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Sample records for feldspar-rich sediment extracts

  1. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Jain, Mayank

    2008-01-01

    Feldspar as a retrospective dosimeter is receiving more and more attention because of its useful luminescence properties; in particular the dose response curve extends to significantly higher doses than quartz. However, feldspars have one major disadvantage; both the thermoluminescence (TL......) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals exhibit anomalous (athermal) fading. Much of the OSL work carried out on feldspars in recent years has focussed on determining fading rates and correcting for them. Almost all work has been carried out using IR stimulation at 50 degrees C detected in the blue...... region of the spectrum. In contrast, we have determined fading rates for various sedimentary feldspar samples using different stimulation and detection windows. If the initial part of the OSL signal is used the lowest fading rate is observed with post-IR blue stimulation (UV detection), but if a later...

  2. Development of cataclastic foliation in deformation bands in feldspar-rich conglomerates of the Rio do Peixe Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchio, Matheus A.; Nogueira, Francisco C. C.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Souza, Jorge A. B.; Carvalho, Bruno R. B. M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we describe the deformation mechanisms and processes that occurred during the evolution of cataclastic deformation bands developed in the feldspar-rich conglomerates of the Rio do Peixe Basin, NE Brazil. We studied bands with different deformation intensities, ranging from single cm-thick tabular bands to more evolved clustering zones. The chemical identification of cataclastic material within deformation bands was performed using compositional mapping in SEM images, EDX and XRD analyses. Deformation processes were identified by microstructural analysis and by the quantification of comminution intensity, performed using digital image processing. The deformation bands are internally non homogeneous and developed during five evolutionary stages: (1) moderate grain size reduction, grain rotation and grain border comminution; (2) intense grain size reduction with preferential feldspar fragmentation; (3) formation of subparallel C-type slip zones; (4) formation of S-type structures, generating S-C-like fabric; and (5) formation of C‧-type slip zones, generating well-developed foliation that resembles S-C-C‧-type structures in a ductile environment. Such deformation fabric is mostly imparted by the preferential alignment of intensely comminuted feldspar fragments along thin slip zones developed within deformation bands. These processes were purely mechanical (i.e., grain crushing and reorientation). No clays or fluids were involved in such processes.

  3. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eLappé

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource, through natural seepage or accidental release they can also be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008 separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it is not optimized for this application.Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  4. Sediments in coffee extracts: Composition and control by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, P A; Vignoli, J A; Siika-Aho, M; Franco, T T

    2008-09-01

    The water-insolubility of some coffee extract components is one of the major limitations in the production of instant coffee. In this work, fractions from coffee extracts and sediments were prepared, and their chemical composition determined. Based on the carbohydrate analysis, galactomannan was found to be the main polysaccharide component of the insoluble fractions and probably responsible for sediment formation. The suitability of twelve commercial enzymes for the hydrolysis of the insoluble fractions was investigated. Pectinase 444L was the most effective enzyme in releasing sugars, mainly mannose and galactose, from these substrates. Biopectinase CCM, Rohapect B1L, Pectinase 444L and Galactomannanase ACH were found to be the most effective enzymes for reducing the sediment of coffee extracts. The highest sediment reduction was obtained using Rohapect B1L and Galactomannanase ACH, at enzyme concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1mg protein/g substrate, respectively. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic Activation of Nonpolar Sediment Extracts Results in enhanced Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Potency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Weiss, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional sediment risk assessment predominantly considers the hazard derived from legacy contaminants that are present in nonpolar sediment extracts, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although in vivo experiments with these

  6. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been

  7. Toxicity profile of organic extracts from Magdalena River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Benítez, Lesly; Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Aga, Diana S; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2018-01-01

    The Magdalena River, the main river of Colombia, receives contaminated effluents from different anthropogenic activities along its path. However, the Magdalena River is used as drinking water source for approximately 30 million inhabitants, as well as a major source of fish for human consumption. Only a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the environmental and toxicological quality of the Magdalena River. To evaluate sediment toxicity, wild-type and GFP transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to methanolic extracts, and effects on lethality, locomotion, growth, and gene expression were determined based on fluorescence spectroscopy. These biological and biochemical parameters were correlated with measured pollutant concentrations (PAHs and trace elements), identifying patterns of toxicity along the course of the river. Effects on lethality, growth, and locomotion were observed in areas influenced by industrial, gold mining, and petrochemical activities. Changes in gene expression were evident for cyp-34A9, especially in the sampling site located near an oil refinery, and at the seaport, in Barranquilla City. Body bend movements were moderately correlated with Cr and As concentrations. The expression of mtl-1, mtl-2, hsp-6, and hsp-70 were significantly associated with Pb/U, Pb, Sr, and As/Sr/Pb/U, respectively. Interestingly, toxicity of methanolic as well as aqueous extracts were more prone to be dependent on Cd, Zn, and Th. In general, ecological risk assessment showed sediments display low environmental impact in terms of evaluated metals and PAHs. Different types of waste disposal on the Magdalena River, as a result of mining, domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities, incorporate toxic pollutants in sediments, which are capable of generating a toxic response in C. elegans.

  8. Extraction of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments has been proposed as a method to reduce ecotoxicological risks of sediment-bound contaminants. The present study explores the effectiveness of granular AC (GAC) in extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from highly contaminated sediments. Four

  9. Extraction of spiked metals from contaminated coastal sediments: a comparison of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-11-01

    Various extraction methods have been developed to assess metal bioavailability from sediments. In this study, we compared the extraction of Cd, Cr, and Zn from contaminated sediments using different extractants (normal seawater, acidic seawater of pH = 5. seawater with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], and gut digestive fluids collected in vitro from deposit-feeding peanut worm Sipunculus nudus) coupled with concurrent metal speciation measurements. The influences of sediment aging on metal extraction were also examined using radiotracer-spiked techniques. Sediments aging up to 100 d did not significantly affect the partitioning of spiked Cd and Cr in different geochemical phases, but the spiked Zn was partitioned more into the reducible fraction and less into the carbonate phase with increasing sediment aging. There was a major difference in the partitioning into different geochemical phases between the spiked metals and the native metals within the 100-d sediment aging. The difference between the spiked and native Cd and Zn extraction using gut juices was somewhat smaller than the strong geochemical contrast. Metals bound with the anoxic sediments were hardly extracted by different extractants. There was a significant relationship between the extraction of spiked Cd and its distribution in the exchangeable phase (positive correlation) or in the reducible phase (negative correlation). For Cr and Zn, extraction was not correlated with their partitioning in any of the geochemical phases. Further, extraction of all three metals by digestive gut fluids was not correlated with the concentrations of simultaneously extractable metals (SEM), nor with the difference between SEM and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Our study suggests that there were large differences in extraction among metals using different extractants and only Cd extraction was significantly related to its geochemical speciation in sediments.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated alkanes in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2004-08-13

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was evaluated as a possible alternative to Soxhlet extraction for analysing short-chain chlorinated alkanes (commonly called short-chain chlorinated paraffins, SCCPs) in river sediment samples, using gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. For MAE optimisation, several extraction parameters such as solvent extraction mixture, extraction time and extraction temperature were studied. Maximum extraction efficiencies for SCCPs (90%) and for 12 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (91-95%) were achieved using 5 g of sediment sample, 30 ml of n-hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) as solvent extraction, and 15 min and 115 degrees C of extraction time and temperature, respectively. Activated Florisil was used to clean-up the extracts, allowing highly selective separation of SCCPs from other organic contaminants such as PCBs. MAE was compared with a conventional extraction technique such as Soxhlet and good agreement in the results was obtained. Quality parameters of the optimised MAE method such as run-to-run (R.S.D. 7%) and day-to-day precision (R.S.D. 9%) were determined using spiked river sediment samples, with LODs of 1.5 ng g(-1). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of SCCPs in river sediment samples at concentrations below the ng g(-1) level. O 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylmercury extraction from artificial sediments by the gut juice of the sipunculan, Sipunculus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2008-01-01

    Artificially prepared sediments were used to investigate their binding with methylmercury (MeHg). The bioavailability of sediment-bound MeHg then was quantified by measuring the extraction by gut juice of the sipunculan Sipunculus nudus, as well as by different free amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Methylmercury distribution in different molecular weight- size fractions of gut juice also was determined using an ultrafiltration methodology. Organic and clay content were the two most important sediment components in MeHg partitioning, but most of the sediment-bound MeHg was complexed by organic matter (fulvic acid > humic acid) in sediments. Treatment with humic or fulvic acid generally increased the amount of bioavailable MeHg. Cysteine was more important than other amino acids in MeHg extraction. Proteins (especially >100 kDa fraction) in gut juice rather than free amino acids were the main agents in gut juice that extracted MeHg from sediments. Most extracted MeHg from artificial sediments was associated with the >100 kDa fraction (probably proteins) of gut juice but not with organic matter from sediments (humic acid and fulvic acid). Our results suggested that competition among different agents in gut juice (especially the large molecular-weight proteins) and the organic content of the sediments controlled the bioavailability of sediment-bound MeHg.

  12. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  13. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  14. Characterization of extractable and non-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments from the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lulu; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2008-12-01

    Formation of bound residues of pollutants in soils and sediments is an important process to control the fate of pollutants in the environment. The most of bound residue is not solvent extractable. In this paper, we measured both extractable and non-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different organic matter fractions of samples from the Pearl River Delta, China. Non-extractable PAHs concentration was 234.45-1424.57microg/kg and accounted for 33.78-57.44% of total PAHs. 2-3 Ring PAHs were the dominant species and differed in concentration substantially between the samples. The atomic ratio of PAHs over organic-C in the fractions ordered as solvent soluble organic matter>humin>humic acids, matching the content of aliphatic moieties in the fractions of organic matter. The ratio of extractable and non-extractable PAHs may relate to the aging process of PAHs in soil and sediment.

  15. Kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminant extraction from sediment by granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Smit, M.; Koelmans, A.A.; Meent, van de D.

    2014-01-01

    Ex situ solid phase extraction with granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising technique to remediate contaminated sediments. The methods' efficiency depends on the rate by which contaminants are transferred from the sediment to the surface of GAC. Here, we derive kinetic parameters for

  16. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation...

  17. Comparison of extraction techniques for isolation of steroid oestrogens in environmentally relevant concentrations from sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadílek, Jan; Spálovská, P.; Vrana, B.; Vávrová, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2016), s. 1022-1037 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microwave - assisted extraction * estrogens * sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2016

  18. Optimization of an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Lin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gan Nanqin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Song Lirong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: lrsong@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-09-15

    Microcystin analysis in sediments and soils is considered very difficult due to low recovery for extraction. This is the primary limiting factor for understanding the fate of toxins in the interface between water and sediment in both the aquatic ecosystem as well as in soils. In the present study, a wide range of extraction solvents were evaluated over a wide range of pH, extraction approaches and equilibration time to optimize an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments. The number of extractions required and acids in extraction solutions were also studied. In this procedure, EDTA-sodium pyrophosphate solution was selected as an extraction solvent based on the adsorption mechanism study. The optimized procedure proved to be highly efficient and achieved over 90% recovery. Finally, the developed procedure was applied to field soil and sediment sample collected from Chinese lakes during bloom seasons and microcystins were determined in six of ten samples. - Efficiency of extraction of microcystins from soil and sediment was greatly increased.

  19. Inorganic mercury binding with different sulfur species in anoxic sediments and their gut juice extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the roles of different sulfur (S) species in controlling the partitioning and bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) in anoxic sediments, we examined the differential binding of Hg with three key S species in anoxic sediment (mackinawite [FeS], pyrite [FeS2], and S(2-)) and then quantified their extraction by the gut juice of deposit-feeding sipunculans Sipunculus nudus. A sequential extraction method was simultaneously used to distinguish Hg sorption with different sediment components. All three S-containing sediment components could lead to a high binding of Hg in sediments, but most Hg was sorbed with FeS or FeS2 instead of formation of Hg sulfide despite the presence of S(2-) or humic acid. The gut juice extraction was relatively low and constant whenever FeS and FeS2 were in the sediment, indicating that both FeS and FeS2 controlled the Hg gut juice extraction and thus bioavailability. Mercury sorbed with FeS2 had higher gut juice extraction than that with FeS, while Hg sulfide was not extracted, strongly suggesting that Hg sorbed with FeS2 was more bioavailable than that with other S species. Mercury sorbed with FeS had very low bioavailability to sipunculans at a low Hg:S ratio in the sediment but was more bioavailable with increasing Hg:S ratio up to a maximum (approximately 1:10, mole based). The present study showed that different S species (FeS, FeS2) and Hg:S ratios significantly affected the binding and bioavailability of Hg in anoxic sediments.

  20. Characterization of extractable and non-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments from the Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Lulu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, P.O. Box 1131, Guangzhou 510640 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijingshan, Beijing 100039 (China)], E-mail: helulu122@126.com; Song Jianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, P.O. Box 1131, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: songjzh@gig.ac.cn; Peng Pingan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, P.O. Box 1131, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: pinganp@gig.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Formation of bound residues of pollutants in soils and sediments is an important process to control the fate of pollutants in the environment. The most of bound residue is not solvent extractable. In this paper, we measured both extractable and non-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different organic matter fractions of samples from the Pearl River Delta, China. Non-extractable PAHs concentration was 234.45-1424.57 {mu}g/kg and accounted for 33.78-57.44% of total PAHs. 2-3 Ring PAHs were the dominant species and differed in concentration substantially between the samples. The atomic ratio of PAHs over organic-C in the fractions ordered as solvent soluble organic matter > humin > humic acids, matching the content of aliphatic moieties in the fractions of organic matter. The ratio of extractable and non-extractable PAHs may relate to the aging process of PAHs in soil and sediment. - Non-extractable PAHs took large proportions of total PAHs in field soils and sediments.

  1. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102–106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  2. Simultaneous extraction and determination of anionic surfactants in waters and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2006-05-12

    A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used anionic surfactants - linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES) and alkyl sulfates (AS) - in aqueous and sediment samples. Preconcentration and purification of water samples are carried out by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE). The efficiency of two different extraction methods for the analysis of sediments - Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) - has been compared. Identification and quantification of the target compounds is performed using a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI) in negative ion-mode. Homologue recoveries are 85-123% for SPE, 94-112% for Soxhlet extraction and 81-125% for PLE in the case of LAS, and 60-94% for SPE, 61-109% for Soxhlet extraction and 55-99% for PLE in the case of AES, whereas the limits of detection are 0.1-0.5 ngml(-1) in water and 1-5 ngg(-1) in sediment. This method has been applied to the determination of anionic surfactants in the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain), and LAS concentration levels from 538 to 1014 ngg(-1) in sediments and from 25.1 to 64.4 ngml(-1) in waters have been found. AES values from 168 to 536 ngg(-1) in sediments and from 4.5 to 11.9 ngml(-1) in waters are reported for the first time in European rivers.

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of hydrocarbons in marine sediments: comparison with the Soxhlet extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Blanco, E; López Mahía, P; Muniategui Lorenzo, S; Prada Rodríguez, D; Fernández Fernández, E

    2000-02-01

    Microwave energy was applied to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear aliphatic hydrocarbons (LAHs) from marine sediments. The influence of experimental conditions, such as different extracting solvents and mixtures, microwave power, irradiation time and number of samples extracted per run has been tested using real marine sediment samples; volume of the solvent, sample quantity and matrix effects were also evaluated. The yield of extracted compounds obtained by microwave irradiation was compared with that obtained using the traditional Soxhlet extraction. The best results were achieved with a mixture of acetone and hexane (1:1), and recoveries ranged from 92 to 106%. The extraction time is dependent on the irradiation power and the number of samples extracted per run, so when the irradiation power was set to 500 W, the extraction times varied from 6 min for 1 sample to 18 min for 8 samples. Analytical determinations were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible photodiode-array detector for PAHs and gas chromatography (GC) using a FID detector for LAHs. To test the accuracy of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique, optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of standard reference material (SRM 1941), obtaining acceptable results.

  4. Extraction and phylogenetic survey of extracellular and intracellular DNA in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torti, Andrea

    (intracellular DNA, iDNA) and from the sediment matrix, full understanding of the qualitative and quantitative contribution of extracellular sequences to the overall phylogenetic diversity in sediments remains to be achieved. In this thesis, a method was devised for separate extraction of eDNA and i...... and terrestrial origin. By reflecting the diversity of living organisms and ecological processes in the source environments (lands, oceans, or sediments themselves), eDNA may act as a repository of genetic information to help reconstruct the biodiversity and changes of past ecosystems. On the other hand......, it undermines the assumption of a direct link between the total extracted DNA and the local, currently living microbial assemblages in sediments, in terms of both microbial cell abundance and diversity. Hindered by technical challenges associated with separating eDNA from DNA enclosed in living cells...

  5. A small-scale, portable method for extracting microplastics from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Rachel L; Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Queirós, Ana M; Galloway, Tamara S

    2017-11-01

    Microplastics (plastic particles, 0.1 μm-5 mm in size) are widespread marine pollutants, accumulating in benthic sediments and shorelines the world over. To gain a clearer understanding of microplastic availability to marine life, and the risks they pose to the health of benthic communities, ecological processes and food security, it is important to obtain accurate measures of microplastic abundance in marine sediments. To date, methods for extracting microplastics from marine sediments have been disadvantaged by complexity, expense, low extraction efficiencies and incompatibility with very fine sediments. Here we present a new, portable method to separate microplastics from sediments of differing types, using the principle of density floatation. The Sediment-Microplastic Isolation (SMI) unit is a custom-built apparatus which consistently extracted microplastics from sediments in a single step, with a mean efficiency of 95.8% (±SE 1.6%; min 70%, max 100%). Zinc chloride, at a density of 1.5 g cm -3 , was deemed an effective and relatively inexpensive floatation media, allowing fine sediment to settle whilst simultaneously enabling floatation of dense polymers. The method was validated by artificially spiking sediment with low and high density microplastics, and its environmental relevance was further tested by extracting plastics present in natural sediment samples from sites ranging in sediment type; fine silt/clay (mean size 10.25 ± SD 3.02 μm) to coarse sand (mean size 149.3 ± SD 49.9 μm). The method presented here is cheap, reproducible and is easily portable, lending itself for use in the laboratory and in the field, eg. on board research vessels. By employing this method, accurate estimates of microplastic type, distribution and abundance in natural sediments can be achieved, with the potential to further our understanding of the availability of microplastics to benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  6. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  7. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction of selected molecular biomarkers in deep sea sediments used as proxies in paleoceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Logan, Graham A

    2003-03-14

    Pressurized liquid extraction has been performed on a suite of deep-sea sediments to assess its capability as an extraction technique in the analysis of molecular biomarkers used in paleoceanography. Specific compounds assessed comprise long-chain alkenones, n-alkanes, n-alcohols and, additionally, one diol and one keto-ol. These have been extracted by both pressurized liquid extraction and ultrasonication for comparison. One key result is that the U37(K') index (based on the degree of unsaturation of the alkenones and used as a paleothermometer in paleoceanography) remains intact after both extraction techniques. In terms of biomarker concentrations, which are often used to qualitatively assess changes in marine productivity and/or terrigenous inputs, pressurized liquid extraction is substantially more efficient than ultrasonication, providing higher amounts of extracted constituents, particularly for polar compounds.

