not consented to, although she was allowed to take handwritten notes. A crusader participant is someone who is committed to the social justice aims of the research and wants to bring about change by his or her contribution to it. The author provides the lessons learned from this interview as tips for fellow researchers.

  17. Robotic Pancreatoduodenectomy Biotissue Curriculum has Validity and Improves Technical Performance for Surgical Oncology Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vernissia; Zenati, Mazen; Novak, Stephanie; Chen, Yong; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Hogg, Melissa E

    2017-06-01

    Obtaining the proficiency on the robotic platform necessary to safely perform a robotic pancreatoduodenectomy is particularly challenging. We hypothesize that by instituting a proficiency-based robotic training curriculum we can enhance novice surgeons' skills outside of the operating room, leading to a shorter learning curve. A biotissue curriculum was designed consisting of sewing artificial organs to simulate a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ), gastrojejunostomy (GJ), and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ). Three master robotic surgeons performed each biotissue anastomosis to assess validity. Using video review, trainee performance on biotissue drills was evaluated for time, errors and objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) by 2 blinded graders. This study is conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. In total, 14 surgical oncology fellows completed the biotissue curriculum. Fourteen fellows performed 196 anastomotic drills during the first year: 66 (HJ), 64 (GJ), and 66 (PJ). The fellows' performances were analyzed as a group by attempt. The attendings' first attempt outperformed the fellows' first attempt in all metrics for every drill (all p < 0.05). More than 5 analyzed attempts of the HJ, there was improvement in time, errors, and OSATS (all p < 0.01); however, no metric reached attending performance. For the GJ, time, errors, and OSATS all improved more than 5 attempts (all p < 0.01), whereas only errors and OSATS reached proficiency. For the PJ, errors and OSATS both improved over attempts (p < 0.01) and reached proficiency; however, time did not statistically improve nor reach proficiency. The graders scoring correlated for errors and OSATS (p < 0.0001). A pancreatoduodenectomy biotissue curriculum has face and construct validity. The curriculum is feasible and improves errors and technical performance. Time is the most difficult technical parameter to improve. This

  18. The Professionalism of Critical Care Nurse Fellows After Completion of the Critical Care Nurse Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Emily; Click, Elizabeth; Douglas, Sara; Friedman, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Professionalism is paramount to the formation and functioning of new graduate critical care nurses. In this project, a sample of 110 new graduate nurses used a descriptive self-report electronic survey with Hall's Professionalism Inventory Scale. A great percentage of these new graduate critical care nurse fellows with high professionalism scores may be related to their participation in the Critical Care Nurse Fellowship orientation program. Perhaps, Nursing Professional Development specialists should incorporate classes on professional advancement planning for new graduate nurses.

  19. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210006_07a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_14a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_22: Dr. David Plane (CERN) introducing Dr. Theodore Papazoglou from the European Commission. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellowships in the 6th Framework Programme". Photo 0210006_28a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN and Dept. of Physics, University of Milan. Addressing the Marie-Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellows Association". Photo 0210006_29a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN a...

  20. Manual Skill Acquisition During Transesophageal Echocardiography Simulator Training of Cardiology Fellows: A Kinematic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyal, Robina; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Mitchell, John D; Kim, Han; Bergman, Remco; Hawthorne, Katie M; O'Halloran, David; Wong, Vanessa; Hess, Phillip E; Mahmood, Feroze

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) simulator with motion analysis can be used to impart proficiency in TEE in an integrated curriculum-based model. A prospective cohort study. A tertiary-care university hospital. TEE-naïve cardiology fellows. Participants underwent an 8-session multimodal TEE training program. Manual skills were assessed at the end of sessions 2 and 8 using motion analysis of the TEE simulator's probe. At the end of the course, participants performed an intraoperative TEE; their examinations were video captured, and a blinded investigator evaluated the total time and image transitions needed for each view. Results are reported as mean±standard deviation, or median (interquartile range) where appropriate. Eleven fellows completed the knowledge and kinematic portions of the study. Five participants were excluded from the evaluation in the clinical setting because of interim exposure to TEE or having participated in a TEE rotation after the training course. An increase of 12.95% in post-test knowledge scores was observed. From the start to the end of the course, there was a significant reduction (pcardiology fellows can be complemented with kinematic analyses to objectify acquisition of manual skills during simulator-based training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Facebook activity of residents and fellows and its impact on the doctor-patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarak, Ghassan; Guiot, Aurélie; Benhamou, Ygal; Benhamou, Alexandra; Hariri, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Facebook is an increasingly popular online social networking site. The purpose of this study was to describe the Facebook activity of residents and fellows and their opinions regarding the impact of Facebook on the doctor-patient relationship. An anonymous questionnaire was emailed to 405 residents and fellows at the Rouen University Hospital, France, in October 2009. Of the 202 participants who returned the questionnaire (50%), 147 (73%) had a Facebook profile. Among responders, 138 (99%) displayed their real name on their profile, 136 (97%) their birthdates, 128 (91%) a personal photograph, 83 (59%) their current university and 76 (55%) their current position. Default privacy settings were changed by 61% of users, more frequently if they were registered for >1 year (p=0.02). If a patient requested them as a 'friend', 152 (85%) participants would automatically decline the request, 26 (15%) would decide on an individual basis and none would automatically accept the request. Eighty-eight participants (48%) believed that the doctor-patient relationship would be altered if patients discovered that their doctor had a Facebook account, but 139 (76%) considered that it would change only if the patient had open access to their doctor's profile, independent of its content. Residents and fellows frequently use Facebook and display personal information on their profiles. Insufficient privacy protection might have an impact the doctor-patient relationship.

  2. Fellow eye changes in optic neuritis correlate with the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A; Arvind, H; Nguyen, T; Garrick, R; Paine, M; Graham, S; Yiannikas, C

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate early diffuse central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The clinically unaffected (fellow) eye of patients with unilateral optic neuritis (ON) may reflect the status of normal-appearing white matter in the CNS, which can be assessed electrophysiologically. To study the relationship between electrophysiological parameters in the fellow eye of ON patients, and risk of conversion to MS. Forty-eight consecutive patients with acute unilateral ON were examined 12 months after ON of which 14 had MS, 19 remained high risk (HR) for MS, and 15 had low risk (LR) for MS according to McDonald's criteria. Twenty-five age-matched controls were also tested. Amplitude and latency of multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) in the fellow eyes of patients at 12 months were analyzed and compared with controls. Average mfVEP amplitude was 240 +/- 35, 232 +/- 36, 181 +/- 38, and 169 +/- 48 nV for controls, LR, HR, and MS groups respectively. Average mfVEP latency for controls, LR, HR, and MS patients was 139.7 +/- 5.5, 141.7 +/- 3.6, 145.9 +/- 8.9, and 152.0 +/- 9.9 ms respectively. The magnitude of latency prolongation and amplitude decline 12 months after the initial episode was proportional to the risk of MS. The prognostic significance of these changes as predictors of subsequent MS should be investigated longitudinally.

  3. An interprofessionally developed geriatric oncology curriculum for hematology–oncology fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed; Hughes, Caren; Karuturi, Meghan; Reyes, Connie; Yorio, Jeffrey; Holmes, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objective Because the cancer population is aging, interprofessional education incorporating geriatric principles is essential to providing adequate training for oncology fellows. We report the targeted needs assessment, content, and evaluation tools for our geriatric oncology curriculum at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods A team comprising a geriatrician, a medical oncologist, an oncology PharmD, an oncology advanced nurse practitioner, and two oncology chief fellows developed the geriatric oncology curriculum. First, a general needs assessment was conducted by reviewing the literature and medical societies’ publications and by consulting experts. A targeted needs assessment was then conducted by reviewing the fellows’ evaluations of the geriatric oncology rotation and by interviewing fellows and recently graduated oncology faculty. Results Geriatric assessment, pharmacology, and psychosocial knowledge skills were the three identified areas of educational need. Curriculum objectives and an evaluation checklist were developed to evaluate learners in the three identified areas. The checklist content was validated by consulting experts in the field. Online materials, including a curriculum, a geriatric pharmacology job aid, and pharmacology cases, were also developed and delivered as part of the curriculum. Conclusion An interprofessional team approach was a successful method for identifying areas of learners’ educational needs, which in turn helped us develop an integrated geriatric oncology curriculum. The curriculum is currently being piloted and evaluated. PMID:25487037

  4. Resources and practices to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows write statements of teaching philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Katherine D; Sullivan, Carol Subiño

    2011-06-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows currently encounter requests for a statement of teaching philosophy in at least half of academic job announcements in the United States. A systematic process for the development of a teaching statement is required that integrates multiple sources of support, informs writers of the document's purpose and audience, helps writers produce thoughtful statements, and encourages meaningful reflection on teaching and learning. This article for faculty mentors and instructional consultants synthesizes practices for mentoring graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty members as they prepare statements of teaching philosophy. We review background information on purposes and audiences, provide writing resources, and synthesize empirical research on the use of teaching statements in academic job searches. In addition, we integrate these resources into mentoring processes that have helped graduate students in a Health Sciences Pedagogy course to collaboratively and critically examine and write about their teaching. This summary is intended for faculty mentors and instructional consultants who want to refine current resources or establish new mentoring programs. This guide also may be useful to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty members, especially those who lack mentoring or who seek additional resources, as they consider the many facets of effective teaching.

  5. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  6. Dysfunction in the fellow eyes of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic children assessed by visually evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pinheiro Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity and transient pattern reversal (PR visual evoked potentials (VEPs in the fellow eyes of children with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children diagnosed with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia were recruited for electrophysiological assessment by VEPs. Monocular grating and optotype acuity were measured using sweep-VEPs and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, respectively. During the same visit, transient PR-VEPs of each eye were recorded using stimuli subtending with a visual angle of 60', 15', and 7.5'. Parameters of amplitude (in μV and latency (in ms were determined from VEP recordings. Results: A group of 40 strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopic children (22 females: 55%, mean age= 8.7 ± 2.2 years, median= 8 years was examined. A control group of 19 healthy children (13 females: 68.4%, mean age= 8.2 ± 2.6 years, median= 8 years was also included. The fellow eyes of all amblyopes had significantly worse optotype acuity (p=0.021 than the control group, regardless of whether they were strabismic (p=0.040 or anisometropic (p=0.048. Overall, grating acuity was significantly worse in the fellow eyes of amblyopes (p=0.016 than in healthy controls. Statistically prolonged latency for visual angles of 15' and 7.5' (p=0.018 and 0.002, respectively was found in the strabismic group when compared with the control group. For the smaller visual stimulus (7.5', statistically prolonged latency was found among all fellow eyes of amblyopic children (p<0.001. Conclusions: The fellow eyes of amblyopic children showed worse optotype and grating acuity, with subtle abnormalities in the PR-VEP detected as prolonged latencies for smaller size stimuli when compared with eyes of healthy children. These findings show the deleterious effects of amblyopia in several distinct visual functions, mainly those related to spatial vision.

  7. Fellow travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, E. P.; Skirnisson, K.; McGovern, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings ...

  8. Fellow travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, E.P.; Skirnisson, K.; McGovern, T.H.;

    2012-01-01

    mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was also fleeting and left no genetic trace. The continuity of mtDNA haplotype in Iceland over 1000 years illustrates that mtDNA can...

  9. Becoming urban science teachers by transforming middle-school classrooms: A study of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Melina Gabriela

    The current scenario in American education shows a large achievement and opportunity gap in science between urban children in poverty and more privileged youth. Research has shown that one essential factor that accounts for this gap is the shortage of qualified science teachers in urban schools. Teaching science in a high poverty school presents unique challenges to beginner teachers. Limited resources and support and a significant cultural divide with their students are some of the common problems that cause many novice teachers to quit their jobs or to start enacting what has been described as "the pedagogy of poverty." In this study I looked at the case of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program. This program aimed to prepare preservice teachers (i.e. "fellows") to enact socially just science pedagogies in urban classrooms. I conducted qualitative case studies of three fellows. Fellows worked over one year with science teachers in middle-school classrooms in order to develop transformative action research studies. My analysis focused on how fellows coauthored hybrid spaces within these studies that challenged the typical ways science was taught and learned in their classrooms towards a vision of socially just teaching. By coauthoring these hybrid spaces, fellows developed grounded generativity, i.e. a capacity to create new teaching scenarios rooted in the pragmatic realities of an authentic classroom setting. Grounded generativity included building upon their pedagogical beliefs in order to improvise pedagogies with others, repositioning themselves and their students differently in the classroom and constructing symbols of possibility to guide their practice. I proposed authentic play as the mechanism that enabled fellows to coauthor hybrid spaces. Authentic play involved contexts of moderate risk and of distributed expertise and required fellows to be positioned at the intersection of the margins and the center of the classroom community of practice. In

  10. Risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment in 202 226 patients using the fellow nonoperated eye as reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren S; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; La Cour, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes.......To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes....

  11. Teaching a Hypothesis-driven Physical Diagnosis Curriculum to Pulmonary Fellows Improves Performance of First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staitieh, Bashar S; Saghafi, Ramin; Kempker, Jordan A; Schulman, David A

    2016-04-01

    Hypothesis-driven physical examination emphasizes the role of bedside examination in the refinement of differential diagnoses and improves diagnostic acumen. This approach has not yet been investigated as a tool to improve the ability of higher-level trainees to teach medical students. To assess the effect of teaching hypothesis-driven physical diagnosis to pulmonary fellows on their ability to improve the pulmonary examination skills of first-year medical students. Fellows and students were assessed on teaching and diagnostic skills by self-rating on a Likert scale. One group of fellows received the hypothesis-driven teaching curriculum (the "intervention" group) and another received instruction on head-to-toe examination. Both groups subsequently taught physical diagnosis to a group of first-year medical students. An oral examination was administered to all students after completion of the course. Fellows were comfortable teaching physical diagnosis to students. Students in both groups reported a lack of comfort with the pulmonary examination at the beginning of the course and improvement in their comfort by the end. Students trained by intervention group fellows outperformed students trained by control group fellows in the interpretation of physical findings (P students improves the ability of students to interpret physical findings. This benefit should be confirmed using validated testing tools.

  12. Unstable reshaping of gold nanorods prepared by a wet chemical method in the presence of silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Tae, Giyoong

    2006-11-01

    We characterized the stability of the gold nanorods synthesized by means of a seed mediated growth approach in the presence of AgNO3, which consists of synthesis of small diameter seed particles (approximately 4 nm) and subsequent growth of these nanoparticles into nanorods by addition to gold salt solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence of ascorbic acid. The presence of silver nitrate significantly enhanced the nanorod synthesis as previously reported. However, the synthesized nanorods were unstable and reshaped in aqueous environment; the continuous blue-shift of the 2nd plasmon bands was monitored and the changes in the nanorod morphologies were also observed by electron microscopy with increasing storage time. This reshaping was observed at wide CTAB concentration range regardless of the removal of the unreacted gold or silver ions.

  13. Minimally invasive ear reshaping with a 1450-nm diode laser using cryogen spray cooling in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Paul K; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J F

    2009-01-01

    Otoplasty is the current standard of care for treating prominent ears, a psychologically and sometimes functionally disabling disorder. The technically demanding procedure carries many risks such as poor aesthetic outcome, need for revision surgery, and need for general anesthesia. This study investigates the use of laser irradiation combined with cryogen skin cooling and stenting to reshape cartilage in the ears of New Zealand white rabbits. In this prospective, randomized, internally controlled animal study, the right ears of 9 rabbits were mechanically deformed with a jig and then irradiated with a 1450-nm diode laser combined with cryogen skin cooling (14 J/pulse with cryogen spray for 33 milliseconds per cycle and a 6-mm spot size). The left ear served as the control. The ears were splinted for 1, 3, or 4 weeks. The rabbits were then given a lethal dose of intravenous pentobarbital, and the splints were removed and ears examined and photographed. Light and confocal microscopy were performed on the specimens. Shape change was observed in all 9 treated rabbit ears, while none of the control ears (stenting alone) showed significant change. Qualitatively, reshaped ears were stiffer after 4 weeks of splinting than after 1 or 3 weeks. None of the rabbits showed evidence of skin injury nor did they show signs of postprocedural pain. Findings from histologic analysis in the treated areas showed evidence of an expanded chondrocyte population in the region of laser irradiation, along with some perichondrial thickening and some fibrosis of the deep dermis. Confocal microscopy revealed minimal cellular death at 1 week and none thereafter. Cartilage reshaping using laser energy can be performed safely transcutaneously using cryogen spray cooling in rabbits. This animal model has similarity to human ears with regard to skin and cartilage thickness and is a stepping stone toward developing minimally invasive laser auricle reshaping in humans.

  14. Esoko and WhatsApp Communication in Ghana : Mobile Services such as Esoko and WhatsApp in Reshaping Interpersonal Digital Media Communication in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia, Salkovic

    2015-01-01

    The predominant use of mobile media such as SMS and MIM across various sectors in Ghana is incontrovertibly influencing and reshaping interpersonal communications. This paper looked at the use of the Esoko SMS and WhatsApp MIM platforms and how the use of these two dominant platforms are enhancing and reshaping digital communication in the rural and urban Ghana respectively, as barriers of socioeconomic factors limits the use of sophisticated technologies in the rural setting. This is done by...

  15. An assessment of residents' and fellows' personal finance literacy: an unmet medical education need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahd A; White, Andrew J; Hiller, Katherine M; Amini, Richard; Jeffe, Donna B

    2017-05-29

    This study aimed to assess residents' and fellows' knowledge of finance principles that may affect their personal financial health. A cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample of residents and fellows at two academic medical centers.  Respondents answered 20 questions on personal finance and 28 questions about their own financial planning, attitudes, and debt. Questions regarding satisfaction with one's financial condition and investment-risk tolerance used a 10-point Likert scale (1=lowest, 10=highest).  Of 2,010 trainees, 422 (21%) responded (median age 30 years; interquartile range, 28-33). The mean quiz score was 52.0% (SD = 19.1). Of 299 (71%) respondents with student loan debt, 144 (48%) owed over $200,000.  Many respondents had other debt, including 86 (21%) with credit card debt. Of 262 respondents with retirement savings, 142 (52%) had saved less than $25,000. Respondents' mean satisfaction with their current personal financial condition was 4.8 (SD = 2.5) and investment-risk tolerance was 5.3 (SD = 2.3). Indebted trainees reported lower satisfaction than trainees without debt (4.4 vs. 6.2, F (1,419) = 41.57, p < .001).   Knowledge was moderately correlated with investment-risk tolerance (r=0.41, p < .001), and weakly correlated with satisfaction with financial status (r=0.23, p < .001). Residents and fellows had low financial literacy and investment-risk tolerance, high debt, and deficits in their financial preparedness.  Adding personal financial education to the medical education curriculum would benefit trainees.  Providing education in areas such as budgeting, estate planning, investment strategies, and retirement planning early in training can offer significant long-term benefits.

  16. Early Career Experience of Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellows: What to Expect and Need for Their Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Michael P; Shore, Benjamin J; Fletcher, Nicholas D; Larson, A Noelle; Hydorn, Christopher R; Sawyer, Jeffery R

    2016-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of pediatric orthopaedic fellows being trained has led to concerns that there may be an oversupply of pediatric orthopaedists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this perception is accurate and whether the practice expectations of recent pediatric fellowship graduates are being met by surveying recent pediatric fellowship graduates about their early practice experiences. A 36-question survey approved by the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) leadership was electronically distributed to 120 recent graduates of pediatric orthopaedic fellowships; 81 responses were ultimately obtained (67.5% response rate). Almost all (91%) of the respondents were very or extremely satisfied with their fellowship experience. Half of the respondents had at least 1 job offer before they entered their fellowships. After completion of fellowships, 35% received 1 job offer and 62.5% received ≥2 job offers; only 2.5% did not receive a job offer. Most reported a practice consisting almost entirely of pediatric orthopaedics, and 93.5% thought this was in line with their expectations; 87% indicated satisfaction with their current volume of pediatric orthopaedics, and 85% with the complexity of their pediatric orthopaedic cases. Despite the high employment percentages and satisfaction with practice profiles, nearly a third (28%) of respondents replied that too many pediatric orthopaedists are being trained. Positive messages from this survey include the satisfaction of graduates with their fellowship training, the high percentage of graduates who readily found employment, and the satisfaction of graduates with their current practice environments; this indicates that the pediatric orthopaedic job environment is not completely saturated and there are continued opportunities for graduating pediatric fellows despite the increased number of fellows being trained. Although not determined by this study, it may be that the stable

  17. Pathology resident and fellow education in a time of disruptive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, James M; Smith, Brian R

    2012-12-01

    The development of disruptive technologies is changing the practice of pathology. Their implementation challenges traditional educational paradigms. Training programs must adapt to these heuristic needs. The dual explosion of new medical knowledge and innovative methodologies adds new practice aspects to the pathologist's areas of expertise. This transformation potentially challenges the traditional core model of training. It raises questions as to how pathology should incorporate future expanding subspecialty needs into educational and practice models. This article examines the impact of these disruptive technologies on resident and fellow education and explores alternative educational and practice models that may better accommodate pathology's future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is current surgery resident and GI fellow training adequate to pass FES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Willis, Ross E; Van Sickle, Kent; Truitt, Michael S; Uecker, John; Brown, Kimberly M; Marks, Jeffrey M; Dunkin, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of current surgical residency and gastroenterology (GI) fellowship flexible endoscopy training as measured by performance on the FES examination. Fifth-year general surgery residents and GI fellows across six institutions were invited to participate. All general surgery residents had met ACGME/ABS case volume requirements as well as additional institution-specific requirements for endoscopy. All participants completed FES testing at the end of their respective academic year. Procedure volumes were obtained from ACGME case logs. Curricular components for each specialty and institution were recorded. Forty-eight (28 surgery and 20 GI) trainees completed the examination. Average case numbers for residents were 76 ± 26 colonoscopies and 45 ± 12 EGDs. Among GI fellows, PGY4 s (N = 10) reported 99 ± 64 colonoscopies and 147 ± 79 EGDs. PGY5 s (N = 3) reported 462 ± 307 colonoscopies and 411 ± 260 EGDs. PGY6 GI fellows (N = 7) reported 515 ± 111 colonoscopies and 418 ± 146 EGDs. The overall pass rate for all participants was 75 %, with 68 % of residents and 85 % of fellows passing both the cognitive and skills components. For surgery residents, pass rates were 75 % for manual skills and 85.7 % for cognitive. On the skills examination, Task 2 (loop reduction) was associated with the lowest performance. Skills scores correlated with both colonoscopy (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and EGD experience (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curves were examined among the resident cohort. The minimum number of total cases associated with passing the FES skills component was 103. Significant variability existed in curricular components across institutions. These data suggest that current flexible endoscopy training may not be sufficient for all trainees to pass the examination. Implementing additional components of the FEC may prove beneficial in achieving more uniform pass

  19. Work satisfaction, quality of life, and leisure time of neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Michael

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine work satisfaction, quality of life, and leisure time of neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel. Methods A validated questionnaire was delivered during the second half of 2008 to all the neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel. Descriptive analysis, parametric Student’s t-test, and aparametric Mann Whitney and χ2 tests were conducted. Results Of 114 practicing neonatologists in that period in Israel (including both seniors and fellows, 112 (98.25% participated in the study. The majority of neonatologists were male (53.2%, married (91.7%, 40–60 years old (69.7%, and studied in Israeli medical schools (62.0%. Most did their pediatric residencies and fellowships in Israel (97.2% and 75.7%, respectively. The average number of night/on-call shifts of fellows and senior neonatologists was 8.8 per month (SD ± 3.425 and the number of active on-call shifts was 4.04 (SD ± 3.194. The satisfaction level of neonatologists in Israeli medical centers with patient care, self-reward, work relations, and quality of life was high, but their satisfaction level with workload, income and prestige, and leisure time was low. The general index of work satisfaction and the general index of indices were both high in relation to the mid-range values. The majority of neonatologists stated that they would choose to practice medicine again. Most of them would encourage medical students to choose the same specialty they had chosen. Only a few neonatologists were contemplating changing their choice of specialty. Most neonatologists want to continue practicing medicine; however, a significant number will not recommend that their children do so. Conclusions The satisfaction level of neonatologists in Israel is high, mainly due to satisfaction with their work. High satisfaction levels promise high quality patient care, as well as high satisfaction levels of patients and their families. However

  20. Deterministic reshaping of single-photon spectra using cross-phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki

    2016-03-01

    The frequency conversion of light has proved to be a crucial technology for communication, spectroscopy, imaging, and signal processing. In the quantum regime, it also offers great potential for realizing quantum networks incorporating disparate physical systems and quantum-enhanced information processing over a large computational space. The frequency conversion of quantum light, such as single photons, has been extensively investigated for the last two decades using all-optical frequency mixing, with the ultimate goal of realizing lossless and noiseless conversion. I demonstrate another route to this target using frequency conversion induced by cross-phase modulation in a dispersion-managed photonic crystal fiber. Owing to the deterministic and all-optical nature of the process, the lossless and low-noise spectral reshaping of a single-photon wave packet in the telecommunication band has been readily achieved with a modulation bandwidth as large as 0.4 THz. I further demonstrate that the scheme is applicable to manipulations of a nonclassical frequency correlation, wave packet interference, and entanglement between two photons. This approach presents a new coherent frequency interface for photons for quantum information processing.

  1. From Anti-Pollution to Climate Change Risk Movement: Reshaping Civic Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei Tien Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of reflexive governance, this study probes into the transformative capacity and roles of government and civil society, and aims to determine how the authoritative developmental neo-liberalism state was challenged by civil society in democratization from the end of the 1980s, when it encountered a crisis of governance legitimacy. By analyzing the anti-petrochemical movement of the recent two decades, this paper recognizes the important historic line, and proposes that without innovative governance, a regime of expert politics with hidden and delayed risk will result in higher degrees of mistrust and confrontational positions by the public. In contrast to the government, local and civil societies are growing through the anti-pollution appeals of simple group protests into systematic and robust civic knowledge and strategic action. By administrative, legislative, judicial, and risk statement paths, such strategic mobilizations break through authoritative expert politics and reshape new civic epistemology. The process of reflexive governance is extremely radical. When two parties cannot commit to dealing with a high degree of mistrust, they will not be able to manage the more dramatic threat of climate change. Fundamentally speaking, a robust civil society will be an important driving power competing with government, in terms of constructing innovative governance.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-06-07

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses.

  3. Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium

    CERN Document Server

    Gaarde, Mette B; Tate, Jennifer L; Schafer, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of transient absorption and reshaping of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by helium atoms dressed with a moderately strong infrared (IR) laser field. We formulate the atomic response using both the frequency-dependent absorption cross section and a time-frequency approach based on the time-dependent dipole induced by the light fields. The latter approach can be used in cases when an ultrafast dressing pulse induces transient effects, and/or when the atom exchanges energy with multiple frequency components of the XUV field. We first characterize the dressed atom response by calculating the frequency-dependent absorption cross section for XUV energies between 20 and 24 eV for several dressing wavelengths between 400 and 2000 nm and intensities up to 10^12 W/cm^2. We find that for dressing wavelengths near 1600 nm, there is an Autler-Townes splitting of the 1s ---> 2p transition that can potentially lead to transparency for absorption of XUV light tuned to this transition. We study...

