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Sample records for fellbach solar district

  1. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...... technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence......Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...

  2. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  3. Thermal performance of solar district heating plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Bava, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The market for solar heating plants connected to district heating systems is expanding rapidly in Denmark. It is expected that by the end of 2014 the 10 largest solar heating plants in Europe will be located in Denmark. Measurements from 23 Danish solar heating plants, all based on flat plate solar...... collectors mounted on the ground, shows measured yearly thermal performances of the solar heating plants placed in the interval from 313 kWh/m² collector to 493 kWh/m² collector with averages for all plants of 411 kWh/m² collector for 2012 and 450 kWh/m² collector for 2013. Theoretical calculations show...... of the cost/performance ratio for solar collector fields, both with flat plate collectors and with concentrating tracking solar collectors. It is recommended to continue monitoring and analysis of all large solar heating plants to document the reliability of the solar heating plants. It is also recommended...

  4. Feasibility Study on Solar District Heating in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Junpeng; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of developing solar district heating (SDH) in China from the perspective of incentive policy, selections of technical route, regional adaptability and economic feasibility for clean heating. Based on the analyzation, this proposes a road map for the development...

  5. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  6. Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014 the project “Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems” was carried out within the Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development Programme, the so called RED programme jointly developed by the Chinese and Danish governments. In the project Danish...... know how on solar heating plants and solar heating test technology have been transferred from Denmark to China, large solar heating systems have been promoted in China, test capabilities on solar collectors and large scale solar heating systems have been improved in China and Danish-Chinese cooperation...

  7. Solar district heating system `Schillerstrasse` in Schwaebisch-Gmuend; Solare Nahwaerme ``Schillerstrasse`` in Schwaebisch Gmuend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Mangold, D. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-12-31

    The construction project Schillerstrasse in Schwaebisch-Gmuend was planned and realised by the Siedlungswerk Stuttgart from 1993 until 1996. Like in earlier projects in Ravensburg and Koengen the Siedlungswerk wanted to use new technologies in the field of thermal insulation and heat supply at the construction of this new residential area in order to stay considerably below the former construction standards (WSVO 1982). One part of this energy concept is a large solar plant to support warm water supply. Good experience had been made with flat solar collectors at the three plants in Ravensburg and Koengen. In Schwaebisch-Gmuend vacuum pipe collectors were utilised for the first time. They were the only type of collectors which could be installed on the flat roofs without being visible from the ground. The solar-assisted district heating system was put in operation in May 1996. A new method that controls the system by measuring data acquisition enabled to measure and optimise the thermal performance of the plant. At the beginning of 1998 the plant was modified in order to improve the use of the solar plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bauvorhaben Schillerstrasse in Schwaebisch Gmuend wurde in den Jahren 1993-1996 vom Siedlungswerk Stuttgart geplant und gebaut. Aehnlich wie bei frueheren Projekten in Ravensburg und Koengen war es das Ziel des Siedlungswerks, in diesem Neubauvorhaben neue Wege beim Waermeschutz und bei der Waermeversorgung der Wohnanlage zu gehen, um den damaligen Baustandard (WSVO 1982) deutlich zu unterschreiten. Ein Element dieses Energiekonzepts ist eine grosse Solaranlage zur Unterstuetzung der Warmwasserbereitung. Nach guten Erfahrungen mit Flachkollektoren in den drei Anlagen in Ravensburg und Koengen wurden in Schwaebisch Gmuend zum ersten Mal Vakuum-Roehrenkollektoren eingesetzt. Fuer die Wahl der Vakuumroehren waren nicht zuletzt die stadtpolitischen Randbedingungen ausschlaggebend, die nur eine von unten nicht sichtbare Aufstellung auf dem

  8. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  9. Study of solar electric production potential in the Herault district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Anthony; Baldini, Florent; Bruant, Marc; Bouchet, Jean-Alain; Bouzige, Romain

    2010-06-01

    The first part of this report presents various contextual issues: general context (commitments in production with renewable energies, aspects related to the national electric production, electric production and consumption in the Languedoc-Roussillon region), analysis of techniques and sectors of solar electric production (inventory of available or being developed technical and industrial sectors, potential environmental impacts), economic analysis of photovoltaic techniques (purchase tariffs, other financing sources, grid parity, installation costs, application to case study), and regulatory and administrative procedures. The second part reports a regional approach of this study: characterisation of the raw solar resource, territorial sensitivity analysis (influence of various factors: technical, geological, hydro-geological, urban, environmental, related to landscape, heritage and natural environment), definition of a territorial sensitivity grid. The third part reports the definition of the solar production potential: on buildings, in man-made locations (mines, landfills, industrial wastelands), and in ordinary non-built spaces. Appendices propose detailed economic data for case studies, presentations of purchase tariffs in 2010, and presentations of existing installations

  10. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  11. Annex to Solar heat storages in district heating networks. Comprehensive list of Danish literature and R and D projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This annex relates to the report 'Solar heat storages in district heating networks', which has been elaborated to inform about the Danish experiences and findings on the use of central solar heating plants in district heating networks, especially with the focus on the development of the storage part of the systems. The report has been funded as part of the IEE PREHEAT cooperation and by Energinet.dk, project no. 2006-2-6750. (au)

  12. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  13. Carbon dioxide reduction potential of solar district heating systems; CO{sub 2}-Reduktionspotential solarer Nahwaermesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Ecological balances for systems and products attract increasingly interest because of the discussion about climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Investigations into energy payback time and yield have shown that solar thermal systems can contribute considerably towards protecting our environment. But, because methodologies are approximate and data bases are not precise, ecological balances must be discussed with caution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oekobilanzen fuer Systeme und Produkte unterschiedlicher Art haben in den letzten Jahren aufgrund der Diskussion um die Klimagefaehrdung durch treibhausrelevante Gase erheblich an Bedeutung gewonnen. Untersuchungen bezueglich der charakteristischen Kennwerte energetische Amortisationszeit und Erntefaktor haben ergeben, dass solare Kollektoranlagen zur Schonung unserer Umwelt erheblich beitragen koennen. Die Analysen zur Oekobilanzierung beduerfen allerdings groesster Sorgfalt, da die Verfahren fuer und die verfuegbaren Daten ueber die materialbezogenen Primaerenergieaufwendungen ein erhebliches Fehlerpotential beinhalten. (orig.)

  14. Combined use of solar heat and cogeneration - a perspective for district heating?; Kombinierter Einsatz von solarer Waerme und Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung - eine Perspektive fuer die Nahwaerme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entress, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung; Steinborn, F. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Systemanalyse

    1998-02-01

    With Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP), climate-endangering CO{sub 2}-emissions can be reduced singificantly. The heat produced can be delivered at prices comparable to those of conventionally produced heat. With solar district heating, yet higher CO{sub 2}-savings are possible but at higher cost. Promising is a combination of CHP and solar district heating: The heat storage of the solar system can be used to level out heat demand, leading to smooth CHP operation, while heat generated by CHP can be used to substitute for low irradiation during the winter period. However, calculations together with simulation and optimization indicate that combining CHP and solar district heating is not the optimal solution in all cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) kann zu einer deutlichen Reduzierung der klimagefaehrdenden CO{sub 2}-Emissionen beitragen. Dabei kann die ausgekoppelte Waerme etwa zum gleichen Preis wie konventionell erzeugte Waerme abgegeben werden. Hoehere CO{sub 2}-Einsparungen lassen sich hingegen mit solarer Nahwaerme erzielen, allerdings zu hoeheren Kosten. Eine Kombination dieser beiden Waermetechniken verspricht Vorteile: Einerseits kann der Waermespeicher des Solarsystems auch zum Ausgleich von Lastspitzen beim Betrieb des BHKW`s genutzt werden. Andererseits kann die waehrend der einstrahlungsarmen Wintermonate fehlende solare Waerme durch das BHKW erzeugt werden. Detaillierte Simulations- und Optimierungsrechnungen zeigen jedoch, dass eine Kombination dieser Waermetechniken nicht immer empfehlenswert ist. (orig.)

  15. Solar-assisted district heating systems: The Solarthermie 2000-programme; Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Programm Solarthermie-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottner, V. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Projekttraeger Biologie, Energie, Umwelt (BEO)

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, utilisation of solar energy for thermal energy supply has a considerable technical and economic potential in terms of substitution of fossil fuels and reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. If appropriate technologies are used, solar-assisted district heat supply systems can be a cost-efficient concept for thermal utilisation of solar energy. The BMBF -programme `Solarthermie 2000` supports a number of pilot and demonstration plants in order to test and develop the most promising systems and storage facilities under real conditions. Long-term measuring programmes generate reliable data on thermal performance and cost of the plant concepts and create a solid basis for a technical and economic evaluation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung von Solarenergie fuer die Waermeversorgung bietet in Deutschland ein grosses technisches und wirtschaftliches Potential zur Substitution fossiler Energietraeger und Reduzierung der CO{sub 2} Emissionen in die Atmosphaere. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermesysteme stellen unter guenstigen technischen Bedingungen ein kostenguenstiges Konzept der thermischen Nutzung der Solarenergie dar. In dem BMBF-Programm Solarthermie-2000 werden Pilot- und Demonstrationsanlagen gefoerdert, so dass die aussichtsreichsten System- und Speicherkonzepte in der Praxis erprobt und gezielt weiterentwickelt werden koennen. Mit Langzeit-Messprogrammen werden belastbare Werte der thermischen Leistung und Kosten der Anlagenkonzepte ermittelt und eine zuverlaessige Grundlage fuer die technisch-wirtschaftliche Bewertung geschaffen. (orig.)

  16. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...

  17. Thermo-economic optimization of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    heating network in this study. The results also show that parabolic trough collectors are economically feasible for district heating networks in Denmark. The generic and multivariable levelized cost of heat method can guide engineers and designers on the design, construction and control of large...... to optimize the hybrid solar district heating systems based on levelized cost of heat. It is found that the lowest net levelized cost of heat of hybrid solar heating plants could reach about 0.36 DKK/kWh. The system levelized cost of heat can be reduced by 5–9% by use of solar collectors in the district...

  18. A Review of a Successful Unsubsidized Market-Based Rural Solar Development Initiative in Laikipia District, Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wambuguh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies (RETs in many areas far from grid-based electricity have primarily involved solar photovoltaics (SPVs which tap solar radiation to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and cooling for homes, businesses, and industry. A study on RETs took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Laikipia District (north-central Kenya, a rich agricultural region. To explore this solar initiative in such a remote part of the country, a purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted, followed by field visits and observations. Although more than half of the households visited had SPV installations, solar energy was found to contribute only 18% of household estimated total energy needs; most residents still primarily relying on traditional energy sources. Several types of solar panels of different capacities and costs were utilized. Many landowners had at least one or two rooms using solar energy for household lighting, for appliance charging and to power radio and television. Almost all respondents appreciated that solar energy was clean renewable energy that greatly improved household living conditions; gave them some prestige; was easy to use and maintain; and was available year around. Although such significant benefits were associated with SPVs, only about 40% of residents interviewed were somehow satisfied with its development. Respondents expressed specific developmental initiatives that were closely associated with the availability of solar energy. Nevertheless, a number of challenges were raised associated with SPVs primarily investment capital and equipment costs and maintenance. As solutions to capital building will not solely rely on subsidies or individual farmer inputs, strategies must be found to mobilize the essential and tested tools for success including sustainable capital generation, building local institutions and capacities that

  19. Solar-assisted district heating systems - the SOLARIS pilot plant at Chemnitz - Status report; Solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung - Pilotanlage SOLARIS Chemnitz Statusbericht `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaneck, T.; Schirmer, U. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Projektgruppe Solarthermie 2000

    1998-12-31

    The solar-assisted district heating in the Technology and Industrial Park SOLARIS is currently being built. The seasonal heat storage is a gravel-water tank with a volume of 8,000 cubic metre and has already been completed. The expectations have been met with respect to using a simple technology for the construction of seasonal storage and reducing costs. The initial operation is scheduled for summer 1998. Afterwards a two-year measuring programme will control and evaluate the function of the solar-assisted district heating system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermesystem im Chemnitzer Technologie- und Gewerbepark solaris befindet sich im Bau. Der saisonale Waermespeicher, ein 8000 m{sup 3} Kies-Wasser-Speicher ist fertiggestellt. Die Erwartungen in bezug auf eine einfache Technologie zum Bau von saisonalen Speichern und in bezug auf die Einhaltung des Kostenrahmens wurden erfuellt. Die Inbetriebnahme ist im Sommer 1998 geplant. Ein zweijaehriges Messprogramm soll nach Inbetriebnahme die Funktion des solar unterstuetzten Nahwaermesystems ueberwachen. (orig.)

  20. Development and validation of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model for large solar collector fields for district heating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model to simulate the behavior of a large solar collector field for district heating application. The model includes and investigates aspects which are not always considered by simpler models, such as flow distribution...... programming and computing time. Thermal capacity was worth being considered only for the bulkier components, such as the longer distribution and transmission pipes. The actual control strategy, which regulates the flow rates in the solar heating plant, was accurately reproduced in the model, as proved...... in the different rows, effect of the flow regime on the collector efficiency, thermal capacity of the components and effect of shadows from row to row. The model was compared with measurements from a solar collector field and the impact of each aspect was evaluated. A good agreement between model and measurements...

  1. Analysis and validation of a quasi-dynamic model for a solar collector field with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series for district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    performance of the hybrid solar district heating plants is also presented. The measured and simulated results show that the integration of parabolic trough collectors in solar district heating plants can guarantee that the system produces hot water with relatively constant outlet temperature. The daily energy......A quasi-dynamic TRNSYS simulation model for a solar collector field with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series was described and validated. A simplified method was implemented in TRNSYS in order to carry out long-term energy production analyses of the whole solar heating...... plant. The advantages of the model include faster computation with fewer resources, flexibility of different collector types in solar heating plant configuration and satisfactory accuracy in both dynamic and long-term analyses. In situ measurements were taken from a pilot solar heating plant with 5960 m...

  2. SODHA. A data program for minimizing the cost function of a solar farm with storage connected to a district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, R; Rolandsson, S

    1982-05-03

    SODHA is a program for minimizing the investment needed for a solar plant supplying a district heating system. The plant consists of a solar farm, storage and a heat exchanger connected to a district heating network. By using SODHA it is possible to optimize solar collector area storage volume, insulation thickness and magnitude of heat exchanger. The calculation gives the best estimated configuration of the system, within given margins and specified regulation principles. The program can be used for an arbitrary period, e.g. one season (year). This work is financed by NE, the National Swedish Board for Energy Source Development.