  9. The influence of extraction procedure on ion concentrations in sediment pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Jackson, B.P.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment pore water has the potential to yield important information on sediment quality, but the influence of isolation procedures on the chemistry and toxicity are not completely known and consensus on methods used for the isolation from sediment has not been reached. To provide additional insight into the influence of collection procedures on pore water chemistry, anion (filtered only) and cation concentrations were measured in filtered and unfiltered pore water isolated from four sediments using three different procedures: dialysis, centrifugation and vacuum. Peepers were constructed using 24-cell culture plates and cellulose membranes, and vacuum extractors consisted of fused-glass air stones attached with airline tubing to 60cc syringes. Centrifugation was accomplished at two speeds (2,500 and 10,000 x g) for 30 min in a refrigerated centrifuge maintained at 4?C. Only minor differences in chemical characteristics and cation and anion concentrations were found among the different collecting methods with differences being sediment specific. Filtering of the pore water did not appreciably reduce major cation concentrations, but trace metals (Cu and Pb) were markedly reduced. Although the extraction methods evaluated produced pore waters of similar chemistries, the vacuum extractor provided the following advantages over the other methods: (1) ease of extraction, (2) volumes of pore water isolated, (3) minimal preparation time and (4) least time required for extraction of pore water from multiple samples at one time.

  10. Extraction and phylogenetic survey of extracellular and intracellular DNA in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torti, Andrea

    and terrestrial origin. By reflecting the diversity of living organisms and ecological processes in the source environments (lands, oceans, or sediments themselves), eDNA may act as a repository of genetic information to help reconstruct the biodiversity and changes of past ecosystems. On the other hand...... (intracellular DNA, iDNA) and from the sediment matrix, full understanding of the qualitative and quantitative contribution of extracellular sequences to the overall phylogenetic diversity in sediments remains to be achieved. In this thesis, a method was devised for separate extraction of eDNA and i...... of Aarhus Bay (Demark). Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, I first explored whether, and to what extent, prokaryotic eDNA parallels the phylogenetic composition of the local microbiome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that, in near-surface sediments influenced by faunal activities, 50% of all...

  11. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  12. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  13. An Apparatus for Bed Material Sediment Extraction From Coarse River Beds in Large Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Adam, H.; Cooper, J.; Cepello, S.

    2005-12-01

    Grain size distributions of bed material sediment in large alluvial rivers are required in applications ranging from habitat mapping, calibration of sediment transport models, high resolution sediment routing, and testing of existing theories of longitudinal and cross steam sediment sorting. However, characterizing bed material sediment from coarse river beds is hampered by difficulties in sediment extraction, a challenge that is generally circumvented via pebble counts on point bars, even though it is unclear whether the bulk grain size distribution of bed sediments is well represented by pebble counts on bars. We have developed and tested a boat-based sampling apparatus and methodology for extracting bulk sediment from a wide range of riverbed materials. It involves the use of a 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 meter stainless steel toothed sampler, called the Cooper Scooper, which is deployed from and dragged downstream by the weight of a jet boat. The design is based on that of a river anchor such that a rotating center bar connected to a rope line in the boat aligns the sampler in the downstream direction, the teeth penetrate the bed surface, and the sampler digs into the bed. The sampler is fitted with lead weights to keep it from tipping over. The force of the sampler `biting' into the bed can be felt on the rope line held by a person in the boat at which point they let out slack. The boat then motors to the spot above the embedded sampler, which is hoisted to the water surface via a system of pulleys. The Cooper Scooper is then clipped into a winch and boom assembly by which it is brought aboard. This apparatus improves upon commonly used clamshell dredge samplers, which are unable to penetrate coarse or mixed bed surfaces. The Cooper Scooper, by contrast, extracts statistically representative bed material sediment samples of up to 30 kilograms. Not surprisingly, the sampler does not perform well in very coarse or armored beds (e.g. where surface material size is on the

  14. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Malak M; Chu, Rosalie K; Toyoda, Jason; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J

    2017-06-15

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO 2 . The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H 2 O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl 3 ) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl 3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new

  15. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Toyoda, Jason; Toli?, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Pa?a-Toli?, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J.

    2017-03-31

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H2O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl3) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new sample

  16. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...... chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94-133% (RSDs 9...

  17. Comparison of low-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment revealed by Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-03-31

    We analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in lake sediment at low levels (Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in combination with gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Although all extraction techniques showed good repeatability for five target PAHs (relative standard deviation MAE>Soxhlet. Differences in the results originated mainly from differences in the extraction efficiencies of the techniques for native PAHs, because all techniques gave comparable recovery yields of corresponding 13C-labeled PAHs (13C-PAHs) (51-84%). Since non-negligible amounts of both native PAHs and 13C-PAHs were re-adsorbed on matrix in MAE, not only recovery yields of 13C-PAHs but also efficiencies of extraction of native PAHs should be examined to evaluate the appropriateness of any analytical procedures.

  18. Reevaluation of microplastics extraction efficiency with the aim of Munich Plastic Sediment Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Grave, Aleksei; Khatmullina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Invading of microplastics into marine environment is known as a global ecological threat. Specific density of microplastics can vary significantly depending on a polymer type, technological processes of its production, additives, weathering, and biofouling. Plastic particles can sink or float on the sea surface, but with time, most of drifting plastics become negatively buoyant and sink to the sea floor due to biofouling or adherence of denser particles. As a result, the seabed becomes the ultimate repository for microplastic particles and fibres. A study of microplastics content in aquatic sediments is an important source of information about ways of their migration, sink and accumulation zones. The Munich Plastic Sediment Separator (MPSS), proposed by Imhoff et al. (2012), is considered as the most effective tool for microplastic extraction. However, we observed that the numbers of marine microplastics extracted with this tool from different kinds of bottom sediments were significantly underestimated. We examined the extraction efficiency of the MPSS by adding artificial reference particles (ARPs) to marine sediment sample before the extraction procedure. Extraction was performed by two different methods: the modified NOAA method and using the MPSS. The separation solution with specific density 1.5 g/ml was used. Subsequent cleaning, drying and microscope detection procedures were identical. The microplastics content was determined in supernatant fraction, in the bulk of the extraction solution, in spoil dump fraction of MPSS and in instrument wash-out. While the extraction efficiency from natural sediments of ARPs by the MPSS was really high (100% in most cases), the extraction efficiency of marine microplastics was up to 10 times lower than that obtained with modified NOAA method for the same samples. Less than 40% of the total marine microplastics content has been successfully extracted with the MPSS. Large amounts of marine microplastics were found in the

  19. Extraction of seawater-derived neodymium from different phases of deep sea sediments by selective leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, P.; Lippold, J. A.; Frank, N.; Gutjahr, M.; Böhm, E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to deduce reliable information about the interaction of the oceans with the climate system as a whole in the past, the reconstruction of water mass circulation is crucial. The analysis of seawater-derived neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd, expressed as ɛNd) in marine sediments provides a unique proxy for deep water provenance in particular in the Atlantic [1]. The ɛNd signature and thus the mixing proportion of the local bottom water masses is archived in authigenic phases in the sediment. Obtaining seawater ɛNd from authigenic accretions bound to foraminiferal tests has lately become the preferred since most reliable method [2]. Attempts have also been made to extract the Nd-rich authigenic metal fraction by leaching it off the bulk sediment and thereby use this proxy with less effort, in the highest possible resolution and in sediments where foraminifera are not sufficiently present. However, often other sedimentary components are also leached in the process and contaminate the extracted Nd [3,4]. In this project several core-top and older sediments across the Atlantic have been leached in ten consecutive steps with either dilute buffered acetic acid or an acid-reductive solution. The leachates were analysed on their elemental and Nd isotope compositions, as well as rare earth element (REE) distributions. By graduating the total leaching procedure into smaller stages the results display which processes take place in the course of sediment leaching in the laboratory and which components of the sediment are most reactive. Thus, they help to better evaluate the quality of sediment leaches for ɛNd analysis. Clearly, organic calcite acts as a fast reacting buffer and at the point where its amount is sufficiently reduced the leaching of other components commences and the Nd concentration peaks. Corruption of the extracted ɛNd signal by non-authigenic sources in many cases occured early in the leaching sequence, indicating that only very cautious leaching

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of emerging contaminants in freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Grosseli, Guilherme Martins; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Sediments are the fate of several emerging organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones, and therefore an important subject in environmental monitoring studies. In the present work, a simple and sensitive method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous extraction of atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, propranolol, triclosan, estrone, 17-β-estradiol and 17-α-ethinylestradiol using ultrasound-assisted extraction from freshwater sediment samples followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The solvent type and extraction pH were evaluated to obtain the highest recoveries of the compounds. The best method shows absolute recoveries between 54.0 and 94.4% at 50 ng/g concentration. The method exhibits good precision with relative standard deviation ranging from 1.0-16%. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.006-0.067 and 0.016-0.336 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to freshwater sediment samples collected from different sites in Jundiaí River basin of São Paulo State, Brazil. The compounds atenolol, caffeine, propranolol and triclosan were detected in all the sampling sites with concentrations of 13.8, 41.0, 28.5 and 176 ng/g, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Membrane Dialysis Extraction (MDE): a novel approach for extracting toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds from soils and sediments for assessment in biotests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, T.B.; Leist, E.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Rastall, A.C.; Erdinger, L. [Inst. of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Goal, scope and background. Organic solvents are routinely used to extract toxicants from polluted soils and sediments prior to chemical analysis or bioassay. Conventional extraction methods often require the use of heated organic solvents, in some cases under high pressure. These conditions can result in loss of volatile compounds from the sample and the degradation of thermally labile target analytes. Moreover, extracts of soils and sediments also frequently contain substantial quantities of organic macromolecules which can act as sorbing phases for target analytes and in doing so interfere with both chemical analysis and bioassays. Membrane dialysis extraction (MDE) is described as a simple, passive extraction method for selectively extracting toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from polluted soils and sediments and analyzed for its applicability in ecotoxicological investigations. Methods. Toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds were extracted from wet and dry sediments by sealing replicate samples in individual lengths of pre-cleaned low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) tubing and then dialysing in n-hexane. Results. The membrane dialysis extraction was found to be at least as efficient as Soxhlet methodology to extract toxicologically relevant HOCs from sediment samples. In most cases, MDE-derived extracts showed a higher toxicological potential than the Soxhlet extracts. Lack of any significant effects in any MDE controls indicated these differences were not caused by contamination of the LD-PE membrane used. The elevated toxicological potential of MDE extracts is most likely the result of enhanced bioavailability of toxic compounds in consequence of lower amounts of organic macromolecules (i.e. sorbing phases) in the MDE extracts. This effect is probably the result of a size-selective restriction by the LD-PE membrane. Conclusion. Membrane dialysis extraction was found to be a simple, efficient and cost-effective method

  2. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction for the green analysis of alkylphenols in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2015-02-27

    A novel and Green analytical methodology for the determination of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in sediments was developed and validated. The method was based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design in order to minimize the number of assays according to Green principles. Matrix effect was studied and compensated using deuterated labeled standards as surrogate standards for the quantitation of the target compounds. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 92 and 103% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged from 0.061 (4-n-nonylphenol) to 1.7ngg(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of the exposed methodology. Reagent consumption, analysis time and waste generation were minimized. The "greenness" of the proposed method was evaluated using an analytical Eco-Scale approach and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples of Galicia coast (NW of Spain) and the ubiquity of alkylphenols in the environment was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrophoretic Extraction and Proteomic Characterization of Proteins Buried in Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K. Moore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are the largest defined molecular component of marine organic nitrogen, and hydrolysable amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are important components of particulate nitrogen in marine sediments. In oceanic systems, the largest contributors are phytoplankton proteins, which have been tracked from newly produced bloom material through the water column to surface sediments in the Bering Sea, but it is not known if proteins buried deeper in sediment systems can be identified with confidence. Electrophoretic gel protein extraction methods followed by proteomic mass spectrometry and database searching were used as the methodology to identify buried phytoplankton proteins in sediments from the 8–10 cm section of a Bering Sea sediment core. More peptides and proteins were identified using an SDS-PAGE tube gel than a standard 1D flat gel or digesting the sediment directly with trypsin. The majority of proteins identified correlated to the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, rather than bacterial protein sequences, indicating an algal source not only dominates the input, but also the preserved protein fraction. Abundant RuBisCO and fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins were identified, supporting algal sources of these proteins and reinforcing the proposed mechanisms that might protect proteins for long time periods. Some preserved peptides were identified in unexpected gel molecular weight ranges, indicating that some structural changes or charge alteration influenced the mobility of these products during electrophoresis isolation. Identifying buried photosystem proteins suggests that algal particulate matter is a significant fraction of the preserved organic carbon and nitrogen pools in marine sediments.

  4. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  5. DNA extraction replicates improve diversity and compositional dissimilarity in metabarcoding of eukaryotes in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzén, Anders; Lekang, Katrine; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M; Troedsson, Christofer

    2017-01-01

    Human impact on marine benthic communities has traditionally been assessed using visible morphological traits and has focused on the macrobenthos, whereas the ecologically important organisms of the meio- and microbenthos have received less attention. DNA metabarcoding offers an alternative to this approach and enables a larger fraction of the biodiversity in marine sediments to be monitored in a cost-efficient manner. Although this methodology remains poorly standardised and challenged by biases inherent to rRNA copy number variation, DNA extraction, PCR, and limitations related to taxonomic identification, it has been shown to be semi-quantitative and useful for comparing taxon abundances between samples. Here, we evaluate the effect of replicating genomic DNA extraction in order to counteract small scale spatial heterogeneity and improve diversity and community structure estimates in metabarcoding-based monitoring. For this purpose, we used ten technical replicates from three different marine sediment samples. The effect of sequence depth was also assessed, and in silico pooling of DNA extraction replicates carried out in order to maintain the number of reads constant. Our analyses demonstrated that both sequencing depth and DNA extraction replicates could improve diversity estimates as well as the ability to separate samples with different characteristics. We could not identify a "sufficient" replicate number or sequence depth, where further improvements had a less significant effect. Based on these results, we consider replication an attractive alternative to directly increasing the amount of sample used for DNA extraction and strongly recommend it for future metabarcoding studies and routine assessments of sediment biodiversity.

  6. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  7. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  8. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in river sediments of an abandoned pyrite mining area: pollution detection and affinity series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, F; Moscardini, E; Giuliano, V; Toro, L

    2004-11-01

    In this paper heavy metal pollution at an abandoned Italian pyrite mine has been investigated by comparing total concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and As) in a red mud sample and a river sediment. Acid digestions show that all the investigated heavy metals present larger concentrations in the sediment than in the tailing. A modified Tessier's procedure has been used to discriminate heavy metal bound to organic fraction from those originally present in the mineral sulphide matrix and to detect a possible trend of metal mobilisation from red mud to river sediment. Sequential extractions on bulk and size fractionated samples denote that sediment samples present larger percent concentrations of the investigated heavy metals in the first extractive steps (I-IV) especially in lower dimension size fractionated samples suggesting that heavy metals in the sediment are significantly bound by superficial adsorption mechanisms. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene in humin and humic acid fractions from different soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huipeng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a vital role in controlling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. In this study, both a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction test and a biodegradation test were performed to evaluate the bioavailability of phenanthrene in seven different bulk soil/sediment samples and two OM components (humin fractions and humic acid (HA) fractions) separated from these soils/sediments. Results showed that both the extent of HPCD-extractable phenanthrene and the extent of biodegradable phenanthrene in humin fraction were lower than those in the respective HA fraction and source soil/sediment, demonstrating the limited bioavailability of phenanthrene in the humin fraction. For the source soils/sediments and the humin fractions, significant inverse relationships were observed between the sorption capacities for phenanthrene and the amounts of HPCD-extractable or biodegradable phenanthrene (p humin fractions, with both slopes close to 1. On the other hand, in the case of phenanthrene contained in HA, a poor relationship was observed between the amount of phenanthrene extracted by HPCD and the amount degraded, with the former being much less than the latter. The results revealed the importance of humin fraction in affecting the bioavailability of phenanthrene in the bulk soils/sediments, which would deepen our understanding of the organic matter fractions in affecting desorption and biodegradation of organic pollutants and provide theoretical support for remediation and risk assessment of contaminated soils and sediments.