  4. Double-strand breaks associated with repetitive DNA can reshape the genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueso, Juan Lucas; Westmoreland, James; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Gawel, Malgorzata; Petes, Thomas D.; Resnick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established source of chromosome aberrations (CAs). Although double-strand breaks (DSBs) are implicated in radiation-induced and other CAs, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that, although the vast majority of randomly induced DSBs in G2 diploid yeast cells are repaired efficiently through homologous recombination (HR) between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes, ≈2% of all DSBs give rise to CAs. Complete molecular analysis of the genome revealed that nearly all of the CAs resulted from HR between nonallelic repetitive elements, primarily Ty retrotransposons. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) accounted for few, if any, of the CAs. We conclude that only those DSBs that fall at the 3–5% of the genome composed of repetitive DNA elements are efficient at generating rearrangements with dispersed small repeats across the genome, whereas DSBs in unique sequences are confined to recombinational repair between the large regions of homology contained in sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes. Because repeat-associated DSBs can efficiently lead to CAs and reshape the genome, they could be a rich source of evolutionary change. PMID:18701715

  5. Comparison of bend angle measurements in fresh cryopreserved cartilage specimens after electromechanical reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Koohyar; Protsenko, Dimitry; Wu, Edward C.; Foulad, Allen; Manuel, Cyrus T.; Lim, Amanda; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2010-02-01

    Cryopreservation of cartilage has been investigated for decades and is currently an established protocol. However, the reliability and applicability of cartilage cryopreservation for the use in electromechanical reshaping (EMR) has not been studied exclusively. A system to cryopreserve large numbers of tissue specimens provides a steady source of cartilage of similar quality for experimentation at later dates. This will reduce error that may arise from different cartilage stock, and has the potential to maximize efficiency under time constraints. Our study utilizes a unique methodology to cryopreserve septal cartilage for use in EMR studies. Rabbit septal cartilage specimens were harvested and standardized to 20 x 8 x 1 mm, and placed in one of three solutions (normal saline, PBS, 10% DMSO in PBS) for four hours in a cold storage room at 4 degrees Celsius. Then, each cartilage specimen was vacuumed and sealed in an anti-frost plastic bag and stored in a freezer at -80 degrees Celsius for 1 to 3 weeks duration. EMR was performed using 2 and 6 volts for 2 minutes application time. Bend angle measurements of the cryopreserved cartilage specimens were compared to bend angles of fresh cartilage which underwent EMR using the same parameters. Results demonstrate that normal saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and PBS with DMSO were effective in cryopreservation, and indicated no significant differences in bend angle measurements when compared to no cryopreservation. Our methodology to cryopreserve cartilage specimens provides a successful approach for use in conducting large-scale EMR studies.

  6. Reshaping of the Anterior Nasal Spine: An Important Step in Rhinoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccieri, Armando; Pascali, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of analysis of the nasal spine should not be underestimated in the correct planning of rhinoplasty. Deformations in position with respect to the midline and/or in size are often present, and their correction to ensure harmony between the spine and the other components of the nasal pyramid constitutes a key step in rhinoplasty that can lead to excellent results. Methods: The study includes 160 patients who underwent surgical treatment of the anterior nasal spine with or without other techniques of nasal reshaping. Eighty-seven of these patients presented with hyperplasia of the nasal spine, 43 with hypoplasia, and 30 with deviation. A combination of deviation and hyperplasia was present in 15 cases. Results: No patients developed postoperative complications. Five patients who underwent anterior nasal spine reduction reported postoperative numbness in the premaxillary area, but sensitivity was fully regained within 4 months after surgery in these patients. All the patients reported postoperative improvement of nasal airflow. A total of 142 patients considered their postoperative aesthetic result as excellent and 18 as good. Conclusion: The simplicity of the surgical procedures performed on the nasal spine and the marked aesthetic improvements thus achieved suggest that greater attention should be paid to this anatomical region.

  7. A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events: Y-chromosomal insights into central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerjal, Tatiana; Wells, R Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Sixteen Y-chromosomal microsatellites and 16 binary markers have been used to analyze DNA variation in 408 male subjects from 15 populations in Central Asia. Large genetic differences were found between populations, but these did not display an obvious geographical or linguistic pattern like that usually seen for Y-chromosomal variation. Nevertheless, an underlying east-west clinal pattern could be detected by the Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis and admixture analysis, and this pattern was interpreted as being derived from the ancient peopling of the area, reinforced by subsequent migrations. Two particularly striking features were seen: an extremely high level of Y-chromosomal differentiation between geographically close populations, accompanied by low diversity within some populations. These were due to the presence of high-frequency population-specific lineages and suggested the occurrence of several recent bottlenecks or founder events. Such events could account for the lack of a clear overall pattern and emphasize the importance of multiple recent events in reshaping this genetic landscape.

  8. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  9. Ombud's Corner: fellows and students – a win-win equation

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    The hundreds of Fellows and students working at CERN bring precious new blood into the Laboratory. At the same time, CERN offers them invaluable work experience that will have a significant impact on their future careers. It is important that we all work together to make this a win-win situation with lasting positive effects for all concerned over the years to come.   Fellows and students are just setting out on a great professional adventure.  Some of them are very young, others are a bit more experienced … and what happens during this early period can have vast consequences on their approach to work and indeed on their overall careers. They all come here with their hard earned skills and a high degree of motivation, ready to make the most out of an internship at CERN. Sometimes, they are called to integrate into well-established units; at other times, they are asked to join complex collaborations. Almost always they have to deal with new information, new cultures, new t...

  10. Varying difficulty of Snellen letters and common errors in amblyopic and fellow eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Julia A; Shah, Sabah A; Simon, John W

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the varying difficulty of Snellen letters in children with amblyopia. We tabulated the letter-by-letter responses of amblyopic and nonamblyopic fellow eyes on random, computer-generated Snellen lines. Participants were 60 children, aged 5 to 13 years, with a history of amblyopia. Main outcome measures were relative difficulties of Snellen letters and common misidentifications. Errors were 7.5 times more common with certain letters (B, C, F, S) than with others (A, L, Z, T), this difference increasing to 17.6-fold at threshold. Similar relative letter difficulty was demonstrated at lines above and at visual acuity thresholds, and both difficult and easy letters were the same for amblyopic and nonamblyopic fellow eyes. Specific misidentification errors were often repeated and were often reciprocal (eg, B for E and E for B). Since therapeutic decisions in amblyopia management are often based on small differences in visual acuities, the relative difficulties of letters used in their measurement should be considered. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study system should be considered for use in this clinical setting.

  11. Residents' and Fellows' Knowledge and Attitudes About Eating Disorders at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen; Accurso, Erin C; Kinasz, Kathryn R; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This study examined physician residents' and fellows' knowledge of eating disorders and their attitudes toward patients with eating disorders. Eighty physicians across disciplines completed a survey. The response rate for this survey across disciplines was 64.5 %. Participants demonstrated limited knowledge of eating disorders and reported minimal comfort levels treating patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry discipline (p = 0.002), eating disorder experience (p = 0.010), and having ≥4 eating disorder-continuing medical education credits (p = 0.037) predicted better knowledge of anorexia nervosa but not bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry residents (p = 0.041), and those who had treated at least one eating disorder patient (p = 0.006), reported significantly greater comfort treating patients with eating disorders. These results suggest that residents and fellows from this sample may benefit from training to increase awareness and confidence necessary to treat patients with eating disorders. Sufficient knowledge and comfort are critical since physicians are often the first health care provider to have contact with patients who have undiagnosed eating disorders.

  12. In-hospital fellow coverage reduces communication errors in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mallory; Alban, Rodrigo F; Hardy, James P; Oxman, David A; Garcia, Edward R; Hevelone, Nathanael; Frendl, Gyorgy; Rogers, Selwyn O

    2014-06-01

    Staff coverage strategies of intensive care units (ICUs) impact clinical outcomes. High-intensity staff coverage strategies are associated with lower morbidity and mortality. Accessible clinical expertise, team work, and effective communication have all been attributed to the success of this coverage strategy. We evaluate the impact of in-hospital fellow coverage (IHFC) on improving communication of cardiorespiratory events. A prospective observational study performed in an academic tertiary care center with high-intensity staff coverage. The main outcome measure was resident to fellow communication of cardiorespiratory events during IHFC vs home coverage (HC) periods. Three hundred twelve cardiorespiratory events were collected in 114 surgical ICU patients in 134 study days. Complete data were available for 306 events. One hundred three communication errors occurred. IHFC was associated with significantly better communication of events compared to HC (Pcommunicated 89% of events during IHFC vs 51% of events during HC (PCommunication patterns of junior and midlevel residents were similar. Midlevel residents communicated 68% of all on-call events (87% IHFC vs 50% HC, Pcommunicated 66% of events (94% IHFC vs 52% HC, PCommunication errors were lower in all ICUs during IHFC (Pcommunication errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity in the Emerging Critical Care Workforce: Analysis of Demographic Trends in Critical Care Fellows From 2004 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Miano, Todd A; Aysola, Jaya; Augoustides, John G T

    2017-05-01

    Diversity in the physician workforce is essential to providing culturally effective care. In critical care, despite the high stakes and frequency with which cultural concerns arise, it is unknown whether physician diversity reflects that of critically ill patients. We sought to characterize demographic trends in critical care fellows, who represent the emerging intensivist workforce. We used published data to create logistic regression models comparing annual trends in the representation of women and racial/ethnic groups across critical care fellowship types. United States Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-approved residency and fellowship training programs. Residents and fellows employed by Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited training programs from 2004 to 2014. None. From 2004 to 2014, the number of critical care fellows increased annually, up 54.1% from 1,606 in 2004-2005 to 2,475 in 2013-2014. The proportion of female critical care fellows increased from 29.5% (2004-2005) to 38.3% (2013-2014) (p workforce reflect underrepresentation of women and racial/ethnic minorities. Trends highlight increases in women and Hispanics and stable or decreasing representation of non-Hispanic underrepresented minority critical care fellows. Further research is needed to elucidate the reasons underlying persistent underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in critical care fellowship programs.

  14. Pouch Reshaping for Significant Weight Regain after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Yves; Winkler, Carmen; Kröll, Dino; Nett, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Significant weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) occurs in around 20 % of patients in the long term. Anatomical reasons include dilatation of the gastric pouch and/or the pouch-jejunal anastomosis, leading to loss of restriction. Pouch reshaping (PR) aims at reestablishing restriction with a subsequent feeling of satiety. This study reports the outcome of PR embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway. Twenty-six patients after PR for weight regain >30 % following RYGB in a university hospital between October 2010 and March 2016 were analyzed. Excluded were patients with PR for gastro-gastric fistulae, hypoglycemia, candy cane syndrome, and concomitant alteration of limb lengths. PR consisted in laparoscopic lateral resection of the gastric pouch, the anastomosis and the proximal 5 cm of the alimentary limb over a 32F bougie. Median follow-up after PR was 48 months (range 24-60). Median BMI at PR was 39.1 kg/m(2) (32.7-59.1). Median operation time was 85 min (25-190), and median length of stay was 3 days (1-35). Minor complications (grade ≤ 2) occurred in seven (27 %) patients and major complications (grade ≥ 3) in four patients (15 %). Nadir BMI and %EBMIL after PR were 32.9 kg/m(2) and 43.3 %, reached after a median of 12 months (3-48). Comorbidities were resolved in 81 %. After 48 months, median BMI was 33.8 kg/m(2) (20.4-49.2) and %EBMIL was 61.4 (39.1-121.2). Used selectively in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway, PR leads to prolonged weight stabilization around the previous nadir. However, its associated perioperative morbidity must not be disregarded.

  15. Towards a Liquid Self: how time, geography and life experiences reshape the biological identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGrignolio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of immunological self is amongst the most important theories of modern biology, representing a sort of theoretical guideline for experimental immunologists, in order to understand how host constituents are ignored by the immune system (IS. A consistent advancement in this field has been represented by the danger/damage theory and its subsequent refinements, which at present represents the most comprehensive conceptualization of immunological self. Here we present the new hypothesis of liquid self which integrates and extends the danger/damage theory. The main novelty of the liquid self hypothesis lies in the full integration of the immune response mechanisms into the host body’s ecosystems, i.e. in adding the temporal, as well as the geographical/evolutionary and environmental, dimensions, which are synthetically expressed by what we suggested to call immunological biography. Our hypothesis takes into account the important biological changes occurring with time (age in the immune system (including immunosenescence and inflammaging, as well as changes in the organismal context related to nutrition, lifestyle and geography (populations. We argue that such temporal and geographical dimensions impinge upon, and continuously reshape, the antigenicity of physical entities (molecules, cells, bacteria, viruses, making them switching between self and nonself states in a dynamical, liquid fashion. Particular attention is devoted to oral tolerance and gut microbiota, as well as to a new potential source of unexpected self epitopes produced by proteasome splicing. Finally, our framework allows the set up of a variety of testable predictions, the most straightforward suggesting that the immune responses to defined molecules representing potentials antigens will be quantitatively and qualitatively quite different according to the immuno-biographical background of the host.

  16. Reasons of Aggressive Behaviour Against School Fellows, Its Frequency, Forms: Reaction of Schoolchildren, Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article, which is based on conducted research data, analyzes an attitude of schoolchildren, teachers and parents towards the reasons of schoolchildren’s aggressive behaviour, its frequency and forms. Different factors and motives that stimulate the aggressiveness of schoolchildren, who go to the city, village and different professional (arts and technology schools are examined. Schoolchildren’s approach towards violence against school fellows and themselves is being discussed, as well as reaction of teachers and parents to this phenomenon. The article reveals opinion of schoolchildren, teachers, and parents about the means used to prevent violence towards schoolchildren and existing ways that can be used to make preventive means to be more effective.

  17. The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, fellows of the Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Howard

    2004-05-01

    The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. Later, Leeuwenhoek observed and described microscopic protozoa and bacteria. These important revelations were made possible by the ingenuity of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in fabricating and using simple microscopes that magnified objects from about 25-fold to 250-fold. After a lapse of more than 150 years, microscopy became the backbone of our understanding of the roles of microbes in the causation of infectious diseases and the recycling of chemical elements in the biosphere.

  18. Young geologist trades neptunium for newspapers as 2012 AGU Mass Media Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Though the lure of rocks, minerals, and radioactive elements took her away from her original studies, one geology Ph.D. candidate is returning to her journalism roots this summer as AGU's 2012 Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellow. Jessica Morrison is one of 12 young scientists nationwide who are trading in their lab coats for reporters' notebooks in mid-June as part of the program coordinated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which helps young scientists cultivate communication skills to help disseminate scientific information to general audiences. Morrison is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame. She spends her days in a laboratory investigating the geochemistry of actinides, the radioactive elements in the "no man's land" of the periodic table—the section that often gets left off or moved to the bottom. These are elements like uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.

  19. Rapid genome reshaping by multiple-gene loss after whole-genome duplication in teleost fish suggested by mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Sato, Yukuto; Sinclair, Robert; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2015-12-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is believed to be a significant source of major evolutionary innovation. Redundant genes resulting from WGD are thought to be lost or acquire new functions. However, the rates of gene loss and thus temporal process of genome reshaping after WGD remain unclear. The WGD shared by all teleost fish, one-half of all jawed vertebrates, was more recent than the two ancient WGDs that occurred before the origin of jawed vertebrates, and thus lends itself to analysis of gene loss and genome reshaping. Using a newly developed orthology identification pipeline, we inferred the post-teleost-specific WGD evolutionary histories of 6,892 protein-coding genes from nine phylogenetically representative teleost genomes on a time-calibrated tree. We found that rapid gene loss did occur in the first 60 My, with a loss of more than 70-80% of duplicated genes, and produced similar genomic gene arrangements within teleosts in that relatively short time. Mathematical modeling suggests that rapid gene loss occurred mainly by events involving simultaneous loss of multiple genes. We found that the subsequent 250 My were characterized by slow and steady loss of individual genes. Our pipeline also identified about 1,100 shared single-copy genes that are inferred to have become singletons before the divergence of clupeocephalan teleosts. Therefore, our comparative genome analysis suggests that rapid gene loss just after the WGD reshaped teleost genomes before the major divergence, and provides a useful set of marker genes for future phylogenetic analysis.

  20. Ex vivo investigations of laser auricular cartilage reshaping with carbon dioxide spray cooling in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Edward C; Sun, Victor; Manuel, Cyrus T; Protsenko, Dmitriy E; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J Stuart; Wong, Brian J F

    2013-11-01

    Laser cartilage reshaping (LCR) with cryogen spray cooling is a promising modality for producing cartilage shape change while reducing cutaneous thermal injury. However, LCR in thicker tissues, such as auricular cartilage, requires higher laser power, thus increasing cooling requirements. To eliminate the risks of freeze injury characteristic of high cryogen spray pulse rates, a carbon dioxide (CO2) spray, which evaporates rapidly from the skin, has been proposed as the cooling medium. This study aims to identify parameter sets which produce clinically significant reshaping while producing minimal skin thermal injury in LCR with CO2 spray cooling in ex vivo rabbit auricular cartilage. Excised whole rabbit ears were mechanically deformed around a cylindrical jig and irradiated with a 1.45-μm wavelength diode laser (fluence 12-14 J/cm(2) per pulse, four to six pulse cycles per irradiation site, five to six irradiation sites per row for four rows on each sample) with concomitant application of CO2 spray (pulse duration 33-85 ms) to the skin surface. Bend angle measurements were performed before and after irradiation, and the change quantified. Surface temperature distributions were measured during irradiation/cooling. Maximum skin surface temperature ranged between 49.0 to 97.6 °C following four heating/cooling cycles. Significant reshaping was achieved with all laser dosimetry values with a 50-70 °C difference noted between controls (no cooling) and irradiated ears. Increasing cooling pulse duration yielded progressively improved gross skin protection during irradiation. CO2 spray cooling may potentially serve as an alternative to traditional cryogen spray cooling in LCR and may be the preferred cooling medium for thicker tissues. Future studies evaluating preclinical efficacy in an in vivo rabbit model are in progress.

  1. Optimized Design of the Mould for Steel Pipe Reshaping & Straightening Machine%钢管整径矫直机模具的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华; 李翠艳; 边城; 王庆雷

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it explored the current status and existing problems of reshaping& straightening technology for steel pipe. Combined with reshaping&straightening technology and equipment characteristics, the optimized design was carried out on the mould of steel pipe reshaping & straightening machine, it realized the objective of reshaping & straightening for the steel pipe which pipe diameter is not more than φ762 mm. For the steel pipe with diameter more than φ762 mm, during straightening process, the pipe wall is easily flattened, so the reshaping & straightening technology for straightness exceeding standard will be continuously researched.%探讨了当前钢管整径矫直技术的现状和存在的问题,并对钢管整径矫直工艺进行了介绍,结合钢管整径矫直工艺和设备特点对钢管整径矫直机模具进行了优化设计。研究结果表明,对于管径不大于762 mm的钢管,整径矫直效果良好,满足标准要求;对于管径大于762 mm的钢管,矫直过程中容易出现管壁压扁的问题,该问题还将继续进行深入研究。

  2. Particle swarm optimization based support vector machine for damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    O Seeb a r t i c l Article history: Received 12 Se Received in re Accepted 21 O Available onlin Keywords: Non-reshaped Berm breakwater Damage level SVM PSO–SVM re is carrie them unda d dam Soft computing tools like Artificial Neural.... SRM principle n upper bound on the expected risk, as opposed to ERM at minimizes the error on the training data. This differ- SVM with a greater ability to generalize, which is the istical learning. SVMs were developed to solve the clas- roblem...

  3. Preworkshop knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy of rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists of seven North, Central, and South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Zarza, José E; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel A; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Kalish, Robert A; Canoso, Juan J; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    To report the baseline knowledge of clinical anatomy of rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists from Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, the US, and Uruguay. The invitation to attend a workshop in clinical anatomy was an open call by national rheumatology societies in 4 countries or by invitation from teaching program directors in 3 countries. Prior to the workshop, a practical test of anatomic structures commonly involved in rheumatic diseases was administered. The test consisted of the demonstration of these structures or their function in the participant's or instructor's body. At one site, a postworkshop practical test was administered immediately after the workshop. There were 170 participants (84 rheumatology fellows, 61 rheumatologists, and 25 nonrheumatologists). The overall mean ± SD number of correct answers was 46.6% ± 19.9% and ranged from 32.5-67.0% by country. Rheumatology fellows scored significantly higher than nonrheumatologists. Questions related to anatomy of the hand scored the lowest of the regions surveyed. Rheumatology fellows and rheumatologists showed a deficit in knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy that is of central importance in rheumatologic assessment and diagnosis. This gap may hinder accurate and cost-effective rheumatologic diagnosis, particularly in the area of regional pain syndromes. Presently, widespread use of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) by rheumatologists may be premature, since a key component of expert-level MSUS is the integration of an accurate knowledge of anatomy with the views obtained with the ultrasound probe. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Instructional Technology Innovation in the Liberal Arts Classroom: A Conversation with the Maryville College Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gina; Berry, Chad; Nugent, Chris; Wentz, Karen; Cowan, Peggy; O'Gorman, Mark

    Maryville College's (Tennessee) first Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows, who received funding and release time to develop technology-based instructional materials for their courses, are developing and implementing exciting projects in history, religion, freshman seminar, and political sciences courses. In this paper, the FIT Fellows…

  5. Practising What They Preach? An Investigation into the Pedagogical Beliefs and Online Teaching Practices of National Teaching Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    National Teaching Fellows (NTFs) in the UK are celebrated individuals who have made a successful claim for teaching excellence to the Higher Education Academy. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of NTFs with expertise in online learning, which measured their pedagogical beliefs and online teaching practices, using a…

  6. Issues of Education at Community Colleges: Essays by Fellows in the Mid-Career Fellowship Program at Princeton University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princeton Univ., NJ. Mid-Career Fellowship Program.

    This document contains the following nine essays by fellows in the Mid-Career Fellowship Program at Princeton University, New Jersey: (1) Promotion Processes at the Public Community Colleges of New Jersey, by Harvey Braverman; (2) Plagiarism in ESL Contexts at the Community College, by Barrie Chi. Contains eight references; (3) Partnership and…

  7. Impact of Simulation-based Learning on Immediate Outcomes of Temporary Haemodialysis Catheter Placements by Nephrology Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ru Yu; Lee, Kian Guan; Gan, Sheryl Wen Shien; Li, Huihua; Yeon, Wenxiang; Pang, Suh Chien; Teh, Swee Ping; Htay, Htay; Teo, Su Hooi; Kwek, Jia Liang; Tok, Pei Loo; Poh, Cheng Boon; Ng, Chee Yong; Liu, Peiyun; Tay, Hui Boon; Koniman, Riece; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Choong, Lina Hui Lin; Tan, Chieh Suai

    2017-08-18

    Traditional apprenticeship model (AM) of teaching in invasive procedures such as temporary haemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion can result in propagation of errors and complications. Simulation-based learning (SBL) offers standardization of skills and allows trainees to repeatedly practice invasive procedures prior to performing them on actual patient. Retrospective cohort study of first-, second- and third-year Nephrology Fellows from a tertiary teaching hospital from September 2008 to September 2015. The intervention group (n=9) received simulation training in ultrasound-guided THDC placement. The historical control group (n=12) received training through traditional AM. The primary and secondary outcomes were the immediate complications and success rates of THDC insertion. A total of 2481 THDCs were placed in 1787 patients. Success rate of internal jugular THDC placement for AM vs. SBL Fellow was 99.8% vs 100% (p=0.90), while the success rate for femoral THDC placement was 99.6% vs. 99.2% (p=0.53). SBL Fellows reported fewer overall peri-procedure complications (8.3% vs. 11.2%, p=0.02) and mechanical complications (1% vs. 2.4%, p=0.02) compared to AM Fellows. The rate of reported technical difficulty was similar (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.17). After adjusting for side and site of THDC placement, body mass index and laboratory indices, THDC inserted by AM Fellows were independently associated with increased overall peri-procedure complications (OR=1.396, 95% CI: 1.052-1.854, p=0.02) and mechanical complications (OR=2.481, 95% CI: 1.178-4.810, p=0.02) CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based learning was associated with lower procedure related complications and should be an integral component in the teaching of procedural skills in Nephrology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Advantages of a workbench reshaped AR1 mod catheter for right coronary angiography by right radial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Cesare; Mirra, Marco; Di Maio, Marco; Attisano, Tiziana; Di Muro, Michele Roberto; Vigorito, Francesco; Farina, Rosario; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Giudice, Pietro; Piscione, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Transradial approach in cardiac catheterization is increasing. In daily practice, coronary angiography via radial artery is usually performed by using catheters designed for femoral approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate advantages in the use of a workbench reshaped AR1 mod catheter, in terms of procedural duration time, number of catheters per procedure, fluoroscopy time, contrast agent administered volume, images quality and costs. Two hundred patients, submitted to coronary angiography via right radial artery in our institution, have been retrospectively reviewed. Patients have been divided in two groups, depending on whether a workbench reshaped Cordis Amplatz AR1 mod catheter (rAR1 mod), or catheters in their original shape (OC) have been employed. In the rAR1 mod group (100 patients) a lower number of catheters per procedure (1.07 ± 0.25 vs. 1.47 ± 1.65; p right coronary selective engagement (76.76% vs. 53.12%; p right coronary angiography via right radial approach is performed, the utilization of rAR1 mod catheter correlates with multiple advantages in terms of procedural parameters.

  9. Formation of plano-convex micro-lens array in fused silica glass using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique

    CERN Document Server

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Yoo, Dongyoon; Noh, Young-Chul; Ahsan, Md Shamim; Sung, Jae-Hee; Lee, Seong-Ku

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabricating high-fill-factor plano-convex spherical and square micro-lens arrays on fused silica glass surface using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique. Initially, periodic micro-pillars have been encoded on the glass surface by means of a femtosecond laser beam. Afterwards, the micro-pillars are polished several times by irradiating a CO2 laser beam on top of the micro-pillars. Consequently, spherical micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 50 um x 50 um and square micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 100 um x 100 um are formed on fused silica glass surface. We also study the intensity distribution of light passed through the spherical micro-lens array engraved glass sample. The simulation result shows that, the focal length of the spherical micro-lens array is 35 um. Furthermore, we investigate the optical properties of the micro-lens array engraved glass samples. The proposed CO2 laser based reshaping technique is simple and fast that shows promises in fabrication arrays of smooth mic...