  3. Solar district heating and seasonal heat storage - state of the art; Solare Nahwaerme und Saisonale Waermespeicherung - Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, M.; Hahne, E. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Solarthermische Energietechnik; Lottner, V. [BEO Biologie, Energie Oekologie, Juelich (Germany); Schulz, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Solar energy technology becomes more and more important for space and water heating of residential buildings. Compared to small systems for single-family houses, the specific investment cost of big solar plants is lower and a higher contribution of solar energy can be achieved. In central solar heating plants with seasonal storage (CSHPSS), more than 50% of the total heat demand of residential areas can be covered by solar energy. The first pilot plants for CSHPSS are operating in Germany since 1996. The first results of the accompanying monitoring program show good agreement between calculated and actual solar contribution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme zur Brauchwassererwaermung und zur Beheizung von Wohngebaeuden erfaehrt in Deutschland ein immer groesseres Interesse. Solare Grossanlagen haben gegenueber solaren Kleinanlagen den Vorteil, dass mit geringeren Investitions- und Waermekosten groessere Anlagenertraege erzielt werden koennen. In Verbindung mit saisonaler Waermespeicherung erreichen solare Grossanlagen Deckungsanteile von 50% und darueber am Gesamtwaermebedarf von Wohnsiedlungen. Die ersten Pilotanlagen zur solaren Nahwaerme mit saisonalem Waermespeicher gingen 1996 in Betrieb und werden derzeit detailliert vermessen. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die vorausberechneten Werte fuer den Jahresenergieertrag erreicht werden koennen. (orig.)

  4. Predictive Factors Associated with Solar Energy Development in Laikipia District Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Wambuguh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of sunlight and the availability affordable solar technologies in many areas far from grid-based electricity has sparked the development of renewable energy technologies (RETs which tap solar radiation energy to provide electricity. A study on solar photovoltaics (SPVs use and utilization took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Kenya. A purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted guided by a questionnaire, followed by field surveys and observations. Although solar energy contributed less than a quarter of total household energy needs, residents specifically associated it with specific developmental initiatives. Correlation and logistic regression model analyses showed that solar power development was closely associated (and thus can be predicted from five main independent variables. The findings of the study allowed the development of a probabilistic model general enough to be applicable elsewhere in the development of alternative energy resources particularly those based on solar input.

  5. Inventory of the solar thermal and photovoltaic energy potential in the Ardennes district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, Henri-Louis

    2010-03-01

    Based on the use of cartographic tool, the objective of this study was to assess the potential production of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems, social-economic data, regulatory data, and environmental, heritage-related, and urban constraints, and natural risks. For each type of installation, the possible reachable potential has been assessed while taking these constraints, building typology (housing, industrial, heritage, and so on), building orientation, project construction dynamics into account. The report analyses solar resource, housing characteristics, building typology, regulatory constraints related to the protection of the built environment, exploitation constraints (shade), building orientation constraints. It presents an assessment of net resources for both sectors, an assessment of plausible production potentials by 2030. It also presents and discusses environmental (avoided emissions) and financial indicators related to both solar sectors

  6. Impact of different improvement measures on the thermal performance of a solar collector field for district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of different measures to improve the thermal performance of a solar heating plant for district heating applications. The impact of the different measures was evaluated through a validated TRNSYS-Matlab model. The model included details such as effect of the flow...... temperature of the collector field, control strategy based on weather forecast and use of different heat transfer fluids. The results showed that accurate input to the control strategy improved the yearly energy output of the plant by about 3%. If accurate input is not technically or economically feasible...... regime in the absorber pipes on the collector efficiency, flow distribution in the collector field, thermal capacity of the pipes and shadows from row to row. The improvement measures included variation of the operating temperatures, accurate input to the control strategy, feedback control on the outlet...

  7. CMHC's district heating work may lead to solar power-towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W

    1979-11-01

    A four-year study of district heating systems by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) may combine with leadership recognition by the International Energy Agency to allow Canada to join the U.S. as the center for power-tower technology. The application of central receivers to district heating evolved from the district heating study as heliostat technology developed and the economics improved with scale. Based on the Barstow, Calif. prototype, a commercial version is envisioned for the mid-1980s to generate steam for power generation, heating, and cooling. A proponent suggests applying it to a multi-fuel system as a retrofit after the technology is perfected. Land availability and the need for direct sunlight present problems for this type of application in Canada, where much of the light is diffuse. A cautious view is taken by those who feel that cost will be prohibitive and who point out that the U.S. tests have yet to prove viability. (DCK)

  8. Solar-assisted district heating system - Scientific study. Solar-assisted district heating system with long-term thermal storage in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen and Hamburg-Bramfeld.. Results of the first year of operation; Solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung - Wissenschaftliches Begleitprogramm. Solare Nahwaermeversorgung mit Langzeitwaermespeicher in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen und Hamburg-Bramfeld. Ergebnisse des ersten Betriebsjahres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M.E.; Mahler, B.; Hahne, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-12-31

    The first two pilot plants for solar district heating with seasonal thermal energy storage were put in operation in October 1996. Both projects were initiated by the Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Energy Technology (ITW) of the University of Stuttgart that also provided scientific support up to the present. This report presents the results of the first two years of operation of both plants. Both solar plants have been operated without any major problems. The solar energy yield in the first year of operation has only been reduced by the unsatisfactory operation of the heating grid. The most important step towards optimising the plants is the adjustment of the internal heating systems and thus the reduction of the heating temperatures which are currently too high. Based on subject pre-conditions the results projected for the first pilot plants for solar district heating and long-term thermal energy storage will be reached in the following years of operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Oktober 1996 gingen die ersten beiden Pilotanlagen zur solaren Nahwaermeversorgung mit saisonaler Waermespeicherung in Betrieb. Beide Projekte wurden vom Institut fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW), Universitaet Stuttgart initiiert und ueber die gesamte bisherige Laufzeit wissenschaftlich begleitet. Die Ergebnisse des ersten Betriebsjahres der beiden Anlagen sind in diesem Bericht zusammengestellt. In beiden Faellen funktionieren die Solaranlagen ohne grosse Probleme. Die solaren Ertraege wurden im ersten Betriebsjahr noch durch die unzureichende Betriebsweise der Heiznetze gemindert. Wichtigster Ansatzpunkt fuer eine Optimierung der Anlagen ist die Einregulierung der hausinternen Heizungssysteme und damit die Absenkung der derzeit noch zu hohen Heiznetztemperaturen. Unter dieser Voraussetzung werden die vorausgesagten Ergebnisse fuer die ersten Pilotanlagen zur solaren Nahwaerme mit Langzeit-Waermespeicher in den naechsten Betriebsjahren erreicht werden. (orig.)

  9. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  10. Mid-Holocene paleoclimatic changes and solar activity in San'in District, mid-latitude North Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Y.; Seto, K.; Sakai, T.; Ooki, A.; yamada, K.; Dettman, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence shows that solar activity influences climate on a global scale. In the mid-latitude region, climate change is expected to change precipitation patterns. Concurrently, variation in solar activity may influence phytoplankton productivity. It seems that these changes should be recorded in sediment and organic matter deposits in coastal lagoons. In this study, we discuss the relationship between climate change and solar activity in the mid-Holocene in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude region based on grain size analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) content and organic carbon accumulation rates (Corg A.R.) in coastal lagoon sediment core samples. The INB core was drilled to produce a high resolution record of Holocene paleoenvironmental change in the San'in District, western Japan. The core is 19.17m in total length and is divided into Unit I~VII by lithofacies. Holocene sediment, primarily organic silt, forms Unit III and above in this core. Unit III was deposited from 8.4 to 5.4 ka, when sea level rose during the Jomon transgression; its depositional environment is a coastal lagoon. Progradation of the river mouth during the sea level rise lead to an increase in the C/N ratio of organic matter. Unit IV contains the volcanic Shigaku pyroclastic flow (the sixth stage of volcanic activity of the Sanbe volcano), and Unit V reflects deposition in a freshwater lake or swamp. Above this aggredational sediments were deposited by small rivers. This study focused on the coastal lagoon sediments of Unit III (8.4 to 5.4 ka); we carried out CNS elemental analysis and grain size analysis with a resolution of approximately five years. TOC content is variable and increases from 0.5 to 5%. Variation in TOC content is relatively well correlated with atmospheric radiocarbon 14C (Delta 14C) and therefore with solar activity, although the relationship is unclear in the upper portion of Unit III. The trend in Corg A.R. is different than TOC contents, about 40g/m/yr at ~8ka and

  11. Solarthermie 2000 - Partial programme 3: Solar district heat - solar campus Juelich, feasibility study of the seasonal heat storage; Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm 3: Solare Nahwaerme - Solar-Campus Juelich, Machbarkeitsuntersuchung des saisonalen Waermespeichers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braxein, A. [Iwu - Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Umwelt mbH, Aachen (Germany); Spaete, F.; Repschlaeger, H. [Solar-Inst. Juelich (Germany); Friedel, J. [Stadtwerke Juelich (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The heart of the solar-assisted district heating system for the solar campus Juelich is going to be a seasonal underground store with a capacity of 2,500 cubic metres, e.g. a rather small long-term storage. The aim of the project was to prove the technical and financial feasibility of the underground store by developing a building concept for the storage and to determine whether this concept was also suitable for larger storage facilities. The design of the floating lid and the suitability of various building materials were studied by means of a physical model. The resulting storage concept shows an underground storage pit whose shape is an inverted square pyramid base with a seal of double-layer PP-foil and a thermal insulation of pressure-resistant mineral wool in the upper part. The lid consists of 16 square walk-on floating containers with an edge length of 6.50 metres and a height of 1.0 metre each. Tests and calculations showed that the concept can be realised. The building costs for the small storage with a capacity of 2,500 cubic metres will amount to approx. DM 370 per cubic metre, costs for larger volumes of 25,000 cubic metres will amount to approx. DM 150 DM per cubic metre of water stored. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kernstueck der solargestuetzten Nahwaermeversorgung fuer den Solar-Campus Juelich soll ein 2500 m{sup 3} grosser, saisonaler Erdbeckenspeicher bilden, also ein relativ kleiner Langzeitspeicher. Ziel des Vorhabens war, die technische und finanzielle Machbarkeit des geplanten Erdbeckenspeichers durch ein baureifes Speicherkonzept nachzuweisen sowie die Uebertragbarkeit auf grosse saisonale Speicher gleicher Bauart zu untersuchen. Die konstruktive Ausbildung der schwimmenden Deckelkonstruktion sowie die Eignung verschiedener Baumaterialien wurden mit Hilfe eines physikalischen Modells untersucht. Das resultierende Speicherkonzept sieht einen Erdbeckenspeicher in Form eines umgedrehten, quadratischen Pyramidenstumpfes mit einer Abdichtung aus

  12. Solar-assisted biomass-district heating: projects in Austria and operational data; Solarunterstuetzte Biomasse-Fernwaermeversorgung: Projekte in Oesterreich und Betriebsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faninger, G. [Institut fuer Interdisziplinaere Forschung und Fortbildung der Universitaeten Klagenfurt, Innsbruck und Wien (IFF), Klagenfurt (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In recent years small-volume biomass district heating systems (district heat grids) have attracted increasing interest in Austria. By the end of 1997 some 359 biomass-district heating systems with an overall capacity of approximately 483 MW were in operation. If a biomass-district heating plant and a solar plant are combined the solar plant can supply most of the heat required outside the heating season. At present Austria runs 12 solar-assisted biomass-district heating grids with collector areas between 225 square metres and 1,250 square metres. In order to run these biomass-district heating systems in an economically and technically efficient way it is necessary to assure high quality in terms of planning, construction and operation. A list of criteria is set up on the basis of first operational data in order to evaluate energy efficiency and economic performance. These criteria should be applied in order to ensure that energy, environment and economy are equally considered in the planning and construction of solar-assisted biomass-district heating plants. They should also be helpful for the approval procedures of projects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kleinraeumige Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen (Nahwaermenetze) fanden in den letzten Jahren zunehmendes Interesse in Oesterreich. So waren Ende 1997 insgesamt 359 Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen mit einer installierten Gesamtleistung von etwa 483 MW in Betrieb. Die Kombination einer Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlage mit einer Solaranlage bringt den Vorteil, dass die Waermebereitstellung ausserhalb der Heizsaison zu einem hohen Anteil ueber die Solaranlage vorgenommen werden kann. Derzeit werden in Oesterreich 12 solarunterstuetzte Biomasse-Nahwaermenetze mit Kollektorflaechen von 225 m{sup 2} bis 1.250 m{sup 2} betrieben. Um einen moeglichst effizienten und damit auch wirtschaftlichen Betrieb von solarunterstuetzten Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen zu gewaehrleisten, werden hohe Anforderungen an Planung, Ausfuehrung und Betrieb gestellt. Auf der

  13. The underground heat storage for solar-assisted district heating in Neckarsulm. First measuring results; Der Erdsonden-Waermespeicher fuer die solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung in Neckarsulm. Erste Messergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiwald, H.; Hahne, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-12-31

    A solar-assisted district heating system with seasonal underground heat storage is currently under construction in Neckarsulm (Baden-Wurttemberg). In the new residential area approximately 1,300 flats are going to be built during the next years. The overall energy demand (hot water and space heating) is supposed to be covered by 50% with solar energy. During the first phase the project will be subsidised in the frame of the BMBF programme `Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm III`. A solar plant consisting of 2,700 square metres of collectors, a buffer tank (100 cubic metre) and an underground heat storage with a volume of approx. 20,000 cubic metres will be constructed by the end of 1998. It will be the first plant in Germany where thermal energy generated of solar energy is stored at high temperatures (up to 80 C) directly in the earth and utilised without a heat pump. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Neckarsulm (Baden-Wuerttemberg) befindet sich derzeit eine solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung mit saisonalem Endsonden-Waermespeicher im Aufbau. Im Neubaugebiet Amorbach werden in den naechsten Jahren rund 1300 Wohneinheiten entstehen, deren Gesamtwaermebedarf (Warmwasser und Raumheizung) zu rund 50% mit Sonnenenergie gedeckt werden soll. In der ersten Phase wird das Projekt im Rahmen des BMBF-Programms `Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm III` gefoerdert. Bis Ende 1998 wird eine Solaranlage bestehend aus 2.700 m{sup 2} Kollektoren, einem Pufferspeicher (100 m{sup 3}) und einem Endsonden-Waermespeicher mit einem Volumen von ca. 20.000 m{sup 3} erstellt. Damit wird in Deutschland erstmalig eine Anlage realisiert, bei der solar erzeugte Waerme auf hohem Temperaturniveau (bis zu 80 C) direkt im Erdreich gespeichert und ohne Waermepumpe genutzt werden soll. (orig.)

  14. Status seminar `98: Solar-supported district heating with seasonal heat storage. Status report `98; Status-Seminar `98: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung - Saisonale Waermespeicherung. Statusbericht `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This status report refers to the BMBF (Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) status seminar: Solar-assisted district heat supply - seasonal heat storage that took place in Neckarsulm on 19th and 20th May. 1998. The report contains the reference papers and the status reports of all projects supported under the Ministry`s SOLARTHERMIE programme that have already been finished or are still running. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Statusbericht wird anlaesslich des BMBF-Statusseminars: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung - Saisonale Waermespeicherung am 19. und 20. Mai 1998 in Neckarsulm herausgegeben. Der Bericht enthaelt neben den Tagungsbeitraegen auch die Sachstandsberichte aller Projekte, die zu diesem Thema in den letzten Jahren von BMBF in dem Programm SOLARTHERMIE-2000 bereits abgeschlossen wurden oder z.Zt. gefoerdert werden. (orig.)