  10. A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Byers, Harry; Beckers, Liza-Marie; Prothmann, Jens; Brack, Werner; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC-HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate-acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone-formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol-10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL -1 , we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract-(93 ± 23)%-and for the combined acidic/basic extracts-(42 ± 16)%-after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  12. Comparison of different exhaustive and biomimetic extraction techniques for chemical and biological analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds in river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Tobias [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology; Seiler, Thomas B.; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis; Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    The importance of the bioaccessible fractions of particle-bound contaminants is a key feature for the assessment of their likely risks to the aquatic environment. The present study investigated the extractability and potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediments. This study combined chemical with bioanalytical tools to establish a more in-depth insight into the relationship between the extractability of sediment contaminants, the chemodynamic properties of each extraction approach, and resulting toxicity. Sediment samples were treated with different extraction methods, namely Soxhlet extraction with acetone (SOX), membrane dialysis extraction (MDE) with n-hexane, ultrasonic extraction with acetone (USE), and extraction with (2-hydroxpropyl)-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HBCD). The extracts were analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and tested using the neutral red retention assay and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction assay with the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1. The SOX and MDE approaches were comparable in their extraction power regarding PAHs and their cytotoxicity. However, the EROD activity differed between SOX and MDE, possibly due to retardation effects of the polyethylene membrane used in MDE. Thus, macromolecular components of the sediment were not extracted and therefore did not contribute to toxicity. HBCD extraction provided 3.4 % of the total PAH content in the sediments and might be an appropriate approach to predict the bioaccessible fraction. USE showed an extraction power between the HBCD approach and the MDE as well as SOX and MDE method. Hence, USE is neither appropriate for exhaustive extraction nor for biomimetic extraction. MDE and SOX have been approved for the exhaustive extraction of PAHs from sediments for a worst case assessment of effect potentials. The influence of the low-density polyethylene membrane and the experimental conditions on the diffusion of compounds with

  13. Electrodialytic extraction of Cd and Cu from sediment from Sisimiut Harbour, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2007-01-01

    with an applied current density of 1.2 mA/cm2. However, it was seen that the removal rate decreased considerably after 3 days with an applied current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 and the major part of the two heavy metals was removed during the first 3 days (the Cu concentration was reduced with 74% and the Cd...... concentration with 80%). Thus a large reduction in concentrations can be obtained relatively fast. During the process of electrodialytic treatment the sediment suspension is acidified and reaches pH 2 after about 3 days (with 0.5 mA cm2), where it stabilizes. A comparison with chemical extraction in HNO3......A previous study showed that the sediment of Sisimiut Harbour, Greenland is polluted with Cu and Cd to an extent where toxicological effects must be expected. This study was aimed at evaluating the possibility for removing Cu and Cd from this sediment by an electrodialytic method and also...

  14. Experimental Simulation of Methane Hydrate Extraction at High Pressure Conditions: Influence of the Sediment Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, J. R.; Park, J.; Luzi, G.; Williams, M.; Rauh, C.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.

    2017-10-01

    Being a clean alternative to other fossil fuels, Methane Hydrate (MH) is currently considered as one of the most important potential sources for hydrocarbon fuels [1]. In addition, the high energy density of MH and its stability at higher temperatures as compared to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) makes MH a potential greener method for energy transportation. At the same time, the low thermodynamic stability of MH strongly questions the future exploitation of gas hydrate deposits, turning its extraction into a possible geohazard [2]. Fluctuations in pressure, temperature, salinity, degree of saturation or sediment bed properties may cause methane gas release from the water lattice. We experimentally study the influence of the sediment bed geometry during formation-dissociation of MH. For this purpose, MH is synthesized within regular substrates in a 93 cm3 high pressure vessel. The regular substrates are triangular and quadratic arrangements of identical glass spheres with a diameter of 2 and 5 mm, respectively. MH formation within regular substrate reduces the possibility of spontaneous nucleation to a unique geometrical configuration. This fact permits us to characterize the kinetics of MH formation-dissociation as a function of the sediment bed geometry. Preliminary experimental results reveal a strong dependence of MH formation on the geometry of the regular substrate. For instance, under the same pressure and temperature, the kinetics of MH production is found to change by a factor 3 solely depending on the substrate symmetry, i.e. triangular or quadratic.

  15. Coal extraction causes sediment toxicity in aquatic environments in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimaira Amaral de Freitas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated water parameters in ponds affected by coal extraction. Allium cepa assay was used to measure genotoxicity/mutagenicity of the sediment. Samples were collected from four ponds in the southern state of Santa Catarina. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity were measured. Sediments were analyzed for heavy metals. Elutriate samples were prepared at a ratio of 1:4 sediment:water. Allium cepa bulbs were placed in samples prepared from each pond, with ultrapure water used as negative control and methyl methane sulfonate as positive control. Root length, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and nuclear abnormalities were measured. The pH of two ponds, as well as electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen of all ponds were below the minimum limits set by Brazilian regulation. All heavy metals analyzed were found in all sediment samples, but only Cd concentration was above the legal limit set by Brazilian law. Allium cepa root growth for samples from Ponds 1, 2, and 4 was significantly lower than the negative control. Meristematic cells exposed to elutriate samples showed no significant changes in cell division. There was a significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations in all treated samples in comparison with the negative control. This study demonstrates that even low concentrations of heavy metals can damage exposed biota, possibly due to synergistic effects. We also found the A. cepa bioassay to be a simple and useful tool for genotoxicity/mutagenicity analyses, and recommend its use for environmental monitoring and management in areas influenced by mining activities.

  16. Human hepatoma cells exposed to estuarine sediment contaminant extracts permitted the differentiation between cytotoxic and pro-mutagenic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Costa, P.M.; Louro, H.; Costa, M.H.; Lavinha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex toxicant mixtures present in estuarine sediments often render contaminant screening unfeasible and compromise determining causation. HepG2 cells were subjected to bioassays with sediment extracts obtained with a series of progressively polar solvents plus a crude extract. The sediments were collected from an impacted area of an estuary otherwise regarded as pristine, whose stressors result mostly from aquaculture effluents and hydrodynamic shifts that enhance particle deposition. Compared to a reference scenario, the most polar extracts yielded highest cytotoxicity while higher genotoxicity (including oxidative damage) was elicited by non-polar solvents. While the former caused effects similar to those expected from biocides, the latter triggered effects compatible with known pro-mutagens like PAHs, even though the overall levels of toxicants were considered of low risk. The results indicate that the approach may constitute an effective line-of-evidence to infer on the predominant set of hazardous contaminants present in complex environmental mixtures. -- Highlights: • Estuarine sediment contaminants were extracted with different organic solvents. • More polar solvents contained the most cytotoxic contaminant fraction. • Non-polar solvents extracted the main genotoxic component of the mixture. • DNA base oxidation was detected through FPG/Comet assay. • The contamination pattern could be inferred from cytoassays with HepG2 cells. -- Polar/non-polar sediment fractions elicited differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human HepG2 cells

  17. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  18. Effect of temperature and yeast extract on microbial respiration of sediments from a shallow coastal subsurface and vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, K D; Babu, G R; Vijaya, O K; Armstead, E; Palumbo, A V; Zhang, C; Phelps, T J

    1996-01-01

    As a part of our study on microbial heterogeneity in subsurface environments, we have examined the microbial respiration of sediment samples obtained from a coastal site near Oyster, VA. The sediments at the site are unconsolidated, fine to coarse beach sand and gravel. A Columbus Instruments Micro-Oxymax Respirometer was used to measure the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) production during the respiration of the sediment samples. The rate of respiration of the sediment samples ranged from 0.035-0.6 microL CO2/h/g of the sediment. The sediment samples showing maximum (0.6 microL CO2/h/g) and minimum (0.035 microL CO2/h/g) production of CO2 were selected to study the effect of micronutrient-yeast extract (0.5 and 1.0 micrograms/g of the sediment) and water (0.5 and 1.0 mL) on the rate of CO2 production. The rate of CO2 production increased with the addition of water, but increased approx 2 orders of magnitude (from 0.26 to an average of 23.5 microL CO2/h/g) when 1.0 g/g yeast extract was added to the sediment samples. In these coastal sediments, temperature, depth, and addition of water influenced microbial activity, but the addition of 1.0 microgram/g yeast extract as a micronutrient rapidly increased the rate of CO2 production 2 orders of magnitude.

  19. A Novel Selective Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction Method for Versatile Determination of Copper in Sediment Samples by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Altundağ, Huseyin; Tüzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, a simple, mono step deep eutectic solvent (DES) extraction was developed for selective extraction of copper from sediment samples. The optimization of all experimental parameters, e.g. DES type, sample/DES ratio, contact time and temperature were performed with using BCR-280 R (lake sediment certified reference material). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found as 1.2 and 3.97 µg L -1 , respectively. The RSD of the procedure was 7.5%. The proposed extraction method was applied to river and lake sediments sampled from Serpincik, Çeltek, Kızılırmak (Fadl and Tecer region of the river), Sivas-Turkey.

  20. Optimization of selective pressurized liquid extraction for extraction and in-cell clean-up of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lan; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for selective extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soils and sediments, using pressurized liquid extraction with in-cell clean-up (SPLE). Two binary solvent mixtures, viz. dichloromethane/n-heptane (DCM/Hp), and diethylether/n-heptane (DEE/Hp), were evaluated. The SPLE extraction conditions were optimized using central composite face (CCF) design. Three factors were investigated: extraction temperature (60-160 °C), number of extraction cycles (1-3) and time per cycle (2-18 min). The results showed that DCM/Hp (1/1, v/v) and DEE/Hp (1/2, v/v) were the best extraction solvent compositions and that the extraction temperature was a critical factor that needed careful optimization to achieve high extraction efficiency without co-extraction of sulfuric acid. Under the optimal conditions, the SPLE methods provided results with good accuracy and precision. For the sandy soil certified reference material (CRM-529) the quantification results ended up in the range 82-110% as compared to the concentrations obtained by a reference method based on Soxhlet extraction and external column clean-up. Furthermore, for a clay soil (CRM-530) and a sediment reference material (WMS-01), the accuracy (trueness) of the TEQ values were +11% (DCM/Hp) and +8% (DEE/Hp) for CRM-530, +8% and -7% for WMS-01, respectively. The individual congener concentrations also agreed well with the certified values. These findings show that SPLE is a promising method for combined extraction and clean-up of PCDD/Fs in soil/sediment samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaris-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: pbermejo@usc.es

    2007-10-29

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P = 95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 deg. C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ria de Arousa estuary.

  2. Evaluation and optimization of DNA extraction and purification procedures for soil and sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Bryant, J E; Madsen, E L; Ghiorse, W C

    1999-11-01

    We compared and statistically evaluated the effectiveness of nine DNA extraction procedures by using frozen and dried samples of two silt loam soils and a silt loam wetland sediment with different organic matter contents. The effects of different chemical extractants (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], chloroform, phenol, Chelex 100, and guanadinium isothiocyanate), different physical disruption methods (bead mill homogenization and freeze-thaw lysis), and lysozyme digestion were evaluated based on the yield and molecular size of the recovered DNA. Pairwise comparisons of the nine extraction procedures revealed that bead mill homogenization with SDS combined with either chloroform or phenol optimized both the amount of DNA extracted and the molecular size of the DNA (maximum size, 16 to 20 kb). Neither lysozyme digestion before SDS treatment nor guanidine isothiocyanate treatment nor addition of Chelex 100 resin improved the DNA yields. Bead mill homogenization in a lysis mixture containing chloroform, SDS, NaCl, and phosphate-Tris buffer (pH 8) was found to be the best physical lysis technique when DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency were used as criteria. The bead mill homogenization conditions were also optimized for speed and duration with two different homogenizers. Recovery of high-molecular-weight DNA was greatest when we used lower speeds and shorter times (30 to 120 s). We evaluated four different DNA purification methods (silica-based DNA binding, agarose gel electrophoresis, ammonium acetate precipitation, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration) for DNA recovery and removal of PCR inhibitors from crude extracts. Sephadex G-200 spin column purification was found to be the best method for removing PCR-inhibiting substances while minimizing DNA loss during purification. Our results indicate that for these types of samples, optimum DNA recovery requires brief, low-speed bead mill homogenization in the presence of a phosphate-buffered SDS-chloroform mixture, followed

  3. Comparison of three sequential extraction protocols for the fractionation of potentially toxic metals in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyiola, Aderonke Oluwabukola; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2011-01-01

    In the determination of the best sequential extraction procedures (SEP) for the speciation of metals in sediment samples from the Lagos lagoon system, three sequential extraction procedures were compared for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The SEP compared included a modified Tessier's procedure carried out in five steps, while the two other procedures were the three-step original Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and the modified BCR techniques (four steps). Quantification of the metal concentration was achieved with a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained by the three methods were compared, and the modified BCR and Tessier SEP were found to extract more Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the reducible phase and therefore a decrease in the oxidizable phase than the original BCR SEP. The most mobile elements were found to be Cd, Pb, and Zn. These are of environmental concern, as these potentially toxic metals could be easily released into the aquatic environment with consequent ingestion by aquatic organisms, thereby entering the food chain. The mass balance (percent recovery) was found to be between 85% and 115% in most cases. Prior to the comparison, the analytical performance of the laboratory was tested using a secondary reference material, GLAURM, using the three-step modified BCR procedure. The results showed high reliability of the analytical performance of the laboratory for all the metals considered.

  4. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    through the water column but their trapping efficiency, and thus, their accuracy can be biased by hydrodynamic and biological effects (Lee et al., 1988; Gust et al., 1992; 1994). Scholten et al. (2001) showed that the 230 Thorium trapping efficiency... of sediment traps moored at different sites and water depths in eastern North Atlantic Ocean varies between 9 and 143%. In general, these trapping efficiencies increase with increasing water-depth (Scholten et al., 2001). By comparing data from various ocean...

  6. Determination of flumequine and oxolinic acid in sediments and soils by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, M.D.; Ramil, D.; Compano, R.; Hernandez-Arteseros, J.A.; Granados, M.

    2006-01-01

    A method is reported for the determination of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in aquatic sediments and agricultural soils. The analytes are extracted by liquid-liquid partitioning between a sample homogenated in an aqueous buffer solution and dichloromethane. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was tested to improve the speed and efficiency of the extraction process. The parameters affecting the efficiency of MAE, such as irradiation time and temperature, were studied. The clean-up consists of back-extraction in 1 M sodium hydroxide. The determination is carried out by reversed phase liquid chromatography on an octyl silica-based column and fluorimetric detection. The optimised method was applied to the analysis of two sediments and one agricultural soil spiked with the analytes. The absolute recovery rates for the whole process range from 79% to 94% (RSD 3-7%), and detection limits are in the low μg kg -1 level

  7. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in river sediments of an abandoned pyrite mining area: pollution detection and affinity series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it; Moscardini, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Giuliano, V. [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering (CNR), Via Bolognola, 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Toro, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    In this paper heavy metal pollution at an abandoned Italian pyrite mine has been investigated by comparing total concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and As) in a red mud sample and a river sediment. Acid digestions show that all the investigated heavy metals present larger concentrations in the sediment than in the tailing. A modified Tessier's procedure has been used to discriminate heavy metal bound to organic fraction from those originally present in the mineral sulphide matrix and to detect a possible trend of metal mobilisation from red mud to river sediment. Sequential extractions on bulk and size fractionated samples denote that sediment samples present larger percent concentrations of the investigated heavy metals in the first extractive steps (I-IV) especially in lower dimension size fractionated samples suggesting that heavy metals in the sediment are significantly bound by superficial adsorption mechanisms. - Capsule: A modified Tessier's procedure, discriminating organic and sulphide bound metals, was used to detect pollutant mobilisation from red mud to river sediment in an abandoned pyrite mine.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; ReVello, R.C.; Smith, S.G.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad range of organic compounds is recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This method was developed to better determine the distribution of 61 compounds that are typically associated with industrial and household waste as well as some that are toxic and known (or suspected) for endocrine-disrupting potential extracted from environmental sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to reduce sample preparation time, reduce solvent consumption to one-fifth of that required using dichloromethane-based Soxhlet extraction, and to minimize background interferences for full scan GC/MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, commercially available topsoil, and environmental stream sediment, fortified at 4-720 ??g per compound, averaged 76 ?? 13%. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 12.5 to 520 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 103 environmental sediment samples show that 36 out of 61 compounds (59%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, was detected in 87 of the 103 (84.5%) environmental samples with a concentration range 360-100,000 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction are also compared. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A kinetic approach to evaluate the association of acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, A.; Meerman, E.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (¿SEM) method is widely used for evaluating potential bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and sediment. It is also criticized, because the requirement that AVS and SEM metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are associated in the

  10. Short-term impact of deep sand extraction and ecosystem-based landscaping on macrozoobenthos and sediment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten F; Baptist, Martin J; Lindeboom, Han J; Hoekstra, Piet

    2015-08-15

    We studied short-term changes in macrozoobenthos in a 20m deep borrow pit. A boxcorer was used to sample macrobenthic infauna and a bottom sledge was used to sample macrobenthic epifauna. Sediment characteristics were determined from the boxcore samples, bed shear stress and near-bed salinity were estimated with a hydrodynamic model. Two years after the cessation of sand extraction, macrozoobenthic biomass increased fivefold in the deepest areas. Species composition changed significantly and white furrow shell (Abra alba) became abundant. Several sediment characteristics also changed significantly in the deepest parts. Macrozoobenthic species composition and biomass significantly correlated with time after cessation of sand extraction, sediment and hydrographical characteristics. Ecosystem-based landscaped sand bars were found to be effective in influencing sediment characteristics and macrozoobenthic assemblage. Significant changes in epifauna occurred in deepest parts in 2012 which coincided with the highest sedimentation rate. We recommend continuing monitoring to investigate medium and long-term impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  12. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  13. Marine sediment pore-water profiles of phosphate d18O using a refined micro-extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldhammer, Tobias; Max, Thomas; Brunner, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    and small amounts of marine porewaters available for analysis. We obtained porewater profiles of Pi oxygen isotopes using a refined protocol based on the original micro-extraction designed by Colman (2002). This refined and customized method allows the conversion of ultra-low quantities (0.5 – 1 μmol...... as 200 μg were analyzed in a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer setup. Tests with external and laboratory internal standards validated the preservation of the original phosphate oxygen isotope signature (d18OP) during micro extraction. Porewater data on d18OP has been obtained from two...... sediment cores of the Moroccan margin. The d18OP values are in a range of +19.49 to +27.30‰. We apply a simple isotope mass balance model to disentangle processes contributing to benthic P cycling and find evidence for Pi regeneration outbalancing microbial demand in the upper sediment layers...