  10. Construction of expression vectors and study on single-chain antibody and reshaping single-domain antibody against CD3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜富; 萧飒; 顾征; 王勇; 张卫国; 陈艾; 林晴; 黄华梁; 孙健; 陈润生; 沈倍奋; 陈兴

    1997-01-01

    Two vectors, pWA180 and pROH80, for expression of single-chain Fv fragments (ScFv) were con-siruciea. (?)ne anti-CD3 VH and VL genes were amplified from UCHTl cells by RT-PCR and sequenced. Both genes were cloned in pWA180 to express native ScFv and pROH80 for GST-ScFv fusion protein expression. The expression products were analysed by ELISA and Western blot. The combining site of OKT3 was modeled. Human [g LS1 and Nd were selected as acceptors of CDRs of OKT3 VL and VH to construct a reshaping antibody against CD3. By com-paring OKT3, LS1 and Nd with their own family sequences, some residues were changed and the reshaping VL and VH genes were designed. The full VH gene was assembled in three steps with eight chemically synthesized oligonu-cleotide fragments using overlapping PCR and sequenced. The VH gene was expressed as active protein in pCOMB3 and as inclusion bodies in pGEX-4T-l by ELISA and Western blot analysis.

  11. Let’s Talk Critical. Development and Evaluation of a Communication Skills Training Program for Critical Care Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Howes, Jennifer M.; Keene, Adam B.; Fausto, James A.; Pinto, Priya A.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Although expert communication between intensive care unit clinicians with patients or surrogates improves patient- and family-centered outcomes, fellows in critical care medicine do not feel adequately trained to conduct family meetings. Objectives: We aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a communication skills program that could be easily integrated into a U.S. critical care fellowship. Methods: We developed four simulation cases that provided communication challenges that critical care fellows commonly face. For each case, we developed a list of directly observable tasks that could be used by faculty to evaluate fellows during each simulation. We developed a didactic curriculum of lectures/case discussions on topics related to palliative care, end-of-life care, communication skills, and bioethics; this month-long curriculum began and ended with the fellows leading family meetings in up to two simulated cases with direct observation by faculty who were not blinded to the timing of the simulation. Our primary measures of effectiveness were the fellows’ self-reported change in comfort with leading family meetings after the program was completed and the quality of the communication as measured by the faculty evaluators during the family meeting simulations at the end of the month. Measurements and Main Results: Over 3 years, 31 critical care fellows participated in the program, 28 of whom participated in 101 family meeting simulations with direct feedback by faculty facilitators. Our trainees showed high rates of information disclosure during the simulated family meetings. During the simulations done at the end of the month compared with those done at the beginning, our fellows showed significantly improved rates in: (1) verbalizing an agenda for the meeting (64 vs. 41%; Chi-square, 5.27; P = 0.02), (2) summarizing what will be done for the patient (64 vs. 39%; Chi-square, 6.21; P = 0.01), and (3) providing a follow-up plan (60 vs. 37%; Chi

  12. Tempest in a Teapot – The Role of the Decision Tree in Enhancing Juror Comprehension and Whether It Interferes with the Jury’s Right to Deliberate Freely?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Comiskey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential of the decision tree (also referred to as a flow-chart, “Route to Verdict” or question-trail to improve the legal comprehension of jurors in criminal trials. It examines why the decision tree has not yet been adopted as a mainstream jury aid in the United States and suggests that the hesitancy is rooted in longstanding distrust of any attempt to encroach on the freedom of the jury and the concern that a list of questions to guide jury deliberations may unduly influence and compel a verdict that the jury would not otherwise render. The findings from research from England, Canada, Australia and the United States on the effectiveness of decision trees in enhancing juror comprehension is discussed. The reliance on decision trees in medicine to facilitate patient comprehension of treatment options and in assisting physicians to navigate through complex treatment protocols is also considered as instructive for the legal system. The paper suggests that decision trees neither interfere with a defendant’s constitutional right to a jury trial nor with a jury’s right to deliberate freely, and that greater use of this tool should be considered given the promising indications from empirical research that decision trees can enhance jurors’ recall and comprehension of legal concepts. Any concerns about the potential misuse of decision trees are overstated and can be remedied through clear instructions to the jury. En este artículo se analiza el potencial del árbol de decisiones (también conocido como diagrama de flujo, “ruta al veredicto” o camino de preguntas para mejorar la comprensión legal de los miembros del jurado en los juicios penales. Analiza por qué en Estados Unidos aún no se ha adoptado el árbol de decisiones como una ayuda habitual al jurado y sugiere que la duda tiene sus raíces en la desconfianza antigua de cualquier intento de invadir la libertad del jurado y en la preocupación de que

  13. The Science Teaching Fellows Program: A Model for Online Faculty Development of Early Career Scientists Interested in Teaching†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio-Taras, Loretta; Gull, Kelly A.; Ratti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has a history of providing a wide range of faculty development opportunities. Recently, ASM developed the Science Teaching Fellows Program (STF) for early career biologists and postdoctoral students to explore student-centered teaching and develop the skills needed to succeed in positions that have a significant teaching component. Participants were selected to STF through a competitive application process. The STF program consisted of a series of six webinars. In preparation for each webinar, participants completed a pre-webinar assignment. After each webinar, fellows practiced what they learned by completing a post-webinar assignment. In a survey used to assess the impact of STF, participants reported greater knowledge of the webinar-based instructional topics and a sense of being part of an educational community and were more confident about varied teaching methods. PMID:28101259

  14. Degree-granting institutions and characteristics of psychologists with both diplomate and fellow status in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S J; Gariglietti, K P; Merkley, K B; Reynolds, S C; Wettersten, K B

    1999-06-01

    Psychologists (44 men, 6 women) were identified as individuals who received both Fellow status from Division 17 of the APA and ABPP Diplomate status in Counseling Psychology. Years of postdoctoral experience acquired prior to gaining the credentials averaged 13.1 (SD = 6.1) for the Division 17 Fellow and 9.8 (SD = 4.7) for the ABPP Diplomate. 25 different degree-granting institutions provided training for the 50 whose careers exemplify the scientist-practitioner approach to their work. Columbia graduated 9 of these psychologists, whereas Ohio State and Minnesota graduated 5 each. In regard to degree specialty, 37 (74%) gained their degrees from counseling or counseling psychology programs, whereas 11 (22%) gained their degrees from other types of psychology programs. These psychologists tended to work in academic institutions and to publish an average of 57 journal articles per year.

  15. Research-infused K-12 Science at the "Uttermost Part of the Earth:" An NSF GK-12 Fellow's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E.; Ellins, K.; Ormiston, C.; Dovzak, N.; Anderson, S.; Tingle, D.; Knettel, P.; Redding, S.; Odle, K.; Dalziel, I.

    2005-12-01

    In March 2005, four students and three teachers from Boerne High School in Texas accompanied UTIG GK-12 Co-PIs Katherine Ellins and Ian Dalziel, and NSF GK-12 Fellow Ethan Perry to Tierra del Fuego to join an international team of scientists studying the climate-tectonic history recorded in Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. For two weeks, students and teachers engaged in authentic scientific research that included geologic field mapping and reconnaissance, and student/teacher developed water and soils sampling routines. The Lago Fagnano experience enabled: (1) the Boerne High School group to be integrated into an active field research program and to bring tangible experiences, knowledge and high-quality data back to the classroom; (2) participating research scientists to convey the importance of their science to a wider audience; and (3) the NSF GK-12 Fellow to gain valuable experience in communicating the essential scientific knowledge and field skills to high school participants before field deployment. The GK-12 Fellow's bridging role through the course of the project enhanced his scientific understanding of the climate-tectonic setting of Tierra del Fuego, fostered the development of new professional contacts with research scientists and led to a fresh perspective on how research science can be integrated in high school science curriculum. The GK-12 Fellow served as the primary mentor to the K-12 participants and the liaison between UTIG research scientists and the Boerne High School group. The Fellow helped prepare the Boerne group for the field research experience and to design a research project using water and soil analyses to assess chemical and isotopic trends within the lake's watershed. Preparatory activities began three months prior to field deployment and included workshops, classroom visits and teleconferences aimed at teaching field skills (reading and creating geologic maps, compass measurements, GPS, field notebooks) and increasing

  16. Four-year experience with a regional program providing simulation-based endovascular training for vascular surgery fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David L; Lee, Eugene S; Hedayati, Nasim; Pevec, William C

    2009-01-01

    High-fidelity procedure simulation has been found useful for training vascular surgery residents in endovascular procedures, but the costs of acquiring, maintaining, and operating simulators represent a barrier to routine use of endovascular simulation in vascular surgery programs. Providing simulation training opportunities through regional centers may make simulation more cost effective, but the costs and benefits of this approach have not been reported previously. We reviewed participation costs in a regional simulation program to provide a benchmark for comparison with other training options. Simulation-based training was offered annually from 2004 to 2007 to the 11 vascular surgery fellowships in Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, and Utah. Participation was at the discretion of the program directors and fellows. Sessions were designed to offer individualized, hands-on training with 2-4 participants per 2-day session. SimSuite (Medical Simulation Corporation, Denver, Colorado) simulators were used. During the 4-year period, participation by invited programs averaged 75%. Ten of 11 programs in the western United States region participated, with 34 fellows participating during the 4 years of the program. In addition, 2 program directors or faculty attended sessions to participate as learners, and 8 other individuals were allowed to participate (including 7 senior surgery residents and 1 vascular surgery fellow from out of the region). The average participant costs for travel, which include transportation, lodging, and meals, were $571. Simulation facility expenses, which included use of the simulator, computer-based training modules, and instructional support by an educational specialist, averaged $1055 per participant. Surgical faculty spent 12 hours per 2-day session instructing and in other direct educational activities. Costs for this time were not calculated separately. Vascular surgery fellows' participation in simulation training at regional centers

  17. Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: chromatic pupillometry in affected, fellow non-affected and healthy control eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eHerbst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs express the photopigment melanopsin, which is sensitive to blue light. Previous chromatic pupillometry studies have shown that the post-illumination response is considered an indicator of the melanopsin activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20 s blue (470 nm or red (660 nm light of high intensity (300 cd/m2 were recorded in each eye for 10 patients. Comparisons were performed both intra-individually (affected versus non-affected eyes and inter-individually (compared with healthy controls. The pupil response was calculated both during the illumination and during the post-illumination phase. The pupil responses to blue and red colours were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue light exposure were increased in the fellow non-affected patients’ eyes, compared with the healthy controls. However, significance was only reached for the late post-illumination response. In conclusion, chromatic pupillometry disclosed reduced post-illumination pupil responses in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the non-affected fellow eyes, suggesting dysfunction of the ipRGCs. Compared with the responses of the healthy controls, the blue light post-illumination pupil responses were similar in the affected eyes and increased in the fellow non-affected eyes. This suggests a possible adaptive phenomenon, involving the ipRGCs of both eyes after unilateral NAION.

  18. Choroid, Haller's, and Sattler's layer thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration with and without fellow neovascular eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Glittenberg, Carl; Nemetz, Susanne; Kraus, Martin F; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2014-07-22

    To analyze choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness maps in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients having eyes with bilateral large drusen and pigment changes (intermediate AMD), in patients having intermediate AMD eyes with neovascular fellow eyes (nAMD), and in healthy subjects using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Automatically generated choroidal thickness (ChT), retinal thickness, and Sattler's and Haller's layer thickness maps were statistically analyzed in 67 subjects consisting of intermediate AMD (n = 21), intermediate AMD (n = 22) with fellow nAMD eyes (n = 22), and healthy eyes (n = 24) with no age and axial eye length difference between groups of eyes (P > 0.05, ANOVA). Eyes were imaged by a prototype high-speed (60,000 A-scans/s) spectral-domain 3D 1060-nm OCT over a 36° × 36° field of view. The mean ± SD (μm) subfoveal ChT for healthy subjects and for bilateral intermediate AMD, unilateral intermediate AMD, and their nAMD fellow eyes was 259 ± 95 and 222 ± 98, 149 ± 60, and 171 ± 78, respectively. Choroidal thickness maps demonstrated significant submacular thinning in unilateral intermediate AMD in comparison to healthy and bilateral intermediate AMD eyes (P choroid and its sublayers, there was no difference between the intermediate AMD eyes and their fellow nAMD eyes (paired testing, P choroidal imaging visualized significant changes in choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness in relation to the progression of AMD. This may be important for understanding the choroidopathy in the pathophysiology of AMD. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Palliative Care Education in Gynecologic Oncology: a Survey of Gynecologic Oncologists and Gynecologic Oncology Fellows in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanakaaew, A; Khemapech, N; Laurujisawat, P

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to survey the education and training of certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in Thailand. A secondary objective was to study the problems in fellowship training regarding palliative care for gynecologic cancer patients. A descriptive study was conducted by sending a questionnaire regarding palliative care education to all certified gynecologic oncologists and gynecologic oncology fellows in Thailand. The contents of the survey included fellowship training experience, caring for the dying, patient preparation, attitudes and respondent characteristics. Statistics were analyzed by percentage, mean and standard deviation and chi-square. One hundred seventy completed questionnaires were returned; the response rate was 66%. Most certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards palliative care education, and agree that "psychological distress can result in severe physical suffering". It was found that the curriculum of gynecologic oncology fellowship training equally emphasizes three aspects, namely managing post-operative complications, managing a patient at the end of life and managing a patient with gynecologic oncology. As for experiential training during the fellowship of gynecologic oncology, education regarding breaking bad news, discussion about goals of care and procedures for symptoms control were mostly on-the-job training without explicit teaching. In addition, only 42.9% of respondents were explicitly taught the coping skill for managing their own stress when caring for palliative patients during fellowship training. Most of respondents rated their clinical competency for palliative care in the "moderately well prepared" level, and the lowest score of the competency was the issue of spiritual care. Almost all certified gynecologic oncologists and fellows in gynecologic oncology have a positive attitude towards learning and teaching in palliative care. In this

  20. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation of the Fellow Eyes in Non-Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yılmaz Dağ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the fellow eyes in unilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and to compare their optic disc parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness with age-and refraction-matched normal controll subjects, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 2 (HRT II. Materials and Methods: The fellow eyes of 40 patients with typical unilateral NAION (study group and one randomly chosen eye of 42 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Optic disc morphologic features (average disc area, cup area, rim area, disc volume, rim volume, cup/disc area ratio, cup depth and peripapillary RNFL thickness were evaluated using HRT II, a confoal scanning ophtalmoscopy. Results: In the study group, there were 26 (65% men and 14 (35% women, whereas there were 27 (64% men and 15 (36% women in the control group (Chi square test, p=0.89. Mean age of the patients in the study and control groups was 59.4±10.3 and 57.7±9.1 years, respectively (T test, p=0.72. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding mean spheric equivalent between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.203. The NAION unaffected fellow eyes had significantly smaller disc areas, cup areas, cup volumes, cup-disc area ratios (vertical and lineer, and cup depths than the control eyes (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference in the RNFL thickness between the two. Conclusion: A comparison of the fellow eyes in patients with unilateral NAION and the control eyes showed a significant difference in optic disc parameters and the morphology of RNFL. These differences could be important in the pathogenesis of NAION and needs to have further investigated. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 111-114

  1. Firms’ reshaping of commercialization practices to overcome the ‘not invented here’ phenomenon in public healthcare organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Helle Aarøe; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Clarke, Ann Højbjerg

    2015-01-01

    processes. Consequently, PPI is rarely examined from a private sector perspective, including how private firms seek to commercialize new innovations after co-creating these innovations in collaboration with public organizations. However, commercialization is a critical aspect of innovation because...... by elucidating how private firms commercialize co-created welfare solutions. The empirical setting is a multiple case study consisting of four PPI projects conducted in public Danish healthcare. The findings reveal that PPI firms experience the ‘not invented here’ (NIH) phenomenon across Danish hospitals....... This phenomenon appears in the short run to hamper the firms’ commercialization of new welfare innovations. However, in the longer run, firms respond to NIH by reshaping their commercialization practices as they redirect their focus towards the potential benefits of exporting their new welfare solutions...

  2. All-optical pulse data generation in a semiconductor optical amplifier gain controlled by a reshaped optical clock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chang, Yung-Cheng; Yu, Kun-Chieh

    2006-05-01

    Wavelength-maintained all-optical pulse data pattern transformation based on a modified cross-gain-modulation architecture in a strongly gain-depleted semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is investigated. Under a backward dark-optical-comb injection with 70% duty-cycle reshaping from the received data clock at 10GHz, the incoming optical data stream is transformed into a pulse data stream with duty cycle, rms timing jitter, and conversion gain of 15%, 4ps, and 3dB, respectively. The high-pass filtering effect of the gain-saturated SOA greatly improves the extinction ratio of data stream by 8dB and reduces its bit error rate to 10-12 at -18dBm.

  3. Can origin labels re-shape relationships along international supply chains? – The case of Café de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara F. Quiñones-Ruiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Origin labels, more specifically Geographical Indications (GIs, allow organised producers to define quality standards and defend their food products’ reputation while highlighting their geographical origin and value to consumers. Café de Colombia was the first non-European food product registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI under EU legislation (510/2006, followed by 1151/2012. This paper aims to identify the dynamics of collective efforts and the rules of the game developed by coffee growers to protect the collective intellectual property right. Our guiding research questions are: i to what extent can the Ostrom’s design principles explain effective collective action for GI registration and implementation? and ii can collective action for GIs re-shape relations between supply chain actors and support producers in gaining control over origin products? We collected data using semi-structured interviews and document analysis, which we then processed in a qualitative text analysis. Results show that the principles are very helpful for understanding the internal collective action of coffee growers and also clearly show the challenges in the interaction with industrial coffee processors (e.g. international roasters, brand owners. A pure focus on the producers’ collective action for establishing and managing the origin protection does not give a full picture, since green coffee beans are roasted and commercialised abroad. The GI has already re-shaped the relationships along the supply chains, as international roasters sign the producers’ rules governing the PGI use. The commercial GI impact however, will depend on consumers’ willingness to appreciate and pay extra for high quality origin coffee as well as the readiness of international roasters or brand owners to emphasise on origin coffee, in addition to their brands of blended coffee.

  4. In vivo laser cartilage reshaping with carbon dioxide spray cooling in a rabbit ear model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Edward C; Hamamoto, Ashley A; Sun, Victor; Nguyen, Tony; Manuel, Cyrus T; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J F; Nelson, J Stuart; Jia, Wangcun

    2014-12-01

    Similar to conventional cryogen spray cooling, carbon dioxide (CO2) spray may be used in combination with laser cartilage reshaping (LCR) to produce cartilage shape change while minimizing cutaneous thermal injury. Recent ex vivo evaluation of LCR with CO2 cooling in a rabbit model has identified a promising initial parameter space for in vivo safety and efficacy evaluation. This pilot study aimed to evaluate shape change and cutaneous injury following LCR with CO2 cooling in 5 live rabbits. The midportion of live rabbit ears were irradiated with a 1.45 µm wavelength diode laser (12 J/cm(2)) with simultaneous CO2 spray cooling (85 millisecond duration, 4 alternating heating/cooling cycles per site, 5 to 6 irradiation sites per row for 3 rows per ear). Experimental and control ears (no LCR) were splinted in the flexed position for 30 days following exposure. A total of 5 ears each were allocated to the experimental and control groups. Shape change was observed in all irradiated ears (mean 70 ± 3°), which was statistically different from control (mean 37 ± 11°, P = 0.009). No significant thermal cutaneous injury was observed, with preservation of the full thickness of skin, microvasculature, and adnexal structures. Confocal microscopy and histology demonstrated an intact and viable chondrocyte population surrounding irradiated sites. LCR with CO2 spray cooling can produce clinically significant shape change in the rabbit auricle while minimizing thermal cutaneous and cartilaginous injury and frostbite. This pilot study lends support for the potential use of CO2 spray as an adjunct to existing thermal-based cartilage reshaping modalities. An in vivo systematic evaluation of optimal laser dosimetry and cooling parameters is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An international fellowship in trauma research and the potential benefits for fellows, sponsoring institution, and the global trauma community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Joseph J; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Recinos, Gustavo; Barmparas, Galinos; Ottochian, Marcus; Inaba, Kenji; Petrone, Patrizio; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2009-04-01

    For over a decade, the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Hospital has supported an international fellowship in trauma that provides research experience, education, and opportunity for clinical observation at a high-volume American College of Surgeons (ACS) designated Level I trauma center. We performed a descriptive study of the design, implementation, and results of an international fellowship in trauma and critical care. Fellows from 27 countries throughout the world have actively engaged in trauma research at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Hospital. Our program involves intensive education and clinical observation components designed to facilitate dissemination of evidence-based trauma practices throughout the world by graduates. The majority of alumni responding to a survey returned to their countries of origin, remaining active in trauma care and research. Motivation for participation varied, but former fellows universally rated their experience highly and stated they would recommend the program to their colleagues. An international research fellowship in trauma and critical care provides foreign medical trainees opportunities for exposure to research and evidence-based practices at a high-volume trauma center. The program is designed to be beneficial to both the participating fellow and sponsoring institution; and is constructed to effectively promote improved trauma education and the dissemination of quality trauma practices internationally.

  6. Charting a course for cardiac electrophysiology training in Canada: the vital role of fellows in advanced cardiovascular care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, Richard A; Gardner, Martin; Green, Martin S; Kavanagh, Katherine; Macle, Laurent; Ahmad, Kamran; Gray, Chris; Ayala-Paredes, Felix; Guerra, Peter G; O'Hara, Gilles; Essebag, Vidal; Sturmer, Marcio; Baranchuk, Adrian; Hruczkowski, Tomasz; Lahevsky, Ilan; Novak, Paul; Chakrabarti, Shanta; Harris, Louise; Gula, Lorne J; Morillo, Carlos; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Hamilton, Robert M; Gow, Robert M; Krahn, Andrew D

    2013-11-01

    Canadian electrophysiology (EP) fellowship programs have evolved in an ad hoc fashion over 30 years. This evolution has occurred in many fields in medicine and is natural when innovators and pioneers attract research fellows who help change the status quo from predominantly research to a predominantly clinical application and focus. Fellows not only push their supervisors and their centres into new areas of inquiry but also function at the most advanced level to encourage and teach junior trainees and to provide examples of excellence to residents, medical students, and other health professionals. Funding for fellows has never been provided in the traditional way through the Ministry of Health or the Ministry of Advanced Education. Each Canadian centre has over the years found novel ways to fund fellowship programs, and many centres have used value-adds from procurement programs. These sources of funding are eroding as provincial government agencies are beginning to assume procurement responsibilities and local flexibility to fund fellowships is lost. In particular, provincial government agencies feel that valuable financial resources should be restricted to Canadian trainees only, despite the international consensus that fellowship is an essential time for advanced trainees to travel abroad to acquire a broad a range of experience, learn new techniques and approaches, make lifelong research connections, and hopefully return home with these skills and expertise. This article summarizes the long history of EP fellowship training in Canada, as well as EP fellowship experiences at home and abroad by Canadian electrophysiologists, in an attempt to contextualize these new realities.

  7. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p working fewer than 80 h per week (PR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.34-14.10), and fatigue (PR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.75). Career and WLB satisfaction were not associated with gender, marital status, and whether or not the fellow is a parent. Those satisfied with WLB planned to work an average of 3.5 years longer than those who were not (p studies are needed to determine the workforce impact of this lack of perceived balance.

  8. Trends in Pediatric Surgery Operative Volume among Residents and Fellows: Improving the Experience for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talutis, Stephanie; McAneny, David; Chen, Catherine; Doherty, Gerard; Sachs, Teviah

    2016-06-01

    The ACGME requires general surgery residents (GSR) to perform 20 pediatric surgery cases as part of the total 750 cases before graduation. We queried the ACGME General Surgery (1999 to 2014) and Pediatric Surgery (2003 to 2014) Case Logs for all pediatric operations performed during training. Means (±SD) and medians (10(th):90(th) percentiles) were compared, and R(2) was calculated for all trends. The number of pediatric surgery fellows (PSF) increased 63% (23 to 39; R(2) = 0.82), while GSR numbers increased 12% (989 to 1,105; R(2) = 0.77). Total and average pediatric surgery case volume for GSR decreased from 39,309 to 32,156 (R(2) = 0.90) and 39.7 ± 13 to 29.1 ± 10 (R(2) = 0.91), respectively. Meanwhile, average PSF case volume increased from 980 ± 208 to 1,137 ± 202 (R(2) = 0.83). These trends persisted for inguinal/umbilical hernia (GSR 22.1 ± 13 to 15.6 ± 10; R(2) = 0.93; PSF 90.5 ± 17.6 to 104.4 ± 20.7; R(2) = 0.34), pyloric stenosis (GSR 3.9 ± 3 to 2.8 ± 3; R(2) = 0.60; PSF 29.6 ± 15 to 39.7 ± 16.8; R(2) = 0.69), and intestinal atresia (GSR 1.3 ± 2 to 1.1 ± 2; R(2) = 0.34; PSF 4.3 ± 4 to 11.8 ± 8; R(2) = 0.21). The mean number of GSR pediatric operations diminished for both junior (37.1 ± 20 to 27.3 ± 16; R(2) = 0.88) and chief (2.6 ± 5 to 1.7 ± 5; R(2) = 0.75) years. Teaching cases in pediatric surgery decreased at all levels. Although the percentage of GSR teaching cases performed during chief years fell modestly (6.6% to 4.7%; R(2) = 0.53), median teaching cases dropped from 2 (0:11 [10(th):90(th) percentiles]) to zero (0:0 [10(th):90(th) percentiles]). Mean PSF teaching cases declined (100.7 ± 396 to 44.5 ± 42; R(2) = 0.72), while the percentage of operations that were teaching cases decreased more sharply (10.3% to 3.5%; R(2) = 0.82). Total pediatric surgery cases and PSF operative volume have increased, while GSR operative volume has decreased. Opportunities may exist to increase resident participation while

  9. Preparing for an Academic Career Workshops: Resources for Graduate Students and Post-Doctoral Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.

    2004-12-01

    The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.

  10. Imaging skills for transthoracic echocardiography in cardiology fellows: The value of motion metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montealegre-Gallegos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proficiency in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE requires an integration of cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. Whereas cognitive knowledge can be quantified, psychomotor skills are implied after repetitive task performance. We applied motion analyses to evaluate psychomotor skill acquisition during simulator-based TTE training. Methods and Results: During the first month of their fellowship training, 16 cardiology fellows underwent a multimodal TTE training program for 4 weeks (8 sessions. The program consisted of online and live didactics as well as simulator training. Kinematic metrics (path length, time, probe accelerations were obtained at the start and end of the course for 8 standard TTE views using a simulator. At the end of the course TTE image acquisition skills were tested on human models. After completion of the training program the trainees reported improved self-perceived comfort with TTE imaging. There was also an increase of 8.7% in post-test knowledge scores. There was a reduction in the number of probe accelerations [median decrease 49.5, 95% CI = 29-73, adjusted P < 0.01], total time [median decrease 10.6 s, 95% CI = 6.6-15.5, adjusted P < 0.01] and path length [median decrease 8.8 cm, 95% CI = 2.2-17.7, adjusted P < 0.01] from the start to the end of the course. During evaluation on human models, the trainees were able to obtain all the required TTE views without instructor assistance. Conclusion: Simulator-derived motion analyses can be used to objectively quantify acquisition of psychomotor skills during TTE training. Such an approach could be used to assess readiness for clinical practice of TTE.