  15. Solar-assisted district heating systems, state-of-the-art and economic efficiency; Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung Stand der Technik und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik; Kuebler, R. [Steinbeis Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik (STZ-IGS), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After the successful testing of smaller solar-assisted district heat supply projects in the first half of the Nineties in Germany (e.g. Ravensburg, Koengen, Neckarsulm, Schwaebisch-Gmuend), the first large-scale plants with long term heat storage started to operate in Hamburg and Friedrichshafen. Thus a target has been reached that had seemed to be an illusion for a long time - the utilisation of solar energy generated in the summer for building heating in wintertime. In Hamburg (collector area = 3,000 square metres) and Friedrichshafen (collector area = 5,600 square metres when finished) buried hot-water storage tanks with a volume of 4,500 cubic metres and 12,000 cubic metres were built; bore-hole heat storage is being tested in a third demonstration project in Neckarsulm. The first part of this plant (collector area = 2,700 square metres, storage capacity approximately 20,000 cubic metres) was put in operation in October 1997. A fourth solar-assisted district heating system with a gravel/water heat storage (volume approximately 8,000 cubic metres) is currently under construction in Chemnitz and supposed to be completed in the second half of 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach der erfolgreichen Erprobung von kleineren solarunterstuetzten Nahwaermeprojekten in der ersten Haelfte der neunziger Jahre in Deutschland (z.B. Ravensburg, Koengen, Neckarsulm, Schwaebisch-Gmuend) gingen Ende 1996 in Hamburg und Friedrichshafen die ersten solaren Grossanlagen mit Langzeit-Waermespeicher in Betrieb. Damit wurde ein Ziel erreicht, das ueber viele Jahre hinweg utopisch erschienen war - mit der Sonnenenergie aus dem Sommer im Winter die Gebaeude zu beheizen. Waehrend in Hamburg (Kollektorflaeche 3.000 m{sup 2}) und in Friedrichshafen (5.600 m{sup 2} im Endausbau) eingegrabene Heisswasser-Waermespeicher mit einem Volumen von 4.500 m{sup 3} bzw. 12.000 m{sup 3} realisiert wurden, wird in einem dritten Demonstrationsprojekt in Neckarsulm ein Erdsonden-Waermespeicher erprobt. Die erste

  16. Assessing the potential of solar energy in pressurized irrigation networks. The case of Bembézar MI irrigation district (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Carrillo-Cobo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high energy requirements and the rising costs highlight the need to reduce the energy dependence of the irrigation sector. Alternative management strategies have been developed to reduce the energy consumption of the irrigated areas and to improve the efficiency in the water and energy use. In addition, the renewable energy sources are starting to be considered as an alternative to reduce energy costs with smaller environmental impacts. In this work, a new methodology, that combines sectoring as energy saving measure and solar energy, is developed. Thus, it reduces the energy requirements and the dependence on conventional energy resources. This methodology is applied to the irrigation district of Bembézar Margen Izquierda (Córdoba, Spain. The results show that organizing the network in two irrigation sectors, annual potential energy savings of 30.8% were achieved. Therefore, this measure reduces the annual energy bill in 30.4% without major investments. Then, a 2.1 MW photovoltaic would supply energy to the sector with higher energy consumption. However, conventional energy would be required (with an annual cost of € 33.6 ha-1 when solar energy is not available or it is not enough to supply the demanded flows. Both measures together would reduce the energy costs in 71.7% and the greenhouse gases emissions in 70.5%. The total investment would be M€ 2.8 but with a payback period of 8 years. At present, solar energy is a technically and economically viable alternative, which offers both economic and environmental benefits.

  17. Good planning for maximum efficiency. Part 1. Housing development of passive buildings with solar district heat supply; Sauber geplant is halb gewonnen. Teil 1. Passivhaussiedlung mit solarer Nahwaermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, R. [Ritter Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    A new development of 12 single-family dwellings was constructed with complex technical facilities and many innovative elements by Gewerbepark Ritter and Messrs. Paradigma, a provider of thermal solar systems. [German] Der Gewerbepark Ritter und die auf thermische Solarindustrie spezialisierte Firma Paradigma haben bei der Errichtung einer Siedlung mit 12 Einfamilienhaeusern mit einem komplexen Haustechnikkonzept ein wegweisendes Projekt mit vielen innovativen Neuerungen erfolgreich in die Tat umgesetzt. (orig.)

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  19. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  20. The solar-assisted district heating concept in Stuttgart-Burgholzhof; Das solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermekonzept Stuttgart-Burgholzhof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, D. [Neckarwerke Stuttgart AG (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The housing area Burgholzhof is located on a hill above the valley of Stuttgart in the city borough of Canstatt. The building area has a size of 13.4 hectare and will contain 1,360 flats with a total heated area of 86,000 square metres that can house 2,800 people. Heat will be supplied by a heating power station, a plant for thermal use of solar energy and a heat distribution system built by Neckarwerke Stuttgart (Stuttgart utility company). The Neckarwerke Stuttgart paid the construction costs of the plant for thermal utilisation of solar energy. They will not be included in the energy price charged to the consumer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Wohngebiet `Burgholzhof` liegt auf einer Anhoehe ueber dem Talkessel der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart im Stadtteil Bad-Cannstatt. Die Bebauungsflaeche betraegt nach einer im Jahr 1997 durchgefuehrten Arrondierung 13,4 ha. Im Endausbau werden etwa 1360 Wohneinheiten mit einer beheizten Gesamtflaeche von etwa 86 000 m{sup 2} entstanden sein. Somit koennen etwa 2800 Buergerinnen und Buerger in diesem neuen Stadtteil wohnen. Zur Waermeversorgung wurde ein Heizwerk, eine Anlage zur thermischen Nutzung der Sonnenenergie und ein Waermeverteilsystem von den NWS erstellt. Die Kosten fuer den Bau der Anlage zur thermischen Nutzung der Sonnenenergie wurden von den NWS uebernommen. Sie sind somit kein Bestandteil des an die Nutzer zu verrechnenden Waermepreises. (orig.)

  1. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important or perhaps the only determinant factor for

  2. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  3. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  4. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  5. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  7. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  8. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  9. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  10. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  11. Texas | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentive Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption Comptroller of Public Accounts Exemption of the wind-generation equipment for on-site use. Solar and Wind Energy Device Franchise Tax Deduction university, and tax-district supported public hospital facilities may qualify for low-cost financing for

  12. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  13. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  14. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  15. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  16. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  17. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  18. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  19. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  20. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  1. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  7. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  8. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  9. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  10. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  11. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  12. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  13. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  14. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  15. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  16. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  17. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  18. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  19. Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

  20. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  1. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  2. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  3. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  4. Solar heating action plan; Solvarme handlingsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jan Erik

    2011-10-15

    This solar action plan should be seen as a follow-up to the Danish Energy Agency's solar heating strategy from 2007, which showed great potential and opportunities for exploitation and use of solar heat in Denmark. In relation to the strategy from 2007, this action plan adjusted the distribution of solar heat from district heating plants and individual plants, but it is still the objective of this action plan to achieve the strategy's overall goal for 2030. With the implementation of the Action Plan in early 2012, it is estimated that in 2030 there will be about. 10 million m2 of solar collectors in operation, 8 million m2 for district heating and 2 million m2 for individual heating, equivalent to an installed capacity totaling 7 GW. The budget for actions in the Action Plan is about 80 million DKK annually over the next 5 years to initiate and ensure this development. (LN)

  5. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  6. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  7. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  8. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  9. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  10. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  11. Energy Neutral Districts in 2050. The Dutch Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Roossien, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    According to the EPBD, from the end of 2020 on all new buildings should be built as nearly zero energy buildings. Instead of focusing on buildings only, a district approach to energy supply and consumption can be advantageous as regards the energy performance and economics. The potential of renewable energy technologies can be utilized to a larger extent while fewer energy generators are needed. An example is a so called energy-hub, in which exchange, conversion and seasonal storage of energy can lead to energy neutral districts before 2050. The Dutch study Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development (Transep-DGO), financed largely by the AgentschapNL, has shown that this is possible. For energy neutral district development in 2050, six innovative energy concepts have been elaborated and the extent of energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 calculated. Three concepts are based on an idea of an energy hub - bio hub, geo hub and a solar hub. Other concepts are all-electric, conventional and hydrogen concepts. Calculations show that implementation of each of the concepts can lead to energy neutral districts in 2050 or even earlier. When personal transport is included, energy neutrality in 2050 is not feasible. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for four Dutch cities have been elaborated as pilots, in close cooperation with municipality representatives. Solar hub has been dynamically simulated in order to show the added value of the exchange, conversion and storage of energy flows on a district scale. Energy Pattern Generator (EPG) has been applied for simulation of a virtual district with 1,000 dwellings of various categories. A solar hub with collective heat storage can reduce the demanded storage capacity by 26%, and the total required solar collector surface by 30% at maximum compared to individual seasonal heat storage capacity in dwellings that are not connected in an energy hub. Energy hub

  12. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  13. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  14. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  15. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  16. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  17. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  18. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  19. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  20. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  1. Solar heating for a village; Ein Dorf heizt solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-07-05

    In Buesingen (administrative district of Konstanz) a solar thermal system with 1091 sqm collector area is put into operation. Together with two wood chip boilers they supply more than 100 private and municipal buildings with regenerative heat. [German] In Buesingen im Landkreis Konstanz ist eine solarthermische Anlage mit 1091 qm Kollektorflaeche in Betrieb gegangen. Zusammen mit zwei Hackschnitzelkesseln versorgt sie ueber 100 private und kommunale Gebaeude mit regenerativer Waerme.

  2. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Rufus; Pietruschka, Dirk; Sipilä, Kari

    participants being VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (HFT) and SSE Enterprise in United Kingdom. The demonstration cases described in the report......This report titled “Case studies and demonstrations” is the subtask D report of the IEA DHC|CHP Annex TS1 project “Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems” carried out between 2013 and 2016. The project was led by Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) with the other...... include examples on low temperature district heating systems, solar heating in a district heating system, heat pump based heat supply and energy storages for both peak load management and for seasonal heat storage. Some demonstrations have been implemented while others are at planning phase...

  3. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  4. Community Solar Value Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, John T [Extensible Energy; Cliburn, Jill [Cliburn and Associates

    2017-11-30

    The Community Solar Value Project (CSVP) is designed to assist electric utilities in designing better community solar programs. Better programs seek new sources of value to promote “win-win” solutions between utilities and their customers. The CSVP focused on five “challenge areas” in identifying new sources of value: - Strategic solar design for community solar projects (including technology choices, siting, orientation, and related issues) - Market research and targeted marketing approaches (for program design and for customer recruitment) - Procurement and financing (for establishing best practices that can bring economies of scale and economies of expertise) - Integration of “companion measures” (such as storage and demand-response options that can benefit customer and utility net load shapes) - Pricing in program design (including best practices for integration of identified value in program prices or credits) The CSVP directly engaged the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), and more than a dozen other utilities to develop improved community solar program designs. The outcomes include a plan at SMUD for over 100 MW or more of community and shared solar and support for new or expanded programs at 15 other utilities so far. Resulting best-practice solutions have not only informed program applications, but also have generated discussion among experts and industry associations about the new opportunities and challenges CSVP has brought forth. In these ways, the CSVP has impacted community solar programs and DER plans, competitive innovations and policies nationwide. The CSVP team has been led by Extensible Energy under John Powers, President and CEO. Jill Cliburn, of Santa Fe, NM-based Cliburn and Associates, has served as Principal Investigator. The team also benefitted from expertise from Navigant, Olivine Inc. and Millennium Energy, LLC, in addition to the collaborative and cost

  5. European research school on large scale solar thermal – SHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bales, Chris; Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well...... as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are five PhD students, three at universities and two...

  6. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  7. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  8. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  9. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  10. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. A Tale of Two Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  14. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  15. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  16. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  17. A low energy solar town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  18. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  19. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  20. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  1. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  2. Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  3. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  4. The technical use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, E.

    1993-01-01

    For all considerations on energy, information on energy-quantity and energy-value is necessary. Such information is presented for Germany as an example for an industrialized country. The application of solar heat for an Institute building is presented for a pilot project at the University Stuttgart. With unglazed solar collectors, a flooded pebble-bed store and a heat pump, about 60% of the Institute's heat demand can be supplied by solar energy. With the experience gained from this project, large district heating systems are designed for two different locations in Germany under differing conditions. For solar assisted house heating and domestic hot water, heat costs are obtained which are about twice the present heat cost in Germany. If solar energy assists domestic hot water production and house heating, costs can be achieved which are below present conventional heat cost. In addition, it will also reduce air pollution. (author). 9 figs., 6 tabs

  5. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  6. Thermal performance analysis of a solar heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Andersen, Ola Lie

    was developed to calculate thermal performances of the plant. In the Trnsys model, three solar collector fields with a total solar collector area of 33,300 m2, a seasonal water pit heat storage of 75,000 m3, a simplified CO2 HP, a simplified ORC unit and a simplified wood chip boiler were included. The energy......Detailed measurements were carried out on a large scale solar heating plant located in southern Denmark in order to evaluate thermal performances of the plant. Based on the measurements, energy flows of the plant were evaluated. A modified Trnsys model of the Marstal solar heating plant...... consumption of the district heating net was modeled by volume flow rate and given forward and return temperatures of the district heating net. Weather data from a weather station at the site of the plant were used in the calculations. The Trnsys calculated yearly thermal performance of the solar heating plant...

  7. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  8. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  9. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  10. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  11. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  12. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  13. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  14. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  16. 76 FR 41816 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Ocotillo Sol Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Ocotillo Sol Solar Project... (ROW) authorization request for the Ocotillo Sol Solar Energy Facility (Project), a 15-18 megawatt (MW... Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following methods: Mail: Noel Ludwig, California Desert District...

  17. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  18. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  19. Distributed heat generation in a district heating system

    OpenAIRE

    Lennermo, Gunnar; Lauenberg, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    District heating (OH) systems need to be improved  regarding integration  of decentralised  heat generation. Micro production, prosumers and smart grids are terms becoming more and more common  in  connection  to  the  power  grid.  Concerning district  heating,  the  development  is slower, although improving. Today there are a number of such decentralised units for heat generation,  mainly  solar,  that have been partly evaluated.  Previous  studies  have shown  that there is a need to deve...

  20. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  1. Flexibility of Large-Scale Solar Heating Plant with Heat Pump and Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luc, Katarzyna Marta; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to decrease biomass use in a district heating system. The paper focuses on the renewable energy-based district heating system in Marstal, Denmark, with heat produced in central solar heating plant, wood pellet boiler, heat pump and bio-oil boiler. The plant has been the object of research and developments...

  2. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  3. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  4. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  5. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    more about work by this consortium, which crosses national laboratories, on new materials and designs information on NREL's research and development of solar technologies. To receive new issues by email prize, focused on solar energy technologies, and will release the prize rules and open registration

  6. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  7. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar MHD is an important tool for understanding many solar phenomena. It also plays a crucial role in explaining the behaviour of more general cosmical magnetic fields and plasmas, since the Sun provides a natural laboratory in which such behaviour may be studied. While terrestrial experiments are invaluable in demonstrating general plasma properties, conclusions from them cannot be applied uncritically to solar plasmas and have in the past given rise to misconceptions about solar magnetic field behaviour. Important differences between a laboratory plasma on Earth and the Sun include the nature of boundary conditions, the energy balance, the effect of gravity and the size of the magnetic Reynolds number (generally of order unity on the Earth and very much larger on the Sun). The overall structure of the book is as follows. It begins with two introductory chapters on solar observations and the MHD equations. Then the fundamentals of MHD are developed in chapters on magnetostatics, waves, shocks, and instabilities. Finally, the theory is applied to the solar phenomena of atmospheric heating, sunspots, dynamos, flares, prominences, and the solar wind. (Auth.)