  14. Reductive reactivity of iron(III) oxides in the east china sea sediments: characterization by selective extraction and kinetic dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jin; Zhu, Mao-Xu; Yang, Gui-Peng; Huang, Xiang-Li

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Fe(III) oxides in gravity-core sediments collected from the East China Sea inner shelf were quantified by using three selective extractions (acidic hydroxylamine, acidic oxalate, bicarbonate-citrate buffered sodium dithionite). Also the reactivity of Fe(III) oxides in the sediments was characterized by kinetic dissolution using ascorbic acid as reductant at pH 3.0 and 7.5 in combination with the reactive continuum model. Three parameters derived from the kinetic method: m 0 (theoretical initial amount of ascorbate-reducible Fe(III) oxides), k' (rate constant) and γ (heterogeneity of reactivity), enable a quantitative characterization of Fe(III) oxide reactivity in a standardized way. Amorphous Fe(III) oxides quantified by acidic hydroxylamine extraction were quickly consumed in the uppermost layer during early diagenesis but were not depleted over the upper 100 cm depth. The total amounts of amorphous and poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides are highly available for efficient buffering of dissolved sulfide. As indicated by the m 0, k' and γ, the surface sediments always have the maximum content, reactivity and heterogeneity of reactive Fe(III) oxides, while the three parameters simultaneously downcore decrease, much more quickly in the upper layer than at depth. Albeit being within a small range (within one order of magnitude) of the initial rates among sediments at different depths, incongruent dissolution could result in huge discrepancies of the later dissolution rates due to differentiating heterogeneity, which cannot be revealed by selective extraction. A strong linear correlation of the m 0 at pH 3.0 with the dithionite-extractable Fe(III) suggests that the m 0 may represent Fe(III) oxide assemblages spanning amorphous and crystalline Fe(III) oxides. Maximum microbially available Fe(III) predicted by the m 0 at pH 7.5 may include both amorphous and a fraction of other less reactive Fe(III) phases.

  15. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance

  16. In vitro cytotoxic and teratogenic potential of sediment extracts from Skadar Lake using fish cell line RTL-W1 and Danio rerio embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Andrej

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of Sediment Quality Triad (SQT, organic extracts of sediment from Skadar Lake (a Mediterranean lake and the largest freshwater reservoir in southeastern Europe were investigated in order to evaluate possible ecotoxicological contamination by organic pollutants and to obtain a comprehensive insight into the ecotoxicological hazard. Sediments were investigated for toxicity by two different bioassays. Acute cytotoxicity was investigated using the fibroblast-like cell line RTL-W1 (Oncorhynchus mykiss in combination with the neutral red retention assay. The embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to assess the toxic and teratogenic potential of organic extracts of the sediment. Preliminary results point to the presence of a cytotoxic and teratogenic potential in Skadar Lake sediment extracts in certain locations.

  17. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  18. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 deg. C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g -1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g -1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g -1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g -1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g -1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g -1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb

  19. Application of the alpha spectrometry for the study of core sediment extracted in the San Marcos dam in Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, C.; Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Garcia T, R.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the specific activities of 210 Po and isotopic uranium by alpha spectrometry was performed in a sediment core from San Marcos Dam. The objective of this work was to analyze the vertical distribution of isotopic uranium and 210 Po and the behavior of these radionuclides along sediment core collected from the San Marcos Dam. Sample was divided into 11 sections, in which 210 Po and isotopic uranium were determined using liquid-liquid extraction with tributyl phosphate. Furthermore, it was made a comparison between the tributyl phosphate technique and the technique of extraction chromatography using UTEVA resins for uranium. The results of specific activities for 210 Po show a trend to decrease along the core, whereas the uranium isotopic does not show a pointed trend. The results of isotopic ratios between the 234 U and 238 U show that they are close to secular equilibrium in each of the core sections. The comparison between the two uranium extraction techniques indicates that the chemical yield is better using the UTEVA technique than tributyl phosphate extraction. (Author)

  20. Application of the alpha spectrometry for the study of core sediment extracted in the San Marcos dam in Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, C.; Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia T, R., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The determination of the specific activities of {sup 210}Po and isotopic uranium by alpha spectrometry was performed in a sediment core from San Marcos Dam. The objective of this work was to analyze the vertical distribution of isotopic uranium and {sup 210}Po and the behavior of these radionuclides along sediment core collected from the San Marcos Dam. Sample was divided into 11 sections, in which {sup 210}Po and isotopic uranium were determined using liquid-liquid extraction with tributyl phosphate. Furthermore, it was made a comparison between the tributyl phosphate technique and the technique of extraction chromatography using UTEVA resins for uranium. The results of specific activities for {sup 210}Po show a trend to decrease along the core, whereas the uranium isotopic does not show a pointed trend. The results of isotopic ratios between the {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U show that they are close to secular equilibrium in each of the core sections. The comparison between the two uranium extraction techniques indicates that the chemical yield is better using the UTEVA technique than tributyl phosphate extraction. (Author)

  1. Determining the distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in soils and sediments by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel-Maeso, Miriam; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the environment may pose a potential risk for humans and ecosystems. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are recognized as one of the main sources of these chemicals into both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The objectives of the study were to determine the presence of a wide variety of PhACs (n = 45) in sewage-impacted sediments and soils from the Guadalete River basin (SW Spain) by developing and applying an environmentally friendly multi-residue method based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). Different parameters were optimized, including extraction temperature, pH, solvents, and clean-up. Extraction recoveries were analyte dependent, varying between 50% and 140% for most of the analytes when using pure water as extraction solvent at 100 °C. Determination of PhACs was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), enabling method detection (mLODs) and quantification (mLOQs) limits between <0.01 and 0.83 ng g -1 and from 0.02 to 2.75 ng g -1 , respectively. Regarding the sampling area, 14 out of 45 target compounds were detected in soils and sediments. Analgesic/anti-inflammatories was the therapeutic group most commonly detected, reaching concentrations up to 20 ng g -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sediment-associated extractable metals, degree of sediment grain sorting, and dissolved organic carbon upon Cryptosporidium parvum removal and transport within riverbank filtration sediments, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Anders, R.; Lincoln, G.; Jasperse, James; Hill, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Oocysts of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum are of particular concern for riverbank filtration (RBF) operations because of their persistence, ubiquity, and resistance to chlorine disinfection. At the Russian River RBF site (Sonoma County, CA), transport of C. parvumoocysts and oocyst-sized (3 μm) carboxylate-modified microspheres through poorly sorted (sorting indices, σ1, up to 3.0) and geochemically heterogeneous sediments collected between 2 and 25 m below land surface (bls) were assessed. Removal was highly sensitive to variations in both the quantity of extractable metals (mainly Fe and Al) and degree of grain sorting. In flow-through columns, there was a log–linear relationship (r2 = 0.82 at p judging from high α values (∼1.0) observed for oocysts being advected through unamended sediments collected at ∼2 m bls. This study suggests that in evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations to remove oocysts, it may be necessary to consider not only the geochemical nature and size distribution of the sediment grains, but also the degrees of sediment sorting and the concentration, reactivity, and penetration of the source water DOC.

  3. Methodology of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Application to sediment from the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia); Methodologie de l'extraction des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques. Application a des sediments de la lagune de Bizerte (Tunisie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mzoughi, N.; El Abed, A. [Institut National des Sciences et Technologie de la Mer, Lab. Milieu Marin (Tunisia); Hellal, F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, Tunis (Tunisia); Dachraoui, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie (Tunisia); Villeneuve, J.P.; Cattini, Ch.; Mora, St.J. de [Agence Internationale de l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de l' Environnement Matin (Monaco)

    2002-09-01

    The marine environment is very complex, with several important chemical, biological, and sedimentological interactions. Sediments constitute a reservoir for numerous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are known by their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effect. This study evaluates contamination levels in Bizerte Lagoon with respect to PAHs. The extraction efficiency of PAHs from sediment has been evaluated using Soxhlet or ultrasonic procedures, based on the recovery of an internal standard (9,10-dihydro-anthracene). Several PAHs were found, including sixteen that are reported in the priority list of pollutants of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PAHs analysis was carried out by GC-FID and GC-MS for 16 samples sampled in two seasons: summer and winter. Results permit an assessment of PAHs pollution in the Bizerte Lagoon. (authors)

  4. Extraction of butyltins from sediments and their determination by liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivaro, P.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Sez. di Chimica Analitica ed Ambientale

    2000-06-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction of the butyltin compounds from sediment, suitable for their subsequent following determination by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector system, is proposed. Recoveries of 86%, 80% and 42% for tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) respectively were achieved. The relative detection limits of butyltin compounds by this method ranged from 27 to 62 ng of tin per gram of dry sediment. The method was applied to real sediment samples collected in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The results showed that, despite the restrictions on the use of butyltin contained in antifoulting paints, a considerable amount of organotin compounds is still present in Venice sediments. [Italian] E' stato messo a punto un metodo per l'estrazione di composti butilstannici da sedimenti, impiegando un'opportuna estrazione liquido-liquido per la successiva determinazione di tali composti mediante cromatografia liquida ad alta prestazione interfacciata tramite un sistema di generazione di idruri, ad uno spettrometro di emissione a plasma indotto per radiofrequenza. Sono stati ottenuti limiti di rilevabilita' tra i 27 e i 62 ng Sn/g sedimento, a seconda della specie butistannica considerata. La metodica e' stata impiegata per l'analisi di campioni di sedimento raccolti nella laguna di Venezia. I risultati ottenuti mostrano che, nonostante le limitazioni legislative sul loro impiego, considerevoli quantita' di composti butilstannici sono ancora presenti nei sedimenti.

  5. Composition and sources of extractable organic matter from a sediment core in Lake Kivu, East African rift valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutlaq, Khalid F.; Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Kivu is a gas-charged East African rift lake with currently anoxic bottom water. The extractable compounds and residual organic matter of a short sediment core have δ 13 C values typical of lacustrine microbial detritus. The total extracts consist primarily of polar compounds such as n-alkanoic acids, hydroxyalkanoic acids, triterpenoids, steroids and monosaccharides, with minor amounts of n-alkanes and n-alkanols. These tracer compounds and δ 13 C values indicate that the organic matter in the surficial and deeper sedimentary record was dominated by bacterial sources. The sapropelic sediment between these horizons contains organic matter from primarily algal with lesser bacterial input. Terrestrial organic markers are minor in all samples. The major fractions of the compounds in the total extracts were oxidized in the upper water column prior to transit through the anoxic bottom water to sedimentary deposition. The sapropelic horizon may reflect lake water turnover with ventilation or hydrothermal activity and consequently increased algal blooms

  6. Assessment of bioavailable metals in the sediments of Yamuna flood plain using two different single extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Though flood plains are considered as most fertile areas across the world but they have come under severe stress due to the flow of untreated domestic and industrial effluents and therefore, needed attention for its characterisation and subsequent treatment plans. The sediment samples, collected at 0–15, 15–35 and 30–60 cm depth levels during pre and post monsoon season from east and west sides of the river Yamuna around the national capital region of Delhi, were assessed for bioavailability of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA and acetic acid. The average concentrations of Zn (25 ± 6 mg kg−1 and Pb (33 ± 6 mg kg−1 leached in EDTA were higher than that of in acetic acid (Zn: 22 ± 6 mg kg−1; Pb: 24 ± 5 mg kg−1 whereas Ni (24 ± 6 mg kg−1 leached more in acetic acid compared to EDTA (Ni: 21 ± 4 mg kg−1. The bioavailable concentrations of metals were comparable among 0–15 and 15–35 cm depth samples but decreased in 35–60 cm depth samples. The post monsoon samples contained lower amounts of total metals in comparison to pre-monsoon samples, an indication of washout/dilution effects of flood/high water flow during monsoon season. The percentages of metals, with reference to their respective total concentrations, in the flood plain sediments as extracted by EDTA were in the range of 14–47% for Pb, 17–54% for Zn, and 15–39% for Ni. The Zn, Ni and Pb were soluble in acetic acid in the range of 12–39%, 16.7–36.5% and 14–36%, respectively. The chemical nature of extracting agent affected the metal leaching. Acetic acid, a weak acid, extracted the metals that were present in exchangeable fraction and easily movable whereas EDTA, hexa-dentate complexing agent, extracted metals from carbonate and organically bound fractions of the sediment samples. This could result in metal accumulation in the floodplains, biomagnification, adverse

  7. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Raphaël; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Darling, Kate F.; Lecroq-Bennet, Béatrice; Winther Pedersen, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Pawlowski, Jan; Mulitza, Stefan; de Vargas, Colomban; Kucera, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Deep-sea sediments constitute a unique archive of ocean change, fueled by a permanent rain of mineral and organic remains from the surface ocean. Until now, paleo-ecological analyses of this archive have been mostly based on information from taxa leaving fossils. In theory, environmental DNA (eDNA) in the sediment has the potential to provide information on non-fossilized taxa, allowing more comprehensive interpretations of the fossil record. Yet, the process controlling the transport and deposition of eDNA onto the sediment and the extent to which it preserves the features of past oceanic biota remains unknown. Planktonic foraminifera are the ideal taxa to allow an assessment of the eDNA signal modification during deposition because their fossils are well preserved in the sediment and their morphological taxonomy is documented by DNA barcodes. Specifically, we re-analyze foraminiferal-specific metabarcodes from 31 deep-sea sediment samples, which were shown to contain a small fraction of sequences from planktonic foraminifera. We confirm that the largest portion of the metabarcode originates from benthic bottom-dwelling foraminifera, representing the in situ community, but a small portion (DNA is preserved in a range of marine sediment types, the composition of the recovered eDNA metabarcode is replicable and that both the similarity structure and the diversity pattern are preserved. Our results suggest that sedimentary eDNA could preserve the ecological structure of the entire pelagic community, including non-fossilized taxa, thus opening new avenues for paleoceanographic and paleoecological studies.

  8. Arsenic Mobility and Availability in Sediments by Application of BCR Sequential Extractions Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios, R.; Fernandez, R.; Rucandio, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in nature, both naturally and due to anthropogenic activities. Among them, mining works are an important source of arsenic release to the environment. Asturias is a region where important mercury mines were exploited, and in them arsenic occurs in para genesis with mercury minerals. The toxicity and mobility of this element depends on the chemical species it is found. Fractionation studies are required to analyze the mobility of this metalloid in soils and sediments. Among them, the proposed by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) is one of the most employed. This method attempts to divide up, by operationally defined stages, the amount of this element associated with carbonates (fraction 1), iron and manganese oxy hydroxides (fraction 2), organic matter and sulphides (fraction 3), and finally as the amount associated residual fraction to primary and secondary minerals, that is, from the most labile fractions to the most refractory ones. Fractionation of arsenic in sediments from two mines in Asturias were studied, La Soterrana and Los Rueldos. Sediments from La Soterrana showed high levels of arsenic in the non-residual phases, indicating that the majority of arsenic has an anthropogenic origin. By contrast, in sediments from Los Rueldos most of the arsenic is concentrated in the residual phase, indicating that this element remains bound to very refractory primary minerals, as is also demonstrated by the strong correlation of arsenic fractionation and the fractionation of elements present in refractory minerals, such as iron, aluminum and titanium. (Author) 51 refs.

  9. Extraction and bioanalysis of the ecotoxicologically relevant fraction of contaminants in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puglisi, E.; Murk, A.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of the risk connected to the contamination of soils and sediments should rely on a multidisciplinary approach based on both chemical and biological techniques (i.e., the sum of exposure and effects assessment). The dioxin-responsive, chemical-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX)

  10. Determination of pharmaceuticals in soils and sediments by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Roig, Pablo; Segarra, Ramón; Blasco, Cristina; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2010-04-16

    The present work describes the development of a sensitive analytical method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and pre-concentration by solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of seventeen pharmaceuticals in soils and sediments. The method is based on sample homogenisation using Na(2)-EDTA washed sand and extraction with water at 90 degrees C. Special emphasis was placed on the optimization of the extraction procedure to develop a green method that reduces, at a maximum, the use of organic solvents in order to eliminate matrix components during the clean-up. The proposed method was linear in a concentration range from 0.3 to 333ngg(-1), with correlation coefficients higher than 0.993. Method detection (MDLs) and quantification (MQLs) limits ranged from 0.1 to 6.8ngg(-1) and from 0.25 to 23ngg(-1), respectively. Absolute recoveries were analyte dependent, varying between 50% and 105% at the MQL level, except for fenofibrate (40%) and diclofenac (34%). The intra-day and inter-day precision was given by RSD values from 0.7% to 7.9% and from 1.6% to 14.5%, respectively. Acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clofibric acid, codeine, diazepam, fenofibrate, metropolol, ofloxacin and propanolol were detected at concentrations from MDL to 35.62ngg(-1) in soils and sediments from marsh areas. Due to the low recoveries, results for fenofibrate and diclofenac can only be considered as semi-quantitative. The method was fully suitable for the other 15 pharmaceuticals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2014-05-02

    A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5 g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5 g) and activated silica gel (5 g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5 min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-01-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio Σ[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as level 2

  13. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea sediments constitute a unique archive of ocean change, fueled by a permanent rain of mineral and organic remains from the surface ocean. Until now, paleo-ecological analyses of this archive have been mostly based on information from taxa leaving fossils. In theory, environmental DNA (eDNA in the sediment has the potential to provide information on non-fossilized taxa, allowing more comprehensive interpretations of the fossil record. Yet, the process controlling the transport and deposition of eDNA onto the sediment and the extent to which it preserves the features of past oceanic biota remains unknown. Planktonic foraminifera are the ideal taxa to allow an assessment of the eDNA signal modification during deposition because their fossils are well preserved in the sediment and their morphological taxonomy is documented by DNA barcodes. Specifically, we re-analyze foraminiferal-specific metabarcodes from 31 deep-sea sediment samples, which were shown to contain a small fraction of sequences from planktonic foraminifera. We confirm that the largest portion of the metabarcode originates from benthic bottom-dwelling foraminifera, representing the in situ community, but a small portion (< 10 % of the metabarcodes can be unambiguously assigned to planktonic taxa. These organisms live exclusively in the surface ocean and the recovered barcodes thus represent an allochthonous component deposited with the rain of organic remains from the surface ocean. We take advantage of the planktonic foraminifera portion of the metabarcodes to establish to what extent the structure of the surface ocean biota is preserved in sedimentary eDNA. We show that planktonic foraminifera DNA is preserved in a range of marine sediment types, the composition of the recovered eDNA metabarcode is replicable and that both the similarity structure and the diversity pattern are preserved. Our results suggest that sedimentary eDNA could preserve the ecological structure of

  14. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...