  11. Imaging skills for transthoracic echocardiography in cardiology fellows: The value of motion metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Mahmood, Feroze; Kim, Han; Bergman, Remco; Mitchell, John D.; Bose, Ruma; Hawthorne, Katie M.; O’Halloran, T. David; Wong, Vanessa; Hess, Philip E.; Matyal, Robina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proficiency in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) requires an integration of cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. Whereas cognitive knowledge can be quantified, psychomotor skills are implied after repetitive task performance. We applied motion analyses to evaluate psychomotor skill acquisition during simulator-based TTE training. Methods and Results: During the first month of their fellowship training, 16 cardiology fellows underwent a multimodal TTE training program for 4 weeks (8 sessions). The program consisted of online and live didactics as well as simulator training. Kinematic metrics (path length, time, probe accelerations) were obtained at the start and end of the course for 8 standard TTE views using a simulator. At the end of the course TTE image acquisition skills were tested on human models. After completion of the training program the trainees reported improved self-perceived comfort with TTE imaging. There was also an increase of 8.7% in post-test knowledge scores. There was a reduction in the number of probe accelerations [median decrease 49.5, 95% CI = 29-73, adjusted P < 0.01], total time [median decrease 10.6 s, 95% CI = 6.6-15.5, adjusted P < 0.01] and path length [median decrease 8.8 cm, 95% CI = 2.2-17.7, adjusted P < 0.01] from the start to the end of the course. During evaluation on human models, the trainees were able to obtain all the required TTE views without instructor assistance. Conclusion: Simulator-derived motion analyses can be used to objectively quantify acquisition of psychomotor skills during TTE training. Such an approach could be used to assess readiness for clinical practice of TTE. PMID:27052064

  12. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Koseki, Sayaka; Feeley, Frank G; Beard, Jennifer

    2013-10-02

    Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005-2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory compliance systems were in place, training

  13. Report on the 2011 Wilderness Fellow Initiative : Implementing wilderness character monitoring in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the background, process, results, lessons learned, and recommendations from the 2011 Wilderness Fellows Initiative. This initiative was a new...

  14. National Key Deer, Key West, and Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuges, Florida Keys: A Wilderness Fellows Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  15. The Health Professions Education Pathway: Preparing Students, Residents, and Fellows to Become Future Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Wamsley, Maria A; Azzam, Amin; Julian, Katherine; Irby, David M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-01-01

    Training the next generation of health professionals requires leaders, innovators, and scholars in education. Although many medical schools and residencies offer education electives or tracks focused on developing teaching skills, these programs often omit educational innovation, scholarship, and leadership and are narrowly targeted to one level of learner. The University of California San Francisco created the Health Professions Education Pathway for medical students, residents, and fellows as well as learners from other health professional schools. The Pathway applies the theoretical framework of communities of practice in its curricular design to promote learner identity formation as future health professions educators. It employs the strategies of engagement, imagination, and alignment for identity formation. Through course requirements, learners engage and work with members of the educator community of practice to develop the knowledge and skills required to participate in the community. Pathway instructors are faculty members who model a breadth of educator careers to help learners imagine personal trajectories. Last, learners complete mentored education projects, adopting scholarly methods and ethics to align with the broader educator community of practice. From 2009 to 2014, 117 learners participated in the Pathway. Program evaluations, graduate surveys, and web-based searches revealed positive impacts on learner career development. Learners gained knowledge and skills for continued engagement with the educator community of practice, confirmed their career aspirations (imagination), joined an educator-in-training community (engagement/imagination), and disseminated via scholarly meetings and peer-reviewed publications (alignment). Learners identified engagement with the learner community as the most powerful aspect of the Pathway; it provided peer support for imagining and navigating the development of their dual identities in the clinician and educator

  16. The influence of a graduate teaching fellows collaboration on science teachers' inquiry practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen Ludwig

    For more than a decade, there has been a call for reform in science education. This effort stresses the creation of a scientifically literate population. Required in this effort to create a more scientifically literate populace is an understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS) on the part of the average citizen. This, in turn requires an understanding of scientific inquiry. This call for reform recognizes the classroom teacher as the main vehicle through which images of the NOS and scientific inquiry are portrayed for students. In order to improve both science teachers' and students' understanding of the NOS and inquiry, the National Science Foundation has implemented the Graduate Teaching Fellows in GK--12 Education (GK--12) initiative. This initiative, which is consistent with reform efforts that call for scientist involvement in K--12 science classrooms, supports programs that place graduate level scientists (GTFs) with K--12 science teachers (PTs) to act as classroom resources. One such program focuses on sustained collaborations between GTFs and PTs with a hands-on, inquiry-based planning and teaching emphasis. This naturalistic study used mixed methods of surveys, observation, interviews and artifact collection to examine how this program influenced PTs' inquiry practices and perceptions. Results from the case studies indicate that collaboration with GTFs had little influence on PTs' inquiry practices and perceptions. PTs displayed little change in beliefs as indicated through survey responses and interview data. They also displayed little change in their observed teaching practices. During data analysis classroom features of inquiry emerged. These features led to the creation of five components of two types of inquiry, Technical and Substantive. These types of inquiry, the components, and their features, make-up an Inquiry Framework that represents a continuum of understandings related to inquiry and is grounded in the practice of teaching. This framework

  17. Assessment of Medical Student and Resident/Fellow Knowledge, Comfort, and Training With Sexual History Taking in LGBTQ Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victoria; Blondeau, Whitney; Bing-You, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Sexual health is an important aspect of overall health. Barriers to taking an adequate patient sexual history exist. Few studies have explored medical learners' comfort, knowledge, and training surrounding taking sexual histories with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning/queer (LGBTQ) patients specifically. A 10-question survey was offered to medical students and resident/fellows at one US institution. Survey questions reflected participants' knowledge, comfort, and training related to sexual history taking with attention to LGBTQ care. A total of 159 surveys were returned (rate of 42%). A significantly lower level of comfort existed with taking sexual histories and managing sexual health issues in the LGBTQ segment of the patient population versus all patients, especially in the advanced training group. Participants recognized the importance of understanding their patients' overall sexual health, though medical students rated this as more important than the resident/fellow group did. A correlation existed between both comfort with taking sexual histories and discussing safe sexual practices and management of sexual issues, suggesting that further training would be helpful in this area. Twenty percent of the respondents reported receiving no training at all in eliciting sexual histories in LGBTQ patients. The most preferred format in this study for future training was interviewing standardized patients. Medical students and resident/fellows reported a significantly lower level of comfort with sexual history-taking and management of sexual issues in the LGBTQ population. A comprehensive training format that not only views sexual health as an integral part of overall patient health, but also integrates LGBTQ care, is needed in medical education.

  18. The development and testing of a unique and flexible training module for residents and fellows using digital breast tomosythesis (DBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Drescher, John; King, Jill L.; Logue, Durwin; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2017-03-01

    The transition from FFDM to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) necessitates new approaches for training radiology residents and fellows that highlight depiction differences between the same abnormalities on the two modalities. We developed a unique, flexible training module that enables training with complete feedback, as well as testing performance before and after use of this training module. Currently, 219 examinations, with priors and other relevant information, are included. Using a special interface to the Secure View workstation (Hologic), we developed a management program that displays each case in a randomized manner and in a sequential mode (i.e. FFDM first followed by FFDM+DBT) and allows the reader to rate the case followed by viewing the images side by side with results of the full imaging based history (reporting) by the screening interpreter, the diagnostic workup interpreter (when applicable), and the actual pathology (biopsy and/or surgical). This approach allows the reader to review their correct and/or incorrect interpretation at each step of the management decision making. The module also has sets of pre- and post-training cases, allowing for a test-train-test study to be performed, if so desired. Two observer studies using 18 radiologists, residents, and fellows have been performed using this module, to date. The training module was assembled, tested, and implemented. We found it to be extremely flexible and useful in training. After completing two observer performance studies, the module was installed in our clinical facility and is currently being used to train residents and fellows at their own pace. All users found this module to be useful and extremely informative.

  19. [Suggestions of reshaping medical education (The Hungarian medical elite at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) 1947-1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Szabó, József

    2017-03-01

    This study is part of the monograph entitled Scientific Elites and Politics (1945-1948) to be published soon. The relationships of political parties with several elite groups, such as groups of agronomic, human, economic, legal, technical and natural sciences, as well as the roles of these elites in scientific life, have been looked into and published in renowned periodicals. Using new sources, different specialist groups' and political powers' suggestions of reshaping medical education in 1947 and 1948, are presented. The medical elite's situation at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is also outlined. The study renders an account of the entire post-war medical elite. It will be stated who and based on what scientific achievement became member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, who was appointed to professor and who became a habilitated doctor. This study, which is a desideratum of research, may not only interest researchers but is aimed at a broader readership, including physicians. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 432-437.

  20. Targeting innate receptors with MIS416 reshapes Th responses and suppresses CNS disease in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine White

    Full Text Available Modification of the innate immune cell environment has recently been recognized as a viable treatment strategy for reducing autoimmune disease pathology. MIS416 is a microparticulate immune response modifier that targets myeloid cells, activating cytosolic receptors NOD2 and TLR9, and has completed a phase 1b/2a trial for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Using a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we are investigating the pathways by which activation of TLR9 and NOD2 may modify the innate immune environment and the subsequent T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. We have found that MIS416 has profound effects on the Th subset balance by depressing antigen-specific Th1, Th17, and Th2 development. These effects coincided with an expansion of specific myeloid subpopulations and increased levels of MIS416-stimulated IFN-γ by splenocytes. Additionally, systemic IFN-γ serum levels were enhanced and correlated strongly with disease reduction, and the protective effect of MIS416 was abrogated in IFN-γ-deficient animals. Finally, treatment of secondary progressive MS patients with MIS416 similarly elevated the levels of IFN-γ and IFN-γ-associated proteins in the serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that administration of MIS416, which targets innate cells, reshapes autoimmune T cell responses and leads to a significant reduction in CNS inflammation and disease.

  1. Case reports in medical education: a platform for training medical students, residents, and fellows in scientific writing and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Aleksandra G; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-04-06

    A case report is a detailed narrative that usually illustrates a diagnostic or therapeutic problem experienced by one or several patients. Case reports commonly serve as the first line of evidence for new interventions or they function as alarms that an issue exists with an already established therapy. Case reports are of minor importance in evidence-based medicine; however, they make meaningful contributions to both the knowledge and education of medical students, residents, and fellows. Case reports are written with the goal of sharing information for medical, scientific, or educational purposes. They often serve as medical or even undergraduate students' first experience with medical writing and they provide a solid foundation for manuscript preparation and publication. In the last few decades, there has been an exponential increase in medical student research, specifically in the number of manuscripts published by medical students. It is important to foster this academic spirit among students by encouraging them to become involved in research. This editorial will focus on the value and educational benefits of writing case reports for medical students, university students, residents, and fellows.

  2. Educating residents in behavioral health care and collaboration: integrated clinical training of pediatric residents and psychology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M

    2011-02-01

    Pediatric residency practices face the challenge of providing both behavioral health (BH) training for pediatricians and psychosocial care for children. The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Rochester General Hospital developed a joint training program and continuity clinic infrastructure in which pediatric residents and postdoctoral psychology fellows train and practice together. The integrated program provides children access to BH care in a primary care setting and gives trainees the opportunity to integrate collaborative BH care into their regular practice routines. During 1998-2008, 48 pediatric residents and 8 psychology fellows trained in this integrated clinical environment. The program's accomplishments include longevity, faculty and fiscal stability, sustained support from pediatric leadership and community payers, the development in residents and faculty of greater comfort in addressing BH problems and collaborating with BH specialists, and replication of the model in two other primary care settings. In addition to quantitative program outcomes data, the authors present a case example that illustrates how the integrated program works and achieves its goals. They propose that educating residents and psychology trainees side by side in collaborative BH care is clinically and educationally valuable and potentially applicable to other settings. A companion report published in this issue provides results from a study comparing the perceptions of pediatric residents whose primary care continuity clinic took place in this integrated setting with those of residents from the same pediatric residency who had their continuity clinic training in a nonintegrated setting.

  3. A comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes in unilateral amblyopia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Syunsuke Araki,1 Atsushi Miki,1,2 Tsutomu Yamashita,1,2 Katsutoshi Goto,1,2 Kazuko Haruishi,1 Yoshiaki Ieki,1 Junichi Kiryu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan; 2Department of Sensory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Purpose: To compare the macular retinal thickness and characteristics of optic nerve head (ONH parameters in amblyopic and fellow eyes in patients with unilateral amblyopia.Patients and methods: A total of 21 patients with unilateral amblyopia (14 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, four patients with strabismic amblyopia, and three patients with both were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±3.5 years. The examined parameters included the mean macular (full, inner, and outer, ganglion cell complex and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thicknesses, and ONH parameters (rim volume, nerve head volume, cup volume, rim area, optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc area ratio.Results: The amblyopic eyes were significantly more hyperopic than the fellow eyes (P<0.001. Among the macular retinal thickness parameters, the cpRNFL thickness (P<0.01, macular full retinal thickness (3 mm region (P<0.01, and macular outer retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions (P<0.05 were significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes, while the ganglion cell complex thickness, macular full retinal thickness (1 mm region, and macular inner retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions were not significantly different. Among the ONH parameters, the rim area was significantly larger and the cup-to-disc area ratio was smaller in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes (P<0.05. None of the other ONH parameters were significantly different between the investigated eyes. The differences in the cpRNFL thickness and macular outer retinal thickness in the 1 mm

  4. So you want to be a Fellow in the American Association of Nurse Practitioners: Navigating the Fellowship process to ensure your success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Alicia Gill; Sabol, Valerie K; Hicks, Rodney W

    2017-08-25

    The professional designation as Fellow of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (FAANP) is the highest professional designation for any nurse practitioner (NP). The Fellows of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) operate the FAANP program and annually invite colleagues that have made a significant impact on the NP profession for consideration of this prestigious designation. Since its inception in 2000, nearly 700 NPs, or less than 1% of the membership, have been inducted as FAANPs. The number of candidates for consideration has continued to rise given that there are more than 75,000 members, many of whom have made significant contributions to health care. This article provides updates regarding the Fellows application process and provides guidance for both the candidate and the sponsors on how to prepare a competitive application. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Rizzo

    Full Text Available Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  6. 大学生心智模式重塑研究%Research on College Students' Mental Models Reshape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓然; 尹启华

    2012-01-01

    高校学生普遍存在自主学习意识不强、学习能力、生活能力不足等不健康的心理与行为,严重影响到我国高等教育质量和人才培养质量。“重塑心灵”计划提出运用NLP教练技术等最新心理学和行为学研究成果重建大学生的信念和价值观系统,提高自我情绪控制和人际沟通能力,构建快乐、积极的精英大学生心态和行为模式,确保高校学风全面好转以及人才培养质量的提高。%It's commonly seen among college students that they don't have strong autonomous learning awareness, adequate learning skills and life skills. Their unhealthy psychology and behavior have seriously affected the quality of China's higher education and personnel training. Reshaping mind program suggests that the latest psychological and behavioral findings such as coaching method be adopted to rebuild the system of students' beliefs and values, which helps improve their self-emotional control and interpersonal communication skills to build happy, positive mentality and behavior patterns and ensure the all-round improvement of their learning style and personnel training.

  7. Buttock Reshaping With Intramuscular Gluteal Augmentation in an Asian Ethnic Group: A Six-Year Experience With 130 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hwan; Whang, Kwi Whan

    2016-09-01

    Although the definition of what constitutes "beautiful buttocks" has been changing with time, the buttocks are generally perceived as an important element of sexual attraction and beauty in every culture. In Asian culture, "beautiful buttocks" are defined by an aggregate of the following 4 components: S-shaped curvature from the lower back to the buttocks, sufficient muscle volume, sufficient fat volume, and appropriate skin elasticity. The goal of our gluteal augmentation was therefore to restore the back curvature, provide sufficient hip volume (projection), and reposition the point of maximal gluteal projection to be higher than the pubic hair. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' 6-year (2008-2014) experience with intramuscular gluteal augmentation techniques using an oval-shaped smooth-surface silicon elastomer. After intergluteal fusiform incisions were made, we bluntly dissected the subcutaneous tissue deep down to the gluteus maximus muscle by using the xyz method introduced by Dr. Gonzalez. Most of the patients in this case series underwent additional procedures at the time of the gluteal augmentation, whereas 90% of patients underwent concomitant liposuction. The results were assessed objectively using serial photography and subjectively according to patients' assessment on a 5-score scale.The mean rating for patient satisfaction with the procedure was 4.6 of 5, whereas consensus ratings by 2 independent plastic surgeons showed a mean score of 4.2 of 5. The intramuscular gluteal augmentation technique using an oval-shaped smooth surface silicon elastomer resulted in excellent cosmetic outcomes and permitted successful reshaping of the buttocks.

  8. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Farina, Francesca; Montorfano, Gigliola; Pani, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Cristina; Sancini, Giulio; Palestini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  9. Society News: Schlumberger medal for McCann; How Fellows can save money; Consider a legacy to your Society; Lectures at lunchtime; Faraday for Barrow; Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Fellows may wish to congratulate Clive McCann, well-known in the British Geophysical Association, on the award of the Conrad Schlumberger Medal. Fellowship of the RAS brings benefits over and above access to the meetings, publications, Library and apartments of the Society: Fellows also get significant discounts from publishers, societies and visitor attractions across the UK. If you are making or revising a will, you may wish to consider a legacy to the RAS. The RAS season of lunchtime lectures for the public at Burlington House kicked off in September with a look at the modern scientific view of the Tunguska event in 1908, by Chris Trayner.

  10. Hilda Mary Woods MBE, DSc, LRAM, FSS (1892-1971): reflections on a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony; Gear, Rosemary

    2012-07-01

    We have previously described the content of a text by Woods and Russell, An Introduction to Medical Statistics, compared it with Principles of Medical Statistics by Hill and set both volumes against the background of vital statistics up until 1937. The two books mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics. Very little has been recorded about the life and career of the first author of the earlier textbook, who was a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society for at least 25 years, an omission which we can now rectify with this paper. We describe her education, entry into medical statistics, relationship with Major Greenwood and her subsequent career and life in Ceylon, Kenya, Australia, England and South Africa.

  11. The Congressional Science Fellow Program and Other Efforts to Help Congress and the Public Make Wiser Decisions on Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Joel

    2004-05-01

    For thirty years the AAAS Congressional Science and Technology Fellow Program, with which the APS program is affiliated, has been bringing scientists and engineers to work on the staffs of Congress. During the same period, many independent technology policy groups at universities, professional societies including the APS, and non-profit organizations have prepared excellent reports. But despite these efforts, U.S. science and technology policy is often terrible! For example, the current Administration contends that there is not enough scientific evidence of global warming to actually begin to do something to slow the growth in fossil fuel use, but there is plenty of evidence to support deploying a missile defense system now, and we need to be ready to test new generations of nuclear weapons. We scientists must develop a bigger public constituency for good decisions. We need to present, not only sound recommendations backed up by convincing studies, but also wise moral leadership.

  12. Application of Robotic Surgery in the treatment of endometriosis: View point of an Indian OBGYN fellow in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kavita Ramavath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article is an observational experience of robotic surgery in USA by an Indian Obgyn fellow. Primary objective is to analyze retrospectively peri operative outcomes in stage 2 and 3 Endometriosis treated with robot assisted laparoscopy. Secondary objective is to report an Indian Obgyn, Physician observer fellows experience in USA with Robotic surgery. Methods: 29 women underwent robotic surgery at in the department of gynecology at Doctor's hospital, Baptist health, Miami. Pre-op time, console time, total operative time, blood loss, peri-operative complications noted. Results: Mean age is 42 +/- 8 years with BMI of 26.2 +/- 8 kg/m2. Eighteen patients (62% were age 40 and above. Twenty patients (69% presented with chronic pelvic pain. Dyspareunia in 16 (55.2%, bloating in five (17.2% and pelvic mass in thirteen (44.8% Unilateral pelvic mass in nine patients (31 % and bilateral in four patients (13.8%. CA 125 levels are elevated in nine patients (31% and significantly higher with endometriomas (76.1 +/- 49.2 U/ml. 38% underwent robot assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and BSO. 14.8% underwent robot assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy with Robot (LSO/RSO. Mean operative time 64.7 min. Mean blood loss 40 ml. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is safe, with minimal blood loss and shorter hospital stay. Alike in the surgical techniques, though diverse in the work infrastructure and technology, East and West have common scenarios which can be tackled with exchange of training opportunities. This interchange of knowledge and skills will benefit patients with increased surgeon's efficiency. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 202-209

  13. The value of the internship year for radiologists: a retrospective analysis as assessed by current residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Tilak, Gauri S; Geannette, Christian; Romero, Michelle J; Patel, Amish; Pan, Lawrence

    2008-09-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) if radiology residents and fellows view their internship year as a valued prerequisite for their career as a radiologist and as a physician, (b) how their postgraduate year (PGY)-1 was perceived with regard to a specific type of internship (i.e., internal medicine, transitional year, or surgery), and (c) how their internship is considered from the vantage point of their current year of training and subspecialty career choice. A survey was sent to all current U.S. radiology residents and fellows from a list derived from the American College of Radiology database. They were polled regarding their experiences in their preliminary year (PGY-1). Responses were coded on a 5-point Likert scale. Response rate for the study was 35%. Although 70% of respondents maintained that their internship year was necessary for their development as a physician, only 49% indicated that it was necessary for their development as a radiologist. Of respondents who graduated from surgical internships, 72% claimed that their PGY-1 was important for their development as a radiologist, compared to 44% of former transitional year interns and 49% of internal medicine interns (Pinternship important to their development as a radiologist (Pinternship year was believed to have merit, the transitional year was least liked by radiology trainees. Efforts should be made to determine why the transitional year does not fare so well in the hope that structural improvements in it can be undertaken to make the year seem more worthwhile and more highly regarded.

  14. Alternative Teacher Certification and the New Professionalism: The Pre-Service Preparation of Mathematics Teachers in the New York City Teaching Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantlinger, Andrew; Smith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: For more than a decade, large alternative teacher certification programs (ATCP) such as the New York City Teaching Fellows (NYCTF) have provided qualified applicants with fast-track or "early entry" routes to paid teaching. While early-entry ATCPs enjoy powerful support in the public and private sectors, critics…

  15. The Challenges and Benefits of Employing a Mobile Research Fellow to Facilitate Team Work on a Large, Interdisciplinary, Multi-Sited Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Fraser; Punch, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years research funding has increasingly moved in favour of large, multi-partner, interdisciplinary and multi-site research projects. This article explores the benefits and challenges of employing a full-time research fellow to work across multiple field sites, with all the local research teams, on an international,…

  16. In Search of the Active Site of PMMO Enzyme: Partnership between a K-12 Teacher, a Graduate K-12 Teaching Fellow, and a Research Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Katherine K.; Mainardi, Daniela S.; Culligan, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    The partnership between a K-12 teacher (Culligan), an NSF GK-12 Teaching Fellow graduate student (Bearden), and a Louisiana Tech faculty member (Mainardi) collaborating in a research and education project is described in this work. The unique grouping of these three researchers allows for maximum dissemination of developed modules. By the end of…

  17. The SAFE-T assessment tool: derivation and validation of a web-based application for point-of-care evaluation of gastroenterology fellow performance in colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navin L; Kugener, Guillaume; Perencevich, Molly L; Saltzman, John R

    2017-05-10

    Attending assessment is a critical part of endoscopic education for gastroenterology fellows. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a concise assessment tool to evaluate real-time fellow performance in colonoscopy administered via a web-based application. The Skill Assessment in Fellow Endoscopy Training (SAFE-T) tool was derived as a novel 5-question evaluation tool that captures both summative and formative feedback adapted into a web-based application. A prospective study of 15 gastroenterology fellows (5 fellows each from years 1 to 3 of training) was performed using the SAFE-T tool. An independent reviewer evaluated a subset of these procedures and completed the SAFE-T tool and Mayo Colonoscopy Skills Assessment Tool (MCSAT) for reliability testing. Twenty-six faculty completed 350 SAFE-T evaluations of the 15 fellows in the study. The mean SAFE-T overall score (year 1, 2.00; year 2, 3.84; year 3, 4.28) differentiated each sequential fellow year of training (P  0.90, P web-based means of assessing real-time gastroenterology fellow performance in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fellow use of medical jargon correlates inversely with patient and observer perceptions of professionalism: results of a rheumatology OSCE (ROSCE) using challenging patient scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jessica R; Aizer, Juliet; Bass, Anne R; Blanco, Irene; Davidson, Anne; Dwyer, Edward; Fields, Theodore R; Huang, Wei-Ti; Kang, Jane S; Kerr, Leslie D; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Lazaro, Deana M; Schwartzman-Morris, Julie S; Paget, Stephen A; Pillinger, Michael H

    2016-08-01

    The NYC Rheumatology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (NYC-ROSCE) is held annually to assess fellow competencies. We recently redesigned our OSCE to better assess subspecialty trainee communication skills and professionalism by developing scenarios in which the patients encountered were psychosocially or medically complex. The objective of this study is to identify which types of verbal and non-verbal skills are most important in the perception of professionalism in the patient-physician interaction. The 2012-2013 NYC-ROSCEs included a total of 53 fellows: 55 MD evaluators from 7 NYC rheumatology training programs (Hospital for Special Surgery-Weill Cornell (HSS), SUNY/Downstate, NYU, Einstein, Columbia, Mount Sinai, and North Shore/Long Island Jewish (NSLIJ)), and 55 professional actors/standardized patients participated in 5 stations. Quantitative fellow performance assessments were made on the following: maintaining composure; partnering with the patient; honesty; professionalism; empathy; and accountability. Free-text comments were solicited regarding specific strengths and weaknesses. A total of 53/53 eligible (100 %) fellows were evaluated. MD evaluators rated fellows lower for professionalism than did the standardized patients (6.8 ± 0.6 vs. 7.4 ± 0.8, p = 0.05), suggesting that physicians and patients view professionalism somewhat differently. Fellow self-evaluations for professionalism (6.6 ± 1.2) were concordant with those of the MD evaluators. Ratings of empathy by fellows themselves (6.6 ± 1.0), MD evaluators (6.6 ± 0.7), and standardized patients (6.6 ± 1.1) agreed closely. Jargon use, frequently cited by evaluators, showed a moderate association with lower professionalism ratings by both MD evaluators and patients. Psychosocially challenging patient encounters in the NYC-ROSCE permitted critical assessment of the patient-centered traits contributing to impressions of professionalism and indicate that

  19. Reshaping Graduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Phillip A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses needed changes in the training of doctoral science and engineering students to prepare them for the jobs they are likely to find. Discussion includes introducing flexibility in the conduct of science, better career information and guidance, and a new class of education and training grants. (MKR)

  20. Metamaterials: Reshape and Rethink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are composite materials whose material properties (acoustic, electrical, magnetic, or optical, etc. are determined by their constitutive structural materials, especially the unit cells. The development of metamaterials continues to redefine the boundaries of materials science. In the field of electromagnetic research and beyond, these materials offer excellent design flexibility with their customized properties and their tunability under external stimuli. In this paper, we first provide a literature review of metamaterials with a focus on the technology and its evolution. We then discuss steps in the industrialization process and share our own experience.