  8. Steps towards modern trends in district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasek Lubomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on new trends in district heating a cooling (DHC area and algorithms allowing incorporating new technologies and performing optimal control. Classical district heating usually means huge source (as heating plant and set of pipes which transfer heat energy through a medium, mostly water, across whole town and chilled water is returning back to the plant. Let’s imagine a modern city where buildings are consuming only a fraction of the energy contrary to what buildings required in the past. And especially during sunny or windy days, they have energy to spare. Around of such modern city is not only the one big heating plant, but perhaps solar and wind farms, waste incinerators, industrial companies with energy surpluses. Simply in this modern city are dozens, perhaps hundreds of small energy producers that share pipe network or at least part of it. In such a district energy system, production planning is more difficult. And not only production, modern houses with minimal heat loss and data connections also allow to plan consumption more effectively. The aim is to achieve the best solution evaluated by the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The method presented in this paper is based on a simulation using the proposed holonic distributed model. This model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are represented by prosumer objects. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning and realization of the production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in size and design. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most

  9. Solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullmann, H; Schmidt, B [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Industrialisierung des Bauens

    1976-01-01

    The utilisation possibilities of solar energy for the energy supplying of buildings are becoming increasingly more significant. Solar research at the moment aims predominantly with a high level of efficiency and therefore making accessible a significant range of applications for solar technology. Parallel to this are attempts to effect the saving of energy, be it in the demand for energy-saving constructions or in the increasing development and application of rational energy utilisation by technologists. The most important point of these activities at the moment, is still technological methods.

  10. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  12. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  13. Solar chulha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhao, P. H. [Department of Physics J.D. Institute of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal (India); Patrikar, S. R. [Department of Physics VNIT, Nagpur (India)

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  14. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  15. Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  16. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  17. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  18. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  19. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  20. Solar Schematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  1. Solar electricity in Africa: a reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas van der, R.J.; Hankins, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work is based on a random sample survey of 410 solar electricity systems in eight districts in Kenya. Actual technical performance and the perception of the users were analyzed with a view to determine how real the option of solar electricity is, and what needs to be done to facilitate it further. The survey was carried out by Energy Alternatives Africa, a Kenyan NGO, and financed under the ESMAP 1 program of the World Bank. The article expresses the opinions of the authors and not of their institutions; The authors are solely responsible for the contents. (Author)

  2. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  3. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  4. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  5. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bing; Wang Songling; Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Selecting the optimal type of district heating (DH) system is of great importance because different heating systems have different levels of efficiency, which will impact the system economics, environment and energy use. In this study, seven DH systems were analysed and evaluated by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The dimensionless number-goodness was introduced into the calculation, the economics, environment and energy technology factors were considered synthetically, and the final goodness values were obtained. The results show that if only one of the economics, environment or energy technology factors are considered, different heating systems have different goodness values. When all three factors were taken into account, the final ranking of goodness values was: combined heating and power>gas-fired boiler>water-source heat pump>coal-fired boiler>ground-source heat pump>solar-energy heat pump>oil-fired boiler. The combined heating and power system is the best choice from all seven systems; the gas-fired boiler system is the best of the three boiler systems for heating purpose; and the water-source heat pump is the best of the three heat pump systems for heating and cooling.

  6. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  7. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  8. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  9. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  10. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  11. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  13. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while...

  14. Optimization of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; From, Niels

    2011-01-01

    are calculated for various local fuels in energyPRO. A comparison has been made between the reference model and the basis for individual solutions. The greatest reduction in heat price is obtained by replacing one engine with a new biogas where heat production is divided by 66% of biogas, 13% natural gas engines......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (Biogas, Solar and Geothermal) for district heating purpose. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models...

  15. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  16. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (2) changes in the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... Districts. (a) For the purpose of selecting committee members, the following districts of the production...

  17. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  18. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  19. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower districts. 982.31 Section 982.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... importance of production in each district and the number of growers in each district; (2) the geographic...

  20. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  1. Regional District Attorney's Offices - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    District Stephen B. Wallace, District Attorney Physical Address: 204 Chief Eddie Hoffman Hwy. Bethel, AK Hours M-TH 8-4:30, F 8-12 Kenai - 3rd Judicial District Scot H. Leaders, District Attorney Trading Bay

  2. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Shallow, well- Deep alluvial Deep to moderate Mostly shallow drained, residual soils, with clay, depth... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... Adelaida District viticultural area are hillside residual soils, which generally have shallow rooting...

  3. Road map for district heating. The role of district heating in the energy system. Main report; Denmark; Roadmap for fjernvarmen. Fjernvarmens rolle i energisystemet. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, M.; Aabye Moeller, A.; Eggert, A.; Bjerregaard, M. (Fjernvarmens Udviklingscenter, AArhus (Denmark)); Dyrelund, A. (Ramboell, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); OErsted Pedersen, H. (Ea Energianalyse, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Lund, H. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years many studies of how Denmark can be fossil free by 2050 it is agreed that district heating will play a crucial role. District heating is an important factor of phasing out fossil fuels in an energy-and cost-effective way. But the future energy supply without fossil fuels poses new requirements for district heating. In the future, district heating shall provide energy for low-energy houses, have low distribution losses and use a variety of heat sources such as geothermal, solar, waste, surplus heat, CHP and various biomass con-version processes. In addition, it must all be done in an energy efficient way and in an active interaction with production of electricity and electricity consumption and, through integration of electricity from wind, solar and wave power. Low temperature, use of heat pumps and the interaction with electricity and biomass will be keywords. It is not only in Denmark we will need an active development of future technologies and systems. Large parts of Europe and many other parts of the world need the same development, and today Denmark has a significant export in the market - an export that has risen sharply, despite the recent economic recession. There is thus a double need to actively promote the development of future district heating technologies. We will partly need the technology development to realize the goal of a fossil free society and secondly because it is necessary to maintain and expand the export. This report contains a number of proposals for concrete actions - a roadmap for the development of district heating. The project is anchored at the District Energy Development Center that will work for an implementation of the concrete project ideas after the project completion. There is a need to increase the activity level for development of district heating. There is therefore a need to ensure financing of this development. We suggest that this can be done by creating an opportunity for a more sustained funding, for

  4. Road map for district heating. The role of district heating in the energy system. Summary report; Denmark; Roadmap for fjernvarmen. Fjernvarmens rolle i energisystemet. Resumerapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, M.; Aabye Moeller, A.; Eggert, A.; Bjerregaard, M. (Fjernvarmens Udviklingscenter, AArhus (Denmark)); Dyrelund, A. (Ramboell, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); OErsted Pedersen, H. (Ea Energianalyse, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Lund, H. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years many studies of how Denmark can be fossil free by 2050 it is agreed that district heating will play a crucial role. District heating is an important factor of phasing out fossil fuels in an energy-and cost-effective way. But the future energy supply without fossil fuels poses new requirements for district heating. In the future, district heating shall provide energy for low-energy houses, have low distribution losses and use a variety of heat sources such as geothermal, solar, waste, surplus heat, CHP and various biomass con-version processes. In addition, it must all be done in an energy efficient way and in an active interaction with production of electricity and electricity consumption and, through integration of electricity from wind, solar and wave power. Low temperature, use of heat pumps and the interaction with electricity and biomass will be keywords. It is not only in Denmark we will need an active development of future technologies and systems. Large parts of Europe and many other parts of the world need the same development, and today Denmark has a significant export in the market - an export that has risen sharply, despite the recent economic recession. There is thus a double need to actively promote the development of future district heating technologies. We will partly need the technology development to realize the goal of a fossil free society and secondly because it is necessary to maintain and expand the export. This report contains a number of proposals for concrete actions - a roadmap for the development of district heating. The project is anchored at the District Energy Development Center that will work for an implementation of the concrete project ideas after the project completion. There is a need to increase the activity level for development of district heating. There is therefore a need to ensure financing of this development. We suggest that this can be done by creating an opportunity for a more sustained funding, for

  5. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  6. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  7. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  8. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  9. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  12. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  13. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2011-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  14. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  15. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  16. Solar Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7,81. The Chlorine experiment, located in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, was the first solar neutrino experiment to be set up. A tank of. 105 gallons of perchloroethylene in which the electron neu- trino reacts with chlorine to ...

  17. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  18. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  19. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  20. Techno-economic analysis of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    are calculated using the same procedure according to the use of various local renewable fuels known as “biogas option,” “solar option,” “heat pump option,” and “imported heat option.” A comparison has been made between the reference option and other options. The greatest reduction in heat cost is obtained from......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (biogas, solar, and heat pump) for district heating purposes. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models...... the biogas option by replacing a new engine, where 66 % of the current fuel is substituted with biogas....

  1. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  2. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L.; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Methods Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as “electric refrigerators”) at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. Results At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Conclusion Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar

  3. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar refrigerator prices. Copyright © 2017. Published

  4. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  5. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  6. Solar Training Network and Solar Ready Vets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalstrom, Tenley Ann

    2016-09-14

    In 2016, the White House announced the Solar Ready Vets program, funded under DOE's SunShot initiative would be administered by The Solar Foundation to connect transitioning military personnel to solar training and employment as they separate from service. This presentation is geared to informing and recruiting employer partners for the Solar Ready Vets program, and the Solar Training Network. It describes the programs, and the benefits to employers that choose to connect to the programs.

  7. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  8. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  9. Solar reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J

    1983-01-15

    The reflector in the form of part of a cylindrical surface delimited by two envelopes is installed on a platform which can move on an inclined curvilinear path. The angle of inclination of the path depends on the latitude of the locality. The reflected rays are focused on the tubular absorber. One of the axes of the platform is linked to a brake controlled by a sensor for intensity of solar radiation. The sensor is a pipe filled with liquid with high value of the temperature expansion coefficient, for example alcohol. The pipe is insulated from one side and is accessible to the solar rays from the opposite. One end of the pipe is equipped with a bending end or piston. In order to expand the fluid in the sensor, the pipe acts on the brake, and the reflector is installed in a position corresponding to the maximum radiation intensity.

  10. Solar pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Oscillations of the surface of the sun, with periods between 5 and 160 min, have been observed by several spectroscopic techniques, and preliminary interpretations have been offered. The 5-min oscillations are global, nonradial, acoustic standing waves in the subsurface zone. Internal differential rotation speeds have been deduced from the Doppler splitting of these waves. Oscillations with longer periods have been reported, but need confirmation. The longest periods offer a tool for investigating the solar interior

  11. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  12. Solar chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R∼0.7R sun ) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  13. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  14. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  15. Test programme `Solgaarden`, Kolding. 1. Solar cell system located in an urban renewal district. 2. Prefabricated, built-in elevators for an older, occupied block of flats; Forsoegsprogram Solgaarden, Kolding. 1. Solcelleanlaeg i et byfornyelsesomraade. 2. Praefabrikerede elevatorer til indbygning i en beboet aeldre etageejendom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim was to promote the use of photovoltaic power systems in Denmark by setting up such a system for preliminary performance testing in a district undergoing urban renewal in the Danish town of Kolding in Jutland. This area, and the renewal initiatives taken, are described in addition to the photovoltaic units positioned on the roof and on the balconies of an older apartment building in the area. The brief descriptive texts are illustrated with a considerable number of diagrams and photographs. (AB)

  16. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  17. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  18. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  19. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  20. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.

    1975-08-01

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  1. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO 2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by

  2. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  3. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  4. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  5. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara...

  6. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  8. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  9. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  10. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  11. Solar heating cooling. Preparation of possible participation in IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    For the Danish solar heating industries it is interesting to discuss the domestic market possibilities and the export possibilities for solar heating cooling systems. The Danish solar heating sector also wants to participate in the international collaboration within IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 25 'Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings'. The Danish Energy Agency therefore has granted means for this project to discuss: The price of cooling for 3 different solar cooling methods (absorption cooling, desiccant cooling and ejector cooling); Market possibilities in Denmark and abroad; The advantages by Danish participation in IEA Task 25. The task has been solved through literature studies to establish status for the 3 technologies. It turned out that ejector cooling by low temperatures (85 deg. C from the solar collector) exists as pilot plants in relation to district heating, but is still not commercial accessible. Desiccant cooling, where the supplied heat has temperatures down to 55 deg. C is a well-developed technology. However only a handful of pilot plants with solar heating exists, and thus optimization relating to operation strategy and economy is on the experimental stage. Absorption cooling plants driven by solar heating are found in a large number in Japan and are also demonstrated in several other countries. The combination of absorption heating pump and solar heating is considered to be commercial accessible. Solar heating is interesting as heat source of to the extent that it can replace other sources of heat without the economy being depreciated. This can be the case in South Europe if: 1) oil or natural gas is used for heating; 2) a solar heating system already exists, e.g. for domestic water supply, and is installed so that the marginal costs by solar heating supply of the ventilation plant is reduced. All in all the above conditions mean that the market for solar heating for cooling is very limited in Europe, where almost everybody are

  12. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  13. Heat demand mapping and district heating grid expansion analysis: Case study of Velika Gorica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotić Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient cogeneration and district heating systems have a significant potential for primary energy savings and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the utilization of a waste heat and renewable energy sources. These potentials are still highly underutilized in most European countries. They also play a key role in the planning of future energy systems due to their positive impact on the increase of integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, for example wind and solar in a combination with power to heat technologies. In order to ensure optimal levels of district heating penetration into an energy system, a comprehensive analysis is necessary to determine the actual demands and the potential energy supply. Economical analysis of the grid expansion by using the GIS based mapping methods hasn’t been demonstrated so far. This paper presents a heat demand mapping methodology and the use of its output for the district heating network expansion analysis. The result are showing that more than 59% of the heat demand could be covered by the district heating in the city of Velika Gorica, which is two times more than the present share. The most important reason of the district heating's unfulfilled potential is already existing natural gas infrastructure.

  14. Heat demand mapping and district heating grid expansion analysis: Case study of Velika Gorica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorotić, Hrvoje; Novosel, Tomislav; Duić, Neven; Pukšec, Tomislav

    2017-10-01

    Highly efficient cogeneration and district heating systems have a significant potential for primary energy savings and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the utilization of a waste heat and renewable energy sources. These potentials are still highly underutilized in most European countries. They also play a key role in the planning of future energy systems due to their positive impact on the increase of integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, for example wind and solar in a combination with power to heat technologies. In order to ensure optimal levels of district heating penetration into an energy system, a comprehensive analysis is necessary to determine the actual demands and the potential energy supply. Economical analysis of the grid expansion by using the GIS based mapping methods hasn't been demonstrated so far. This paper presents a heat demand mapping methodology and the use of its output for the district heating network expansion analysis. The result are showing that more than 59% of the heat demand could be covered by the district heating in the city of Velika Gorica, which is two times more than the present share. The most important reason of the district heating's unfulfilled potential is already existing natural gas infrastructure.