  15. Determination of copper in natural waters and sediments by extraction spectroscopic method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    A sensitive extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed based on the formation and extraction of Cu(II)-neocuproine-rosenbengal into chloroform. The molar extinction coefficient of the system is 55.500 and Beer's law is obeyed up to 15...

  16. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  17. Multiresidue method for the determination of 32 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soil and sediment by pressurized-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Carrera, Erkuden; Hansen, Martin; León, Víctor M; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    An analytical chemical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 different pharmaceuticals in soils and sediments. The pharmaceuticals cover a varity of different compound groups. Soil samples were extracted with different solvents with the help of pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) followed by clean-up using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The purified extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The extraction method was evaluated by testing the following variables: extraction solvents, solvent pH, and temperature. Applying 20 g of soil/sediment and extracting with a mixture of methanol with aqueous ammonia solution (0.1 mol L(-1)) at 80 degrees C for 5 min in five cycles provided satisfactory recoveries between 66 and 114% with SD of between 1 and 14%. For preconcentration and purification tandem MAX-HLB cartridges were used. The volume and composition was optimized and the highest recoveries were obtained with a combination of methanol-aqueous ammonia solution. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.2 and 2 ng g(-1) and linearity higher than 0.98 for the majority of the selected pharmaceuticals. The method was successfully applied to soil samples collected from the Jerez de la Frontera agricultural region, irrigated with treated wastewater, and to sediment samples from the River Guadalete. The detection of nine pharmaceuticals including stimulants, antirheumatics, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, tranquilizers, and veterinary medicines at ng g(-1) concentration levels was achieved.

  18. Identification of a population of Ranunculus achenes extracted from Middle Pleistocene sediments exposed at Belhus Park, Essex, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Field Michael H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A plant macrofossil assemblage extracted from Middle Pleistocene fluvial organic sediments collected from Belhus Park, Aveley, Essex, UK contained a number of tuberculate (verrucose achenes attributed to the genus Ranunculus, one of which had two short spines preserved on its surface. The identification of these achenes is discussed here. This is worthy of note because Ranunculus tuberculate or spinose fossil achenes can be difficult to determine to species as they can have similar features, some Ranunculus species produce achenes in several morphological forms, and during fossilization delicate structures maybe destroyed (e.g. spines. After careful morphological consideration it is concluded that the fossil achenes from Belhus Park are Ranunculus parviflorus L., indicating that dry grassland or disturbed ground existed in the river catchment. The plant macrofossil assemblages that included the Ranunculus parviflorus achenes were dominated by waterside, damp ground, and aquatic taxa. It is probable that flowing water transported the achenes from further afield before their incorporation into the fluvial sediments. The identification of these fossils illustrates the importance of considering the morphological characteristics of the achene only and not to make a determination on the nature of the predominant palaeoenvironmental signal from an assemblage.

  19. Speciation of mercury in soil and sediment by selective solvent and acid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Y. [Metara Inc., 1225 East Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Kingston, H.M.; Boylan, H.M.; Rahman, G.M.M.; Shah, S.; Richter, R.C.; Link, D.D.; Bhandari, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    In order to characterize the mercury hazard in soil, a sequential extraction scheme has been developed to classify mercury species based on their environmental mobility and/or toxicity for either routine lab analysis or on-site screening purposes. The alkyl mercury species and soluble inorganic species that contribute to the major portion of potential mercury toxicity in the soil are extracted by an acidic ethanol solution (2% HCl+10% ethanol solution) from soil matrices as ''mobile and toxic'' species. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection has been developed to further resolve the species information into soluble inorganic species (Hg{sup 2+}), methylmercury(II) (MeHg{sup +}) and ethylmercury(II) (EtHg{sup +}) species. Alternatively, these species can be separated into ''soluble inorganic mercury'' and ''alkyl mercury'' sub-categories by Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE). A custom Sulfydryl Cotton Fiber (SCF) material is used as the solid phase medium. Optimization of the SCF SPE technique is discussed. Combined with a direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80), the SCF SPE technique is a promising candidate for on-site screening purposes. Following the ethanol extraction, the inorganic mercury species remaining in soil are further divided into ''semi-mobile'' and ''non-mobile'' sub-categories by sequential acid extractions. The ''semi-mobile'' mercury species include mainly elemental mercury (Hg) and mercury-metal amalgams. The non-mobile mercury species mainly include mercuric sulfide (HgS) and mercurous chloride (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). (orig.)

  20. Extraction and purification procedures for simultaneous quantification of phenolic xenoestrogens and steroid estrogens in river sediment by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinani, Said; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie; Creusot, Nicolas; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim

    2008-11-01

    A sensitive and simple method based on ultrasonication extraction with a hexane/acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, followed by clean up of the extract by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection, has been developed and validated for the analysis of 20 estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) including phenolic xenoestrogens, synthetic and natural estrogens in river sediment. After extraction and purification, analytes are derivatised with a BSTFA/TMCS/pyridine (49:1:50, v/v/v) mixture and quantified by GC/MS. The GC/MS method involves switching between electron ionisation (EI) and chemical ionisation (CI); it also switches between selected ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry detection. The applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analysing extracts of French river sediments for which bioanalytical tests (in vitro) had already shown that they were impacted by estrogenic endocrine disrupters. The biological contribution of all the products detected in each sediment extract was compared to the estrogenic activity measured by bioassays.

  1. Screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sediments based on water Soxhlet extraction assisted by focused microwaves with on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Muñoz, S; Luque-García, J L; de Castro, Luque

    2004-02-13

    A screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments has been developed. Soxhlet extraction with water assisted by focused microwaves provides recoveries better (>90%) than obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction (70-80%). Coupling of the extractor with an on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection manifold through a flow injection (FI) interface allows a fully automated screening approach. A yes/no answer can be obtained in less than 2 h (for the whole analytical process), a short time compared with the at least 24 h of Soxhlet extraction (without final detection). Due to the use of water as leaching agent, the proposed method is environmentally friendly.

  2. Determination of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in Sediment Compartments by Sequential Extraction and Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardolinski Paulo C. F. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in four different sediment fractions extracted in sequence were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled mass spectrometry (IDICPMS. The metals from each fraction were extracted following the sequential extraction procedure recommended by the Bureau Commun de Référence (BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. As an alternative to external calibration, the elements were quantified by spiking the extracted solutions with 112Cd, 63Cu, 208Pb and 66Zn and application of isotope dilution. The proposed approach was applied to a sample collected from a lake and two standard reference materials, NIST2704 river sediment from the National Institute of Standards & Technology and the BCR-277 estuarine sediment. Detection limits, for each extracted solution, varied from 0.31 to 0.53 mug L¹ for Cd, 0.92 to 2.9 mug L¹ for Cu, 0.22 to 1.1 mug L¹ for Pb and 1.3 to 7.6 mug L¹ for Zn. The sum of the metals concentration in the different fractions was compatible with 95% confidence level found amounts obtained with complete digestion of the samples and with the certified values of the standard reference materials.

  3. Characteristics of Air Core and Surface Velocity for Water Flow in a Vortex Sediment-Extraction Chamber Measured by Using Photo Images and PTV Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hou Chang; Chyan Deng, Jan; Chao, Hsu Yu; Chih Yuan, Yang

    2017-04-01

    A vortex sediment-extraction chamber, consisted of cylindrical chamber, inflow system, bottom orifice and overflow weir, is used to separate sediment from sediment-laden water flow. A tangential inflow is introduced into a cylindrical chamber with a bottom orifice; thus, a strong vortex flow is produced there. Under actions of gravity and centrifugal force, heavier sediment particles are forced to move towards the bottom orifice, and relatively clear water flows over through the top overflow weir. The flow field in the cylindrical chamber consists of forced vortex and free vortex. When the bottom orifice is opened during the sediment-extraction process, an air core appears and changes with different settings. In this study, the air core and water surface velocity in the cylindrical chamber were measured by using a photo image process and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), as well as numerically simulated by using a commercial software, Flow-3D.Laboratory experiments were conducted in a vortex chamber, having height of 130 cm and diameter of 48 cm. Five kinds of bottom orifice size from 1.0 cm to 3.0 cm and four kinds of inflow water discharge from 1,300cm3/s to 1,700 cm3/s were used while the inflow pipe of 3 cm in diameter was kept the same for all experiments. The characteristics of the air core and water surface velocity, and the inflow and outflow ratios under different experimental arrangements were observed and discussed so as to provide a better design and application for a vortex sediment-extraction chamber in the future.

  4. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lin, Youjian; Lu, Jian; Wilson, Chris

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 °C for 2h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 °C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most <6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 °C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg⁻¹), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg⁻¹), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg⁻¹). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg⁻¹ to 3.72 μg kg⁻¹. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33±41.71 μg kg⁻¹, lowest concentration 5.68±0.38 μg kg⁻¹, and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73±0.53 to 7.53±0.01 μg kg⁻¹. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Major, trace and REE geochemistry of recent sediments from lower Catumbela River (Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Manuela; Silva, M. G.; Cabral Pinto, Marina M. S.; Carvalho, Paula Cristina S.

    2016-03-01

    The mineralogy, texture, major, trace and rare earth elements, from recent sediment samples collected in the lower Catumbela River, were analysed in this study to characterize and discuss the factors controlling its geochemistry and provide data that can be used as tracers of Catumbela River inputs to the Angolan continental shelf. The sediments are mainly sands and silty-sands, but sandy-silt also occurs and the mineralogy is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates, magnetite, ilmenite and also carbonates when the river crosses limestones and marls in the downstream sector. The hydraulic sorting originates magnetite-ilmenite and REE-enriched minerals placers. The mineralogy of the sediments is controlled by the source rocks and the degree of chemical weathering is lower than erosion. The texture is mainly controlled by location. There is enrichment in all the analysed trace elements in the fine grained, clay minerals and Fe-oxy-hydroxides rich sediments, compared to the coarse grained and quartz plus feldspar rich ones. The coarse grained sediments (without the placers) are impoverished in ΣREE when compared with UCC and NASC compositions, while the fine grained sediments have ΣREE contents similar to UCC and NASC. The placers have ΣREE contents up to 959.59 mg/kg. The source composition is the dominant factor controlling the REE geochemistry of the analysed sediments as there is no difference in the (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios in coarse and fine grained sediments. The sorting of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, throrite, thorianite, rutile and titanite explain the HREE/LREE enriched patterns of the coarse grained sediments.

  6. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio

    2013-08-15

    A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial distribution of gut juice extractable Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments from the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we compared the spatial distribution of total metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) and bioaccessible metals, which were quantified by incubating sediments with the digestive fluid of sipunculans Sipunculus nudus, in natural sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The spatial distribution of bioaccessible metal was not the same as that of total metals in PRE sediments, which were mainly controlled by fine-grained size, total organic carbon (TOC) and Fe. Geochemical factors were important in interpreting this different spatial variation. The similar spatial variations of bioaccessible Cu and total Cu were related to TOC in PRE sediments. Differently from the total Zn, a higher bioaccessible Zn was detected near the West Channel of PRE because of a lower TOC. However, the distribution of bioaccessible Pb was not significantly related to any sediment geochemistry. This study provides a more accurate view of metal pollution in the PRE natural sediments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediment with on-line coupled pressurised hot water extraction, hollow fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Kati; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2003-05-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) was coupled on-line via hollow fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (HF-MMLLE) to gas chromatography (GC) and applied in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and sediment. In this combination, the MMLLE unit serves as a trapping device for the extracted compounds. Simultaneously it cleans and concentrates the extract, which is then transferred on-line to the GC. No extra clean-up steps are required between the trapping and the transfer to GC. The on-line system gives excellent sensitivity while allowing small sample size. The method was linear, with limits of detection in the range 50-890 pg and limits of quantification 0.11-1.22 microg g(-1). The concentration enrichment factors obtained with the method ranged from 9 to 55. Comparison of the results with those obtained by other techniques confirmed the good performance.

  9. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  10. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria, E-mail: amandatadini@hotmail.com [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Pantano, Glaucia; Toffoli, Ana Lúcia de [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare (NMR) per L' ambiente, l' Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali, CERMANU, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); and others

    2015-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande—BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. - Highlights: • The characterization of HS allows the understanding of the chemical structure. • HS of sediment in areas planted with sugar cane and rural areas contained more aromatic groups. • Influence of soil use and occupation on the chemical structure of the HS.

  11. Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for species-specific isotope dilution analysis of tributyltin in sediment after accelerated solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, Raimund; Wolff-Briche, Celine

    2003-01-01

    This study describes a direct comparison of GC and HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS). The certified reference sediment PACS-2 (NRC, Canada) and a candidate reference sediment (P-18/HIPA-1) were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure. For comparison of GC and LC methods an older bottle of PACS-2 was used, whilst a fresh bottle was taken for demonstration of the accuracy of the methods. The data obtained show good agreement between both methods for both the PACS-2 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 828±87 ng g -1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 848±39 ng g -1 TBT as Sn) and the P-18/ HIPA-1 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 78.0±9.7 ng g -1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 79.2±3.8 ng g -1 TBT as Sn). The analysis by GC-ICP-IDMS offers a greater signal-to-noise ratio and hence a superior detection limit of 0.03 pg TBT as Sn, in the sediment extracts compared to HPLC-ICP-IDMS (3 pg TBT as Sn). A comparison of the uncertainties associated with both methods indicates superior precision of the GC approach. This is related to the better reproducibility of the peak integration, which affects the isotope ratio measurements used for IDMS. The accuracy of the ASE method combined with HPLC-ICP-IDMS was demonstrated during the international interlaboratory comparison P-18 organised by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM). The results obtained by GC-ICP-IDMS for a newly opened bottle of PACS-2 were 1087±77 ng g -1 Sn for DBT and 876±51 ng g -1 Sn for TBT (expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2), which are in good agreement with the certified values of 1090±150 ng g -1 Sn and 980±130 ng g -1 Sn, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Speciation of chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc of sediment from the Densu River by sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboo, D.; Brimah, A.K.; Debrah, C.

    1999-04-01

    Total concentrations of the broad metal spectrum and speciation of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn in sediments of River Densu are studied in order to establish the extent of pollution and their capacity of remobilization. Eight composite samples were analyzed, major components of the sediments were studied using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the sediment has Cd value above the normal range. The distribution of the elements in various fractions depends largely on the element. Most of the elements have the bulk of their concentration in the residual fraction. (author)

  13. Analysis of endocrine disruptor compounds in marine sediments by in cell clean up-pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2014-12-10

    A less time-, solvent- and sorbent-consuming analytical methodology for the determination of bisphenol A and alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in marine sediment was developed and validated. The method was based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) with a simultaneous in cell clean up combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The SPLE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite design. Quantitation was performed by standard addition curves in order to correct matrix effects. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 94 and 100% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged between 0.17 (4-n-nonylphenol) and 4.01 ng g(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of this green methodology. As an application, marine sediment samples from Galicia coast (NW of Spain) were analysed. Nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were measured in all samples at concentrations between 20.1 and 1409 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Sediment toxicity was estimated and no risk to aquatic biota was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for semivolatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burbank, T.L.; Olson, M.C.; Iverson, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper describes a method to determine the distribution of PAH and alkylated homolog groups in sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, was developed to decrease sample preparation time, to reduce solvent consumption, and to minimize background interferences for full-scan GC-MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, environmental stream sediment, and commercially available topsoil, fortified at 1.5-15 ??g per compound, averaged 94.6 ?? 7.8%, 90.7 ?? 5.8% and 92.8 ?? 12.8%, respectively. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 20 to 302 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 28 environmental sediment samples, excluding homologs, show 35 of 41 compounds (85.4%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, was detected in 23 of the 28 (82%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 15 to 907 ??g/kg. The results from the 28 environmental sediment samples for the homolog series showed that 27 of 28 (96%) samples had at least one homolog series present at concentrations ranging from 20 to 89,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected homolog series, C2-alkylated naphthalene, was detected in 26 of the 28 (93%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 25 to 3900 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction also are compared. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris, E-mail: pcwilson@ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 {sup o}C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 {sup o}C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most < 6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 {sup o}C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 {mu}g kg{sup -1} to 3.72 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 {+-} 41.71 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, lowest concentration 5.68 {+-} 0.38 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 {+-} 0.53 to 7.53 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. - Highlights: {yields} A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was

  16. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  17. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and partial least squares regression to assay low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leached from soils and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lucas P.; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Schmidt, Marcella E. P.; Faccin, Henrique; de Machado, Leandro Carvalho; Bohrer, Denise

    2017-02-01

    A novel method was developed to determine low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous leachates from soils and sediments using a salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and a multivariate calibration technique. Several experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions were: sodium carbonate as the salting-out agent at concentration of 2 mol L- 1, 3 mL of acetonitrile as extraction solvent, 6 mL of aqueous leachate, vortexing for 5 min and centrifuging at 4000 rpm for 5 min. The partial least squares calibration was optimized to the lowest values of root mean squared error and five latent variables were chosen for each of the targeted compounds. The regression coefficients for the true versus predicted concentrations were higher than 0.99. Figures of merit for the multivariate method were calculated, namely sensitivity, multivariate detection limit and multivariate quantification limit. The selectivity was also evaluated and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons did not interfere in the analysis. Likewise, high performance liquid chromatography was used as a comparative methodology, and the regression analysis between the methods showed no statistical difference (t-test). The proposed methodology was applied to soils and sediments of a Brazilian river and the recoveries ranged from 74.3% to 105.8%. Overall, the proposed methodology was suitable for the targeted compounds, showing that the extraction method can be applied to spectrofluorometric analysis and that the multivariate calibration is also suitable for these compounds in leachates from real samples.