  1. Lenalidomide in combination with R-ESHAP in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase 1b study from GELTAMO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Alejandro; Redondo, Alba M; Dlouhy, Iván; Salar, Antonio; González-Barca, Eva; Canales, Miguel; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Ocio, Enrique M; López-Guillermo, Armando; Caballero, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients failing rituximab-containing therapy have a poor outcome with the current salvage regimens. We conducted a phase 1b trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide in combination with R-ESHAP (rituximab, etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, methylprednisolone) (LR-ESHAP) in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. Efficacy data were collected as a secondary objective. Subjects received 3 cycles of lenalidomide at escalating doses (5, 10 or 15 mg) given on days 1-14 of every 21-day cycle, in combination with R-ESHAP. Responding patients received BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Lenalidomide 10 mg/d was identified as the MTD because, in the 15 mg cohort, one patient experienced dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 angioedema) and two patients had mobilization failure. A total of 19 patients (3, 12 and 4 in the 5, 10 and 15 mg cohorts, respectively) were evaluable. All toxicities occurring during LR-ESHAP cycles resolved appropriately and no grade 4-5 non-haematological toxicities were observed. The complete remission and overall response rates were 47·4% and 78·9%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 24·6 (17·4-38·2) months, the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 44% and 63%, respectively. In conclusion, the LR-ESHAP regimen is feasible and yields encouraging outcomes.

  2. High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Kang, Jung-Jui; Lee, Chao-Kuei

    2010-04-26

    The 40-GHz rational harmonic mode-locking (RHML) and pulse-amplitude equalization of a semiconductor optical amplifier based fiber-ring laser (SOAFL) is demonstrated by the injection of a reshaped 10-GHz gain-switching FPLD pulse. A nonlinearly biased Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is employed to detune the shape of the double-peak pulse before injecting the SOA, such that a pulse-amplitude equalized 4th-order RHML-SOAFL can be achieved by reshaping the SOA gain within one modulation period. An optical injection mode-locking model is constructed to simulate the compensation of uneven amplitudes between adjacent RHML pulse peaks before and after pulse-amplitude equalization. The indirect gain compensation technique greatly suppresses the clock amplitude jitter from 45% to 3.5% when achieving 4th-order RHML, and the amplitude fluctuation of sub-rational harmonic modulating envelope is attenuated by 45 dB. After pulse-amplitude equalization, the pulsewidth of the optical-injection RHML-SOAFL is 8 ps, which still obeys the trend predicted by the inverse square root of repetition rate. The phase noise contributed by the residual ASE noise of the RHML-SOAFL is significantly decreased from -84 to -90 dBc/Hz after initiating the pulse-amplitude equalization, corresponding to the timing jitter reduction from 0.5 to 0.28 ps.

  3. Uniform Sampling of the Infinite Noncooperative Game on Unit Hypercube and Reshaping Ultimately Multidimensional Matrices of Player’s Payoff Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanuke Vadim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a method of obtaining an approximate solution of the infinite noncooperative game on the unit hypercube. The method is based on sampling uniformly the players’ payoff functions with the constant step along each of the hypercube dimensions. The author states the conditions for a sufficiently accurate sampling and suggests the method of reshaping the multidimensional matrix of the player’s payoff values, being the former player’s payoff function before its sampling, into a matrix with minimally possible number of dimensions, where also maintenance of one-to-one indexing has been provided. Requirements for finite NE-strategy from NE (Nash equilibrium solution of the finite game as the initial infinite game approximation are given as definitions of the approximate solution consistency. The approximate solution consistency ensures its relative independence upon the sampling step within its minimal neighborhood or the minimally decreased sampling step. The ultimate reshaping of multidimensional matrices of players’ payoff values to the minimal number of dimensions, being equal to the number of players, stimulates shortened computations.

  4. Remodelación de los colgajos TRAM libres y DIEP Reshaping in free TRAM and DIEP flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidalgo Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    surgeons, the practice of this procedure is a genuine challenge which, nowadays, should become a daily task in all Plastic Surgery Units. In our Plastic Surgery Unit, the implementation of these techniques started in 1999, having practiced 42 cases so far. At first, the development of the microsuture was the most important issue; every surgeon"s effort was directed to achieve an optimal suture. The rest was considered of lesser importance. However, our conception has changed: we consider that the most important issue now is not only the effort mentioned above but, mainly, a satisfactory reshaping of the flap in ordee to give the breast an actual appearance. In the present study, we put forward a series of technical advices that can be useful when finishing breast reconstruction through either free TRAM or DIEP, recreating a new breast as similar to the counterside healthy breast as possible. We show up, then, the importance of this fact in order to achieve a successful breast reconstruction.

  5. How well do we prepare pediatric radiologists regarding child abuse? Results of a survey of recently trained fellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Debra J.; Lonergan, Gael J. [Austin Radiological Association, 6101 West Courtyard Drive, Bldg. 5, TX 78730, Austin (United States); Mendelson, Kenneth L. [South Shore Hospital, Weymouth, Massachusetts (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric radiologists serve an important role in the radiologic diagnosis, investigation, and in legal proceedings in cases of child abuse. The Society for Pediatric Radiology should evaluate and insure the adequacy of training of pediatric radiologists for this important role. The Society for Pediatric Radiology Committee on Child Abuse, 2002, conducted a 24-question survey to evaluate the scope and perceived adequacy of training received by pediatric radiology fellows regarding the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse and the associated legal process. Eighty-four surveys were mailed to radiologists who had completed a year in pediatric radiology fellowship training during the years 1999 and 2000. There were 33 surveys returned for an overall response of 39%. Respondents' perception of adequacy of training was best for the radiologic diagnosis of child abuse. The majority perceived they were not well trained in the investigative and legal processes regarding child abuse. The majority would welcome standardized training. Current pediatric radiology training programs do not sufficiently prepare pediatric radiologists for their role in the legal system regarding child abuse. A standardized program to train pediatric radiologists about the imaging diagnosis of child abuse and their role in the legal system is recommended. (orig.)

  6. Higher order aberrations comparison in fellow eyes following intraLase LASIK with wavelight allegretto and customcornea LADArvision4000 systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dan B; Shah, Viraj

    2006-11-01

    To compare the differences in objective and subjective visual outcomes with wavefront-optimized versus wavefront-guided excimer laser ablations using two different excimer laser platforms. In this prospective, randomized, matched, contralateral eye study, one eye was treated with the Alcon CustomCornea system, and the fellow eye was treated with the WaveLight Allegretto Wavefront-Optimized system. The IntraLase FS30 femtosecond laser was used to create all flaps. Treatments were randomized to the dominant eye, and optical treatment zones were matched to 6.5 mm. Patients were observed for 3 months after surgery. Initial data analysis was available for the first 28 eyes of 14 patients. The only statistically significant differences between the groups were seen in the amount of higher order aberrations-the 14 eyes in the WaveLight group had a mean preoperative root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.37 microm compared to 0.36 microm for 14 eyes in the Alcon group. Of the 8 patients who had 3-month follow-up, 8 eyes in the WaveLight group had a mean RMS error of 0.58 microm at 3 months, compared to 0.41 microm in the 8 eyes in the Alcon group. Early results from this study have shown that both laser platforms produce accurate refractive outcomes; however, the Alcon CustomCornea LADARVision4000 system induces statistically significantly fewer higher order aberrations than the WaveLight Allegretto system.

  7. The effect of GK-12 graduate fellow interactions on high school student attitudes toward science and career path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Rachel Renee

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of biology graduate student interactions on high school student attitudes toward science and career choice. Through the National Science Foundation GK-12 program at Middle Tennessee State University, Graduate Fellows (GFs) partnered with a science teacher (PT) ten hours a week during the school year to serve as a scientist-in-residence, engage students in inquiry-based laboratory experiences, and mentor research projects. A multi-method design compared PT classes with and without a GF using the Student Attitude Inventory- II (SAI-II), interviews, and student artifacts. Although small positive differences were present in GF classes, repeated measures MANOVA found no significant differences between SAI-II categories. Both groups decreased in STEM career interest; however, student interviews with GF classes conveyed increased understanding of the scientific process and a desire to continue practicing science. Although GF classes actively participated in documented STEM experiences, this study supports the challenges in changing student attitude about science and increased pursuance of STEM careers.

  8. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation – a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ramar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. Methods: First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM fellows (n=6 and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM (n=8 fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Results: Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p=0.13. Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p=0.39. The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p=0.07. Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Conclusions: Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

  9. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation - a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Selim, Bernardo; Holets, Steven; Oeckler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV) management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL) is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM) fellows (n=6) and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM) (n=8) fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows) completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p=0.13). Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p=0.39). The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p=0.07). Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

  10. [Dis/arranged medical histories à la Friedrichsberg. Explorations of foreign patients by multilingual fellow patients in a German asylum about 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Stefan; Schmiedebach, Heinz-Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with two examples of a particular patient's activity at the Friedrichsberg Asylum in Hamburg in the beginning of the 20th century. Two multilingual patients assumed the function of interpreters in each case for a foreign fellow patient. They were involved to a great extent in the documentation of the medical histories. Conversations and interrogations carried out by them and recorded by their own hand are passed down in the medical files of their foreign-language fellow patients. After some preliminary remarks about the Friedrichsberg Asylum and its patients, the various activities of patients in the psychiatric institution and the importance of the patients' manner of speaking for the psychiatric diagnosis, the two cases are described in detail. The patient-interpreters were perceived as border-crossers, as "Figures of the Third".

  11. A nationwide study on the incidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Denmark, with emphasis on the risk of the fellow eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad N; Bjerrum, Søren S; Christensen, Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    that was mainly explained by an increase of cataract surgeries. Four hundred and seventy-one of 7,941 patients with primary RRD on one eye and no other previous eye disease developed an additional RRD in the fellow eye with an overall incidence of 1% per year. Cox analysis revealed male gender, surgery......PURPOSE: To estimate the risk of developing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in the fellow eye in patients with RRD in the first eye and to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: We used the Danish National Patient Registry to identify all surgeries performed for RRD in Denmark...... on the lens, and young age as significant risk factors (P surgery on the lens but decreases with age....

  12. Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.; Hughes, S.; Schulz, S.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; O'Faolain, L.; Krauss, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in slow-light photonic crystal slab waveguides, we show the importance of Bloch mode reshaping and multiple scattering. We describe a convenient and fully three-dimensional theoretical treatment of disorder-induced extrinsic scattering, including the calculation of backscatter and out-of-plane losses per unit cell, and the extrapolation of the unit-cell loss to the loss for an entire disordered waveguide. The theoretical predictions, which are also compared with recent measurements on dispersion engineered silicon waveguides, demonstrate the failure of the Beer-Lambert law due to multiple scattering. We also explain why the previously assumed group velocity scalings of disorder-induced loss break down in general.

  13. A decade of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy training: Time-based metrics and qualitative grading for fellows and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altok, Muammer; Achim, Mary F; Matin, Surena F; Pettaway, Curtis A; Chapin, Brian F; Davis, John W

    2017-09-27

    As modern urology residency and fellowship training in robot-assisted surgery evolves toward standardized curricula (didactics, dry/wet-laboratory exercises, and surgical assistance), additional tools are needed to evaluate on-console performance. At the start of our robotics program in 2006, we set-up a time- and quality-based evaluation program and aim to consolidate this data into a simple set of metrics for self-evaluation. Using our index procedure of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), we prospectively collected data on 2,215 cases over 10 years from 6 faculty surgeons and 94 trainees (43 urologic oncology fellows and 51 urology residents). The steps of the operation were divided into 11 consistent steps, and the metrics included time to completion and quality using a 6-level grading system. Time metrics were consolidated into quartiles for benchmarking. The median times for trainees to complete each step were 15% to 120% higher than those of the staff (Pstaff results. Steps performed by trainees were carefully chosen for a high success rate, and on our Likert-like scale were graded 4 to 5 in more than 95% of cases. There were no grade 0 (very poor) cases, and grades 1 (multiple technical errors) and 2 (could not be completed but without safety issues) were rare (staff. As a trainee progress through a rotation, these benchmarks can assist in prioritizing the need for more attention to a basic step vs. progression to more advanced steps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

  15. On Thursday 14 September 2006, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the trimester session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico CHIAVERI, Department HR).

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    On Thursday 14 September 2006, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the trimester session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico CHIAVERI, Department HR).

  16. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  17. CERN fellows and visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Penney, R. W.

    1963-01-01

    This article describes the Fellowship and Visitor Programme as it is at present, detailing the various headings under which the visitors come and indicating the methods by which they are chosen. The way in which their work is integrated into the general scientific activity of CERN is discussed briefly.

  18. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  19. Support for Students, Postdoctoral Fellows and Trainees to Attend Radiochemistry-­Related Symposia at Pacifichem 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Daniel Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2016-02-06

    This project was undertaken to meet the growing need for training personnel who will be involved in professional careers requiring knowledge of radiochemistry, such as those working in radionuclide production, and in biological, industrial, medical and environmental fields that use radionuclides in their work. The goal of the project was to provide financial assistance to students and trainees from academic and government institutions (US preferred) to attend selected radiochemistry-­related symposia at the Pacifichem 2015 meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii in December 2015. The funding, meant to provide a portion of an awardee’s travel cost, was specifically directed at attendance to the following symposia: #363, Isotope production-­ Providing Important Materials for Research and Applications; #215, Chemistry of Molecular Imaging, and #11, Chemistry for Development of Theranostic Radiopharmaceuticals. Those symposia were held December 16th (am & pm: #11, #363), December 17th (am: #11, #363; pm: #275) and December 18th (am & pm: #275). Pacifichem meetings are held every 5 years in Honolulu, Hawaii. The meetings are joint sponsored by a number of Chemistry Societies from Pacific Rim countries. The meetings are composed of a large number of symposia (>300) on a wide variety of topics, which make them similar to small meetings within the larger overall meeting. Therefore, attendance at the three symposia within Pacifichem 2015 was similar to attending a meeting focused entirely on radiochemistry-­related topics. To obtain the financial assistance, the student/trainee: (a) had to be an undergraduate student, graduate student or Postdoctoral Fellow in a physical science department or National Laboratory; (b) had to submit a letter from their supervisor indicating that he/she will be enrolled as a student/trainee at the time of the meeting, and were committed to attending the meeting; and (c) had to submit a resume or curriculum vitae along with a brief statement of

  20. Hedberg Research Conference on Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates: Request for Travel Support for Post-Doctoral Fellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    2013-04-28

    , geomechanics, numerical modeling, physical experiments, sedimentology, well-testing, statistics, mathematics, visualization, etc.) who encompass experience as well as the latest advances in these multi-faceted fields. One of the goals was to include early career scientists and engineers (post-doctoral fellows, assistant professors, etc.). With this grant 10 early career scientists and engineers were supported to attend the conference. This reports contains a brief overview of the conference and the list of support participants supported by this grant. Full details of the outcomes of the conference are given in the publication found in the Attachment section of this report.

  1. The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhary, Bishoy M; Kam, Lily M; Kaufman, Brian S; Felner, Kevin J

    2017-08-01

    Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior. Randomized controlled trial. Academic medical center. Pulmonary/critical care fellows. Participants had a preintervention simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergency (Sim1-recirculation) then randomized into simulation and traditional groups. Each group participated in three teaching scenarios, via high-fidelity simulation or via water-drills. After 6 weeks and after 1 year, participants returned for two simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies (Sim2-pump failure and Sim3-access insufficiency). Sim2 was a case encountered during teaching, whereas Sim3 was novel. A critical action, necessary for resolution of each scenario, was preidentified for timing. Primary outcome was time required to perform critical actions. Twenty-one fellows participated in the study (simulation, 10; traditional, 11). Groups had similar scenario scores (p = 0.4) and times to critical action (p = 0.8) on Sim1. At 6 weeks, both groups had similar scenario scores on Sim2 (p = 0.5), but the simulation group scored higher on Sim3 (p = 0.03). Times to critical actions were shorter in the simulation group during Sim2 (127 vs 174 s, p = 0.004) and Sim3 (159 vs 300 s; p = 0.04). These findings persisted at 1 year. In novice critical care fellows, simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training is superior to traditional training. Benefits transfer to novel scenarios and are maintained over the long term. Further studies evaluating the utility of simulation in other learner groups and for maintenance of proficiency are required.

  2. Design and validation of a method to determine the position of the fovea by using the nerve-head to fovea distance of the fellow eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs A J van de Put

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. METHODS: Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183 who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1(st 2005 until January 1(st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3 were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes. The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. RESULTS: The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement -0.147-0.163 and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement -0.137-0.149. Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006 and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003 and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001 and rim of nerve head (P<0.001 on NFD. CONCLUSIONS: The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD.

  3. Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

  4. Annual Report on the Activities and Publications of the DHS-DNDO-NTNFC Sponsored Post-doctoral Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Jung Ho [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Actinide Analytical Chemistry Group; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Actinide Analytical Chemistry Group

    2015-04-10

    This report is a summary of the projects Jung Rim is working on as a DHS postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These research projects are designed to explore different radioanalytical methods to support nuclear forensics applications. The current projects discussed here include development of alpha spectroscopy method for 240/239Pu Isotopic ratio measurement, non-destructive uranium assay method using gamma spectroscopy, and 236U non-destructive uranium analysis using FRAM code. This report documents the work that has been performed since the start of the postdoctoral appointment.

  5. 高功率叠阵二极管激光器光束整形%Beam reshape of high power laser diode stack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武德勇; 吕文强; 魏彬; 高松信

    2014-01-01

    Based on the ray tracing method the laser intensity distribution of single DL bar collimated with micro spherical cylindrical lens was analyzed in detail.We found that the intensity distribution of output laser have a better flat shape when the di-vergence angle is about 5°.A beam reshape system was designed for a 25-bar DL stack.The system includes microlens of fast ax-is collimating,coupling lens of fast axis and coupling lens of slow axis.The laser medium to be pumped was designed at the focus plane of fast axis coupling lens and close to the imaging plane of slow axis coupling lens.A 7 mm×8 mm pump beam was ob-tained with intensity uniformity of 90%.The coupling efficiency of the beam reshaping system reached 85%.%采用光线追迹法详细分析线阵二极管激光器经微球面柱透镜快轴准直后的光强变化情况,利用快轴准直微球面柱透镜的球差可调整输出激光光强分布的特性,得出了快轴准直输出发散角约5°时光强分布具有较好的平顶形式。根据叠阵二极管激光器输出光的特点,设计了由25个二极管激光器组成的叠阵二极管激光器的光束整形输出系统,该系统由快轴准直微透镜、快轴耦合透镜和慢轴耦合透镜组成,把需要泵浦的激光介质薄片设计在快轴耦合透镜的焦点上,并且在慢轴耦合透镜的成像面附近,得到了7 mm×8 mm 的泵浦光斑,光强不均匀性约10%,输出效率达到85%。

  6. Getting Started in Academic Careers: On the Cutting Edge Resources for Graduate Students, Postdoctoral Fellows, and Early Career Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, R.; Ormand, C.; Manduca, C. A.; Wright-Dunbar, R.; Allen-King, R.

    2007-12-01

    The professional development program,'On the Cutting Edge', offers on-line resources and annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Pre- workshop surveys reveal that early career faculty, post-docs, and graduate students have many questions about teaching (e.g., what are effective teaching strategies, how to design a course, how to prepare a syllabus, how to teach large courses), research (e.g., initiate and fund future research, set up and manage a lab, obtain equipment), and career management (e.g., understand tenure requirements, balance all it all). The graduate students and post-docs also have questions about jobs and the job search process. Their questions show a lack of familiarity with the nature of academic positions at different kinds of educational institutions (two-year colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, and research universities). In particular, they are uncertain about what educational setting will best fit their values and career goals and how teaching loads and research expectations vary by institution. Common questions related to the job search process include where to find job listings (the most common question in recent years), when to start the job search process, how to stand out as an applicant, and how to prepare for interviews. Both groups have questions about how to develop new skills: how to develop, plan and prepare a new course (without it taking all of their time), how to expand beyond their PhD (or postdoc) research projects, how to develop a research plan, and where to apply for funding. These are important topics for advisors to discuss with all of their students and postdocs who are planning on careers in academia. On the Cutting Edge offers workshops and web resources to help current and future faculty navigate these critical stages of their careers. The four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your

  7. 基于雷达料位仪信号处理的整形放大电路设计%Design of the reshaping and amplifier circuit based on the signal processing circuit of the radar material level instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王必安; 程焱辉; 张立

    2012-01-01

    重点描述了雷达料位仪中信号处理电路部分的整形放大电路的基本原理与设计方法.首先信号处理方法的优劣对雷达料位仪的测距精度指标有着很重要的作用,因此对雷达料位仪的信号处理方法的研究十分重要,然而整形放大电路在整个信号处理部分有着至关重要的作用.采用2个LM324N运放组合设计出整形放大电路.经使用表明,该电路性能稳定,精度高.%This paper mainly describes the basic principle and design method of the reshaping and amplifier circuit of the signal processing circuit of the radar material level instrument. The means of signal processing has a big influence on range precision, so it is important to study the means of signal processing, however reshaping and amplifier circuit have a vital role of the entire signal processing parts. This paper is mainly about the design of the reshaping and amplifier circuit based on two LM324N opamp. And the practical application indicated that the method performance is stable and precision.

  8. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  9. Influence Factors of Reshaping Police Image Based on the SWOT Analysis%基于SWOT分析的警察形象重塑影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹; 赵雪莲

    2016-01-01

    警察形象是社会印象的一个分支,是公众对警察物质、警察精神、警察行为和警察制度的总体看法。通过SWOT方法对重塑警察形象的内在优劣势和外在机会与威胁进行分析,对采取针对性措施推进警察形象建设,保障公安机关融入和谐社会建设具有十分重要的意义。%The image of the police, a branch of the social impression, represents the public perception towards the police materials, spirit, behavior and the system. We can analyze,with the SWOT method, the internal advan-tages and disadvantages and the external opportunities and threats during the process of reshaping the police image in order to promote the image construction and make the public security organs a part of the establishment of a har-monious society.

  10. Preliminary Investigations on Therapy Thresholds for Laser Dosimetry, Cryogen Spray Cooling Duration, and Treatment Cycles for Laser Cartilage Reshaping in the New Zealand White Rabbit Auricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebicki, Cara A.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ=1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using total energy density of 14 J/cm2. The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 J/cm2 or 14 J/cm2 per spot) along 3 rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (Grades 1 & 2) and unacceptable (Grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities. PMID:24202858

  11. Preliminary investigations on therapy thresholds for laser dosimetry, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles for laser cartilage reshaping in the New Zealand white rabbit auricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebicki, Cara A; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ = 1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using a total energy density of 14 J/cm(2). The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA, USA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 or 14 J/cm(2) per spot) along three rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (grades 1 and 2) and unacceptable (grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified, and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full-thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities.

  12. Interpretation of head CT scans in the emergency department by fellows versus general staff non-neuroradiologists: a closer look at the effectiveness of a quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Alexander H; Licurse, Adam; Catanzano, Tara M

    2007-10-01

    Prior studies have evaluated discordance rates among radiology residents in interpretation of head computed tomograms (CTs). To our knowledge, there has been no study to compare performance among first-year fellows and more experienced general staff radiologists. This study will compare performances of these groups and evaluate the effect of a redundant system as part of a quality control program. Retrospective review of 3,886 consecutive head CTs in the Emergency Department from 7/01/04 to 6/30/2005 was performed. Fellows interpreted 2,150 and general staff radiologists 1,736 cases. Staff radiologist mean experience was 4 years (2-10 years). All primary interpretations were over-read by staff neuroradiologists (>10 years experience) as quality control. Discrepancies were divided into "major discordance" and "minor discordance." Major discordance is defined as a misread occurred that potentially delayed clinical management and thus may have incurred in mortality or disability. Minor discordance is defined as if there was no change in clinical management or impact on the patient's outcome. The patient electronic medical records were obtained and retrospectively reviewed to identify if there was an acute change in clinical management. Overall discordance rate of both groups was 2.7% (103/3,886), 0.3% major false negative (10/3,886), 1.7% minor false negative (65/3,886), 0.4% false positive (15/3,886). Fellows overall discordance rate was 2.6% (55/2,150) with major false negatives 4/2,150 (0.2%) and 2.8% (48/1,736) for general staff radiologists with 6/1736 (0.3%) major false negatives, p values 0.69 and 0.14, respectively. Three out of ten major false negatives were confirmed with the quality assurance interpretation on follow-up studies; four cases were in agreement with initial interpretation. Performance among first-year fellows and general staff radiologists in interpretation of head CTs was highly accurate (97.3%) without statistically significant difference

  13. Annual Report on the Activities and Publications of the DHS-DNDO-NTNFC-Sponsored Post-doctoral Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Magen E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-24

    This report is a summary update on the projects Magen Coleman is working on as a postdoctoral fellow funded by DHS. These research projects are designed to explore different radioanalytical facets of nuclear forensics, including destructive and non-destructive analysis, chronometry measurements and modeling, spectral analysis, and actinide separations. Method development and instrumental analysis are integral parts of these projects, along with strong radiochemical knowledge. The current projects discussed here include method development for {sup 232}U analysis, the assembly of a gamma mapping system, the testing of neutron bubble detectors for neutron spectrometry, and continued work on the chronometry of plutonium and uranium materials. This report documents the work that has been performed since April 2011.

  14. Global Application of the Assessment of Communication Skills of Paediatric Endocrinology Fellows in the Management of Differences in Sex Development Using the ESPE E-Learning.Org Portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric...... communication were not mentioned; 15% (case 1) and 17% (case 2) of the replies were considered poor/insufficient. There was also marked variation between 17 senior experts in the application of the guidelines to assess communication skills. The guidelines were then adjusted to a 3-level assessment with empathy...... as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD...