  15. Status of solar desalination in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, T.V. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, Krishnagiri 635109, Tamilnadu (India); Aybar, H.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, G. Magosa, KKTC, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Nedunchezhian, N. [Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-12-15

    The work was motivated by the increasing awareness of the need for enhancing water supplies schemes in arid lands featuring an appropriate technology for solar energy use in the desalination field in India. The fresh water crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity at different times of the year. India's rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles also increases the need for fresh water. Fresh water is increasingly taking centre stage on the economic and political agenda, as more and more disputes between and within states, districts, regions, and even at the community level arises. The conventional desalination technologies like multi stage flash, multiple effect, vapor compression, iron exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis are expensive for the production of small amount of fresh water, also use of conventional energy sources has a negative impact on the environment. Solar distillation represents a most attractive and simple technique among other distillation processes, and it is especially suited to small-scale units at locations where solar energy is considerable. India, being a tropical country is blessed with plenty of sunshine. The average daily solar radiation varies between 4 and 7 kWh per square meter for different parts of the country. There are on an average 250-300 clear sunny days in a year, thus it receives about 5000 trillion kWh of solar energy in a year. In spite of the limitations of being a dilute source and intermittent in nature, solar energy has the potential for meeting and supplementing various energy requirements. Solar energy systems being modular in nature could be installed in any capacity as per the requirement. This paper consists of an overall review and technical assessments of various passive and active solar distillation developments in India. This review also recommended some research areas in this field leading to high efficiency are highlighted. (author)

  16. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  17. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  18. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  19. Options for rural electrification in Arua District, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onzia, Joseph; Núñez Bosch, Osvaldo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed a power generation system suitable for rural area application. The electrification options were proposed for secondary schools, health centres, households and trading centre loads using solar PV system, diesel fired generators, biogas co-fired diesel generators and grid extension. The study is based on simulation, modeling and optimization of renewable energy system. Designs for the options considered were based on the electricity demand and environmental conditions of Arua district. From the designs, capital costs for each option were determined. This was used in carrying out simulations in HOMER computer program to come up with the most cost effective options. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the effects of variation in costs such as diesel price and capital cost of solar PV system.Based on simulation results, it has been found that the trading centre, with 500 kW of electrical demand, must be electrified using the grid extension. The breakeven grid distance is 75.1 km. Grid extension become cost effective compared to diesel generators and solar PV system within this distance. The load at household level ranges from as low as 16 W to 5 kW. For 103 W peak load, the most cost effective option was solar PV system. The second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator. For schools and health centres with load of up to 15 kW, biogas co-fired generator is the best compared to the total cost of 18 kW diesel fired generator which is higher. Therefore, where biogas cannot be generated, diesel generators should be used. Based on the amount of pollutants produced, a biogas co-fired diesel generator is the best option. (full text)

  20. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District § 3.25-1 Fifth district. (a) The District Office is in Portsmouth, Va. (b) The Fifth Coast Guard District is comprised of: North Carolina; Virginia; District of Columbia; Maryland; Delaware; that part of... boundary at the shoreline at the North Carolina-South Carolina border, point located at approximately 30°55...

  1. Solar neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of solar neutrino was performed by using the reaction /sup 37/cl+..nu..sub(e)..-->../sup 37/Ar+e/sup -/ by Davis et al. The argon gas produced through the above mentioned reaction in a tank containing 610 ton of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ was collected and measured. The rate of production of /sup 37/Ar was 0.13+-0.20/day, and the net production rate by the solar neutrino was 0.06+-0.20/day, being corrected for background. This value corresponds to 0.5+-1.0 SNU. Theoretical calculation with the model of spherically symmetric solar development gave an expected value of 5.6 SNU, which is in contradiction with the experimental value. Reason of this discrepancy was considered. The possibility of decay of neutrino to the other particles with weak interaction is very slight. Various models of the sun were investigated, but the results were still inconsistent with the experiment. The mixing of matters in the sun may cause the reduction of neutrino. If He gas comes to the center of the sun by mixing, the reaction, /sup 3/He+/sup 3/He, progresses excessively at the center, and it produces the expansion of the core of the sun. Then, the temperature drops and the neutrino is reduced. Various models which can explain the neutrino of less than ISNU have been presented. However, other theory says that the reduction of neutrino is not expected even if the mixing is considered. A problem concerning the mixing is whether the thermal instability which causes the mixing exists. (Kato, T.).

  2. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  3. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  4. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  5. The solar two power tower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.C.; Laquil, P. de III; Skowronski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a cooperative project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to convert the 10-MWe Solar One Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. Successful operation of the convert plant to be called Solar Two, will reduce the economic risks in building the initial commercial power tower projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. In a molten salt power tower plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver, atop a tower. Molten salt is heated in the receiver and stored until it is needed to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. Joining the SCE and DOE in sponsoring in sponsoring this project are the following organizations: Los Alamos department of Water Power, Idaho Power Company, PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, City of Pasadena, California Energy Commission, Electric Power Research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Commission, Electric Power research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Bechtel Corporation. The Solar Two project will convert the Solar One heat transfer system from a water/steam type to molten nitrate salt by replacing the water/steam receiver and oil/rock thermal storage system with a nitrate salt receiver, salt thermal storage, and steam generator. The estimate cost of Solar Two, including 3-year test period, is 48.5 millions. The plant will be on line in early 1995. (authors)

  6. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  7. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  8. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2010-01-01

    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  9. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  10. Smallholder agricultural technology development in Soroti district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    National Agricultural Advisory and Development Services (NAADS) in Soroti district. The study shows that .... important additions are HIV/AIDS, basic principles of nutrition ... in supplying inputs to farmers and technology delivery, while the .... Table 3. Social differentiation of NAADS and FFS groups in Soroti district 2004.

  11. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  12. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  13. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  14. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  15. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  16. the creation of new districts in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    However, it focuses also on the financial burden that these newly created districts place on the locality and ..... Reports on one of the newly created districts paint a grim picture: “For more than 10 .... of the Consolidated Fund for such grants.80.

  17. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  18. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  19. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  20. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  1. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  2. Solar Innovation Infographic | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovation Infographic Solar Innovation Infographic Scientists have been working to harness power from the sun for about 200 years. Over the past 40 years, solar energy technologies have made research developments and industry milestones that helped shape our U.S. solar industry. Infographic Embed

  3. Midscale Commercial Solar Market | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    States To help prospective solar customers understand and use the policies of their state for midsized Customers, which equips prospective solar customers with the tools necessary to understand and use the solar corporate customers (Alabama Power's Renewable Procurement Program), and a company with approval to sell

  4. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  5. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  6. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights

  7. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the knowledge about solar flares which has been obtained through observations from the earth and from space by various methods is presented. High-resolution cinematography is best carried out at H-alpha wavelengths to reveal the structure, time history, and location of flares. The classification flares in H alpha according to either physical or morphological criteria is discussed. The study of flare morphology, which shows where, when, and how flares occur, is important for evaluating theories of flares. Consideration is given to studies of flares by optical spectroscopy, radio emissions, and at X-ray and XUV wavelengths. Research has shown where and possibly why flares occur, but the physics of the instability involved, of the particle acceleration, and of the heating are still not understood. (IAA)

  8. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  9. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  10. Solar tank. 'Solar ship' and solar development project at Freiburg; Sonne im Tank. 'Sonnenschiff' und Solarsiedlung in Freiburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alle, N.

    2007-05-15

    In the 'Vauban' district of the German city of Freiburg, 59 plusenergy terrace houses and one block of offices and shops were constructed during the past five years. The latter is named 'solar ship' and has nine penthouses on its roof which generate more power than they consume. The building is 125 m long and is both a building and a power station. (orig.)

  11. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  12. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.

  13. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  14. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  15. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  16. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  17. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  18. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Norhafana; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Z. A. A. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of...

  20. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  1. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system of a recently constructed office & laboratory building, the Novel Technologies Laboratory (NTL). The multi-generative system will support cooling, heating and hot water production feeding the system of the NTL building, as a demonstration project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  2. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  3. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  4. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  5. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  6. Expanding Canadian renewable and conservation expenses class 43.1 to include solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Class 43.1 is a tax measure that allows for accelerated write-offs of renewable energy products for business use. Technologies that are included in the class for accelerated write off include renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, geo-thermal, fuel cells, bio-gas, cogeneration systems, and district heating and solar. In 2005, the federal budget announced 2 changes to class 43.1 The write off rate has been increased from 30 per cent to 50 per cent. This change would reduce the effective cost of solar energy for business owners. The class has also been extended to include distribution assets for district energy assets and biogas equipment. However, no changes to the restrictions for solar were announced. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) argues that class 43.1 currently does not help the solar industries, nor do the proposed changes solve this situation. The restrictions placed on solar eliminate about 90 per cent of the industrial applications for solar that class 43.1 should support. Class 43.1 currently covers only 1 per cent of photovoltaic applications, 2 per cent of solar hot water applications, and 9 per cent of solar air heating applications. CanSIA claims that an increase in tax write-offs for photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar air heating would help increase the solar market from 1,060 kW to a market size of 11,600 kW. CanSIA has made recommendations to the federal government to remove the size restrictions for PV systems and to remove the restrictions on applications for solar thermal systems. 2 tabs

  7. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2012-01-01

      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : paul.gelissen@orange.fr). - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  8. Solar possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D

    1979-01-01

    A major energy transition of some kind is inevitable. For rich lands and poor alike, the energy patterns of the past are not prologue to the future. The oil-based societies of the industrial world cannot be sustained and cannot be replicated. The huge increases in oil prices since 1973 virtually guarantee that the Third World will never derive most of its energy from petroleum. Gross world oil production is likely to peak within the next decade; per capita world oil production may have already peaked. The world thus faces an awesome discontinuity in the production and use of energy. In the past, such energy transformations invariably produced far-reaching social change. The 18th-century substitution of coal for wood and wind in Europe, for example, accelerated and refashioned the industrial revolution. Later, the shift to petroleum altered the nature of travel, shrinking the planet and reshaping its cities. The coming energy transition can be counted upon to fundamentally alter tomorrow's world. This will be as true of a solar era as of a nuclear age. Sunlight is abundant, dependable, and free. With some minor fluctuations, the sun has been bestowing its bounty on the earth for more than four billion years, and it is expected to continue to do so for several billion more. The use of photovoltaic, wind power, biomass conversion, and hydro power for energy production are also discussed.

  9. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Smith, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    The current observational and theoretical status of solar flares as a typical astrophysical problem is reviewed with especial reference to the intense and complex energy release in large flares. Observations and their diagnostic applications are discussed in three broad areas: thermal radiation at temperatures T 5 K; thermal radiation at T > approximately 10 5 K; and non-thermal radiation and particles. Particular emphasis is given to the most recent observational discoveries such as flare γ-rays, interplanetary Langmuir waves, and the ubiquitous association of soft x-ray loops with flares, and also the progress in particle diagnostics of hard x-ray and radio bursts. The theoretical problems of primary energy release are considered in terms of both possible magnetic configuration and in plasma instabilities and the question of achieving the necessary flash power discussed. The credibility of models for the secondary redistribution through the atmosphere of the primary magnetic energy released in terms of conduction, convection, radiation and particle transport is examined. Progress made in the flare problem in the past decade is assessed and some possible reasons why no convincing solution has yet been found are considered. 296 references. (U.K.)

  10. Sacramento District History (1929-2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Willie; Asay, Laura; Davy, Barbara J; Doyle, Brian; Fast, James P; Gonzalez, Jennifer L; Layton, Debra A; Nevins, Michael J; Taylor, James H; Van Dam, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Although the Sacramento District was established in 1929, this document recaptures the legendary history from the mid-1800's and the repercussions the Central Valley endured regarding the navigation...

  11. VT Data - Overlay District 20170802, Shelburne

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:Lakeshore Conservation OverlyNeighborhood OverlayVillage Design Review OverlayVillage Core OverlayWater...

  12. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  13. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  14. FOUNDING OF THE DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Zivic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.

  15. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  16. VT Data - Overlay District 20170407, Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay District Data is included:Design Review OverlayInstitutional Core Campus OverlayRH Density Bonus OverlayNatural Resource Protection OverlayRL...

  17. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  18. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  19. The contribution of district clinical specialist team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Tshwane District Health Services, Gauteng Department of Health, South Africa .... assurance managers conducted monthly scoring of antenatal records at delivery ... Clinical audit and health system strengthening are part of DCSTs' scope.

  20. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  1. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  2. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  3. Forschungverbund Sonnenenergie. Subjects 97/98: Solar energy and buildings; Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie. Themen 97/98: Solare Gebaeudetechniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume comprises 19 contributions on solar technology in buildings, e.g. seasonal heat storage, perspectives and uses of district heat, seasonal shading of outer walls with transparent thermal insulation, solar energy use in modernized buildings, and photovoltaic systems in the outer walls of buildings. (AKF) [Deutsch] Der Band enthaelt 19 Beitraege, die sich mit solaren Gebaeudetechniken befassen, insbesondere mit der saisonalen Waermespeicherung, der Perspektiven bzw. Bedeutung der Nahwaerme, der saisonalen Abschattung von transparent gedaemmten Gebaeudewaenden, der Solarenergienutzung bei der Sanierung von Gebaeuden, der Photovoltaik-Fassadenanlagen. (AKF)

  4. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  5. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  6. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  7. Solar heating cooling. Preparation of possible participation in IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25; Solvarmedrevet koeling. Forberedelse af evt. deltagelse i IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the Danish solar heating industries it is interesting to discuss the domestic market possibilities and the export possibilities for solar heating cooling systems. The Danish solar heating sector also wants to participate in the international collaboration within IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 25 'Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings'. The Danish Energy Agency therefore has granted means for this project to discuss: The price of cooling for 3 different solar cooling methods (absorption cooling, desiccant cooling and ejector cooling); Market possibilities in Denmark and abroad; The advantages by Danish participation in IEA Task 25. The task has been solved through literature studies to establish status for the 3 technologies. It turned out that ejector cooling by low temperatures (85 deg. C from the solar collector) exists as pilot plants in relation to district heating, but is still not commercial accessible. Desiccant cooling, where the supplied heat has temperatures down to 55 deg. C is a well-developed technology. However only a handful of pilot plants with solar heating exists, and thus optimization relating to operation strategy and economy is on the experimental stage. Absorption cooling plants driven by solar heating are found in a large number in Japan and are also demonstrated in several other countries. The combination of absorption heating pump and solar heating is considered to be commercial accessible. Solar heating is interesting as heat source of to the exent that it can replace other sources of heat without the economy being depreciated. This can be the case in South Europe if: 1) oil or natural gas is used for heating; 2) a solar heating system already exists, e.g. for domestic water supply, and is installed so that the marginal costs by solar heating supply of the ventilation plant is reduced. All in all the above conditions mean that the market for solar heating for cooling is very limited in Europe, where almost

  8. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  9. Economic Possibilities and Management of Solar Energy Use in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Marinela KRSTINIC NIZIC; Elena RUDAN

    2013-01-01

    Due to its geographical position and its climate conditions, Croatia as a tourism destination has numerous and completely untapped potentials in solar energy application. Every tourism coastal and island settlement could resolve their key issues in hotels, private accommodation, and other tourism bearers by applying the district heating/cooling systems. Specific condition along the Adriatic Coast should be indicated, with increase in energy security representing an important tourism factor. A...