  18. Acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea: concentrations, spatial distributions and the indication of heavy metal pollution status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2013-11-15

    Surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn 2012. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) were measured to assess the sediment quality. The results showed that not all sediments with [SEM]-[AVS]>0 were capable of causing toxicity because the organic carbon is also an important metal-binding phase in sediments. Suppose the sediments had not been disturbed and the criteria of US Environmental Protection Agency had been followed, heavy metals in this area had no adverse biological effects in both seasons except for few riverine samples. The major ingredient of SEM was Zn, whereas the contribution of Cd - the most toxic metal studied - to SEM was marine sediments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the role of desorption in bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants using oligochaetes, semipermeable membrane devices and Tenax extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppaenen, Matti T.; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The success of the rapidly desorbing fraction as an available fraction was challenged by using sediment ingesting and non-ingesting oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) together with passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) in accumulation and kinetic modelling exercises for carbon-14 labelled model compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl). Passive samplers clearly produced lower uptake rate constants and steady state factors than either of the oligochaete treatments when residue concentrations were based on animal lipid or total SPMD weight. The rapidly desorbing chemical fractions in sediments did not show a significant relationship with the biota sediment accumulation factors or SPMD accumulation factors. A distinctly better relationship was observed between the accumulation factors and the desorption rate constants. The results support the assumption that desorption plays an important role in bioavailability, although animal behaviour and the diffusional limitations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment together probably affect the actual available pool. - Desorption and animal behaviour play major roles in the availability of hydrophobic organics in sediments

  20. Miniaturised pressurised liquid extraction aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and sediment with subsequent large-volume injection-gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Analyte extraction is the main limitation when developing at-line, or on-line, procedures for the preparation of (semi)solid environmental samples. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is an analyte- and matrix-independent technique which provides cleaner extracts than the time-consuming classical

  1. Méthodologie de l'extraction des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques. Application à des sédiments de la lagune de Bizerte (Tunisie)Methodology of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Application to sediment from the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Hellal, Fayçal; Dachraoui, Mohamed; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; de Mora, Stephen J.; El Abed, Amor

    2002-09-01

    The marine environment is very complex, with several important chemical, biological, and sedimentological interactions. Sediments constitute a reservoir for numerous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are known by their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effect. This study evaluates contamination levels in Bizerte Lagoon with respect to PAHs. The extraction efficiency of PAHs from sediment has been evaluated using Soxhlet or ultrasonic procedures, based on the recovery of an internal standard (9,10-dihydroanthracene). Several PAHs were found, including sixteen that are reported in the priority list of pollutants of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PAHs analysis was carried out by GC-FID and GC-MS for 16 samples sampled in two seasons: summer and winter. Results permit an assessment of PAHs pollution in the Bizerte Lagoon. To cite this article: N. Mzoughi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 893-901.

  2. Comparison of microwave assisted, ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet extractions of N-nitrosamines and aromatic amines in sewage sludge, soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a cost-effective and sensitive method for the gas chromatographic determination of 10 aliphatic and aromatic N-nitrosamines and 14 aromatic amines (including aniline, several chloroanilines and 2-nitroaniline) in various soil matrices, after microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with continuous solid-phase extraction. A systematic comparison of MAE with ultrasonic assisted and Soxhlet extraction alternatives showed that MAE provided the highest extraction efficiency (94-96%) with the shortest extraction time (3 min). The method developed provides a linear response throughout the concentration range 0.1-150 ng g(-1) and features low limits of detection (0.03-0.35 ng g(-1)) and good precision. The method was successfully applied to study the occurrence of the analytes in sewage sludge, agricultural soils, and river and pond sediments. Aniline and chloroanilines were the amines most frequently detected (0.4-5.4 ng g(-1)), whereas N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were only found in two of the urban sewage sludge samples analyzed (0.4-1.6 ng g(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous DNA-RNA Extraction from Coastal Sediments and Quantification of 16S rRNA Genes and Transcripts by Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Enrico; McKew, Boyd A; Whitby, Corrine; Smith, Cindy J

    2016-06-11

    Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction also known as quantitative PCR (q-PCR) is a widely used tool in microbial ecology to quantify gene abundances of taxonomic and functional groups in environmental samples. Used in combination with a reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-q-PCR), it can also be employed to quantify gene transcripts. q-PCR makes use of highly sensitive fluorescent detection chemistries that allow quantification of PCR amplicons during the exponential phase of the reaction. Therefore, the biases associated with 'end-point' PCR detected in the plateau phase of the PCR reaction are avoided. A protocol to quantify bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from coastal sediments via real-time PCR is provided. First, a method for the co-extraction of DNA and RNA from coastal sediments, including the additional steps required for the preparation of DNA-free RNA, is outlined. Second, a step-by-step guide for the quantification of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from the extracted nucleic acids via q-PCR and RT-q-PCR is outlined. This includes details for the construction of DNA and RNA standard curves. Key considerations for the use of RT-q-PCR assays in microbial ecology are included.

  4. Extracting a Detailed Magnetostratigraphy From Weakly Magnetized, Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediment Drifts Recovered at IODP Site U1406 (Newfoundland Margin, Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Tim E.; Xuan, Chuang; Lippert, Peter C.; Liebrand, Diederik; Agnini, Claudia; Wilson, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Fine-grained magnetic particles in deep-sea sediments often statistically align with the ambient magnetic field during (and shortly after) deposition and can therefore record geomagnetic reversals. Correlation of these reversals to a geomagnetic polarity time scale is an important geochronological tool that facilitates precise stratigraphic correlation and dating of geological records globally. Sediments often carry a remanence strong enough for confident identification of polarity reversals, but in some cases a low signal-to-noise ratio prevents the construction of a reliable and robust magnetostratigraphy. Here we implement a data-filtering protocol, which can be integrated with the UPmag software package, to automatically reduce the maximum angular deviation and statistically mask noisy data and outliers deemed unsuitable for magnetostratigraphic interpretation. This protocol thus extracts a clearer signal from weakly magnetized sediments recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 Site U1406 (Newfoundland margin, northwest Atlantic Ocean). The resulting magnetostratigraphy, in combination with shipboard and shore-based biostratigraphy, provides an age model for the study interval from IODP Site U1406 between Chrons C6Ar and C9n (˜21-27 Ma). We identify rarely observed geomagnetic directional changes within Chrons C6Br, C7r, and C7Ar, and perhaps within Subchron C8n.1n. Our magnetostratigraphy dates three intervals of unusual stratigraphic behavior within the sediment drifts at IODP Site U1406 on the Newfoundland margin. These lithostratigraphic changes are broadly concurrent with the coldest climatic phases of the middle Oligocene to early Miocene and we hypothesize that they reflect changes in bottom water circulation.

  5. Multivariate Analyses and Evaluation of Heavy Metals by Chemometric BCR Sequential Extraction Method in Surface Sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediments in estuary areas are recognized as the ultimate reservoirs for numerous contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. Multivariate analyses by chemometric evaluation were performed to classify metal ions (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd in superficial sediments from Lingdingyang Bay and to determine whether or not there were potential contamination risks based on the BCR sequential extraction scheme. The results revealed that Cd was mainly in acid-soluble form with an average of 75.99% of its total contents and thus of high potential availability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources, while Cr, As, Ni were enriched in the residual fraction which could be considered as the safest ingredients to the environment. According to the proportion of secondary to primary phases (KRSP, Cd had the highest bioavailable fraction and represented high or very high risk, followed by Pb and Cu with medium risks in most of samples. The combined evaluation of the Pollution Load Index (PLI and the mean Effect Range Median Quotient (mERM-Q highlighted that the greatest potential environmental risk area was in the northwest of Lingdingyang Bay. Almost all of the sediments had a 21% probability of toxicity. Additionally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that the survey region was significantly affected by two main sources of anthropogenic contributions: PC1 showed increased loadings of variables in acid-soluble and reducible fractions that were consistent with the input from industrial wastes (such as manufacturing, metallurgy, chemical industry and domestic sewages; PC2 was characterized by increased loadings of variables in residual fraction that could be attributed to leaching and weathering of parent rocks. The results obtained demonstrated the need for appropriate remediation measures to alleviate soil pollution problem due to the more aggregation of potentially risky metals. Therefore, it is of crucial significance to implement the targeted

  6. A Simple Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in River Sediment by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alejandro; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2017-10-01

    A simple method was developed using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of eight different pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (ibuprofen, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, naproxen, triclosan, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A and estrone) in river sediment. UAE conditions were optimized involving extraction variables such as extraction solvent, extraction time, sample amount, extraction temperature, pH and salt addition. A 100 mg of sediment was extracted by optimized UAE process using 7 mL deionized water (pH 3) + 1% methanol as solvent, room temperature and 1 min extraction at 70% of amplitude. A 5 mL of supernatant was subsequently extracted by SPME; the extracted analytes were derivatized on fiber in head-space mode with N-methyl-N-(tertbutyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and then analyzed by GC-MS. The developed method was evaluated by testing: precision (CV 0.98), recoveries (56-108%), limits of detection (simple and environmentally friendly, and provides straightforward analyses of these trace organic pollutants in sediment samples. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Metal pollution status in Zhelin Bay surface sediments inferred from a sequential extraction technique, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Jiang, Shi-Jun; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-15

    Surface sediments collected from Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base of eastern Guangdong Province, were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical speciation. The results demonstrated that the average total concentration (mg/kg) ranges were 36.7-65.8 (Pb), 53.8-98.8 (Cr), 39.0-87.1 (Ni), 50.9-144.5 (Cu), and 175.0-251.2 (Zn), which were clearly higher with respect to their corresponding benchmark values. The predominant speciation of Pb was reducible and comprised a residual fraction, whereas a major portion (57.6-95.4%) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 2D Micromodel Study of Fines Migration and Clogging Behavior in Porous Media: Implications of Fines on Methane Extraction from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S. C.; Jang, J.; Waite, W. F.; Jafari, M.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-grained sediment, or "fines," exist nearly ubiquitously in natural sediment, even in the predominantly coarse-grained sediments that host gas hydrates. Fines within these sandy sediments can play a crucial role during gas hydrate production activities. During methane extraction, several processes can alter the mobility and clogging potential of fines: 1) fluid flow as the formation is depressurized to release methane from hydrate; 2) pore-fluid chemistry shifts as pore-fluid brine freshens due to pure water released from dissociating hydrate; 3) the presence of a moving gas/water interface as gas evolves from dissociating hydrate and moves through the reservoir toward the production well. To evaluate fines migration and clogging behavior changes resulting from methane gas production and pore-water freshening during hydrate dissociation, 2D micromodel experiments have been conducted on a selection of pure fines, pore-fluids, and micromodel pore-throat sizes. Additionally, tests have been run with and without an invading gas phase (CO2) to test the significance of a moving meniscus on fines mobility and clogging. The endmember fine particles chosen for this research include silica silt, mica, calcium carbonate, diatoms, kaolinite, illite, and bentonite (primarily made of montmorillonite). The pore fluids include deionized water, sodium chloride brine (2M concentration), and kerosene. The microfluidic pore models, used as porous media analogs, were fabricated with pore-throat widths of 40, 60, and 100 µm. Results from this research show that in addition to the expected dependence of clogging on the ratio of particle-to-pore-throat size, pore-fluid chemistry is also a significant factor because the interaction between a particular type of fine and pore fluid influences that fine's capacity to cluster, clump together and effectively increase its particle "size" relative to the pore-throat width. The presence of a moving gas/fluid meniscus increases the clogging

  9. A multisyringe flow-through sequential extraction system for on-line monitoring of orthophosphate in soils and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2007-01-01

    of extracted organic phosphorus and condensed inorganic phosphates within the time frame of the assay. The potential of the novel system for accommodation of the harmonized protocol from the Standards, Measurement and Testing (SMT) Program of the Commission of the European Communities for inorganic phosphorus.......5 mol l-1 HCl as extractants according to the Hietjles-Lijklema (HL) scheme for fractionation of phosphorus associated with different geological phases, and on-line processing of the extracts via the Molybdenum Blue (MB) reaction by exploiting multisyringe flow injection as the interface between...... of the operational times from days to hours, highly temporal resolution of the leaching process, and the capability for immediate decision for stopping or proceeding with the ongoing extraction. Very importantly, accurate determination of the various orthophosphate pools is ensured by minimization of the hydrolysis...

  10. Speciation analysis of mercury in sediments, zoobenthos and river water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to atomic fluorescence spectrometry following preconcentration by solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margetinova, Jana; Houserova-Pelcova, Pavlina; Kuban, Vlastimil

    2008-01-01

    A high-pressure microwave digestion was applied for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of mercury species from sediments and zoobenthos samples. A mixture containing 3 mol L -1 HCl, 50% aqueous methanol and 0.2 mol L -1 citric acid (for masking co-extracted Fe 3+ ) was selected as the most suitable extraction agent. The efficiency of proposed extraction method was better than 95% with R.S.D. below 6%. A preconcentration method utilizing a 'homemade' C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) microcolumns was developed to enhance sensitivity of the mercury species determination using on-column complex formation of mercury-2-mercaptophenol complexes. Methanol was chosen for counter-current elution of the retained mercury complexes achieving a preconcentration factor as much as 1000. The preconcentration method was applied for the speciation analysis of mercury in river water samples. The high-performance liquid chromatography-cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometric (HPLC/CV-AFS) method was used for the speciation analysis of mercury. The complete separation of four mercury species was achieved by an isocratic elution of aqueous methanol (65%/35%) on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) using the same complexation reagent (2-mercaptophenol). The limits of detection were 4.3 μg L -1 for methylmercury (MeHg + ), 1.4 μg L -1 for ethylmercury (EtHg + ), 0.8 μg L -1 for inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), 0.8 μg L -1 for phenylmercury (PhHg + )

  11. Chemical speciation and contamination assessment of Pb and V by sequential extraction in surface sediment off Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The total concentrations of metals were ranged (22.8–41.3 μg g−1 for Pb and (66.6–142.5 μg g−1 for V. The chemical speciation in most sampling stations was in the order of Residual > acid-reducible > oxidizable-organic > exchangeable for Pb and in the order of Residual > oxidizable-organic > exchangeable > acid-reducible for V. The results showed that the Pb in surface sediments off Nile River Delta existed in the nonresistant fractions while vanadium existed in the resistant fractions. The degree of surface sediments contamination was determined for individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. The result of ICF and GCF values showed that those stations located in the vicinity of municipal area (especially Lake Burullus outlet had high potential risk to fauna and flora of study area. Risk assessment code (RAC analysis indicated that although Pb presented a moderate overall risk to the aquatic environment, vanadium showed a low risk (RAC < 10% at six sites.

  12. Risk assessment of heavy metals in Vembanad Lake sediments (south-west coast of India), based on acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyleshchandran, Mohanachandran Nair; Mohan, Mahesh; Ramasamy, Eswara Venkatesaperumal

    2018-03-01

    Contamination of estuarine system due to heavy metals is a severe issue in tropical countries, especially in India. For the evaluation of the risk due to heavy metals, the current study assessed spatial and temporal variation of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metal (SEM), and total metal concentration as toxicity indicator of aquatic sediments in Vembanad Lake System (VLS), India. Surface sediment samples collected from 12 locations from the northern portion of VLS for 4 years during different seasons. The results suggest, in post-monsoon season, 91% of the sampling locations possessed high bioavailability of metals and results in toxicity to aquatic biota. The average seasonal distribution of SEM during the period of observations was in the order post-monsoon > pre-monsoon > monsoon (1.76 ± 2.00 > 1.35 ± 0.60 > 0.80 ± 0.54 μmol/g). The concentration of individual metals on ∑SEM are in the order SEM Zn > SEM Cu> SEM Cd ≈ SEM Pb > SEM Hg. Considering annual ΣSEM/AVS ratio, 83% of the sites cross the critical value of 'One,' reveals that active sulfide phase of the sediment for fixing the metals is saturated. The molar ratio (differences between SEM and AVS) and its normalized organic carbon ratio reveals that in the post-monsoon season, about 42% of the sites are in the category of adverse effects are possible. The study suggests the toxicity and mobility of the metals largely depend on the available AVS, and the current situation may pose harm to benthic organisms.

  13. Fractionation And Environmental Risk Of Trace Metals In Surface Sediment Of The East China Sea By Modified BCR Sequential Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical fractionation of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Cobalt (Co, Zink (Zn, Iron (Fe and Manganese (Mn in sediment of the East China Sea were determined using four-stages of modified BCR sequential extraction method combination with ICP-MS. The total concentration of trace metals in sediment samples were in the following order: Fe >Mn>Pb> Zn > Co > Cd. Cd is present mainly in acid soluble fraction. Pb and Mn are in the group with presenting of easy reducible fraction and acid soluble fraction. Fe and Co were found in a group with mainly in residual fraction, while Zn was distributed in all four fractions. The highest contamination factors were found for Cd and Mn while the lowest were found for Fe and Co in almost station. The result showed low risk for Fe and Co in all station, Pb (except S2 and S3, Zn at S3,S6 and S7, and Mn at S1. A medium risk is indicated for Pb at S2 and S3, Zn at S1 and S5, and Mn at S2 and S6. A high risk showed for Zn at S2 and S4, and Mn at S4 and S5, while Cd at almost station (except S4 was very high risk.