  15. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: diagnosis and management; a survey of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Chris; Mahomed, Kassam

    2014-06-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is an uncommon obstetric condition characterised by intense maternal pruritis and biochemical abnormality. There is a degree of contention regarding the diagnosis and management of ICP, and currently, there are no nationally accepted guidelines. To conduct a survey of Fellows and Members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) regarding their diagnosis and management ICP. An online survey of currently practising RANZCOG Fellows and Members, utilising Survey Monkey. Thirty percent of those sent the survey responded, comprising approximately 40% of practising obstetricians. Fasting bile acid and serum transaminase elevation in association with the characteristic itch define the disease process for the majority of respondents and also inform management decisions. There was no critical level of bile acid elevation that mandated treatment for the majority of respondents. Nearly 90% of respondents induce women with ICP at 37-38 completed weeks of pregnancy, due to concerns regarding possible fetal demise. About one-third of respondents refer to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Green-top Guideline to advise their decision-making process, and a similar proportion use local or hospital-based guidelines. Elevated fasting bile acids and abnormal liver function tests define the diagnosis and inform management of ICP by Australian obstetricians. Routine induction of labour for patients with ICP at 37-38 completed weeks of pregnancy is widely practised in Australia. An evidence-based guideline would assist clinicians who manage such cases in Australia. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. New Research on Securing Educational Equity & Excellence for English Language Learners in Texas Secondary Schools. IDRA José A. Cárdenas School Finance Fellows Program 2015 Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    English language learners make up the fastest growing segment of the student population, but they are one of the lowest academically performing groups of students, and the achievement gap widens as students progress through school. Dr. Oscar Jimenez-Castellanos, IDRA's inaugural José A. Cárdenas School Finance Fellow, presented his research…

  17. Assessment Model on Low-Carbon Benefits of Power Load Wave Reshape%基于电力负荷整形的低碳效益测算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡涛; 宋彬彬; 魏哲

    2012-01-01

    火电机组的负荷情况直接影响发电煤耗和排放,电网企业可以通过优化整个电网的电力负荷,减小负荷峰谷差,进而减小火电机组的发电煤耗,实现减排.从电动汽车及储能技术发展、用户互动降峰和用户互动节能3个角度阐述了电力负荷整形的能力大小,并建立了负荷整形能力大小的定量测算模型,在此基础之上,研究提出 了基于电力负荷整形的低碳效益测算模型.最后,结合相关预测数据和建立的低碳效益测算模型,预测了2011-2020年国家电网公司经营区域内电力负荷整形带来的低碳效益.%The thermal power generator's coal consumption and emission is directly influenced by power load, and can be lowered by reshaping the electric load wave, and as a result, carbon emission reduction can be realized. The power grid's capacity for reshaping the electric power waves is discussed in the paper from the perspective of the effects of electric mobile, the development of energy storage technique, power peak reduction and energy conservation by cooperation with users. Based on this, the assessment model on low-carbon effects of electric load wave's reshape is proposed. The amounts of carbon emission reduction from 2011 to 2020 are calculated with this model.

  18. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  19. Can topology reshape segregation patterns?

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Yerali; Carletti, Timoteo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a metapopulation version of the Schelling model of segregation over several complex networks and lattice. We show that the segregation process is topology independent and hence it is intrinsic to the individual tolerance. The role of the topology is to fix the places where the segregation patterns emerge. In addition we address the question of the time evolution of the segregation clusters, resulting from different dynamical regimes of a coarsening process, as a function of the tolerance parameter. We show that the underlying topology may alter the early stage of the coarsening process, once large values of the tolerance are used, while for lower ones a different mechanism is at work and it results to be topology independent.

  20. Reshaping the Image of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes changes in correcting the distorted image that many students have of science. Teachers should communicate some of the excitement, beauty, and uncertainty of the subject. Identified three styles of teaching changes: remove harshness and sterility, emphasize verb sense (dynamics) of science, and reduce quantity of material presented to…

  1. Launching an Academic Career: On the Cutting Edge Resources for Geoscience Graduate Students, Post-doctoral Fellows, and Early Career Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and

  2. Corneal Backscatter Analysis by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy: Fellow Eye Comparison of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Agca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and compare corneal backscatter from anterior stroma between small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK. Methods. A cohort of 60 eyes of 30 patients was randomized to receive SMILE in one eye and femto-LASIK in the fellow eye. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The main outcome measurements were maximum backscattered intensity and the depth from which it was measured, the backscattered light intensity 30 μm below Bowman’s membrane at the flap interface and 150 μm below the superficial epithelium, and the number of refractive particles at the flap interface. Results. The mean backscattered light intensity (LI at all measured depths and the maximum backscattered LI were higher in the SMILE group than the femto-LASIK group at all postoperative visits. LI differences at 1 week and 1- and 3-month visits were statistically significant (P<0,05. LI differences at 6 months were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the number of refractive particles at the flap interface between the groups at any visit. Conclusions. SMILE results in increased backscattered LI in the anterior stroma when compared with femto-LASIK were evaluated.

  3. Reshape the Boundary:Comprehensive Planning Reform and Local Practices%重塑边界:总体规划改革与地方实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德高; 葛春晖

    2014-01-01

    At the present stage, the practice of comprehensive planning is facing with multiple predicaments, including overloaded planning contents, time-consuming process and inadaptability for the actual administrative requirements. Thus, some scholars proposed that the core of current reform is to reduce the burden on the comprehensive planning process. Based on several case studies, the issue of indistinct boundaries is presented in this paper, which is defined as the central problem in current planning process, including the boundary of administrative authority between central and local governments, the effecting range between government and market, the scope for population predications, the differed definitions of boundaries for various city dimensions, the boundary of administration powers between multiple planning departments, as well as the boundary between different planning contents for metropolitan city and small towns. In regard to these issues, local governments generally propose other substitutional plans consisting of strategic plan, metropolitan plan, county general plan and other combined plans to replace the comprehensive plan, which could be considered as the innovation for local comprehensive planning practices. In combination with these reforming practices, the prospect for the future trend of planning reforms is to reshape the boundaries, including the decentralization of administrative powers for both central and local governments, the clarification of boundaries between inflexible government requirements and flexible market demands, the ambiguity of population scope, the amplification of planning dimensions for central city and overall planning scope, the consolidation of various planning departments, the differentiation of planning contents between cities with diverse spatial dimensions.%现阶段总体规划实践面临众多困境,包括编制内容过多、编制时间过长、不适应实际管理需求等,大部分学者提出“减负”

  4. Reshaping technology research of landscape type Taxus chinensis var. mairei%观赏型南方红豆杉重塑技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧建德; 张卫明; 周东雄; 潘军; 王金盾

    2012-01-01

      The reshaping trial of Landscape type Taxus chinensis var. mairei was conducted in Fujian Mingxi. The results show that the stem cutting-off can promote ground diameter growth of Taxus chinensis,inhibit plant height and high growth. The shorter length of remain stem, the smaller the plant height and high growth. The stem cutting-off can not affect the plant canopy, but shrink shear strength can significantly inhibit crown growth. The stem cutting-off can promote latent buds germination of Taxus chinensis, and longer remained stem got more buds. The stem cutting-off can promote the new branches germination; the shorter remained stem and high strength shrink shear could increase the number of new branches germination. The stem cutting-off had no significant effect on upright, flat new branches differentiation. However, shorter length of remain stem and high shear strength can significantly increase the proportion of upright new branches, reduce the proportion of the flat type of new branches. The stem cutting-off or not, the remaining stem height and shrink shear strength have no significant effect on leaf color. The stem cutting-off can increase the leaves and branches. Shorter remaining stem and high strength shear can further promote the dense of leaves and branches.%  在福建省明溪县进行观赏型南方红豆杉重塑技术试验。结果表明:截干能够促进南方红豆杉地径生长,能够抑制植株高度及高生长,留干长度越短、缩剪程度越重其植株高度及高生长越小。截干不能影响植株冠幅,但缩剪强度能够显著抑制冠幅生长。截干可以促进南方红豆杉干上潜伏芽的萌发,且留干较长的萌蘖数量较多。截干能够促进新枝萌发,且留干较短且强度缩剪对新枝萌发数量有促进作用。截干对直立型、平展型新枝分化无明显影响,但留干长度较短且强度缩剪可以显著增加直立型新枝比例,减少平展型新枝比例

  5. Building an eScience Thesaurus for Librarians: A Collaboration Between the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, New England Region and an Associate Fellow at the National Library of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Read; Andrew T. Creamer; Donna Kafel; Robert J. Vander Hart; Martin, Elaine R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In response to the growing interest and adoption of eScience roles by librarians, those from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, New England Region (NN/LM NER) and an Associate Fellow from the National Library of Medicine collaborated to build an eScience Thesaurus. The Thesaurus will introduce librarians to terminology and concepts in eScience, point to relevant literature and resources on data and digital research topics, and provide links to interviews with librarians...

  6. Competency-based goals, objectives, and linked evaluations for rheumatology training programs: a standardized template of learning activities from the Carolinas Fellows Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G; Bolster, Marcy B; Jonas, Beth L; O'Rourke, Kenneth S

    2013-06-01

    American Council on Graduate Medical Education program requirements mandate that rheumatology training programs have written goals, objectives, and performance evaluations for each learning activity. Since learning activities are similar across rheumatology programs, we aimed to create competency-based goals and objectives (CBGO) and evaluations that would be generalizable nationally. Through an established collaboration of the 4 training programs' directors in North Carolina and South Carolina, we collaboratively composed CBGO and evaluations for each learning activity for rheumatology training programs. CBGO and linked evaluations were written using appropriate verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy. Draft documents were peer reviewed by faculty at the 4 institutions and by members of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Clinician Scholar Educator Group. We completed templates of CBGO for core and elective rotations and conferences. Templates detail progressive fellow performance improvement appropriate to educational level. Specific CBGO are mirrored in learning activity evaluations. Templates are easily modified to fit individual program attributes, have been successfully implemented by our 4 programs, and have proven their value in 4 residency review committee reviews. We propose adoption of these template CBGO by the ACR, with access available to all rheumatology training programs. Evaluation forms that exactly reflect stated objectives ensure that trainees are assessed using standardized measures and that trainees are aware of the learning expectations. The objectives mirrored in the evaluations closely align with the proposed milestones for internal medicine training, and will therefore be a useful starting point for creating these milestones in rheumatology. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Examination of Capital Murder Jurors' Deliberations: Methods and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Keith; Coleman, Susan; Byrd, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    The study of capital juries remains a subject of critical interest for the public and for legislative and judicial policy makers as well as legal scholars and social scientists. Cowan, Thompson, and Ellsworth established one of the standard methodologies for examination of this topic in their 1984 seminal study by observing the subjects' debate…

  8. Wilderness Fellowship Program 2012 Fellows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources and Conservation Planning Division of the National Wildlife Refuge System established the Wilderness Fellowship Program in 2011. The program...

  9. Wilderness Fellowship Program 2011 Fellows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources and Conservation Planning Division of the National Wildlife Refuge System, in cooperation with 19 refuges across 6 regions, has established a...

  10. The impact of a comprehensive airway management training program for pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows. A three-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Jarrod M; Malo, Joshua; Sakles, John C; Hypes, Cameron D; Natt, Bhupinder; Snyder, Linda; Knepler, James; Bloom, John W; Joshi, Raj; Knox, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Airway management in the intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging, as many patients have limited physiologic reserve and are at risk for clinical deterioration if the airway is not quickly secured. In academic medical centers, ICU intubations are often performed by trainees, making airway management education paramount for pulmonary and critical care trainees. To improve airway management education for our trainees, we developed a comprehensive training program including an 11-month simulation-based curriculum. The curriculum emphasizes recognition of and preparation for potentially difficult intubations and procedural skills to maximize patient safety and increase the likelihood of first-attempt success. Training is provided in small group sessions twice monthly using a high-fidelity simulation program under the guidance of a core group of two to three advanced providers. The curriculum is designed with progressively more difficult scenarios requiring critical planning and execution of airway management by the trainees. Trainees consider patient position, preoxygenation, optimization of hemodynamics, choice of induction agents, selection of appropriate devices for the scenario, anticipation of difficulties, back-up plans, and immediate postintubation management. Clinical performance is monitored through a continuous quality improvement program. Sixteen fellows have completed the program since July 1, 2013. In the 18 months since the start of the curriculum (July 1, 2013-December 31, 2014), first-attempt success has improved from 74% (358/487) to 82% (305/374) compared with the 18 months before implementation (P = 0.006). During that time there were no serious complications related to airway management. Desaturation rates decreased from 26 to 17% (P = 0.002). Other complication rates are low, including aspiration (2.1%), esophageal intubation (2.7%), dental trauma (0.8%), and hypotension (8.3%). First-attempt success in a 6-month period after implementation (July 1

  11. A randomized, fellow eye, comparison of keratometry, aberrometry, tear film, axial length and the anterior chamber depth after eye rubbing in non-keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenkoff, Jordan V; Hawkes, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Gabriela; Horney, Deborah; Nanavaty, Mayank A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of eye rubbing on keratometry (K), aberrometry, tear film break-up-time (TFBUT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Volunteers without any corneal pathology or dry eyes were randomised to rubbing in one eye and the fellow-eye was control. Eye rubbing was performed for 2 min. Primary outcomes studied were anterior and posterior K changes. Secondary outcomes were changes in TFBUT, axial length (AL) & ACD, K changes in various zones, asphericity and aberrometry. Pre and post rubbing K, aberrometry, ACD and TFBUT were assessed in a predetermined sequence. The relationship of the above parameters to axial length (AL) was also assessed. Astigmatism was analysed using vector analysis. Pre versus post rubbing, anterior flatter K further flattened (42.51 ± 1.52 D vs. 42.36 ± 1.53 D, p = 0.003) and the changes to J0 vector in central cornea (-0.16 ± 0.26 D vs. -0.27 ± 0.33 D, p = 0.038) suggested change to against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. There was significant change in Z2(+2) polynomial following rubbing. We found a positive correlation between axial length and change in posterior K (r = 0.335, p = 0.020). The TFBUT reduced following eye rubbing (15.3 s vs. 13.9 s, p = 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between AL and increase in ACD post rubbing (r = 0.300, p = 0.038). There was a positive correlation between ACD and change in mean posterior K (r = 0.305, p = 0.035). In healthy eyes, following eye rubbing, there is a significant change in TFBUT and central anterior K changes towards ATR astigmatism. Longer eyes had more changes in posterior K and ACD. Whereas, eyes with deeper ACD showed more steepness of posterior K. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02131740.

  12. 地域符号的文化解读与风貌重塑--重庆市秀山县西门桥的改造%Cultural Interpretation and Reshaping of Regional Symbol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑华

    2015-01-01

    The renovation of old urban districts is now faced with the problems of material and cultural decline. Based on the renovation of Ximen bridge in Xiushan and combined with the perspective of regional culture,like historical origin, ethnic customs and natural environment, regional symbols and styles are reshaped to update and activate urban districts. The guiding strategies of regional culture in remodeling are elaborated with pains, and display architectures from regional culture.%当前老城区更新面临物质与文化双重衰落的问题。该文以重庆市秀山县西门桥的改造为例,通过从历史渊源、民族民俗、自然环境等地域文化性角度着手,构建地域符号与风貌重塑,进行城市地段的更新与活化。试图阐释风貌重塑中的地域文化的指导策略,展示地域文化角度的建筑创作。

  13. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D20 Report. Consistency with other EU policies, System and Market integration. A Smart Power Market at the Centre of a Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R.; Grau, T. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Hobbs, B.; Newbery, D. [Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Borggrefe, F. [University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Barquin, J.; Echavarren, F. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Bialek, J.; Dent, C. [Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Con Hirschhausen, C. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kunz, F.; Weigt, H. [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Nabe, C.; Papaefthymiou, G. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Weber, C. [Duisberg-Essen University, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. In the EU, at least 200 gigawatts (GWs) of new and additional renewable electricity sources may be needed by 2020. The aim of this report is to analyse whether the current electricity market and system design is consistent with such an ambitious target. Using an international comparison, we identify opportunities to improve the power market design currently in place across EU countries so as to support the large scale integration of renewable energy sources.

  14. Building an eScience Thesaurus for Librarians: A Collaboration Between the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, New England Region and an Associate Fellow at the National Library of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Read

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In response to the growing interest and adoption of eScience roles by librarians, those from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, New England Region (NN/LM NER and an Associate Fellow from the National Library of Medicine collaborated to build an eScience Thesaurus. The Thesaurus will introduce librarians to terminology and concepts in eScience, point to relevant literature and resources on data and digital research topics, and provide links to interviews with librarians and experts working in eScience-related roles. The eScience Thesaurus is a starting place for librarians to find the vocabulary to research the background, resources, and tools necessary for developing their capacity to provide eScience-related services.Methods: The Associate Fellow completed a review of eScience-related literature to identify the seminal publications for the originations of these terms and concepts as they apply to libraries. Next, the Associate Fellow worked with the NN/LM NER to compile an environmental scan of resources that would be useful and applicable for librarians, and created a scope document and record structure. The team interviewed prominent librarians working in eScience roles and experts that have created digital tools and services used by the library community. Finally, the team sent the Thesaurus records out to five members of the advisory and editorial review boards from the eScience Portal for New England Librarians for evaluation.Results: The eScience Thesaurus is now hosted on the eScience Portal for New England Librarians’ website. It provides a comprehensive list of more than 50 different terminologies and concepts, with links to seminal and relevant literature, resources, grants, and interviews on a variety of eScience-related topics.Conclusion: The eScience Thesaurus is an evolving resource; as the field expands and more eScience-related terms are adopted by the library and information science community, the

  15. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  16. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave ® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Betts, Brent S; Churgin, Daniel S; Hsu, Maylon; Neuffer, Marcus; Sikder, Shameema; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using wavefront (WF) guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms. In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients), with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS) value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing. Mean values for UDVA (logMAR) were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909). UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000). In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012), coma increased 11% (P = 0.065), and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214), while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490). In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126), coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144), spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713) and trefoil decreased 19% (P = 0.660). One patient lost one line of CDVA secondary to residual irregular astigmatism. Both the WaveLight Allegretto and the VISX CustomVue platforms had equal visual and safety outcomes. Most wavefront optimized HOA values trended upward, with a statistically significant increase in total HOA RMS. Eyes treated with the WF guided platform showed a decreasing trend in HOA values.

  17. 健康信念模式在肝移植术后患者随访教育中的应用%Study about health belief model in fellow up post liver transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 李冬梅; 林红兰; 秦安华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the importance of health belief model in the fellow-up course for patients after liver transplantation.Methods 374 patients were included. Questionnaire was used to discuss how to establish health belief model. All the patients were divided into experiment group (n=190) and control group (n=184) randomly. Experiment group adopted health belief model to follow up, while control group adopted general model. Contrast the occurring ratio of abnormal liver function, infection and recurring of original diseases between the 2 groups.Results The patient focus on the significance of fellow up, psychology leading, medicine and other 7 aspects. The patients also interested in fellow up column, transplantation group, story and news in media, strengthen the function of patients. Education grade and age had no effect on the questionnaire. Health belief model could be established through above aspects, following up in Health belief model the occurring ratio of abnormal liver function, infection and recurring of original diseases for experiment group was 17%, 3.1%, 2.7%, and for control group it was 21%, 10.2%, 9.8% respectively. All the differences were significant(χ2=3.578,2.661,2.004;P<0.05).Conclusions Using health belief model to intervene the course of follow-up could reduce the occurring ratio of harmful events significantly.%目的 探讨健康信念模式在肝移植术后患者随访中的应用效果.方法 将肝移植术后随访患者随机分为实验组190例和对照组184例,实验组采取健康信念模式干预随访过程,对照组采取常规随访,对两组患者肝功能异常、感染等不良事件的发生率进行统计学分析.结果 肝移植术后患者随访过程所关注的问题集中在随访的意义、心理疏导、合理用药等7个方面;术后患者更希望通过设置随访专栏、成立移植之家、媒体播放随访故事与新闻等、强化随访角色功能等途径参与随访并进行互动.实验组

  18. The Lack and Reshape of the Government' s Credibility in the Public Crisis Management%公共危机治理中政府公信力的缺失与重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静娴

    2011-01-01

    政府公信力在公共危机治理中具有不可忽视的价值和意义:有利于保持社会稳定;有利于维护和改善政府形象;有利于民众认同政府的危机治理政策;有利于民众参与危机治理。公共危机治理中政府公信力缺失的原因是危机意识淡薄;危机处理方式失当;危机处理机构不健全;漠视民众的生命安全。在公共危机治理中重塑政府公信力应从建立健全危机预警机制、积极开展危机公关、完善行政问责制、构建政府与媒体间的良性互动关系等方面入手。%The government' s credibility has the non - ignored value and meaning in the public crisis management; it is in favor of : maintaining social stability, maintaining and improving the government' s image, the people' s approving the government' s policy for managing crisis and the people' s joining crisis management. The reason why the government' s credibility is lacked in the public crisis management lies in: the crisis consciousness is weak; the crisis management measure is improper; the crisis management structure isn' t sound; the life safety of the masses is ignored.. In the course of crisis management, for reshaping the government' s credibility, it is necessary to do by starting from setting up and perfecting crisis early warning mechanism, actively developing crisis public relations, perfecting administration accountability system and ,setting up the good interaction relation between the government and the media.

  19. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight Allegretto Wave Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Churgin, Daniel S; Betts, Brent S; Hsu, Maylon; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight(®) Allegretto platforms. In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer's testing. Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) were -0.03 ± 0.07 and -0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121). Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296). While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront-optimized group (P = 0.091, P = 0.115, P = 0.459, respectively), only spherical aberration increased significantly (P = 0.014). Similar increases were found in wavefront- guided root mean square of total higher-order aberration (P = 0.113), coma (P = 0.403), trefoil (P = 0.603), and spherical aberration (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in spherical aberration change when comparing the two platforms. The wavefront-guided group showed an increase in contrast sensitivity at 12 cycles per degree (P = 0.013). Both VISX CustomVue and WaveLight Allegretto

  20. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Churgin, Daniel S; Betts, Brent S; Hsu, Maylon; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus; Church, Dane; Mifflin, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms. Methods In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing. Results Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) were −0.03 ± 0.07 and −0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121). Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296). While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront-optimized group (P = 0.091, P = 0.115, P = 0.459, respectively), only spherical aberration increased significantly (P = 0.014). Similar increases were found in wavefront- guided root mean square of total higher-order aberration (P = 0.113), coma (P = 0.403), trefoil (P = 0.603), and spherical aberration (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in spherical aberration change when comparing the two platforms. The wavefront-guided group showed an increase in contrast sensitivity at 12 cycles per degree (P = 0.013). Conclusion Both

  1. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection. PMID:21910523

  2. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protec...

  3. Reshaping Pedagogies for a Plurilingual Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The realisation of plurilingualism requires a more open and inclusive approach to language teaching and one which takes account of various factors involved in working with learners who have a background in the target language and culture. This article seeks to identify these factors within the context of a set of broader principles for second…

  4. Solar thermophotovoltaics: reshaping the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sakr, Enas; Sun, Yubo; Bermel, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in utilizing solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) to convert sunlight into electricity, given their potential to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. Encouragingly, there have also been several recent demonstrations of improved system-level efficiency as high as 6.2%. In this work, we review prior work in the field, with particular emphasis on the role of several key principles in their experimental operation, performance, and reliability. In particular, for the problem of designing selective solar absorbers, we consider the trade-off between solar absorption and thermal losses, particularly radiative and convective mechanisms. For the selective thermal emitters, we consider the tradeoff between emission at critical wavelengths and parasitic losses. Then for the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes, we consider the trade-off between increasing the potential short-circuit current, and maintaining a reasonable opencircuit voltage. This treatment parallels the historic development of the field, but also connects early insights with recent developments in adjacent fields.With these various components connecting in multiple ways, a system-level end-to-end modeling approach is necessary for a comprehensive understanding and appropriate improvement of STPV systems. This approach will ultimately allow researchers to design STPV systems capable of exceeding recently demonstrated efficiency values.

  5. TuLiP : reshaping trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook (TM), "tube" our home videos on You Tube (TM), and exchange our

  6. Extending the rails: how research reshapes clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, JuLeigh; Heimer, Carol A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to create the scientific foundation for medical practice. In this way of thinking, the effect on medical practice occurs after the research has been completed. Social studies of science have debunked the standard model of scientific research, observing that changes in practice associated with research occur not just because of the results of research but also because of the practice of research. Drawing on fieldwork in HIV clinics in the US, South Africa,Thailand, and Uganda, we argue that clinical trials shape medical practice by altering the organizations in which both medical treatment and clinical trials take place. Three general processes are central to this transformation: the modification of material environments, the reorganization of bureaucratic relations, and the prioritization of research values. These processes unfold somewhat differently in the clinics of poorer countries than in those of wealthier ones.

  7. Technology Matters - When new technology reshape innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    not to be managed in the sense that aims, instruments and resources are unclear. It is observed that new technology is adopted with a limited scope and fo-cus – often to solve a particular technical problem e.g. the quality of specifica-tion are too low. For a single reason a new technology is introduced within...... the firm, which over time becomes a source of innovation. However, through adoption of this new technology firms engage in a mu-tual learning and forming process where the firm learn by using the new technol-ogy. When learning, the firm and the new technology is mutually formed as the firm tries to adopt...... learning. As the possibilities of the new hybrid tech-nology are recognised a new strategy based on the new hybrid technology is formed trying to exploit its advantages. The paper uses a number of case studies in firms implementing product configuration systems to substantiate these claims. It has been...

  8. Reshaping transport operations to overcome new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, F.; Blachet, L. [COGEMA Logistics, (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    After more than 30 years of Spent Fuel Nuclear Fuel (SFN) and High Level Waste (HLW) casks shipments to and from the COGEMA reprocessing factories in LA HAGUE, COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated a unique outstanding performance in transportation for the benefit of its international customers and has integrated all feed-back from past successful operations. While maintaining the highest safety and security records, the last 5 years have been a major challenge to overcome the increase in transport throughputs, regulatory requirements, specific customer demands and new environmental approach (both COGEMA-La Hague and COGEMA LOGISTICS have been certified ISO14001 since 2003). Improvements in procedures, equipments, controls, inspection and organization have been undertaken. Additional important logistics means such as cranes, lifting devices, spreaders were put in operations in the dedicated workshop of our road and maritime facilities as well as in our rail terminals. Thus COGEMA LOGISTICS has developed and improved important logistics means in the Cherbourg area for the loading and unloading operations of heavy casks (i.e. whose weight is between 25 and 120 tons) among three modes of freight (road, railway or maritime transportation). In Valognes, which is currently the most important railway terminal in the world for the transfer of nuclear materials, about 1200 transfers of heavy casks were performed in 2003. New transport equipment and assets were integrated successfully to answer the new requirements for the best interest of our customers. This paper will provide information about equipments and management system developed to overcome these challenges.

  9. Digital consumers reshaping the information professions

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholas, David

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for a fresh belief system that will help information professionals survive and engage in a ubiquitous information environment, where they are no longer the dominant players, nor, indeed, the suppliers of first choice. This book intends to provide that overarching vision, built on hard evidence rather than on PowerPoint 'puff'.