  10. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  11. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  12. Principles of solar engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D Yogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Solar Energy ConversionGlobal Energy Needs and ResourcesSolar EnergyEnergy StorageEconomics of Solar SystemsSummary of RE ResourcesForecast of Future Energy MixReferencesFundamentals of Solar RadiationThe Physics of the Sun and Its Energy TransportThermal Radiation FundamentalsSun-Earth Geometric RelationshipSolar RadiationEstimation of Terrestrial Solar RadiationModels Based on Long-Term Measured Horizontal Solar RadiationMeasurement of Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Mapping Using Satellite DataReferencesSuggested ReadingsSolar Thermal CollectorsRadiative Properties and Characteristics of MaterialsFlat-Plate CollectorsTubular Solar Energy CollectorsExperimental Testing of CollectorsConcentrating Solar CollectorsParabolic Trough ConcentratorCompound-Curvature Solar ConcentratorsCentral Receiver CollectorFresnel Reflectors and LensesSolar Concentrator SummaryReferencesSuggested ReadingThermal Energy Storage and TransportThermal Energy StorageTypes of TESDesign of Storage SystemEnergy Transport ...

  13. Introduction to solar cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Hae; Lee, Jun Sin

    2009-08-01

    This book introduces solar cell production. It is made up eight chapters, which are summary of solar cell with structure and prospect of the business, special variable of solar cell on light of the sun and factor causing variable of solar cell, production of solar cell with surface texturing, diffusion, metal printing dry and firing and edge isolation, process of solar cell on silicone wafer for solar cell, forming of electrodes, introduction of thin film solar cell on operating of solar cell, process of production and high efficiency of thin film solar cell, sorting of solar cell and production with background of silicone solar cell and thin film solar cell, structure and production of thin film solar cell and compound solar cell, introduction of solar cell module and the Industrial condition and prospect of solar cell.

  14. Renewable energy options in the Hradec Kralove and Pardubice districts, Eastern Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye Olesen, G.; Beranovski, J.

    1993-06-01

    A detailed evaluation of a number of potential renewable energy sources in the districts of Hradec Kralove and Pardubice in Northern Bohemia ( Czech Republic). The possible uses of solar energy in relation to solar water heating and district heating were analyzed. The use of wind power by connecting wind turbines to the grid was not considered to be cost effective owing to low wind resources in this area (mean wind speed at 10m height is below 3 m/s). Possibilities for producing methane were investigated in relation to manures, sewage sludges and wet organic household and industrial wastes. Biomass fuel resources were examined from the point of view of straw, wood chips and biomass crops. Hydroelectric plants already exist and there are some resources of geothermal heat at a lower temperature. Estimates are given of renewable energy potentials dealt with, showing current available resources and potential resources if 50% of household wastes are sorted in organic and inorganic fractions, if 20% of sugar wastes is used for producing methane, if use of wood chips significantly increases and if waste water plants are contructed in Hradec Kralove and Novy Bydzov. These changes could take place before the year 2000. Animal manures, straw and wood resources cover 80% of renewable energy resources potential, excluding solar energy and biomass crops. The compiled data also gives information on estimated investment and running costs. (AB)

  15. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  16. Golden Rays - July 2017 | Solar Research | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , subscribe to the Solar Newsletter. SUBSCRIBE Hot Topics Two solar installers secure solar panels on the roof that has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar panels while leveraging existing

  17. Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Calvin Lee

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables

  18. Application and development of solar energy in building industry and its prospects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhisheng; Zhang Guoqiang; Li Dongmei; Zhou Jin; Li Lijuan; Li Lixin

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest country in energy consumption. More and more energy demand pressures cause the Chinese government to review its economy and energy policies in order to support the sustainable development. In China, the building sector amounts to 27.8% total energy consumption, which is only behind the industry sector. China has abundant solar energy resource, which is extensively applied to buildings. Therefore, solar energy utilization in buildings has become one of the most important issues to help China optimize the energy proportion, increasing energy efficiency and protecting the environment. Solar energy resource and its district distribution in China are introduced in detail in this paper, and the representative solar energy application to the building sector is highlighted as well. The solar energy utilization obstacles, especially policy disadvantages in building sector in China, are reviewed. Moreover, the application prospects of solar energy in building sector are presented in combination with the China economic and household industry growth

  19. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  20. District heating as the infrastructure for competition among fuels and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram

    2016-01-01

    for increased energy efficiency. Additional technologies suitable for small-scale networks are heat pumps, solar panels and local biomass in the form of straw or biogas. For large-scale urban networks, incineration of urban waste and geothermal heat are key technologies. With heat storages district heating...... infrastructure can contribute significantly to balancing the intermittency of wind power. This paper is an update of the authors' article published in Energy Policy in 2003 focusing on the European directives focusing on competition in the electricity and gas network industries and promotion of renewables...... and cogeneration but limited support for the development and expansion of the district heating infrastructure. It was partly based on a contribution to the Shared Analysis Project for the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy, concerning the penetration of combined heat and power (CHP), energy saving...

  1. Placement and efficiency effects on radiative forcing of solar installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg, Brian R.; Ruch, Patrick; Paredes, Stephan; Michel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The promise for harnessing solar energy being hampered by cost, triggered efforts to reduce them. As a consequence low-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaics (PV) panels prevail. Conversely, in the traditional energy sector efficiency is extremely important due to the direct costs associated to fuels. This also affects solar energy due to the radiative forcing caused by the dark solar panels. In this paper we extend the concept of energy payback time by including the effect of albedo change, which gives a better assessment of the system sustainability. We present an analysis on the short and medium term climate forcing effects of different solar collectors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and demonstrate that efficiency is important to reduce the collector area and cost. This also influences the embodied energy and the global warming potential. We show that a placement of a high concentration photovoltaic thermal solar power station outside of the city using a district cooling system has a double beneficial effect since it improves the solar conversion efficiency and reduces the energy demand for cooling in the city. We also explain the mechanisms of the current economic development of solar technologies and anticipate changes

  2. Placement and efficiency effects on radiative forcing of solar installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Brian R.; Ruch, Patrick; Paredes, Stephan; Michel, Bruno, E-mail: bmi@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research - Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2015-09-28

    The promise for harnessing solar energy being hampered by cost, triggered efforts to reduce them. As a consequence low-efficiency, low-cost photovoltaics (PV) panels prevail. Conversely, in the traditional energy sector efficiency is extremely important due to the direct costs associated to fuels. This also affects solar energy due to the radiative forcing caused by the dark solar panels. In this paper we extend the concept of energy payback time by including the effect of albedo change, which gives a better assessment of the system sustainability. We present an analysis on the short and medium term climate forcing effects of different solar collectors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and demonstrate that efficiency is important to reduce the collector area and cost. This also influences the embodied energy and the global warming potential. We show that a placement of a high concentration photovoltaic thermal solar power station outside of the city using a district cooling system has a double beneficial effect since it improves the solar conversion efficiency and reduces the energy demand for cooling in the city. We also explain the mechanisms of the current economic development of solar technologies and anticipate changes.

  3. The Partnership Pact: Fulfilling School Districts' Research Needs with University-District Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole; Weitzel, Bruce; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Naegele, Zulema; Smith, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent shift in university-district partnership models from traditional transactional partnerships, which lack a shared purpose, to transformational partnerships that are mutually beneficial to both universities and school districts. These transformational research-practice partnerships have gained popularity in the United States…

  4. Diagnosis of district potential in terms of renewable energies. Report 1 - Present situation: Assessment of renewable energy production, Identification and quantification of territory's potentialities in terms of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    After a presentation of the Gers district context (geography, administrative organisation, demography, housing, economy, expertise), the report presents the energy situation, an overview of the solar thermal sector (installations and installers), of the solar photovoltaic sector (existing and projected installations, installers), of hydroelectricity, of wood-energy (individual heating, industrial heating plants, planned installations), of wind energy, of biogas, and of geothermal energy (existing and planned installations). It proposes an assessment of these energies as a whole. Then, after an overview of the district situation with respect to national objectives and to other districts of the region, the study reports an identification and quantification of potentialities in terms of theoretical resources for different energy sources (solar, wind, hydraulic, wood, methanization, valorizable biomass, geothermal, and agri-fuels). Avoided CO 2 emissions are assessed

  5. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  6. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  7. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  8. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar ultraviolet hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmah Ali

    1995-01-01

    The paper discussed the following subjects: the sources of ultraviolet radiation, solar ultraviolet radiation definition, effects of over exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, exposure limits and radiation protection of this radiation

  10. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar energy promises realized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudshoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US market for solar cells grew 36% in 2009. Thousands of new jobs were created, many millions are invested and new businesses see new opportunities. Optimism among investors, incentivising government policy and new technological developments all contribute to these positive developments. This article provides an update of the incentive measures and their effects and a brief overview of the three solar energy technologies: photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal and concentrated solar power (CSP) [nl

  12. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  13. 3D Solar Potential Modelling and Analysis: a Case Study for the City of Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kausika, B.B.; Moshrefzadeh, Mandana; Kolbe, Thomas; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    The city of Utrecht in the Netherlands has high ambitions in realizing locally produced renewable energy, especially using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy panels. By the year 2030, the Utrecht Central Station district aims to be energy neutral. The present contribution describes two developed methods

  14. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  15. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  16. Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Photo of a city landscape with a sun in the background. Solar energy research at NREL includes photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar grid and systems integration, and market research and analysis. Photovoltaic Research Photo of a roof-mounted PV array on the NREL campus. NREL's

  17. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  18. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  19. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  20. Solar sail deployment experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shimose, Shigeru; 下瀬 滋

    2006-01-01

    Solar Sail move by receiving momentum of photons in sunlight. This paper presents results of some Spin-Stabilized Solar Sail deployment experiment. ISAS has successfully deployed, for the first time in the world, the polyimide Solar Sail taking advantage of centrifugal force in space. Based on this result, the new deployment mechanism is being developed which retracts the 50 m diameter sail.

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  2. Solar heating - status and strategy. Research, development and demonstration; Solvarme - status og strategi. Forskning, udvikling og demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The Danish Energy Authority has prepared research and development strategies for a number of energy technologies, including solar heating. This report presents an inventory of solar heating and proposes a strategy for further development. The report has been prepared by a number of important stakeholders in the Danish solar heating area. The inventory part of the report includes most solar heating technologies, however, emphasis is on technologies which have had or are expected to become important for exploitation in Denmark. The strategy part of the report proposes prioritized areas in research, development and demonstration based on international trends and Danish strong and weak points, which are: 1) centralized solar heating supply, district heating, 2) individual solar heating supply in connection with development and construction of buildings, building integration, and finally 3) product development of solar collectors. (BA)

  3. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  4. 'Solurban' project - Solar utilisation potential of urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Montavon, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Compagnon, R. [Ecole d' ingenieurs et d' architectes de Fribourg (EIAF), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO), Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined three urban locations in Switzerland with respect to their potentials for using solar energy and daylight to reduce energy demands in the lighting, heating and hot-water generation areas. The three urban areas examined included the Matthaeus district in Basle with its older residential apartment buildings, the Bellevaux residential district of Lausanne and the Meyrin district in Geneva - a nineteen-sixties satellite town. The calculation methodology and the three-dimensional digital models used are discussed. The results, including radiation availability and sky-access are discussed. Appropriate active and passive solar technologies are reviewed.

  5. EERE Showcase Event (Solar Decathlon 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolles, Eric [Orange County Great Park Corporation, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The goal of the Orange County Great Park Corporation (Great Park) is to successfully host the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015. In furtherance of that goal, tasks to be performed within the current reporting period include the following: Task 1.0 Arrange Site Team Visits for January 2015 The Great Park arranged appropriate meeting space for the site team visits over a three-day period, January 8, 2015 through January 10, 2015. Instead of a meeting in Hanger 244, the DOE requested a different meeting space. The working team met in the Operations offices on January 8th. The student teams were welcomed at the City of Irvine’s Lakeview Senior Center on January 9th, and came back on January 10th for breakout sessions. Task 2.0 Outreach Activities The following outreach activities related to the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 occurred during and prior to the event: • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 on the City’s website. (cityofirvine.org) • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 through the City’s and Great Park’s social media channels, including Facebook and Twitter. (facebook.com/cityofirvine, facebook.com/orangecountygreatpark, twitter.com/City_of_Irvine, twitter.com/ocgreatpark) • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 and student visit through a City Council Announcement. • Worked to set-up meetings between the U.S. Department of Energy team and potential donors/key stakeholders in Irvine. • Began ICTV filming and coverage of the Solar Decathlon 2015 teams. This includes student team interviews, interview with Richard King and b-roll footage. • Facilitated an interview with Sarah Farrar and the Orange County Register during the recent student visit in January • Information in May was provided to Irvine Unified School District and Tustin Unified School District promoting the three Education Days that the DOE will host during the event. More DOE information is due in August, which

  6. Solar Proton Events in Six Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    Based on materials the catalogs of solar proton events (SPE) in 1955 ‒ 2010 and list SPE for the current 24 solar cycle (SC) are examined confirmed SPE with E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 proton cm-2 s ster-1 (pfu) from Švestka and Simon’s (1955 - 1969) and 5 volumes Logachev’s (1970 - 2006) Catalogs of SPE. Historically thus it was formed, that the measurements of the proton fluxes began in the epoch “increased” solar activity (SC 18 ‒ 22), and includes transition period of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction from epoch “increased” to the epoch “lowered” solar activity (22 ‒ 23 SC). In current 24 SC ‒ first SC of the incipient epoch of “lowered” SA ‒ SPE realize under the new conditions, to that of previously not observed. As showed a study of five solar cycles with the reliable measurements of E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 pfu (1964 - 2013): ‒ a quantity of SPEs remained approximately identical in SC 20, 21, somewhat decreased in the initial solar cycle of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (22), but it returned to the same quantity in, the base for the period of reconstruction, SC 23. ‒ Into the first 5 years of the each solar cycle development the rate of the proton generation events noticeably increased in 22 cycles of solar activity and returned to the average in cycles 23 and 24. ‒ Extreme solar flare events are achieved, as a rule, in the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (August - September 1859; June 1991; October ‒ November 2003.), it is confirmed also for SPE: the extreme fluxes of solar protons (S4) except one (August 1972) were occurred in period of perestroika (SC 22 and 23). This can speak, that inside the epochs SA, when the generation of magnetic field in the convective zone works in the steady-state regime, extreme SPE are improbable. ‒ The largest in the fluxes of protons (S3, S4) occur in the complexes of the active regions flare events, where magnetic field more

  7. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-02

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.