  14. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari; Budiyanto, F.; Hindarti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Banten Bay is categorized as a marine area that is busy with marine tourism activities, settlements and also industries. One potential impact of the condition is the occurrence of pollution from both industrial and domestic sources, erosion and sedimentation in the coastal environment. Samples were collected from 25 representative stations in April 2016. Chemical speciation of three heavy metals (Cu, Ni, and Zn) was studied using a modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The aims of this study are to determine geochemical speciation of 4 bounds of metal: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual, and to assess their impacts in the sediments of Banten Bay, Indonesia. The result shows that the percentage of Copper (45.90-83.75%), Nickel (18.28-65.66%), and Zinc (30.45-79.51%) were mostly accumulated in residual fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that about 0-7.07% of Copper and 1.11-24.35 % of Zinc at sites exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore, they are in low risk category. While 7.34-34.90 of Ni at sites exists in exchangeable fraction and therefore, it is in medium risk category to aquatic environment.

  15. Mass balance, bedload extraction, surface morphology, and Holocene stratigraphic architecture along distinct sediment transport pathways of the Brahmaputra River in Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Pickering, J.; Paola, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River has followed three preferred pathways within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta during the Holocene: the principal course along the modern Jamuna braidbelt and two subsidiary routes through the tectonically deforming Sylhet Basin. The Jamuna braidbelt follows a relatively straight and tectonically stable (subsidence rates generally Basin traverse an actively subsiding basin (typically 3-4 mm/yr, with rates as high as 7 mm/year near the adjacent Dauki foredeep). In spite of differential subsidence, the Brahmaputra has only episodically occupied Sylhet Basin for brief periods during most of the Holocene. We compare downstream rates of mass extraction via selective deposition along multiple sediment delivery pathways using quantitative grain size data from a network of over 400 closely-spaced (3-5 km) boreholes (up to 90 m deep). An exponential function to describe downstream fining was fitted to the data, with the exponent alpha taken to be the rate of downstream fining. Our data indicate 1.) the upper and lower reaches (~100 km) of all pathways exhibit limited to no fining, 2.) once fining begins it proceeds rapidly in a downstream direction until the coarse fraction has been extracted, and 3.) the fining rate in Sylhet Basin (α = 0.005) is considerably higher than that for the modern braidbelt (α = 0.001), likely due to a steeper slope down the fan delta. When converted to a scale-independent chi space, preserved stratigraphy along both courses show declining sand:mud ratios and sand body thickness at a chi distance of about 0.7, consistent with previous studies in other depositional settings. This downstream distance also generally coincides with a decrease in slope from the fan delta to the lower fluvial-tidal delta, as well as the cessation of downstream fining. Furthermore, this transition corresponds with the backwater length as calculated by a number of different methods. These initial results suggest that complete extraction of the

  16. Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, Senol; Aydin, Zeki; Tokalioglu, Serife

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in street sediment samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using the modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. According to the BCR protocol for extracting the metals from the relevant target phases, 1.0 g of specimen of the sample was treated with 0.11 M acetic acid (exchangeable and bound to carbonates), 0.5 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (bound to iron- and manganese-oxides), and 8.8 M hydrogen peroxide plus 1 M ammonium acetate (bound to sulphides and organics), sequentially. The residue was treated with aqua regia solution for recovery studies, although this step is not part of the BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Cd ∼ Zn (∼90%) > Pb (∼84%) > Cu (∼75%) > Mn (∼70%) > Co (∼57%) > Ni (∼43%) > Cr (∼40%) > Fe (∼17%). Enrichment factors as the criteria for examining the impact of the anthropogenic emission sources of heavy metals were calculated, and it was observed that the highest enriched elements were Cd, Pb, and Zn in the dust samples, average 190, 111, and 20, respectively. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the data matrix to evaluate the analytical results and to identify the possible pollution sources of metals. PCA revealed that the sampling area was mainly influenced from three pollution sources, namely; traffic, industrial, and natural sources. The results show that chemical sequential extraction is a precious operational tool. Validation of the analytical results was checked by both recovery studies and analysis of the standard reference material (NIST SRM 2711 Montana Soil)

  17. Using tetraether lipids archived in North Sea Basin sediments to extract North Western European Pliocene continental air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing Crampton-Flood, Emily; Peterse, Francien; Munsterman, Dirk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2018-05-01

    The Pliocene is often regarded as a suitable analogue for future climate, due to an overall warmer climate (2-3 °C) coupled with atmospheric CO2 concentrations largely similar to present values (∼400 ppmv). Numerous Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) records are available, however, little is known about climate in the terrestrial realm. Here we generated a Pliocene continental temperature record for Northwestern Europe based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids stored in a marine sedimentary record from the western Netherlands. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments and its stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13Corg) indicate a strong transition from primarily marine derived organic matter (OM) during the Pliocene, to predominantly terrestrially derived OM after the transition into the Pleistocene. This trend is supported by the ratio of branched and isoprenoid tetraethers (BIT index). The marine-terrestrial transition indicates a likely change in brGDGT sources in the core, which may complicate the applicability of the brGDGT paleotemperature proxy in this setting. Currently, the application of the brGDGT-based paleothermometer on coastal marine sediments has been hampered by a marine overprint. Here, we propose a method to disentangle terrestrial and marine sources based on the degree of cyclization of tetramethylated brGDGTs (#rings) using a linear mixing model based on the global soil calibration set and a newly developed coastal marine temperature transfer function. Application of this method on our brGDGT record resulted in a 'corrected' terrestrial temperature record (MATterr). This latter record indicates that continental temperatures were ∼12-14 °C during the Early Pliocene, and 10.5-12 °C during the Mid Pliocene, confirming other Pliocene pollen based terrestrial temperature estimates from Northern and Central Europe. Furthermore, two colder (Δ 5-7 °C) periods in the Pliocene MATterr

  18. Vertical Geochemical Variations and Speciation Studies of As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in the Sediments of the Central Gangetic Basin: Sequential Extraction and Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geochemical and speciation study of As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu was performed using sequential extraction and statistical approaches in the core sediments taken at two locations—Rigni Chhapra and Chaube Chhapra—of the central Gangetic basin (India. A gradual increase in the grain size (varying from clay to coarse sands was observed in both the core profiles up to 30.5 m depth. The concentrations of analyzed elements ranged as follows: 6.9–14.2 mg/kg for As, 13,849–31,088 mg/kg for Fe, 267–711 mg/kg for Mn, 45–164 mg/kg for Cu for Rigni Chhapra while for Chaube Chhapra the range was 7.5–13.2 mg/kg for As, 10,936–37,052 mg/kg for Fe, 267–1052 mg/kg for Mn, 60–198 mg/kg for Zn and 60–108 mg/kg for Cu. Significant amounts (53–95% of all the fractionated elemental concentrations were bound within the crystal structure of the minerals as a residual fraction. The reducible fraction was the second most dominant fraction for As (7% and 8%, Fe (3%, Mn (20% and 26%, and Cu (7% and 6% respectively for both the cores. It may be released when aquifers subjected to changing redox conditions. The acid soluble fraction was of most interest because it could quickly mobilize into the water system which formed the third most dominating among all three fractions. Four color code of sediments showed an association with total As concentration and did not show a relation with any fraction of all elements analyzed. The core sediment was observed enriched with As and other elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, it fell under uncontaminated to moderately contaminate which might exhibit a low risk in prevailing natural conditions. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the availability of siderite and magnetite minerals in the core sediments in a section of dark grey with micaceous medium sand with organic matter (black.

  19. Mid-term variation of vertical distribution of acid volatile sulphide and simultaneously extracted metals in sediment cores from Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Crespo, Carmen; Martín, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Lake Albufera is one of the most eutrophic bodies of water in Spain due to point and diffuse pollution over past decades, and its sediments are likely to be anoxic because of high organic matter flux. Hence, sulphides can play an important role in limiting the mobility of heavy metals. This study aimed to study the vertical variation of acid volatile sulphide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediment cores collected from Lake Albufera; other sediment characteristics, such as organic matter, biochemical oxygen, demand or total metals, were also studied. Three sites were selected, and four sampling campaigns were performed to study spatial and temporal variation as well as to obtain information regarding historical variation in the composition of sediments. AVS and SEM were analysed by the purge-and-trap method. The vertical distribution of AVS and SEM varied depending on the sampling site-concentrations of AVS and SEM were higher at sites close to mouths of inflowing channels. A decreasing trend of AVS has been found at these sites over time: In the two first samplings, AVS increased with depth reaching maximum concentrations of 40 and 21 μmol g(-1), but from then on AVS were lower and decreased with depth. SEM decreased with depth from 3 μmol g(-1) in surface layers to approximately 1 μmol g(-1) at deeper segments at these sites. However, the central site was more uniform with respect to depth as well as with time; it presented lower values of SEM and AVS (mean 0.9 and 2.0 μmol g(-1) respectively), and the maximum value of AVS (7 μmol g(-1)) was found at the top layer (0-3 cm). According to the (SEM-AVS)/fOC approach, every site, and throughout the cores, can be classified as containing nontoxic metals because the values were <130 μmol g(-1).

  20. Optimization of an extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry: selectivity and biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R. K.; Tfaily, M. M.; Tolic, N.; Kyle, J. E.; Robinson, E. R.; Hess, N. J.; Paša-Tolić, L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a complex mixture of above and belowground plant litter and microbial residues, and is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in different ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM prohibits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict how terrestrial C fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions. Here, we present that the choice of solvent can be used to selectively extract different compositional fractions from SOM to either target a specific class of compounds or gain a better understanding of the entire composition of the soil sample using 12T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Specifically, we found that hexane and chloroform were selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin polyphenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards lignin and lipid compounds characterized with relatively low O:C soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Since each solvent extracts a selective group of compounds, using a suite of solvents with varying polarity for analysis results in more comprehensive representation of the diversity of organic molecules present in soil and a better representation of the whole spectrum of available substrates for microorganisms. Moreover, we have developed a sequential extraction protocol that permits sampling diverse classes of organic compounds while minimizing ionization competition during ESI while increasing sample throughput and decreasing sample volume. This allowed us to hypothesize about possible chemical reactions relating classes of organic molecules that reflect abiotic and biotic processes impacting SOM composition.

  1. An efficient and economical method for extraction of DNA amenable to biotechnological manipulations, from diverse soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sharma, K K; Kuhad, R C

    2014-04-01

    An attempt was made to optimize a new protocol for isolation of pure metagenomic DNA from soil samples. Various chemicals (FeCl3 , MgCl2 , CaCl2 and activated charcoal) were tested for their efficacy in isolation of metagenomic DNA from different soil and compost samples. Among these trials, charcoal and MgCl2 when used in combination yielded highly pure DNA free from humic acids and other contaminants. The DNA extracted with the optimized protocol was readily digested, amplified and cloned. Moreover, compared with a well-established commercial DNA isolation kit (UltraClean™ Soil DNA Isolation Kit), our method for DNA isolation was found to be economical. This demonstrated that the method developed can be applied to a wide variety of soil samples and allows handling of multiple samples at a given time. The optimized protocol developed has successfully yielded pure metagenomic DNA amenable to biotechnological manipulations. A user-friendly and economical protocol for isolation of DNA from soil and compost samples has been developed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of grain size, mineralogy, and acid-extractable grain coatings on the distribution of the fallout radionuclides 7Be, 10Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb in river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Adrian A.; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.; Neilson, Thomas B.; Greene, Emily Sophie; Bower, Jennifer A.; Perdrial, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Grain-size dependencies in fallout radionuclide activity have been attributed to either increase in specific surface area in finer grain sizes or differing mineralogical abundances in different grain sizes. Here, we consider a third possibility, that the concentration and composition of grain coatings, where fallout radionuclides reside, controls their activity in fluvial sediment. We evaluated these three possible explanations in two experiments: (1) we examined the effect of sediment grain size, mineralogy, and composition of the acid-extractable materials on the distribution of 7Be, 10Be, 137Cs, and unsupported 210Pb in detrital sediment samples collected from rivers in China and the United States, and (2) we periodically monitored 7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb retention in samples of known composition exposed to natural fallout in Ohio, USA for 294 days. Acid-extractable materials (made up predominately of Fe, Mn, Al, and Ca from secondary minerals and grain coatings produced during pedogenesis) are positively related to the abundance of fallout radionuclides in our sediment samples. Grain-size dependency of fallout radionuclide concentrations was significant in detrital sediment samples, but not in samples exposed to fallout under controlled conditions. Mineralogy had a large effect on 7Be and 210Pb retention in samples exposed to fallout, suggesting that sieving sediments to a single grain size or using specific surface area-based correction terms may not completely control for preferential distribution of these nuclides. We conclude that time-dependent geochemical, pedogenic, and sedimentary processes together result in the observed differences in nuclide distribution between different grain sizes and substrate compositions. These findings likely explain variability of measured nuclide activities in river networks that exceeds the variability introduced by analytical techniques as well as spatial and temporal differences in erosion rates and processes. In short, we

  3. Heavy metals availability in lake sediments using chemical extraction and X-ray fluorescence techniques; Disponibilidade de metais pesados em sedimentos de lagos utilizando tecnicas de extracao quimica e de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara d' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia e Ciencias Quimicas; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara d' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]|[Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Simabuco, Silvana Moreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil

    2002-07-01

    Aiming to evaluate contamination degree by heavy metals in bottom sediments at the lakes at the Santa Gertrudes region, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where ceramic industries of enameled pavement are installed, bottom sediment samples were collected in two lakes, in different seasons (rainy season and dry season). To determine biological availability metal concentrations (no-residual fraction), and the residual fraction (geological matrix), acid extraction procedure were implemented. To enhance analytical sensibility, the obtained extracts were preconcentrated by complexation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. To determine the complexed metals concentration, were used the analytical technique energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). To produces characteristic X-rays it was used an X-ray tube, and to detect the characteristic X-rays, a Si(Li) detector. The X-ray net intensities were obtained using the AXIL software. In the analyzed samples were possible to determine the elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. (author)

  4. Determination of tributyltin (TBT) in marine sediment using pressurised liquid extraction-gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PLE-GC-IDMS) with a hexane-tropolone mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczka, Piotr; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Schimmel, Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Extraction conditions for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment samples have been developed further. The analytical procedure is based on spiking with isotopically labelled analyte, pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with a hexane/tropolone mixture, Grignard derivatization and quantification by GC-MS. It was applied to two unknown sediment samples as part of an intercomparison exercise of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). The detection limit was approximately 1.5 ng/g TBT as Sn, while the repeatability and intermediate precision (as the coefficient of variation) were 1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The expanded uncertainty was 6.2% (coverage factor k = 2), and the accuracy was confirmed by measurement of a certified reference material.

  5. Micro-focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (muFUSLE) combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for PAHs determination in sediments: optimization and linking with the analytical minimalism concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Galesio, M M; Felisberto, G M; Vaz, C; Pessoa, J Costa

    2005-06-15

    Analytical minimalism is a concept that deals with the optimization of all stages of an analytical procedure so that it becomes less time, cost, sample, reagent and energy consuming. The guide-lines provided in the USEPA extraction method 3550B recommend the use of focused ultrasound (FU), i.e., probe sonication, for the solid-liquid extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs, but ignore the principle of analytical minimalism. The problems related with the dead sonication zones, often present when high volumes are sonicated with probe, are also not addressed. In this work, we demonstrate that successful extraction and quantification of PAHs from sediments can be done with low sample mass (0.125g), low reagent volume (4ml), short sonication time (3min) and low sonication amplitude (40%). Two variables are here particularly taken into account for total extraction: (i) the design of the extraction vessel and (ii) the solvent used to carry out the extraction. Results showed PAHs recoveries (EPA priority list) ranged between 77 and 101%, accounting for more than 95% for most of the PAHs here studied, as compared with the values obtained after soxhlet extraction. Taking into account the results reported in this work we recommend a revision of the EPA guidelines for PAHs extraction from solid matrices with focused ultrasound, so that these match the analytical minimalism concept.

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of semivolatile organic compounds in bottom sediment by solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatographic fractionation, and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Vaught, D.G.; Merten, L.M.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the determination of 79 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and 4 surrogate compounds in soils and bottom sediment is described. The SOCs are extracted from bottom sediment by solvent extraction, followed by partial isolation using high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The SOCs then are qualitatively identified and quantitative concentrations determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method also is designed for an optional simultaneous isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) insecticides, including toxaphene. When OCs and PCBs are determined, an additional alumina- over-silica column chromatography step follows GPC cleanup, and quantitation is by dual capillary- column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). Bottom-sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess water and extracted overnight with dichloromethane. The extract is concentrated, centrifuged, and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoro-ethylene syringe filter. Two aliquots of the sample extract then are quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene- divinylbenzene GPC columns connected in series. The SOCs are eluted with dichloromethane, a fraction containing the SOCs is collected, and some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, are separated and discarded. The SOC-containing GPC fraction then is analyzed by GC/MS. When desired, a second aliquot from GPC is further processed for OCs and PCBs by combined alumina-over-silica column chromatography. The two fractions produced in this cleanup then are analyzed by GC/ECD. This report fully describes and is limited to the determination of SOCs by GC/MS.

  7. Optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction large-volume injection and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusa, V. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pardo, O. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pastor, A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: Agustin.Pastor@uv.es; Guardia, M. de la [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    A sensitive and rapid method for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sediment samples is proposed. The method involving microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and large-volume injection (LVI) gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS), and the experimental conditions were optimized using the statistical design of experiments (DOE). A Plackett-Burman (P-B) design was chosen to estimate the influence of five factors, such as resonance excitation voltage (EV), isolation time (IT), excitation time (ET), ion source temperature (IST) and electron energy (EE) on the analytical response in the ITMS determination. In order to increase the analytical response, 70 {mu}L of the final extract were injected into the GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). The factor settings involving injection temperature, vaporization temperature, vaporization time and flow during the evaporation step were previously optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The MAE was carried out using the hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) mixture and the extraction conditions were optimized with a CCD. The highest response was obtained with a volume of 48 mL, a temperature of 152 deg. C and an extraction time of 24 min. The optimized method gives recoveries between 75 and 95% with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) that ranged from 4 to 13%. The limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 4 and 20 pg g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) when 5 g of sediment were analyzed. The MAE method was applied to the analyses of polyhalogenated compounds in sediments collected in the harbour of Valencia (Spain). The proposed method may serve as an alternative for GC-negative chemical ionization (NCI)-MS and can be used in government testing programmes.