  10. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  11. Shaping Polaritons to Reshape Selection Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Francisco; Buljan, Hrvoje; Soljačić, Marin; Kaminer, Ido

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of orbital angular momentum (OAM) in photonics established a new degree of freedom by which to control not only the flow of light but also its interaction with matter. Here, we show that it is possible to use OAM carrying plasmon and phonon polaritons to engineer new selection rules in electronic systems, such as atoms, molecules, and artificial atoms (e.g. quantum dots), thus introducing a new degree of freedom for controlling once-forbidden transitions. This arises by granting OAM to polaritons whose short wavelength enables access to conventionally forbidden electronic transitions. We show that these selection rules can be robust to displacements of the electronic system relative to the vortex center. We also show that the position of the absorber provides a surprisingly rich parameter for controlling which absorption processes dominate over others. The same effect can be achieved by altering the plasmonic properties of a material, for example by tuning the carrier density in graphene. Our fi...

  12. TuLiP : reshaping trust management

    OpenAIRE

    Czenko, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook (TM), "tube" our home videos on You Tube (TM), and exchange our interests and thoughts on blogs. We podcast, we are Linkedin (TM) to extend our professional network, we share files over P2P networks, and we seek advice on numerous on-line discussion groups. Although in...

  13. How networks reshape organizations--for results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, R

    1991-01-01

    Recently a new term-networks-has entered the vocabulary of corporate renewal. Yet there remains much confusion over just what networks are and how they operate. Ram Charan, a leading international consultant, has spent four years observing and participating in the creation of networks at ten companies in North America and Europe. These companies--which include Conrail, Dun & Bradstreet Europe, Du Pont, and Royal Bank of Canada-are clear about why they are creating networks, what networks are, and how they operate. A network is recognized group of managers (seldom more than 100, often fewer than 25) assembled by the CEO. Membership criteria are simple but subtle: What select group of managers, by virtue of its business skills, personal motivations and drive, and control of resources is uniquely positioned to shape and deliver on the strategy? Networks begin to matter when they change behavior-the frequency, intensity, and honesty of the dialogue among managers on priority tasks. The process of building a network starts at the top. Senior managers work as change agents to build a new "social architecture." Once the network is in place, they play three additional roles: 1. Define with clarity the business outputs they expect of the network and the time frame in which they expect it to deliver. 2. Guarantee the visibility and free flow of information to all members of the network who need it. 3. Develop new criteria for performance evaluation that emphasize horizontal collaboration and leadership.

  14. Reshaping the mind: the benefits of bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer's disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection.

  15. TuLip : reshaping trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, Marcin Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    In today’s highly distributed and heterogeneous world of the Internet, sharing resources has become an everyday activity of every Internet user. We buy and sell goods over the Internet, share our holiday pictures using facebook™, “tube” our home videos on You Tube™, and exchange our interests and th

  16. Technology Matters - When new technology reshape innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    Management of innovation is an important issue for firms and being good at this may be the deciding difference between death and survival. This paper ar-gues, based on 12 case studies, that new technology influence the innovative ca-pability of firms and disturbingly the process appears...... the firm, which over time becomes a source of innovation. However, through adoption of this new technology firms engage in a mu-tual learning and forming process where the firm learn by using the new technol-ogy. When learning, the firm and the new technology is mutually formed as the firm tries to adopt...... not to be managed in the sense that aims, instruments and resources are unclear. It is observed that new technology is adopted with a limited scope and fo-cus – often to solve a particular technical problem e.g. the quality of specifica-tion are too low. For a single reason a new technology is introduced within...

  17. Reshaping Climate Governance for Post-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Montini, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    1. The inadequacy of the present climate governance regime 2. Lessons learned from the climate change negotiations for post-2012: hopes, failures, reality 2.1 The climate change negotiations 2.2 The Copenhagen Accord (lights and shadows) 2.3 The way forward after the Copenhagen Accord 3. The search for a new climate governance regime 3.1 The need for reform of the global environmental governance 3.2 The reform of the global environmental governance: UNEO and other op...

  18. Reshaping Personnel Policies to Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppich, Julia E.; Gerstein, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The "Getting Down to Facts" (GDTF) studies released in March 2007 offered a clear diagnosis of the issues facing California's education system. Now, as California moves beyond the facts and begins the search for ways to improve the performance of California schools and students, the state faces a critical policy dilemma. On the one hand,…

  19. Reshaping Spectatorship: Immersive and Distributed Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Bartlem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although discourses of immersive aesthetics and distributed aesthetics may evoke associations with different media, creative processes, modes of audience engagement and even political ideologies, artists using these aesthetics often share similar interests in transforming and enhancing notions of the body and perception through technological intervention. This paper undertakes a comparison between immersive and distributed aesthetics in relation to Virtual Reality (VR and Networked Art (net.art, particularly networked installation art. It focuses on the ways in which both VR and networked installations immerse the viewer in states of perceptual and cognitive transition. Central to this article is the argument that VR and net.art are able to generate immersive experiences in the viewer by creating the sensation of being (tele-present in an electronically mediated environment that is illusionistic and sometimes remote from the physical body of the participant. Furthermore, the immersive and distributed aesthetics generated by specific VR and net.art projects have revolutionary consequences for traditional aesthetic theories of spectatorship and art appreciation that assert the need for critical and physical distance.

  20. Reshaping Smart Businesses with Cloud Database Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan NEDELCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the importance of Big Data and its growing influence on companies. We can also see how much are the companies willing to invest in big data and how much are they currently gaining from their big data. In this big data era, there is a fiercely competition between the companies and the technologies they use when building their strategies. There are almost no boundaries when it comes to the possibilities and facilities some databases can offer. However, the most challenging part lays in the development of efficient solutions - where and when to take the right decision, which cloud service is the most accurate being given a certain scenario, what database is suitable for the business taking in consideration the data types. These are just a few aspects which will be dealt with in the following chapters as well as exemplifications of the most accurate cloud services (e.g. NoSQL databases used by business leaders nowadays.

  1. 信息化对城市空间和传统通勤模型重塑的文献综述%Literature Review on Reshaping Traditional Commuting Model and Urban Space by Information and Communication Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔璐辰; 张纯

    2016-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, information and communication technology (ICT) has changed urban space and traditional commuting model fundamentally. This paper reviews the previous literature on the impact of ICT on the traditional commuter model and urban mobility in aspects of urban spatial pattern, urban commuting behavior and urban public transportation. Study shows that information technology and time fragmentation reshape contemporary urban space, and theory of determinism, possibilism, and mid-effect are brought out depending on the degree of inlfuence. Based on traditional commuting model, it ifnds that ICT will reduce traditional trips by providing communication support, while increase new trip demand due to the importance of face to face contact. Since the fragmentation of commuting time, the advantage of public transit reappears. By internet and mobile terminal such us smart phone or pad, people can conduct multi-purpose activities and multi-tasks on their way, and also enjoy more lfexibility of their trip arrangement. It also provides self-control on their travel decision depend on real time trafifc status. Accumulated researches show that information technology has made important changes on urban commuting behavior comparing with traditional commuting model, which provides implications for the future urban planning and urban transportation policy.%在互联网热潮中,信息化、智能化已经使城市空间发生了彻底的变化,也对传统通勤模型产生了深刻的影响。在综述前人经验和案例研究的基础上,从城市空间格局、城市通勤行为和城市公共交通等3个方面,考察了信息化技术对于传统通勤模型和城市移动性的影响。研究发现,信息技术和由此带来的时间碎片化,对于城市空间有着重要重塑作用,而关于其影响的程度目前存在着极大影响论、微弱影响论以及适度影响论等不同的观点。在传统通勤模型的基础上,信

  2. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Daniel S Churgin2, Brent S Betts3, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder4, Marcus Neuffer1, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11University of Utah, John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ; 3Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing.Results: Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR were —0.03 ± 0.07 and —0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121. Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296. While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront

  3. Protocol for a qualitative study exploring the roles of 'Diffusion Fellows' in bridging the research to practice gap in the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC-NDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Evidence produced by researchers is not comprehensibly used in practice. National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire's strategy for closing the research to practice gap relies on the use of 'Diffusion Fellows' (DFs). DFs are seconded from the local healthcare economy to act as champions for change, translating and disseminating knowledge from practice into the research studies and vice versa, taking the knowledge developed by academics back into their own practice environments. This paper outlines the rationale and design of a qualitative evaluation study of the DF role. Methods and analysis The evaluation responds to the research question: what are the barriers and facilitators to DFs acting as knowledge brokers and boundary spanners? Interviews will be carried out annually with DFs, the research team they work with and their line managers in the employing organisations. Interviews with DFs will be supplemented with a creative mapping component, offering them the opportunity to construct a 3D model to creatively illustrate some of the barriers precluding them from successfully carrying out their role. This method is popular for problem solving and is valuable for both introducing an issue that might be difficult to initially verbalise and to reflect upon experiences. Ethics and dissemination DFs have an important role within the CLAHRC and are central to our implementation and knowledge mobilisation strategies. It is important to understand as much about their activities as possible in order for the CLAHRC to support the DFs in the most appropriate way. Dissemination will occur through presentations and publications in order that learning from the use of DFs can be shared as widely as possible. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee and has all appropriate NHS governance clearances.

  4. Activities as an ONT Postdoctoral Fellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    information. Related to this last point, the DRT does not test the degree to which suprasegmental information (such as the pitch contour of the... suprasegmental information can facilitate the perception and comprehension of words in running speech. Thus although the DRT has shown itself to be a useful tool

  5. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Gail G. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Snopak, Pavel [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bao, Yu [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  6. The coach as a fellow human companion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    ) The narrative-collaborative dimension, (3) The protreptic dimension; (4) Mentalization and (5) Feedback as collaborative and outcome-oriented practice. The intention of this chapter is to show the importance of relationship with a ‘human face’ as the most important influencing factor in coaching, a factor......The relationship between coach and coaching partner is presented as a main condition for successful coaching. The role of this relationship seems to be even more important when current societal changes are taken into account, changes which are often the pivotal point for the understanding...... and necessity of coaching in our society: We live in a hypercomplex society in which both individuals and organizations struggle with increasing diversity and organizational challenges, and where it has become impossible to reach unequivocal and long-lasting solutions to these challenges. The agenda...

  7. Global Policy Fellows Program: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, the demand for higher education is increasing exponentially, pushed forward by the realities of a global economy and accompanied by pressure to open up opportunities for prospective students from all backgrounds. The importance of a knowledgeable, highly skilled population has become clear and many countries have made great…

  8. AGU Mass Media Fellow Discovers ``Wow'' Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben

    2008-04-01

    I clearly remember the first time I realized that something was amiss with my perception of science. It was the summer of 2001. I was a second-year graduate student studying hydrothermal chemistry at the University of Washington, in Seattle. At the moment of my realization, I was in New York exploring an exhibit about hydrothermal vents at the American Museum of Natural History. As I was inspecting an intricate diorama of a remotely operated vehicle diving on a vent field, my younger brother, fascinated by the setup, asked, ``How come when you talk about this stuff, it always sounds so complicated and boring?'' I didn't have a good answer.

  9. Thanks to literature and fellow scientists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal training has the disadvantage that trainees may simply accept what they are taught without questioning it, unlike the autodidact who can only learn by asking questions all the time. Sometimes, he will not get an answer and that need not be because the question is stupid, but may be because his peers are used to there being no satisfactory answer and have simply accepted the conventional mythology without further question. So it is about time to ask some assorted questions and where possible, suggest how to find an answer: 1 Why does the composition of the solvent used to extract oil from oilseeds affect the amount of oil being extracted and its phosphatide content? 2 Why does a heat treatment (Alcon, Exergy, expander increase the phosphatide content of the crude oil and decrease its non-hydratable phosphatide (NHP content? 3 Why does water degumming of crude oil remove relatively more magnesium than calcium? 4 What is the mechanism of phosphatide removal by silica hydrogel and why is it enhanced by simultaneous soap removal? 5 What is the mechanism of NHP-removal during alkali neutralisation? 6 Could it be that the Long Mix neutralisation process as used in the US leads to insufficient removal of the pro-oxidants copper and iron and that this explains why oil tends to less stable in the US than in Europe, especially when it contains linolenic acid? 7 Could different deodorisation conditions explain this geographically determined anomaly? 8 What happens during flavour reversion? 9 Why is walnut oil more stable in the nut than in the bottle? 10 How much oil is lost by saponification or hydrolysis during refining? 11 What is the mechanism of colour fixation? 12 Does the activity of interesterification catalysts depend on their counter cation? 13 What is the chemical nature of the colour formed on interesterification catalyst activation? 14 What is crystal memory? Does it exist? However, we should not forget the Dutch proverb that: “One fool can ask more questions than ten wise men can answer.” On the other hand, exposing myths is half the fun and asking the right question often provides half the answer.

  10. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A postdoctoral position is available in the lab of Dr. Steven A. Feldman, Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute for a highly-motivated individual to carry out translational research studies aimed at developing and improving novel adoptive T cell therapies for solid cancers. A major focus of the position will utilize gene editing strategies (ZFN and Crispr) to enhance T cell function and/or re-direct T cells by TCR insertion for development of novel personalized cancer therapies based on identifying and targeting immunogenic mutations expressed by a patient’s tumor. 

  11. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  12. Reshaping the Conception Frame of Scientific Discoveries: Metatheories, Theories and Experiments%重构科学发现的概念框架:元科学理论、理论与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁江洋

    2012-01-01

    论,肯定新理论。(5)在元理论概念框架下解科学变化的类型和级别。文章对某些重要案例进行了简要的历史分析,以进一步说明元理论概念框架及其编史学价值。%This paper aims at reshaping the conception frame of understanding scientific discoveries along with the direction of historical philosophy of science clarified by Thomas S. Kuhn, and the central concept of the frame is "meta-theories", which usually emerged in early stages of and on varies research fields of science or natural philosophy and might function as long-durational metaphysical doctrines hold by scientists. Meta-theories consist of researchers' ontological commits on what they explore is and related methodological beliefs or factors on how to do their research and can be discerned only by related historical studies. Meta-theories do not directly explain observational and experimental statements; however, when lacking an accepted theory or before a sophisticated one could emerge, they organize or reorganize researchers' practice of exploration into a whole system and guide them to make up new theories. Experimental claims, although they are meta-theories-laden or theories-laden when they were born and cannot be translated in the form of "word-to-word" between different discourses caused and guided by different meta-theories, have general scientific significance and can at least be understood and restated by scientists who believe in different meta-theories, because 1) scientists involved in related study are active actors who are endowed with an ability of understanding others' experimental claims, 2) different meta-theories in any special field are not totally contrary to each other and the differences between them might be put aside when needed, and more importantly, 3) all experimental claims describe the same world. Scientists design, fulfill and develop new experiments under the guide of their meta-theories and at the same time conceive new theories, and such a

  13. Music in a ‘classless society’: Activities of members and ‘fellow travelers’ of communist party of Yugoslavia on the construction of conceptual and practical basis of the new musical order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    ideological conflicts of that sort in its musical counterpart. Because of strict political control of the public sphere, activists of the “left music front” had difficulties in the implementation of their cultural programme. They focused mostly on cultural work within workers` and students` organizations and societies that gave them an opportunity to promote in the public some of the core concepts of that programme. Although the activities in the abovementioned organizations gave modest results in the process of the institutionalization of the CPY`s cultural policies, they could be seen as an important basis for the development of musical practices after the Second World War. Together with other artistic projects in the leftist part of the cultural field, the musical undertakings of the members and ‘fellow travellers’ of the CPY contributed to the pluralisation and differentiation of that field, creating an alternative understanding of the production of music as well as of cultural policies on music.

  14. A Case of Culture: Defendant Gender and Juror Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Susan; Maeder, Evelyn M

    2015-07-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of cultural evidence toward an automatism defense, and whether such evidence would be detrimental or beneficial to a male versus a female defendant. U.S. participants (N = 208), recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, read a fictional spousal homicide case in which the defendant claimed to have blacked out during the crime. We manipulated the gender of the defendant and whether a culture-specific issue was claimed to have precipitated the defendant's blackout. ANOVAs revealed that cultural evidence positively affected perceived credibility for the female defendant, whereas there were no differences for the male defendant. Results also demonstrated that when cultural evidence was presented, the female defendant was seen as less in control of her actions than was the male defendant. Furthermore, lower credibility and higher perceived defendant control predicted harsher verdict decisions. This investigation may aid scholars in discussing concerns regarding a clash between multicultural and feminist objectives in the courtroom. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. I spy with my little eye: jurors' detection of internal validity threats in expert evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Duckworth, Tejah D

    2010-12-01

    This experiment examined whether jury-eligible community members (N = 223) were able to detect internally invalid psychological science presented at trial. Participants read a simulated child sexual abuse case in which the defense expert described a study he had conducted on witness memory and suggestibility. We varied the study's internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and publication status (published, unpublished). Expert evidence quality ratings were higher for the valid versus missing control group version only. Publication increased ratings of defendant guilt when the study was missing a control group. Variations in internal validity did not influence perceptions of child victim credibility or police interview quality. Participants' limited detection of internal validity threats underscores the need to examine the effectiveness of traditional legal safeguards against junk science in court and improve the scientific reasoning ability of lay people and legal professionals.

  16. Innocent until Primed: Mock Jurors' Racially Biased Response to the Presumption of Innocence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Danielle M.; Levinson, Justin D.; Sinnett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that crime concepts can activate attentional bias to Black faces. This study investigates the possibility that some legal concepts hold similar implicit racial cues. Presumption of innocence instructions, a core legal principle specifically designed to eliminate bias, may instead serve as an implicit racial cue resulting in attentional bias. Methodology/Principal findings The experiment was conducted in a courtroom with participants seated in the jury box. Participants first watched a video of a federal judge reading jury instructions that contained presumption of innocence instructions, or matched length alternative instructions. Immediately following this video a dot-probe task was administered to assess the priming effect of the jury instructions. Presumption of innocence instructions, but not the alternative instructions, led to significantly faster response times to Black faces when compared with White faces. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the core principle designed to ensure fairness in the legal system actually primes attention for Black faces, indicating that this supposedly fundamental protection could trigger racial stereotypes. PMID:24643050

  17. "A Psychopath by Any Other Name?": Juror Perceptions of the DSM-5 "Limited Prosocial Emotions" Specifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Mowle, Elyse N; Clark, John W; Magyar, Melissa S

    2017-02-01

    DSM-5 recently added the specifier "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) to the Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnosis, yet little is known about how these traits will affect attitudes toward CD youth. Laypersons attending jury duty (N = 326) were randomly assigned to one of four case vignette conditions in which a male juvenile offender was identified as having (a) CD symptoms only, (b) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label, (c) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label and description of LPE traits, or (d) CD symptoms plus a description of LPE traits and a "psychopath" label. LPE traits led to more negative perceptions of the youth (e.g., more dangerous, evil, and psychopathic) and adding the psychopath label to the LPE specifier resulted in somewhat stronger support for punishment and mandated treatment. The LPE specifier may provide useful diagnostic information, but these findings raise serious concerns that it will stigmatize youth in the legal system.

  18. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences.

  19. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed.

  20. Innocent until primed: mock jurors' racially biased response to the presumption of innocence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that crime concepts can activate attentional bias to Black faces. This study investigates the possibility that some legal concepts hold similar implicit racial cues. Presumption of innocence instructions, a core legal principle specifically designed to eliminate bias, may instead serve as an implicit racial cue resulting in attentional bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiment was conducted in a courtroom with participants seated in the jury box. Participants first watched a video of a federal judge reading jury instructions that contained presumption of innocence instructions, or matched length alternative instructions. Immediately following this video a dot-probe task was administered to assess the priming effect of the jury instructions. Presumption of innocence instructions, but not the alternative instructions, led to significantly faster response times to Black faces when compared with White faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the core principle designed to ensure fairness in the legal system actually primes attention for Black faces, indicating that this supposedly fundamental protection could trigger racial stereotypes.

  1. When emotionality trumps reason: a study of individual processing style and juror bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Justin J; Ceci, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    "Cognitive Experiential Self Theory" (CEST) postulates that information-processing proceeds through two pathways, a rational one and an experiential one. The former is characterized by an emphasis on analysis, fact, and logical argument, whereas the latter is characterized by emotional and personal experience. We examined whether individuals influenced by the experiential system (E-processors) are more susceptible to extralegal biases (e.g. defendant attractiveness) than those influenced by the rational system (R-processors). Participants reviewed a criminal trial transcript and defendant profile and determined verdict, sentencing, and extralegal susceptibility. Although E-processors and R-processors convicted attractive defendants at similar rates, E-processors were more likely to convict less attractive defendants. Whereas R-processors did not sentence attractive and less attractive defendants differently, E-processors gave more lenient sentences to attractive defendants and harsher sentences to less attractive defendants. E-processors were also more likely to report that extralegal factors would change their verdicts. Further, the degree to which emotionality trumped rationality within an individual, as measured by a novel scoring method, linearly correlated with harsher sentences and extralegal influence. In sum, the results support an "unattractive harshness" effect during guilt determination, an attraction leniency effect during sentencing and increased susceptibility to extralegal factors within E-processors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The reshaping of the criminal justice idea in prevent wrong case ——case of Nianbin for example%防范错案中刑事司法理念的重塑——以念斌案为视角分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章松涛; 张闻捷

    2015-01-01

    错案的发生对司法公正、司法权威、人权保障具有严重的破坏,其产生的根本原因在于无罪推定、疑罪从无等刑事司法理念的缺失,本文以念斌案为视角分析,提出在深化刑事司法体制改革的背景下,重塑刑事司法理念是防治错案发生的关键举措.%The misjudged cases occurred serious damage to the judicial justice and judicial authority, guarantee of human rights, is the fundamental cause of the presumption of innocence, suspected crimes from the lack of criminal justice idea, in the perspective of read bin case analysis, this paper put forward under the background of deepening the reform of the criminal justice system, reshape the criminal judicial idea is the key to the prevention and treatment of misjudged cases occurred.

  3. 论电视媒介对现代家庭角色的重塑--以亲子真人秀《爸爸去哪儿》为例%On the Reshaping of Modern Family Roles by Television Media-Based on Where Are We Going, Dad, A Parent-Child Reality TV Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房宁

    2015-01-01

    2013年度最为火爆的亲子真人秀节目———《爸爸去哪儿》影像的受众结构、收视效果及收视后的衍生现象,阐释了电视媒介对现代家庭的性别关系的影响,以及电视媒介对家庭性别职能的再造、结构的重组所起到的至关重要的作用。在全媒体时代,呼吁在涉及和强调现代家庭中性别关系及建立和谐的家庭观念上,利用电视媒介具有非常广泛直接和极其重要的作用。%Where Are We Going, Dad, the most popular TV program in 2013 is a parent-child reality TV show .Its audience structure , viewing effect and the consequent influence have illustrated that TV media is playing a critical role in the gender relationship , the reshaping of functions and the structural reorganization in the modern family .In a mass media era , it is suggested that TV media be applied to emphasize the gender relationship and harmony of the modern family .

  4. New comparative ultrasound biomicroscopic findings between fellow eyes of acute angle closure and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle Novos achados comparativos de biomicroscopia ultra-sônica entre olhos contralaterais com fechamento angular agudo e olhos glaucomatosos com ângulo estreito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphometric features between fellow acute primary angle-closure (APAC eyes and glaucomatous or suspect eyes with narrow angle (NA. METHODS: Fellow eyes of 30 patients with unilateral APAC and 30 with NA were evaluated by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM under light and dark conditions. UBM parameters such as anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle opening distance at 250 µm/500 µm from the scleral spur (AOD250/AOD500, trabecular ciliary process distance (TCPD and iris-lens contact distance (ILCD were measured in the superior (SQ and inferior (IQ quadrants. RESULTS: Significant differences between APAC fellow and NA eyes were found in ACD, POBJETIVO: Comparar características morfométricas entre olhos contralaterais com fechamento angular primário agudo (FAPA e olhos glaucomatosos ou suspeitos com ângulo estreito (AE. MÉTODOS: Olhos contralaterais de 30 pacientes com FAPA unilateral e olhos de 30 pacientes com AE foram avaliados através da biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (BUS no claro e escuro. Parâmetros da BUS como a profundidade central de câmara anterior (PCA, distância da abertura angular a 250 µm/500 µm do esporão escleral (AOD250/AOD500, distância entre o processo ciliar e o trabeculado (TCPD e distância do contato iris-cristalino (ILCD foram medidos nos quadrantes superior (QS e inferior (QI. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas entre olhos contralaterais de FAPA e olhos com AE foram encontradas na PCA, p<0,001; AOD250 no QS e QI, p<0,001; AOD500 no QS e QI, p<0,001; TCPD no claro, p=0,010 e TCPD no escuro no QS, p=0,031; e TCPD no claro no QI, p=0,010. Diferenças significativas entre exames no claro e escuro realizados em olhos contralaterais com FAPA foram encontradas na ILCD (p=0,009 no QS e ILCD no QI (p=0,006, e em olhos com SE na ILCD no QS (p=0,047 e ILCD no QI (p<0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Olhos contralaterais de FAPA apresentam um segmento anterior mais aglomerado e uma PCA menor que olhos com AE. ILCD

  5. 急性闭角型青光眼对侧眼与可疑原发房角关闭眼的前节参数比较%Comparison of anterior segment parameters between fellow eyes of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and primary angle closure suspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭竞敏; 许小兰; 张虹; 王军明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨原发闭角型青光眼单侧急性发作( acute angle closure glaucoma,AACG)的对侧眼、可疑原发房角关闭眼(primary angle closure suspects,PACS)和正常眼的前节生物学参数差异。  方法:采用光学相干断层扫描( optical coherence tomography,OCT)和 Pentacam 三维眼前节分析诊断系统(pentacam scheimpflug system,Pentacam)完成26例26眼AACG对侧眼及与之年龄、性别匹配的28例28眼PACS和34例34眼正常眼的前节扫描。采用Pentacam获得以下参数:中央角膜厚度( CCT)、角膜容积( CV)、瞳孔直径( PD)、中央前房深度( CACD)、周边前房深度( PACD)、前房容积( CV )和房角度数( ACA )。应用图像处理软件和OCT测量虹膜厚度(IT750,IT2000),面积(IS)、体积(IV)和房角开放距离500( AOD500)进行。  结果:角膜参数(CCT,CV),PD、虹膜参数(IT750,IT2000, IS,IV)无统计学差异( P>0.05)。与 AACG 对侧眼和PACS比较,正常人CACD和PACD更深, ACV更大, ACA和AOD500更宽敞( P0.05)。以AACG对侧眼作为房角关闭好发的诊断标准,上述前房参数的受试者工作特征曲线下面积均小于0.7。  结论:AACG对侧眼和PACS的前节生物学参数无显著差异,以此作为房角关闭好发的诊断精准度较低。%AIM: To explore the differences of anterior segment parameters in the patients with fellow eyes of unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma ( AACG ) , primary angle-closure suspects ( PACS) and normal group. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with fellow eyes of AACG, 28 eyes of 28 age- and gender-matched PACS and 34 normal eyes were imaged using optical coherence tomography ( OCT) and pentacam scheimpflug system ( Pentacam ) . Anatomical parameters including central corneal thickness ( CCT ) , corneal volume ( CV ) , pupillary diameter ( PD ) , central anterior chamber depth ( CACD ) , peripheral anterior chamber depth ( PACD ) , anterior chamber volume ( ACV ) and anterior chamber angle

  6. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  7. Shaping and Reshaping:A Tentative Analysis and the Innovation of the Classic“White-haired Girl”%经典的塑造与重塑:试析歌剧《白毛女》的经典性与再创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东波

    2014-01-01

    歌剧是一种极具舞台表现力的综合艺术形式,我国的歌剧在学习国外剧种风格的基础上,具有了独特的艺术特点。1945年4月,歌剧《白毛女》在延安首演取得成功,标志着中国歌剧创作进入新的阶段。自延安首演后至今,歌剧《白毛女》不断地被重新排练,搬上舞台,在经过多次修改和几代演员无数次二度创作后,成为当之无愧的时代经典。本文围绕大量历史文献的记录,结合音乐本体的分析,重点分析其成为经典之作的原因,并探究如何在新时代对其进行传承和创新。并试图以此为借鉴,探讨经典乐曲的塑造与重塑策略,以期推动我国经典乐曲的新发展。%As a kind of comprehensive art form, opera is a very expressive force on the stage. Borrowing foreign opera styles, Chinese opera has created a unique artistic feature. In April 1945, the opera “White-haired Girl” became a great success in Yan'an, hence a new era began for Chinese opera. Since then, after revisions and recreations by generations of actors for countless times ,the opera “White-haired Girl” had been continually rehearsed on the stage and finally became a classic. Drawing on a lot of historical documents,this paper focuses on the analysis of the reasons why it became a classic and how to inherit and innovate it in the new era. It is hoped that through this study, some light can be thrown on the strategies of shaping and reshaping of the classical and that further development of Chinese classic music can be promoted.