  8. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  9. The strategic role of district heating in renewable energy use; Die strategische Bedeutung der Nahwaerme zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nast, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung; Boehnisch, H. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    District heating allows the utilization of biomass in low emission heating plants, the exploitation of solar energy and the seasonal storage of heat. If a sustainable energy supply system is to be created, district heating must not only be the system of choice for new housing districts but must also be retrofitted in existing settlements. The detailed analysis of a rural community shows that large segments of existing buildings can be connected to district heating systems even in regions with predominantly single dwellings and rural housing densities. The conditions necessary for establishing district heating systems are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahwaermesysteme ermoeglichen, fossile und biogene Brennstoffe einzusetzen und lassen sich an saisonale Waermespeicher anschliessen. Zum Aufbau einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung ist Nahwaerme nicht nur in Neubaugebieten notwendig sondern muss auch in den schon laenger genutzten Gebaeudebestand integriert werden. Das Beispiel einer umfassend analysierten Landgemeinde zeigt, dass ein grosser Teil des bestehenden Gebaeudebestandes an Waermenetze angeschlossen werden kann, selbst bei vorherrschender Bebauung mit Einfamilienhaeusern und laendlichen Gebaeudedichten. Die notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Aufbau einer Nahwaermeversorgung werden erlaeutert. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The long-range options of energy sources are the breeding reactor, nuclear fusion, and solar energy. Concerning solar energy three systems are being developed: First the photovoltaic cells which are almost ready for industrial production, but which are still too expensive - at least today. Secondly the thermal utilization of solar radiation. Compared to these, thirdly, the photobiological and photochemical possibilities of solar energy utilization have been somewhat neglected so far. However, the photolysis of water by solar energy is a very promising option for future energy demands. This can be done by making use of the photo-synthetic splitting of water in technical facilities or with semiconductors.

  11. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  12. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  13. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  14. The solar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  15. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  16. Solar irridiance variations and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mean value for the 1 AU total solar irradiance of 1368.2 W/m 2 and a downward trend of 0.05% per year were derived from measurements by the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission during 1980. Distinct temporary solar irradiance decreases associated with solar activity maxima were observed with a series of nine dips from April to October recurring at fairly regular intervals averaging 24 days. The decreases correlate inversely with sunspot area, 2800-MHz flux, and Zurich sunspot number. Dominant periods common to the irradiance and sunspot area power spectra link the irradiance decreases to sunspot flux deficit in solar active regions. Evidence of significant total irradiance modulation by facular flux excess is cited. A persistent radiative cycle of active regions consistent with the ACRIM irradiance results and the morphology of solar active regions was found. The pattern of regularly recurrent active region maxima between April and October suggests an asymmetry in solar activity generation during this period

  17. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating

  18. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audunson, T.; Aure, J.; Billfalk, L.; Rye, H.; Thundrup, A.

    1976-01-01

    The hydrophysical investigations made in order to evaluate the suitability of the waters adjacent to two prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Outer Oslofjord district are summarised. The evaluation of the diffusion and dilution of releases of 200 and 100 m 3 /s heated by 10 0 Cin this area is also presented. The effects of an intake in the Haaoeyfjord basin is also considered. The conclusions are presented in a collective report for all prospective sites 'Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district, recipient evaluations' (Termiske kraftverk i Oslofjordomraadet, resipientvurderinger) published by Fiskeridirektoratets Havforskningsinstitutt, Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning and Vassdrags- og Havnelaboratoriet, dated November 1975. (JIW)

  20. The district nursing service: a national treasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldman, Crystal

    2014-08-01

    District nurses are a national treasure. They are the key professionals who will enable the agenda of patients being cared for at home to be realised. They are highly trusted and valued by communities who lead and manage teams of nurses and nursing assistants expertly to deliver high-quality care in the patient's own home. In an era where the focus is now turning to the community for more care, more actions are required to increase our district nursing workforce. This article discusses the above issues in relation to recent reports on the current status of community nursing.

  1. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  2. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  3. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  6. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  7. Intra-District Disparities in Primary Education: A Case Study of Bankura District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Maji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of education and its response to different educational opportunities vary from one spatial unit to another depending on various factors like social, economic, cultural, and institutional. It is understood that certain regions acquire relative advancements over others in terms of human resource development and human capital formation. The key purpose of this research is to examine the intra-district disparities in primary education in Bankura District one of the districts of West Bengal. It ranks 11thamong the 19 districts of West Bengal (Human Development Report, 2007.  Overall literacy rate of the district stands at 70.26% but the district scores low in terms of female literacy rates, which is 60.05%,whereas the male literacy rate is 80.05%, which is a huge gender literacy gap of 20%. There are also regional inequalities existing at block level. Kotulpur ranks first with a literacy rate of 78.01% while Saltora occupies the bottom position with literacy rate of just 61.45% (Census of India, 2011. The level of educational development is dependent on several factors—enrolment ratio, dropout and repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratio, habitations covered by educational institutions, space-student ratio, drinking water and sanitation facilities in school, etc. In this context, the present study aims at examining the issues of intra-district disparities in educational attainment with regard to various educational amenities of Bankura district, West Bengal. Ten attributes have been selected to examine the level of development in primary education. It is clear from the study that the level of development in eastern part of the district is relatively better in comparison to other regions. Economic backwardness and physical bottlenecks continue to be major issues in western blocks.

  8. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  9. Snow melting system with electric heating using photovoltaic power generation; Solar yusetsuko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M; Fujita, S; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper clarifies the solar characteristics in Hachinohe district, to investigate a possibility of the snow melting system with electric heating using solar energy. Power demand for snow melting, power generated by the photovoltaic (PV) array, area of PV array, and working conditions of the system, as to temperature, precipitation and snowfall, were investigated. The percentage of sunshine is 44% in Hachinohe district, which has more fortunate natural condition for utilizing solar radiation compared with that of 20% in Aomori prefecture. The intensity of solar radiation in winter from December to March is around 500 W/m{sup 2} in average, which is equivalent to the quantity of solar radiation, around 2 kWh/m{sup 2} a day. When assuming that snow on the road surface is frozen at the snowfall under the air temperature below -3{degree}C, the occurrence frequency is 50% during January and February in Hachinohe district, which means one frozen day for two days and is equivalent to the occurrence frequency of frozen days, 34% in average during winter. The electric application ratio is 0.34 at the maximum in winter. That is, days of 34% for one month are required for snow melting. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Rural district hospitals - essential cogs in the district health system - and primary healthcare re-engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K W D P; Couper, I

    2015-06-01

    The re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) is regarded as an essential precursor to the implementation of National Health Insurance in South Africa, but improvements in the provision of PHC services have been patchy. The authors contend that the role of well- functioning rural district hospitals as a hub from which PHC services can be most efficiently managed has been underestimated, and that the management of district hospitals and PHC clinics need to be co-located at the level of the rural district hospital, to allow for proper integration of care and effective healthcare provision.

  11. Solar lanterns or solar home lighting systems - Community preferences in East Timor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.; Aye, Lu; Fuller, R.J. [Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    Access to electrification in rural areas of East Timor is extremely limited with as few as 5% of rural households connected to electricity. The government of East Timor intends to increase rural access to electricity significantly in the coming decade. The introduction of small PV systems is envisaged for many households in the most remote areas. Several agencies have piloted the introduction of small solar home systems (SHS) and solar lanterns. In the Railaco sub-district of East Timor, some 1000 households have experience of using either SHS and/or solar lanterns and are in a unique position to indicate a preference regarding these forms of PV lighting technology. This paper reports on a survey of 76 households in Railaco investigating experience with PV lighting systems. Results of the survey indicate a strong preference by users for SHS rather than lanterns. The preference for SHS arose from a range of factors including: a perception of better light quality; ability to illuminate the whole house; reduced risk of damage to the PV equipment; and longer duration of nightly operation. The research indicates that where a single PV lighting system is provided, users are likely to prefer SHS to solar lanterns. (author)

  12. Characteristics of uranium districts of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium deposits are discovered in 15 ore districts of the Russian Federation. They are subdivided into four groups: Streltsovsky district with existing production centre, Stavropolsky district with depleted deposits, three prospective districts and ten reserve districts. The overview of new data on these districts is presented. Streltsovsky district with Priargunsky Production Centre include 19 molybdenum-uranium deposits of structure-bound volcanic type in caldera. The main activities in Stavropolsky district with two depleted uranium deposits are connected with restoration works and wastes rehabilitation. Except Streltsovsky district there are no more deposits in the Russian Federation prepared for uranium production. At the same time some uranium deposits of Vitimsky, Zauralsky, and West-Siberian districts are prospective for new development of production centres. They belong to the sandstone type, related to paleovalley or basal channel, and are suitable for ISL operation. The deposits of the other districts are considered to be reserve and considered unprofitable for uranium production at present and in the nearest future. The biggest of them is Aldansky district with gold-uranium deposits in potassium metasomatites in areas of Mesozoic activation of Archean cratons. Central Transbaikalsky, Yeniseisky, Yergeninsky, Onezhsky, Ladozhsky, Bureinsky, Khankaisky, Volgo-Uralsky reserve districts include mainly small-size deposits of vein, volcanic, surficial and metasomatite types with low uranium grades. (author)

  13. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  14. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A

    2013-01-01

    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  15. Solar Preheated Ventilation - Innovative Solar Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaberson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    .... This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects...

  16. Antiretroviral therapy programme outcomes in Tshwane district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To ascertain patient retention on ART after 5 years on treatment in one district of Gauteng Province, SA, establish the number of patients ... A retrospective cohort study of patients initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January and March .... ferred-out patients from the total of 381 leaves.

  17. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free…

  18. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once...

  19. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  20. Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    As policymakers debate the merits of new tests and intervention strategies to improve student achievement, some districts are exploring a more basic warning sign: Are students even showing up? A growing consensus of research points to chronic absence--defined by the national policy group Attendance Counts as missing 10 percent of school or…

  1. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  2. Report of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Michael F. Bryan; John B. Martin

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the 1994 forecasts for real output and inflation presented by 15 members of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable at their January 1994 meeting, highlighting the measurement of service sector prices and the role of small businesses in creating jobs.

  3. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  4. Assertiveness: making yourself heard in district nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Sally; Stewart, Fiona

    2005-06-01

    Being assertive is not the same as being aggressive. Assertiveness is a tool for expressing ourselves confidently, and a way of saying 'yes' and 'no' in an appropriate way. This article explores issues concerned with assertiveness in district nurse settings. It outlines helpful techniques to develop assertiveness, such as the broken record, fogging, negative assertion and negative inquiry.

  5. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  6. Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States...

  7. District profile: the shoe fits at Northampton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    An old county town that has retained its individuality through all the changes of the last three centuries, and is expanding vigorously to meet the challenge of the next--that is Northampton. The health services of the district reflect the town, and draw strength, as they always have done, from close links with the community they serve.

  8. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  9. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  10. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  11. Teachers Already Armed in Some Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    Shooting instructor Johnny Price looked at the teachers lined up in front of him. Mr. Price, the owner of Big Iron Concealed Handgun Training in Waco, Texas, spent two days this month training teachers and staff members from the Clifton school district in all they need to know to earn licenses to carry weapons out of sight. There is no indication…

  12. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  13. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical co...

  14. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 947.32 Section 947.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... consideration to (1) the relative importance of new areas of production, (2) changes in the relative position of...

  15. District Stressors and Teacher Evaluation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben; Mayrowetz, David; Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Umpstead, Regina R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Federal and state policymakers in the USA have sought to better differentiate the performance of K-12 teachers by enacting more rigorous evaluation policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether these policies are working as intended and explore whether district stressors such as funding, enrollment, and governance are…

  16. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather ... intense low pressure systems (India Meteorological. Department (IMD) .... which is responsible for the structural damage due to TC. ..... It fails to distinguish the more prone districts .... References. BMTPC 2006 Vulnerability Atlas of India: Earthquake,.

  17. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.

    2003-01-01

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  18. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seashore District. 27.3 Section 27.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CAPE...' studio, for appropriate small scale home occupations as the making and selling of traditional Cape Cod...

  19. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  20. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  1. Solar energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, A.; Winter, R.

    1993-07-01

    Many aspects with regard to the practical use of solar energy are discussed. This guide is aimed at informing local and regional administrators, committee members of housing corporations and public utilities and public relations officers on the possibilities to use solar energy. In chapter one an overview is given of the use of solar energy in the housing sector, the recreational sector, agricultural sector, industry, trade and other sectors. In the chapters two, three and four attention is paid to passive solar energy, active thermal solar energy and photovoltaic energy respectively. In the chapters five and six aspects concerning the implementation of solar energy systems in practice are discussed. First an outline of the parties involved in implementing solar energy is given: the municipality, the energy utility, the province, local authorities, advisors, housing constructors and the occupants of the buildings. Then attention is paid to the consequences of implementing solar energy for the building inspection and regulations, the finances, energy savings and the environment. In chapter seven an overview is given of the subsidy regulations of the European Community, the Dutch national and local governments. Chapter contains addresses of solar thermal systems, photovoltaic systems and other institutes operating in the field of solar energy, as well as the titles of a number of brochures and courses. 51 figs., 7 tabs., 86 refs

  2. Solar Market Research and Analysis | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis Solar Market Research and Analysis Through rigorous data collection, analysis, and stakeholder engagement, NREL's Solar Market Research and Analysis efforts further solar technologies' role in solar panels. Key areas for NREL's solar market research and analysis portfolio include the following

  3. Solar Market Research and Analysis Projects | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Research and Analysis Projects Solar Market Research and Analysis Projects Solar market research and analysis efforts at NREL seek to further solar technologies' role in supporting a more . Midscale Commercial Market Solar Analysis NREL experts are providing analysis to expand the midscale solar

  4. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  6. DIY Solar Market Analysis Webinar Series: Solar Resource and Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Series: Solar Resource and Technical Potential DIY Solar Market Analysis Webinar Series: Solar Resource and Technical Potential Wednesday, June 11, 2014 As part of a Do-It-Yourself Solar Market Analysis Potential | State, Local, and Tribal Governments | NREL DIY Solar Market Analysis Webinar

  7. The reliability and usability of district health information software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliability and usability of district health information software: case studies from Tanzania. ... The District Health Information System (DHIS) software from the Health Information System ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District Assembly: Capacity Issues and Challenges. ... This paper uses a case study approach to appraise the capacity of the Asante Akyem South District Assembly (AASDA) in ...

  9. Comparative study of soil physical characteristics of Jaipur district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vikram

    The present study was carried in Jaipur district of Rajasthan state to measure physical characteristics of the soil samples from different districts of Jaipur. Soils samples were taken at ..... Random field models in earth sciences. Academic. Press.

  10. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. Methods: A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Results: Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. Conclusion: The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified. PMID:28581379

  12. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  13. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Łach, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden), and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  14. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Doračić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  15. Solar opacities constrained by solar neutrinos and solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    This review discusses the current situation for opacities at the solar center, the solar surface, and for the few million kelvin temperatures that occur below the convection zone. The solar center conditions are important because they are crucial for the neutrino production, which continues to be predicted about 4 times that observed. The main extinction effects there are free-free photon absorption in the electric fields of the hydrogen, helium and the CNO atoms, free electron scattering of photons, and the bound-free and bound-bound absorption of photons by iron atoms with two electrons in the 1s bound level. An assumption that the iron is condensed-out below the convection zone, and the opacity in the central regions is thereby reduced, results in about a 25 percent reduction in the central opacity but only a 5 percent reduction at the base of the convection zone. Furthermore, the p-mode solar oscillations are changed with this assumption, and do not fit the observed ones as well as for standard models. A discussion of the large effective opacity reduction by weakly interacting massive particles also results in poor agreement with observed p-mode oscillation frequencies. The much larger opacities for the solar surface layers from the Los Alamos Astrophysical Opacity Library instead of the widely used Cox and Tabor values show small improvements in oscillation frequency predictions, but the largest effect is in the discussion of p-mode stability. Solar oscillation frequencies can serve as an opacity experiment for the temperatures and densities, respectively, of a few million kelvin and between 0.1 and 10 g/cm 3 . Current oscillation frequency calculations indicate that possibly the Opacity Library values need an increase of typically 15 percent just at the bottom of the convection zone at 3 x 10 6 K. 41 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  16. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  17. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-11-30

    Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  20. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  1. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  2. Little Reason for Being: A Case of School District Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Pam

    In 1980, Tonnelly Central School District became the first school district in New York State to be dissolved pursuant to Section 1505 of Education Law, marking the first use of dissolution and annexation as a means by which to address the programmatic and management problems encountered in the operation of a central school district. Problems faced…

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  4. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2018-01-01

    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  5. Stakeholder Experiences in District-University Administrator Preparation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, Karen L.; Wilson, Jacob McKinley, III

    2016-01-01

    Our qualitative study explores the lived experiences of district stakeholders in university-district leadership preparation programs. Collaborative partnerships between school districts and universities focused on developing quality school leader are a part of recent efforts to provide the field of public education with exemplary leadership. The…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  7. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  8. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  9. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…

  10. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  11. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  12. Solar photocatalyzed process economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) cost estimates for solar water detoxification systems based on the best available information as of October 1990. Comparative costs are also provided for competitive conventional technologies which are presently applied in the water detoxification market. Although costs for solar photocatalytic systems are presently higher than those of competitive technologies, cost and performance improvements should lead to cost competitiveness by 1995

  13. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  14. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  15. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The observed capture rate for solar neutrinos in the /sup 37/Cl detector is lower than the predicted capture rate. This discrepancy between theory and observation is known as the 'solar neutrino problem.' The author reviews the basic elements in this problem: the detector efficiency, the theory of stellar (solar) evolution, the nuclear physics of energy generation, and the uncertainties in the predictions. He also answers the questions of: So What? and What Next?

  16. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  17. Profile in solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Woods, A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews an innovative solar hot water heater and its inventor/entrepreneur. It includes the inventor's strategy for developing and marketing the product and his ideas on the state of the solar industry in general. There is a brief description of the solar water heater which has as prominent features its skylight-like appearance, resistance to freeze damage, simplicity and low cost

  18. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  19. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    After the bad year of 2002, the european solar thermal market returned to double-digit growth rate in 2003: 22%. Nevertheless, the sector still has not recovered the growth rate it had in the early 2000 and European Commission targets are still far from being reached. This paper presents the thermal solar industry barometer. Data on the evolution of annually installed surfaces in the european union since 1993, the cumulated capacity of thermal collectors installed in the European Union, the estimation of the annual energy production associated to european solar thermal capacities and the main companies of the European Union thermal solar sector are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  1. Solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial 51 Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs

  2. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  3. The inconstant solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite measures the radiant power emitted by the sun in the direction of the earth and has worked flawlessly since 1980. The main motivation for ACRIM's use to measure the solar constant is the determination of the extent to which this quantity's variations affect earth weather and climate. Data from the solar minimum of 1986-1987 is eagerly anticipated, with a view to the possible presence of a solar cycle variation in addition to that caused directly by sunspots

  4. CERN... Solar Style

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Inventor William van Sprolant presenting the Solar Club's latest invention, the solar fountain. The CERN Solar Club is giving new meaning to the phrase 'fun in the sun' with their most recently developed contraption, the Solar Fountain. The Fountain was presented to the public just outside of Restaurant 1 on Wednesday October, 17th and uses solar energy to run a water pump at its base to propel a golden plastic ball up into the air. As lovely as the fountain is, the funny thing about it is that the height of the water jet and the ball are an artistic method of measuring the amount of solar power being captured by the photovoltaique panel (no batteries included). The day it was presented started out cloudy, but as the afternoon wore on, the weather brightened and the fountain jumped to life. William van Sprolant, the Solar Fountain's inventor, had great fun with the fountain in front of a group of visiting children swiveling the solar panel in multiple directions. 'Everyone who installs solar panels worrie...

  5. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  6. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  7. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  8. Solar thermal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives details of Plan Soleil established in 2000 by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management and its identification of solar hot water systems and combined domestic solar hot water and space heating as promising sectors for development. The setting up of a support scheme for investment by Plan Soleil is discussed along with subsidies and grants, manufacturers and importers, the guarantee of solar results, and the quality of plants, components, and installers. The costs of thermal solar equipment, and results of the French assessment programme are considered. The need for quality standards is stressed

  9. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  10. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  13. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  14. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  15. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  16. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  17. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  18. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  20. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  1. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Samy A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Solar and Space Department, Marsed Street, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined. (author)

  2. Exploring the ethos of district nursing, 1885-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    The history of district nursing in Australia explored in this paper reveals a continuity in the essential values held by district nurses for over a century. These nurses practised holistic, family-centred nursing from the very origins of district nursing service. The events surrounding the establishment of Community Health Centres in the 1970s challenged district nurses to reconsider their role, while at the same time reconfirming their essential ethos. These values that underpinned district nursing practice and challenges to these values are examined in this paper.

  3. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  4. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  5. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar furnace); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For solar furnace, study was made on analysis of its use purpose, analysis of the profitability of large furnaces, safety, maintenance, solar radiation and construction site conditions. On production of fused refractories by solar furnace, in particular, giving attention on zircon sand and mullite, their fusion property was clarified, and their fine structure was obtained by rapid heating/cooling. On production of Si by solar furnace, in this fiscal year, in particular, study was made on the 1st step (production of coarse Si from silica rock) and 4th step (deposition of Si by decomposition of SiHCl{sub 3}). On study on high-temperature processing followed by chemical reaction, study was made on production of carborundum by solar furnace, its application to high-temperature gas reaction, and its application to heat storage by high-temperature chemical reaction. In addition, for large solar furnace, study was made on its maintenance, safety, pollution problem, and construction site condition based on estimation of direct solar radiation profile maps. Inlands of Tokai, Kii-Hanto and Seto-Naikai districts were confirmed to be suitable for solar furnaces. (NEDO)

  6. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  7. National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A; Kramer, K A

    1979-01-01

    The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

  8. The potential of global solar radiation in the Silesia region as a renewable source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Silesia has been at the centre of the Polish coal industry for many years and thus has experienced poorer air quality compared to other voivodeships. However, in recent years strong economic transformation in the area has led to a considerable reduction in coal production. This study aimed to assess the variability of global solar radiation at selected stations within the Silesian voivodeship, in order to re-evaluate the resources of renewable solar energy during the period 1994–2013. The theoretical potential of solar radiation was calculated based on a three-dimensional terrain model. The data on global solar radiation from 13 stations within the Silesia region, covering the period 1994–2013, were obtained from the Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The most favourable conditions for the use of solar energy were found at the cities Sosnowiec and Cieszyn. The largest increase in global radiation over the research period was observed in Zabrze. The average annual global radiation ranged between 600–1300 kWh·m−2. Digital Elevation Models (DEM for selected districts of the Silesia region were used to calculate the theoretical potential of global solar radiation. The highest theoretical potential of global radiation was found in the district of Cieszyn, located at the highest altitude.

  9. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion......Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  10. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  11. Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshagen, H.; Kjeldsen, P.; Tesaker, E.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations of the spreading of cooling water effluent from a nuclear power plant in the waters adjacent to prospective sites in the Oslofjord district are made on the basis of the available hydrological data. Such data has been primarily that presented in reports 1-4 in the report series 'Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district'. In addition data from the Laboratory's previous investigations at Slagentangen and meteorological data from Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning for release points Brenntangen, Son, Langangsfjorden, Ormefjorden, Vardeaasen and Slagentangen have been used. The calculations are concentrated on trapping in layers, current effects on horizontal spreading and heat transfer through the surface. The results are presented partly as tables showing to what extent the cooling water breaks through to the surface with deeply submerged discharge and use of a diffuser, partly as diagrams showing layer zones and salinity, and partly as temperature rise curves drawn on maps of the various recipient areas. (JIW)

  12. Fault diagnosis methods for district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakanen, J.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Kuismin, J.; Ahonen, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    A district heating substation is a demanding process for fault diagnosis. The process is nonlinear, load conditions of the district heating network change unpredictably and standard instrumentation is designed only for control and local monitoring purposes, not for automated diagnosis. Extra instrumentation means additional cost, which is usually not acceptable to consumers. That is why all conventional methods are not applicable in this environment. The paper presents five different approaches to fault diagnosis. While developing the methods, various kinds of pragmatic aspects and robustness had to be considered in order to achieve practical solutions. The presented methods are: classification of faults using performance indexing, static and physical modelling of process equipment, energy balance of the process, interactive fault tree reasoning and statistical tests. The methods are applied to a control valve, a heat excharger, a mud separating device and the whole process. The developed methods are verified in practice using simulation, simulation or field tests. (orig.) (25 refs.)

  13. District heating in energetic and environmental politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    di Riscaldamento Urbano, Associazione Italiana

    1989-05-01

    A review is made of what was said at the Third Bi-annual Convention (Reggio Emilia, 24-25/11/88) of AIRU (the Italian Association for District Heating). In general, the seven papers presented dealt with the following points: the technology of primary energy supply, thermal energy production, energy distribution to users, environmental engineering and socio-economic factors. Emphasis was given to the themes: district heating in Italy within the framework of the 1988 National Energy Plan and the impact on energy marketing due to the future free trade system planned for the E.E.C. in 1992. A critical analysis is made of: forecasts of primary energy demand for the year 2000, plans for the reduction of dependency on foreign supplied petroleum, the promotion of the increased use of natural gas and methane and overall energy conservation measures as called for by the National Energy Plan.

  14. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensuresecurity of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak heating load can be reduced through building demand side management. The building thermal mass can be used to shift the heating supply under the circumstance withoutjeopardizing the consumer thermal co...

  15. Radioactive wastes in the Malargue district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    After a short description of the Malargue district and the site of the radioactive mineral wastes accumulated till 1986, as a result of the uranium ores treatment, the book describes the regulatory framework and criticizes the process of approval of the environmental restoration project. Deficiencies in the public opinion consultation are pointed out. The urgency of a prompt execution of the restoration works is stressed

  16. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov

    2017-01-01

    The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...

  17. Hotel Performance and Agglomeration of Tourist Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Marco-Lajara, Bartolomé; Claver Cortés, Enrique; Úbeda García, Mercedes; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper measures the impact on profitability of the geographical area where the vacation hotels of the Spanish Mediterranean are situated. It places a special emphasis on analysing the tourist districts existing in this coastal Spanish area and the extent to which the degree of business agglomeration at each destination affects hotel profit. Due to the characteristics of the service sector, and after a revision of the agglomeration literature, a ‘U’-shaped relationship is hypothesized betw...

  18. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  19. Solar air conditioning. Dresden colloquium; Solare Klimatisierung. Dresdner Kolloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Subjects: R + D activities in solar air conditioning; dessicative and evaporative cooling (DEC) - systems and components; Chances of solar air conditioning in Europe; Practical experience with solar-assisted air conditioning; Performance of a solar system at Lissabon; DEC system in the Alsenblock building, Berlin; Does solar air conditioning require specially designed buildings; Performance of solar heated adsorption refrigerators; Low-capacity absacity absorption systems for solar air conditioning. [German] Die Kolloquiumsschrift beinhaltet Unterlagen ueber die abgehandelten Themen. Sie lauten: F and E-Aktivitaeten im Bereich Solare Klimatisierung; SGK(DEC-Technik) - ausgefuehrte Anlagen und deren Komponenten; Chancen der solaren Klimatisierung in Europa; Erfahrungen mit der solarunterstuetzten Klimatisierung; Energieverbrauch und Regelung von SGK-Anlagen; Betriebserfahrungen einer Solaranlage in Lissabon; Realisierung der SGK im Alsenblock Berlin; Erfordert die solare Klimatisierung besondere Gebaeude?; Betriebserfahrungen mit solar beheizten Adsorptionskaeltemaschinen; Absorptionsanlagen kleiner Leistung fuer solare Klimatisierung. (orig.)

  20. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  1. The lower solar atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of chemical composition studies. The highly dynamical nature of the photosphere does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still an open question how

  2. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  3. Priority to solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    There are many different combinations of solar heating systems and heat pumps in the market; some of them differ considerably in terms of the design concept, control management and storage technology. One thing they all have in common is that solar heating comes first.

  4. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  5. Sunmotor Solar Shack 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article described a solar pump that was developed by Alberta-based Sunmotor International Ltd. The prototype Solar Shack 120 was recently deployed in central Alberta for a remediation project for Devon Canada. The portable solar pump unit is well suited for environmental remediation in the oilpatch where conventional electricity is not available. The solar panels automatically run the pump whenever there is enough sunlight and there is liquid in the sump. Devon Canada wanted a system that continues to pump during cloudy weather to avoid the accumulation of effluent in the sump. The Solar Shack 120 delivers 120 volts of alternating current (vac) power. Solar panels are used to charge a bank of large sealed batteries that supply direct power (DC) to an inverter, which converts it into AC. A thermostat control was added to shut off the pumps in cold weather to avoid battery discharging. The Solar Shack unit has possibilities in countries with unreliable electricity supplies. It could provide a backup power supply that automatically kicks in whenever the power grid goes down. Sunmotor International Ltd. can supply complete remote power systems for both AC and DC electrical requirements. The systems are designed for each application to ensure customer satisfaction. The company is currently building a unit that integrates solar power with a generator backup, thereby eliminating the annoying noise of a continually running generator. 1 fig

  6. Solar Environmental Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Astronomische Nachrichten 324, 303-304: Design and Development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Keller, C.U., Rimmele, T.R., Hill, F...Keil, S.L., Oschmann, J.M., and the ATST Team 2002, Astronomische Nachrichten 323, 294-298: The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Mozer, J.B

  7. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  8. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  9. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  10. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  11. Energetic solar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  12. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  13. Homemade Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  14. Solar collector overheating protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, M.J.; Griessen, R.P.

    Prismatic structures in a thermal solar collector are used as overheating protection. Such structures reflect incoming light efficiently back whenever less thermal power is extracted from the solar collector. Maximum thermal power is generated when the prismatic structure is surrounded by a

  15. On the Solar oblateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislik, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Limits for the magnitude of Solar oblateness under the assumption that the Sun is rotating as a rigid body with the velocity of sideric rotation of the equator points have been determined. It is demonstrated that for the present there is no necessity to take into accoUnt Solar oblateness when making the interior planets movement theories

  16. MEMS Solar Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Osswald, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using MEMS bimaterial structures to build highly efficient solar energy generators. This is a novel approach that utilizes developments in the area of bimaterial sensors and applies them in the field of solar energy harvesting.

  17. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  18. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  19. Polymer tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cells convert solar energy directly into electricity and are attractive contribute to the increasing energy demand of modern society. Commercial mono-crystalline silicon based devices are infiltrating the energy market but their expensive, time and energy consuming production process

  20. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done