  8. 以诗歌重塑民族心灵--1930年代吴经熊的双语写作与诗学观念%To Reshape the National Soul in Poetry:John Ching Hsiung Wu ’ s Bilingual Writing and Poetics Concept in the 1930 s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易永谊

    2015-01-01

    吴经熊在民国时期不但是著名的法学家,而且也是享有声誉的文学家。他既参与创办英文期刊,发表大量中国古典诗歌的英译作品,同时也热衷于写作汉语旧体诗。本文通过梳理英文期刊的资料,还原当时文学氛围的疏离与语言环境的分裂,考察吴经熊向英语世界译介中国古典诗歌的策略与动机;并可得出结论,他的双语实践不仅以“唐诗四季”诗学观念回应“感时忧国”的抒情传统,而且主张以诗歌重塑中国人的民族心灵,期待可以克服现代性危机,超越东西方文化的权力等级。%In the Republic of China , John Ching Hsiung Wu ( John C.H.Wu) was not only a famous ju-rist, but also a renowned writer .He took part in establishing the English periodicals and translated a large number of Chinese classical poems into English .At the same time , he was keen on writing classical poems . By reviewing the English periodicals , the paper restores the literary atmosphere of alienation and the split lan-guage environment at that time , and studies the strategies and motivations of John C .H.Wu’ s translation of Chinese classical poems into English to the world .In conclusion , his bilingual practice not only responses to the lyric tradition of “Obsession with China” by inventing the poetic idea of “The Four Seasons of Tang Poet-ry”, but also claims to reshape the Chinese people ’ s national soul by poetry , which can overcome the crisis of modernity and transcend the hierarchy of cultural power between East and West .

  9. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.;

    1996-01-01

    to the stone motion a description of the overall wave climate during the structural lifetime must be derived involving knowledge of transport rates, movement patterns, stone velocities and stone quality. The main objective of the paper is to describe a tool enabling calculation of the anticipated armour stone...... inherently cause some breakage and abrasion of the individual stones and thereby also reduced stability. In order to avoid excessive abrasion a high stone quality is demanded or larger stones must be applied when constructed. To allow the designer to account for abrasion and armour stone breakage due...

  10. Shaped by the Stars, Reshaped by the Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Explicitly, Adrienne Rich's poem “Planetarium” contrasts the lives and fates of two observational astronomers, Tycho Brahe and Caroline Herschel. The poem further suggests that the masculine values that dominate society are reflected in the naming of female constellations and uses this imagery to underscore gender inequality. The poem also includes a reference to the pulsar, the discovery of which, when announced in early 1968, created excitement among astronomers and the public. Jocelyn Bell Burnell seems implicitly to be among the “others” of the poem's subtitle.

  11. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data.

  12. Capital versus talent. The battle that's reshaping business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L; Moldoveanu, Mihnea C

    2003-07-01

    For much of the twentieth century, labor and capital fought bitterly for control of the industrialized economy. The titans of industry ultimately won a resounding victory over the unions, but the story doesn't end there. In today's economy, value is largely the product of knowledge and information. Companies cannot generate profits without the ideas, skills, and leadership capabilities of knowledge workers. It's these factors--not technologies, not factories, and certainly not capital--that give the most successful companies their unique advantages. As knowledge workers come to realize this, and see that the demand for their talent outstrips the supply, they are steadily wresting more and more of the profits from shareholders. This time the battle is between the sources of capital and the producers of value, and how it will end is far from clear. The roots of the current conflict lie in the twentieth-century shift from industrial to managerial capitalism and the creation of a new class of professional talent, the authors explain. Since the arrival of the information-based economy in the past decade, tensions have escalated. The dramatic rise of CEO pay--and the public fire it has drawn--is a telling symptom. With this new battle, we're also witnessing a fundamental change in the political alignment of capital. The Left is now siding with "the common shareholder" against the well-compensated top tier of the labor pool. Shareholders seeing an unprecedented proportion of the return on their investments siphoned off to employees may well ask, is there no end to it? Increasingly, it's human capital that is the basis of value, and financial capital has become far more generic than shareholders would like to believe. The growing tensions between shareholders and managers cannot be ignored, and capitalism is at a crossroads--again.

  13. Invasive Plants Rapidly Reshape Soil Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sean M; Lekberg, Ylva; Mummey, Daniel L; Sangwan, Naseer; Ramsey, Philip W; Gilbert, Jack A

    2017-01-01

    Plant invasions often reduce native plant diversity and increase net primary productivity. Invaded soils appear to differ from surrounding soils in ways that impede restoration of diverse native plant communities. We hypothesize that invader-mediated shifts in edaphic properties reproducibly alter soil microbial community structure and function. Here, we take a holistic approach, characterizing plant, prokaryotic, and fungal communities and soil physicochemical properties in field sites, invasion gradients, and experimental plots for three invasive plant species that cooccur in the Rocky Mountain West. Each invader had a unique impact on soil physicochemical properties. We found that invasions drove shifts in the abundances of specific microbial taxa, while overall belowground community structure and functional potential were fairly constant. Forb invaders were generally enriched in copiotrophic bacteria with higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and showed greater microbial carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic potential. Older invasions had stronger effects on abiotic soil properties, indicative of multiyear successions. Overall, we show that plant invasions are idiosyncratic in their impact on soils and are directly responsible for driving reproducible shifts in the soil environment over multiyear time scales. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show how invasive plant species drive rapid shifts in the soil environment from surrounding native communities. Each of the three plant invaders had different but consistent effects on soils. Thus, there does not appear to be a one-size-fits-all strategy for how plant invaders alter grassland soil environments. This work represents a crucial step toward understanding how invaders might be able to prevent or impair native reestablishment by changing soil biotic and abiotic properties.

  14. Leadership and Reshaping Schooling in a Networked World

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Finger; Mal Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper is initiated from a position that, until recently, the nature of schooling globally has remained largely unchanged since its design in the last century, and there has been a hegemony that supported its form to be enduring and largely unchanged. However, in a digital, networked world, there is a need to rethink and redefine schooling. Following an examination of schooling in the 21st Century, summarising the context and critical challenges presented by new and emerging digital techn...

  15. Leadership and Reshaping Schooling in a Networked World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Glenn; Lee, Mal

    2014-01-01

    This paper is initiated from a position that, until recently, the nature of schooling globally has remained largely unchanged since its design in the last century, and there has been a hegemony that supported its form to be enduring and largely unchanged. However, in a digital, networked world, there is a need to rethink and redefine schooling.…

  16. Improving Teaching and Learning: Three Models to Reshape Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The work of schools is teaching and learning. However, the current educational culture is dominated by three characteristics: (1) the mechanistic view of organization and its practice based on the assembly line model where students progress along a value added conveyor; (2) the predominance of the Essentialist philosophy of education, in which the…

  17. Reshaped Human Monoclonal Antibodies for Therapy and Passive Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    0C. The annealed DNA was extended with Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I in a reaction mixture containing T4 DNA ligase and 0.5 mM of each of dATP...and T4 DNA ligase . The DNA was transformed into E. coli TG1 made competent by the method of Simanis (7). Single stranded DNA was prepared from...introduced. The initial synthesis of the mutant strand was with Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I and DNA ligase as described above or with T7 DNA

  18. Spatiotemporal reshaping and compression of high intensity femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Harenko, D. S.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2007-06-01

    Experimental results of self-compression of femtosecond pulses under filamentation in argon and xenon are presented. The mode of a self-compression in xenon is realized for the first time. The dependence of the spectrum broadening from pressure of these gases, input energy and focusing parameters are studied in detail. The spectral and temporary profiles of the first and the second filaments at multiple filamentation are analyzed. Features of multiple filamentation are revealed in xenon. For the first time experimentally the effect of restriction a number of filaments and effective swapping of energy from one filament to another (more than 70 % of energy in two-filament mode without increasing of their amount is founded). The possible mechanism of the phenomenon related with the saturation of the third order nonlinearity in xenon and influence of the higher fifth-order susceptibility χ (5) are discussed.

  19. Reshaping urban lives: design as social intervention towards community networks

    OpenAIRE

    Franqueira, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show some cases of creative communities based on collaborative services as a way to promote sustainable development. This scenario (creative communities and their services) offers design a different approach and a new opportunity to develop and enhance a sustainable future. The transition from the industrial age to the age of knowledge brings about diverse changes in the way we live. The collapse of the Welfare state and the globalisation have created new problems and...

  20. Reshaping America’s Expeditionary Force in Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    instability and conflict, characterized by poverty, competition for resources, urbanization, overpopulation and extremism. Failed states or those that...structure changes do not impact those operations and are already underway, especially with respect to the command, aviation, and logistics combat elements

  1. Positive Behavior Supports: Can Schools Reshape Disciplinary Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Oswald, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The role of archival data in planning intervention priorities is examined and efficacy research focusing on the three types of positive behavioral support (PBS) is evaluated: schoolwide (universal), specific setting, and individual student levels. Overall, findings were positive across all types of PBS, validating implementation of these…

  2. Reshaping the Science of Reliability with the Entropy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rocchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revolves around two argument points. As first, we have observed a certain parallel between the reliability of systems and the progressive disorder of thermodynamical systems; and we import the notion of reversibility/irreversibility into the reliability domain. As second, we note that the reliability theory is a very active area of research which although has not yet become a mature discipline. This is due to the majority of researchers who adopt the inductive logic instead of the deductive logic typical of mature scientific sectors. The deductive approach was inaugurated by Gnedenko in the reliability domain. We mean to continue Gnedenko’s work and we use the Boltzmann-like entropy to pursue this objective. This paper condenses the papers published in the past decade which illustrate the calculus of the Boltzmann-like entropy. It is demonstrated how the every result complies with the deductive logic and are consistent with Gnedenko’s achievements.

  3. CHANGE@CERN:Task Force 2: reshaping for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Second in our series reviewing the Task Forces reports. How to lay the foundations for a more efficient organisational structure. Our present organization is based on sixteen Divisions and units under the Directorate. CERN's organization is based on a Directorate and sixteen Divisions and units, while its activities are broadly divided into four Sectors: Research, Accelerators, Technical and Administration. The mandate of Task Force 2, led by Horst Wenninger, was to identify if a structural change and a reduction of duplicated efforts could result in an increased efficiency at CERN, especially as the Laboratory continues to focus its resources on the LHC. 'This is the most difficult project ever undertaken at CERN', acknowledges Wenninger, 'a double accelerator at a temperature of 1.9 K'. For the next five years the success of the LHC must be the main priority, and CERN will have to adapt the procedures of how it works. Wenninger sees the process as an opportunity for the Laboratory to move into the 21st c...

  4. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Turcu; Ian Foster; Svetlozar Nestorov

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.). Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined applicat...

  5. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  6. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Shirer, W.R.; Konrad, B.N.; Muller, N.C.J.; Wagner, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Czisch, M.; Greicius, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI

  7. Structured Failing: Reshaping a Mathematical Future for Marginalised Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I draw on a particular case that encapsulates some of the most extreme elements of educational disadvantage - poverty, remote location, English as a foreign language, cultural diversity and Aboriginality - to provide a lens for understanding the complexity of coming to learn school mathematics. In so doing, I illustrate the need for…

  8. Academic Writing as Shaping and Re-Shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Academic writing, especially the writing of research articles, dissertations and theses, is often viewed in the literature as "writing up". It is as if first comes the research, an active creation of new knowledge, and then comes the writing, a relatively passive assembling of what has already been achieved. It is as if researching and…

  9. Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to processe

  10. Sediment transportation and bed morphology reshaping in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta supports the ecological function as a typical estuarine foreshore wetland. The wetland area is changing greatly every year because of sediment deposition and erosion, which influences the wetland function tremendously. Application of environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) to the Yellow River Delta is on the basis of the mobile bed dynamic model and wetting-drying process. Careful calibration is carried out for the numerical model which is set up for the Yellow River Delta, the sediment transport process of the model is compatible to the Yellow River situation. The simulated bed elevation by considering the sediment deposition in the Mouth is particularly focused on, the numerical results are in agreement with the measured bed morphology within 1992 2000. Simulation in this paper indicates that most of the sediment deposited just out of the Mouth which makes the mouth move forward into the sea 2.5 km per year. This paper presents good results in simulation of varying sediment deposition and provides further methods to predict the future morphology and area of the Yellow River Delta.

  11. Ability and Mathematics: The Mindset Revolution that Is Reshaping Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaler, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates both the incredible potential of the brain to grow and change and the powerful impact of growth mindset messages upon students' attainment. Schooling practices, however, particularly in England, are based upon notions of fixed ability thinking which limits students' attainment and increases inequality. This…

  12. Reshaping the transcriptional frontier: epigenetics and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Charles R; Westhusin, Mark E; Golding, Michael C

    2014-02-01

    Somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) experiments have paved the way to the field of cellular reprogramming. The demonstrated ability to clone over 20 different species to date has proven that the technology is robust but very inefficient, and is prone to developmental anomalies. Yet, the offspring from cloned animals exhibit none of the abnormalities of their parents, suggesting the low efficiency and high developmental mortality are epigenetic in origin. The epigenetic barriers to reprogramming somatic cells into a totipotent embryo capable of developing into a viable offspring are significant and varied. Despite their intimate relationship, chromatin structure and transcription are often not uniformly reprogramed after nuclear transfer, and many cloned embryos develop gene expression profiles that are hybrids between the donor cell and an embryonic blastomere. Recent advances in cellular reprogramming suggest that alteration of donor-cell chromatin structure towards that found in an normal embryo is actually the rate-limiting step in successful development of SCNT embryos. Here we review the literature relevant to the transformation of a somatic-cell nucleus into an embryo capable of full-term development. Interestingly, while resetting somatic transcription and associated epigenetic marks are absolutely required for development of SCNT embryos, life does not demand perfection.

  13. Reshaping the Enterprise through an Information Architecture and Process Reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Nicholas C.; DeSantis, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    The approach used by the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) in designing a campus-wide information architecture and a framework for reengineering the business process included building consensus on a general philosophy for information systems, using pattern-based abstraction techniques, applying data modeling and application prototyping, and…

  14. Reshaping Millennials As Future Leaders Of The Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    transforms people because it aids leaders in understanding individual emotions, values , and ethics , establishing standards, and achieving long-term goals...Generation X and Millennials for a lack of work ethic and commitment to the workplace . Confident, independent and self-reliant, Baby Boomers grew up in...Baby Boomers and Generation Xers value working individually, view managers as experts, and look to their employers for career planning. In

  15. Ecological Engineering: Reshaping Our Environments to Achieve Our Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2012-12-01

    Human beings are subject to a range of cognitive and affective limitations which interfere with our ability to pursue our individual and social goals. I argue that shaping our environment to avoid triggering these limitations or to constrain the harms they cause is likely to be more effective than genetic or pharmaceutical modifications of our capacities because our limitations are often the flip side of beneficial dispositions and because available enhancements seem to impose significant costs. I argue that carefully selected environmental interventions respect agents' autonomy and are consistent with democratic decision making.

  16. How Gen Y and Boomers will reshape your agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann; Sherbin, Laura; Sumberg, Karen

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to workplace preferences, Generation Y workers closely resemble Baby Boomers. Because these two huge cohorts now coexist in the workforce, their shared values will hold sway in the companies that hire them. The authors, from the Center for Work-Life Policy, conducted two large-scale surveys that reveal those values. Gen Ys and Boomers are eager to contribute to positive social change, and they seek out workplaces where they can do that. They expect flexibility and the option to work remotely, but they also want to connect deeply with colleagues. They believe in employer loyalty but desire to embark on learning odysseys. Innovative firms are responding by crafting reward packages that benefit both generations of workers--and their employers.

  17. Has product market competition reshaped returns to schooling in Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodríguez-Oreggia; Héctor Moreno Moreno; David Mulato Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Este articulo analiza el impacto de la competencia de mercado sobre los retornos a la escolaridad en Mexico, un pais que se encuentra rezagado en indicadores de competencia y con un mercado laboral complejo. Utilizando microdatos de las encuestas de empleo, primero separamos el premio por nivel educativo en diferentes industrias, despues las pegamos en un panel para relacionarlos con datos de competencia de mercado a nivel industria. Los resultados muestran que podria existir un efecto positi...

  18. Learning not to feel: reshaping the resolution of tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Mohsen; Lak, Armin; Diamond, Mathew E

    2013-01-01

    We asked whether biased feedback during training could cause human subjects to lose perceptual acuity in a vibrotactile frequency discrimination task. Prior to training, we determined each subject's vibration frequency discrimination capacity on one fingertip, the Just Noticeable Difference (JND). Subjects then received 850 trials in which they performed a same/different judgment on two vibrations presented to that fingertip. They gained points whenever their judgment matched the computer-generated feedback on that trial. Feedback, however, was biased: the probability per trial of "same" feedback was drawn from a normal distribution with standard deviation twice as wide as the subject's JND. After training, the JND was significantly widened: stimulus pairs previously perceived as different were now perceived as the same. The widening of the JND extended to the untrained hand, indicating that the decrease in resolution originated in non-topographic brain regions. In sum, the acuity of subjects' sensory-perceptual systems shifted in order to match the feedback received during training.

  19. The reshaping of urban structure in South Africa through municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significantly influence budgetary capital spending patterns and address growth ... inherited an urban form which was spatially .... to employment and the working ... periphery. RLM is a primarily rural local municipality consisting of a rapidly.

  20. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depend...

  1. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Gi Kong; Byung Kwon Kim; Geun Cheol Song; Soohyun Lee; Choong-Min Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depende...

  2. Ability and Mathematics: The Mindset Revolution that Is Reshaping Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaler, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates both the incredible potential of the brain to grow and change and the powerful impact of growth mindset messages upon students' attainment. Schooling practices, however, particularly in England, are based upon notions of fixed ability thinking which limits students' attainment and increases inequality. This…

  3. Releasing the flood waters: diuril and the reshaping of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2005-01-01

    This article narrates the development and promotion in the 1950s and 1960s of Merck, Sharp & Dohme's Diuril (chlorothiazide), an antihypertensive drug, which played a significant role in the redefinition of high blood pressure as a widespread target for chronic pharmaceutical consumption. The joined careers of Diuril and hypertension in the late twentieth century demonstrate the connections between the clinical research, clinical practice, and marketing practices through which pharmaceuticals and disease categories come to define one another. By examining a series of internal documents preserved in the Merck Archives alongside a careful reading of the clinical literature and industry journals of the time, this article explores how the ambitions of marketers, physicians, and public health advocates found convergence in the expanding pharmaceutical prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Not only a workplace : Reshaping creative work and urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sihvonen, Tanja; Cnossen, Boukje

    2016-01-01

    This research article examines the intersection of two current topics: the ongoing flexibilisation of creative work on the one hand, and the emergence of urban temporary working landscapes on the other. Their interrelatedness is inspected through a case study of one particular creative hub, the form

  5. Learning not to feel: reshaping the resolution of tactile perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Mohsen; Lak, Armin; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2013-01-01

    We asked whether biased feedback during training could cause human subjects to lose perceptual acuity in a vibrotactile frequency discrimination task. Prior to training, we determined each subject's vibration frequency discrimination capacity on one fingertip, the Just Noticeable Difference (JND). Subjects then received 850 trials in which they performed a same/different judgment on two vibrations presented to that fingertip. They gained points whenever their judgment matched the computer-generated feedback on that trial. Feedback, however, was biased: the probability per trial of “same” feedback was drawn from a normal distribution with standard deviation twice as wide as the subject's JND. After training, the JND was significantly widened: stimulus pairs previously perceived as different were now perceived as the same. The widening of the JND extended to the untrained hand, indicating that the decrease in resolution originated in non-topographic brain regions. In sum, the acuity of subjects' sensory-perceptual systems shifted in order to match the feedback received during training. PMID:23847478

  6. Reshaping the Enterprise through an Information Architecture and Process Reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Nicholas C.; DeSantis, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    The approach used by the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) in designing a campus-wide information architecture and a framework for reengineering the business process included building consensus on a general philosophy for information systems, using pattern-based abstraction techniques, applying data modeling and application prototyping, and…

  7. How Big Data Reshapes Knowledge for International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Koed Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    digital traces from cell phone data, social media data or data from internet searches are used as sources of knowledge in this area. We draw on insights from governmentality studies and argue that big data’s impact on how relevant development problems are governed revolves around (1) new techniques...

  8. Reshaping the design education for new age learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Ceren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various design philosophies such as modernism, postmodernism, deconstructivism appeared following industrialization. Such developments have required today, including several research techniques in the design process. To discover “human being” on a user basis in general, the sciences of design have started to analyse researches and data in different disciplines as psychology, sociology, and environmental psychology. Embedding evolving technology to this process, such data are used to develop new topics in design like intangible design, interactive art, computational design, etc. The process of analysing and improving education methods may also add improvement of research methods to the agenda. Creativity, innovation and variations in design sail for infinite choices together with developing research methods, changing skilled new generation and developing technologies. The aim of this research is to point out the failures of design education for the new age learners.

  9. Reshaping workplaces : workplace innovation as designed by scientists and practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Hootegem, G. van

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in several disciplines (organisational economics, sociology, psychology)about organisations is starting to converge. Organisations are no longer considered a blackbox, adapting to the economic environment as will-less objects. There is a role to play for managers to choose the right

  10. Academic Writing as Shaping and Re-Shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Academic writing, especially the writing of research articles, dissertations and theses, is often viewed in the literature as "writing up". It is as if first comes the research, an active creation of new knowledge, and then comes the writing, a relatively passive assembling of what has already been achieved. It is as if researching and writing…

  11. Reshaping the Federal System for a Postmodern Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Green

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal government faces a human capital crisis over the next several years due to driving environmental forces, which include the reduction in the replacement labor force cohorts and the image problem of public service. One of the great challenges facing the federal service is the need to address the negative perceptions of the quality of work life experienced in the federal service, especially for younger employees. Consequently, governmental organizations must cope with increasing aging of their labor forces and elevated retirement levels exacerbating succession planning and knowledge transfer practices. This paper examines the current environment of the federal system and explores how it must adapt to postmodern influences that are embraced by Millennial and Generation X employees. While today’s federal system is rigid in many of its key leadership, performance management, and support service delivery systems, the postmodern workforce thrives on flexibility, involvement, and excitement. This paper further examines what leadership concepts and competencies can assist in the positive transformation of the federal government.

  12. Reshaping USAF Culture and Strategy: Lasting Themes and Emerging Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    Air Force, to Gen Richard B. Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, memorandum, September 8, 2005. 99 Maj Gen Mark D. Shackelford , Director...February 27, 2006. 37 100 Brig Gen William N. McCasland, Vice Commander, Space and Missile Systems Center, to Maj Gen Mark D. Shackelford , Director

  13. The fourth revolution how the infosphere is reshaping human reality

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an ". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, ". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. " defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmenta...

  14. Reshaping workplaces : workplace innovation as designed by scientists and practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Hootegem, G. van

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in several disciplines (organisational economics, sociology, psychology)about organisations is starting to converge. Organisations are no longer considered a blackbox, adapting to the economic environment as will-less objects. There is a role to play for managers to choose the right

  15. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  16. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M.; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications. PMID:28217137

  17. (ReShaping History in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lozic

    2015-06-01

    The article illustrates that during the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, which established the National Museum in 1888, the museum played an important part in the representation of Bosnian identity (bosnjastvo. After World War II, in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, all three analysed museums were summoned to interpret the past in accordance with the guidelines of the communist regime. Since the 1990s, a highly ethnicized process of identity building and of the musealization of heritage, and history permeates all three museums analysed here. When it comes to the central exhibition-themes following the 1990s war, one could conclude that whereas the National Museum and the History Museum highlight the recent creation of an independent BiH and ostracize BIH-Serbs, the Museum of the Republic of Srpska asserts the ostensible distinctiveness of the Republic of Srpska and excludes the narratives about BiH as a unified and independent nation-state. If an agreement about the future of BiH and its history is to be reached, a step towards multi-vocal historical narratives has to be made from both sides.

  18. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reshaping the Army Corps of Engineers’ Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Collins, “Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap…and Others Don’t”, (Boulder, CO: Harper Business, 2001) iPhone – ebook , 24-28. 3 Ibid...Job Every Time,” (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005) iPhone – ebook , 48-50. 35 42 Ibid., 91. 43 Ibid., 91-92. 44 Ibid., 30-31. 45 Ibid., 32

  20. Learning not to feel: reshaping the resolution of tactile perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen eOmrani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We asked whether biased feedback during training could cause human subjects to lose perceptual acuity in a vibrotactile frequency discrimination task. Prior to training, we determined each subject’s vibration frequency discrimination capacity on one fingertip, the Just Noticeable Difference (JND. Subjects then received 850 trials in which they performed a same/different judgment on two vibrations presented to that fingertip. They gained points whenever their judgment matched the computer-generated feedback on that trial. Feedback, however, was biased: the probability per trial of same feedback was drawn from a normal distribution with standard deviation twice as wide as the subject’s JND. After training, the JND was significantly widened: stimulus pairs previously perceived as different were now perceived as the same. The widening of the JND extended to the untrained hand, indicating that the decrease in resolution originated in non-topographic brain regions. In sum, the acuity of subjects’ sensory-perceptual systems shifted in order to match the feedback received during training.