  8. Speciation of the immediately mobilisable As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in river sediments by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry following ultrasonic extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, A.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a fast method is developed for the speciation of As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in the immediately mobilisable fraction of river sediments (i.e. water-soluble and phosphate-exchangeable) by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence detection (HPLC-HG-AFD) after extraction using focused ultrasound. The influence of relevant parameters influencing an ion-pairing chromatographic separation following isocratic elution (i.e. amount of MeOH in the mobile phase, ion pair reagent concentration, pH, flow rate) was studied. Focused ultrasound transmitted from an ultrasonic probe provided the same extractable contents as conventional extraction with no changes in the species distribution. The effect of the drying step over extraction of As species was investigated. The following drying procedures were compared: freeze-, oven-, microwave- and air-drying. No influence of the drying operation on the water-extractable fraction was observed. However, freeze- and air-drying yielded significantly higher phosphate-extractable amounts of As(III) and As(V) as compared to oven and microwaves. Detection limits for the As species were in the range 1.3-4.1 ng/g for the water-soluble fraction and 1.6-4.8 ng/g for the phosphate buffer exchangeable fraction. The method was applied to the speciation of immediately mobilisable As(III), As(V), DMA and MMA in 11 sediment samples collected along the beds of the Louro River (southern Galicia, Spain)

  9. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar extracts: A test of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buylaert, J.-P.; Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Lapp, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument performance and to test the reproducibility of IR-RF measurements. These experiments illustrate the high sensitivity and dose rate of our RL system, the negligible influence of the turntable movement on IR-RF signals and the effectiveness of the built in 395 nm LED at bleaching IR-RF signals. We measure IR-RF ages on a set of samples with independent age control using a robust analytical method, which is able to detect any possible sensitivity change. Our IR-RF ages do not agree well with the independent age control; the ages of the younger samples (20–45 ka) are significantly over-estimated while the ages of the older samples (∼130 ka) are significantly under-estimated. Experiments are undertaken to investigate this disagreement and our results indicate that they can most likely be explained by 1) the difficulty of defining the correct bleaching level prior to regeneration measurements, 2) signal instability, 3) sensitivity changes between the additive dose and regenerative dose measurements, or a combination of these three factors.

  10. Testing the potential of an elevated temperature IRSL signal from K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2009-01-01

    Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., Jain, M., Bøtter-Jensen, L. [2008. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts. Radiat. Meas. 43, 1474–1486] have identified a number of feldspar signals which show significantly less anomalous fading than......; detection in the blue–violet region). It is the latter signal that is of interest in this paper. We test such a post-IR IR dating protocol on K-feldspar extracts from a variety of locations and depositional environments and compare the results with those from the conventional IR at 50 °C protocol. Based...

  11. Reliable, rapid and simple method for the analysis of phthalates in sediments by ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by head space-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, V; Moscoso-Pérez, C; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new reliable, simple and fast method for the determination of six PAEs in sediments, based on ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination (GC-MS), is proposed. The extraction parameters were studied, and the most favourable conditions were selected. The analytical features of the method were calculated: matrix effect, accuracy (ranged from 90% to 111%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD <10%), detection and quantification limits of the method (ranged from 0.001µgg -1 (DOP) to 0.142µgg -1 (DEP)), and satisfactory results were obtained. Major advantages of this approach are low consumption of reagents and solvents, no clean-up or evaporation steps were required and minimum sample manipulation. In addition, cross contamination from glassware, solvents and samples is minimized, thus procedural blanks are keeping to a minimum.. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples from Galician coast (NW Spain). The proposed method allows the application in routine laboratory conditions and its implementation in environmental monitoring studies under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. What do results of common sequential fractionation and single-step extractions tell us about P binding with Fe and Al compounds in non-calcareous sediments?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jan, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2013), s. 547-557 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1764; GA MZe(CZ) QH81012; GA MZe(CZ) QI102A265 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : sequential fractionation * ascorbate and oxalate extration * non-calcareous sediments Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 5.323, year: 2013

  13. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  14. Aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, J.S.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Schreiber, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a literature review concerning sediment properties, interactions, and conditions. Topics of discussion include the following: biological activity and toxicity; nutrients; metals; organic compounds; dredging; radionuclides; oxygen demand and organic carbon; mathematical modeling; sediment transport and suspension; and paleolimnology

  15. Soils and organic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, M.J. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or `active` component, and the humin component is part of the `passive` component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of `foreign` material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency 18 refs.

  16. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  17. Sediment Acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoll, R

    2001-01-01

    ... variables such as porosity and grain-size distribution. The model is based on the classical Biot theory extended to take into account various mechanisms of energy loss that are known to be important in marine sediments...

  18. Visual sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data.

  19. Characterization of phosphorus interaction with sediments affected by acid mine drainage - relation with the sediment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Boukemara , Lamia; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Azzouz , Sarah; Reinert , Laurence; Duclaux , Laurent; Amrane , Abdeltif; Szymczyk , Anthony

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Phosphorus sorption capacity was investigated in surface sediments derived from an abandoned zinc-lead mine area located in northeastern Algeria. The forms and the distribution of phosphorus in the raw sediment were identified using the sequential chemical extractions method. Batch experiments were done to study the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The pH effect was evaluated by macroscopic and infrared analyses. In raw sediment, speciation results show that phosphor...

  20. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  1. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  2. Measurement of sewer sediments with acoustic technology : From laboratory to field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Pouzol, Tanguy; Aldea Borruel, Xavier; Suner, David; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean Luc

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring sewer sediments is necessary to better understand sedimentation and erosion processes. Sonar is one of the available techniques to proceed to sewer sediment measurements. Extraction of numerical data, implementation of a new algorithm to identify the water-sediment interface,

  3. [Distributions of phosphorus fractions in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Tiaoxi mainstreams and cause analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Yuan, Xu-Yin; Wang, Huan; Li, Zheng-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is a primary nutrient showing the water quality status of river and inducing eutrophication, and a different phosphorus fraction can make diverse contributions to water quality. Four phosphorus forms of suspended sediments and surface sediments in Tiaoxi mainstreams were measured using a sequential extraction procedure, and the distributions of their forms were discussed. The results showed that the tropic status of Xitiaoxi River was inferior to that of Dongtiaoxi River as a whole, and the water quality in the middle reach of Dongtiaoxi River was better than that in the upper and lower reaches. The contents of nutrient elements in suspended sediments were significantly higher than those in surface sediment, which indicated an enrichment of nutrient in fine sediment. The percentages of the loosely absorbed phosphorus ( NH4Cl-P), the reductant phosphorus (BD-P) and the metal oxide bound phosphorus (NaOH-P) in the suspended sediment were higher than those in surface sediment, while the percentage of the calcium bound phosphorus (HCl-P) showed a reverse trend. Correlation analyses between phosphorus forms and chemical compositions of suspended sediments and surface sediments were performed. The results showed the phosphorus forms in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Xitiaoxi River had weak relationships with mineral components, while those in the Dongtiaoxi River had strong relationships with mineral, especially OM and clay mineral. The cause was associated with the geological setting and material sources in Tiaoxi watershed.

  4. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  5. Acoustic characterization of seafloor sediment employing a hybrid method of neural network architecture and fuzzy algorithm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, C.; Chakraborty, B.

    Seafloor sediment is characterized acoustically in the western continental shelf of India using the echo features extracted from normal incidence single-beam echo sounder backscatter returns at 33 and 210 kHz. The seafloor sediment characterization...

  6. Core sediment biogeochemistry in specific zones of Cochin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    land and ocean, where seawater is measurably diluted by the inflow of freshwater (Hobbie 2000). .... lignin were batch-extracted from the sediments with 0.05 M NaOH solution for 90 minutes and fil- tered. ...... metal accumulation in the sediments of the Cochin Estu- ary – Southwest coast of India; Environ. Monit. Assess.,.

  7. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  8. Arsenic Mobility and Availability in Sediments by Application of BCR Sequential Extractions Method; Movilidad y Disponibilidad de Arsenico en Sedimentos Mediante la Aplicacion del Metodo de Extracciones Secuenciales BCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, R.; Fernandez, R.; Rucandio, M. I.

    2011-05-13

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in nature, both naturally and due to anthropogenic activities. Among them, mining works are an important source of arsenic release to the environment. Asturias is a region where important mercury mines were exploited, and in them arsenic occurs in para genesis with mercury minerals. The toxicity and mobility of this element depends on the chemical species it is found. Fractionation studies are required to analyze the mobility of this metalloid in soils and sediments. Among them, the proposed by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) is one of the most employed. This method attempts to divide up, by operationally defined stages, the amount of this element associated with carbonates (fraction 1), iron and manganese oxy hydroxides (fraction 2), organic matter and sulphides (fraction 3), and finally as the amount associated residual fraction to primary and secondary minerals, that is, from the most labile fractions to the most refractory ones. Fractionation of arsenic in sediments from two mines in Asturias were studied, La Soterrana and Los Rueldos. Sediments from La Soterrana showed high levels of arsenic in the non-residual phases, indicating that the majority of arsenic has an anthropogenic origin. By contrast, in sediments from Los Rueldos most of the arsenic is concentrated in the residual phase, indicating that this element remains bound to very refractory primary minerals, as is also demonstrated by the strong correlation of arsenic fractionation and the fractionation of elements present in refractory minerals, such as iron, aluminum and titanium. (Author) 51 refs.

  9. Proposal of industrialization process of dredged sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Hadj Sadok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study will focus on life cycle assessment (LCA of dredged sediments in its environment from sediment extraction to waste treatment. This tool is part of an environmental management approach, to compare the environmental loads of the different stages of the life cycle of the same product and to deduce which stage of the scenario is the most polluting in environmental terms. Optimize the modeling of industrialization process of dredged sediments using the SimaPro 8.2.3 software to propose a model that is the most respectful of the environment. We will focus on the environmental impacts; we will try to propose the most environmentally friendly scenario to exploit these dredged sediments in the field of building construction.

  10. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  11. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  12. A multi-method approach for the study of lanthanum speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.

    Two independent analytical methods (sequential extraction and kinetic extraction methods) were applied in order to understand the distribution and speciation of La in the coastal and estuarine sediments from the central east coast of India...

  13. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro; Procedimento de fracionamento comparado a modelo de atenuacao para a avaliacao de mobilidade de metais pesados em sedimentos da Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-07-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio {sigma}[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as

  14. Sediment quality in freshwater impoundments at Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater impoundments at Savannah National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), South Carolina, provide an important habitat for wildlife species, but degraded sediment quality in the Savannah River downstream of the discharge from two impoundments have caused concern about potential contaminant problems within the impoundments. The quality of sediments from five impoundments (impoundments no. 1, 2, 6, 7, and 17) on the NWR was evaluated using physical and chemical characterization, contaminant concentrations (metals, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and toxicity testing. Survival of Hyalella azteca (freshwater amphipod) exposed for 28 days to solid-phase sediments was not significantly different from controls, but growth was significantly decreased at several sites. Survival in 96-hour exposures to sediment pore water was significantly decreased at most sites. Factors contributing to the toxic responses were low pH (3.7 to 4.1), ammonia (20 mg/L), and increased concentrations of cations in the pore water. The excess of simultaneously extracted metals over the acid volatile sulfides in the sediments was also typical of sites displaying decreased sediment quality. Elemental concentrations in pore water were negatively correlated with pH, and the highest concentrations were observed in impoundment no. 7. The acidic nature of the sediment in this impoundment was exacerbated by recent draining, burning, and disking, which allowed oxidation of the previously anoxic wetland sediment. Sediment disturbance and mixing of vegetation into the sediments by disking may also have contributed to the formation of ammonia caused by microbial decomposition of the fragmented organic matter. Contaminants were not detected in sediments from the impoundments, but releases of acidic water with increased levels of sediment cations from the impoundments may have contributed to the degraded sediment conditions previously observed in the river

  15. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of 14C-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo, Issabella Vitoria Abduche

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production ( 14 C-leucine), sulfate reduction ( 35 SO 4 ) and mercury methylation ( 203 Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using 14 C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times higher than tho one

  16. Geomechanical property of gas hydrate sediment in the Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Ikeda, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Well logging data and core samples from the Nankai trough area were used to investigate the geomechanical properties and geological history of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion was used to calculate the mechanical strength of the hydrate sediments. The dynamic Young's modulus was calculated using theoretical and experimental data. The study showed that sediments below the gas hydrate later are mechanically weaker than sediments within the gas hydrate layer. The mechanical strength of the core samples was then measured both before and after dissociation. The study showed that saturated gas hydrates are 4 times stronger than gas hydrate-dissociated cores. It was concluded that hydrate-bearing sediments are mechanically stronger than non-hydrate-bearing sediments. Results of the study will be used to develop methods of predicting risk factors for sea floor deformations and well-bore collapse during gas hydrate extraction processes in hydrate reservoirs. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Rare earth elements in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China: concentration, fractionation and the influence of sediment texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2014-07-01

    Surface sediments from intertidal Bohai Bay were assessed using a four-step sequential extraction procedure to determine their concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the chemical forms in which those elements were present. The normalized ratios La/Gd and La/Yb showed that LREE contents were not significantly higher than the middle REEs or HREE contents. A negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu were observed in sand and silty sand sediments, whereas no significant Ce or Eu anomaly was found in clayey silt sediments. Residual fraction of REEs accounted for the majority of their total concentrations. Middle REEs were more easily leached than other REEs, especially in clayey silt sediment. REEs contents in the surface sediment from the intertidal Bohai Sea were consistent with data from the upper continental crust and China shallow sea sediments, indicating that they were generally unaffected by heavily anthropogenic effects from adjacent areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of inositol phosphate ester in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Armstrong, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of the total inositol polyphosphate content of lake sediments is presented and evaluated. This technique involves extraction with NaOH, cleanup of the extract, and isolation and identification of two groups of inositol phosphate esters by ion-exchange chromatography. Radioisotope dilution is employed to correct for losses during the extraction, cleanup and isolation steps. Recoveries of the radiotracer inositol phosphates have averaged 85% during the analysis of approximately 40 calcareous and non-calcareous sediment samples and more than 20 soil samples

  19. Bacteria in ancient sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to ascertain the role of biological activity in ancient sediments, two microbiological studies were carried out. The first was on pleistocenic clay sediments on land, the second on deep oceanic sediments. In the present paper by direct counting the samples is demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a range of 10 5 to 10 7 . Further studies must be carried out to ascertain the activities by in situ incubation methods

  20. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  1. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P

    1984-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  2. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  3. Investigation of genotoxicity in river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestinová Oľga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop a useful screening method to assess genotoxic effect of polluted bottom sediments from the water reservoir Ružin No.I. The Hornád and Hnilec Rivers drained a former mining area, have been polluted in the long-term by heavy metals (Cu, As, Sb, Hg, which significantly contributed to environmental degradation. Genotoxicity of bottom sediment was evaluated by test SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 for solid samples without extraction. The mentioned test represents simple, quick and direct sediment phase toxicity testing procedure. In this test bacterial strain Escherichia coli K12 PQ37 was used. The results of SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 showed that sample Hornád has low potential genotoxic effect on the environment. It was determined on the basis of slight blue colouration of chromogenic paper at the point of sediment application. The sample Hnilec was negative. This test allows significantly reduce the time for obtaining information about sediments genotoxicity and accept necessary security proceeding in time.

  4. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Sediment contents of microplastic particles were studied at several areas in Danish coastal and open waters in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, Belt Sea and Baltic Sea from 2012. Isolation of microplastic particles were performed after basic digestion of natural organic matter, before applying a concentrated saline solution for extraction and finally dividing the particles into three size fractions using sieves of 38 µm, 1 mm and 5 mm. The collected particles were examined and counted usin...

  5. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  6. Fluvial sedimentation in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Covering periods 1942-45 and 1951-81, this report documents the characteristics of sediments being transported from 79 drainage areas within the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and from eight stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The drainage areas range in size from 0.67 square mile at Cane Branch near Parkers Lake to 40,330 square miles at Tennessee River near Paducah. Sediment yields and particle size of suspended and bed sediments are discussed by physiographic province. The Blue Grass had the highest average annual suspended-sediment yield for selected stations of 741 tons per square mile, and the Western Coal Field had the lowest with 197. The Eastern Coal Field had the broadest range of annual suspended-sediment yields. The range was from 25 tons per square mile at Helton Branch near Greenwood to 21,000 tons per square mile at Millers Creek near Phyllis. For selected stations bedload discharge was estimated to be 5 to 10 percent as much as the suspended-sediment discharge. Only three drainage areas had sediment yields that exceeded the average annual erosion rates for cultivated land in Kentucky of 9.93 tons per acre (6,355 tons per square mile). These three were in the Eastern Coal Field. (USGS)

  7. Sediment exchange to mitigate pollutant exposure in urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Glass, Katherine; Morris, Samantha; Zhang, Horace; McRae, Isabel; Anderson, Noel; Alfieri, Alysha; Egendorf, Sara Perl; Holberton, Shana; Owrang, Shahandeh; Cheng, Zhongqi

    2018-03-10

    Urban soil is an ongoing source for lead (Pb) and other pollutant exposure. Sources of clean soil that are locally-available, abundant and inexpensive are needed to place a protective cover layer over degraded urban soil to eliminate direct and indirect pollutant exposures. This study evaluates a novel sediment exchange program recently established in New York City (NYC Clean Soil Bank, CSB) and found that direct exchange of surplus sediment extracted from urban construction projects satisfies these criteria. The CSB has high total yield with 4.2 × 10 5  t of sediment exchanged in five years. Average annual yield (8.5 × 10 4  t yr -1 ) would be sufficient to place a 15-cm (6-in.) sediment cover layer over 3.2 × 10 5  m 2 (80 acres) of impacted urban soil or 1380 community gardens. In a case study of sediment exchange to mitigate community garden soil contamination, Pb content in sediment ranged from 2 to 5 mg kg -1 . This sediment would reduce surface Pb concentrations more than 98% if it was used to encapsulate soil with Pb content exceeding USEPA residential soil standards (400 mg kg -1 ). The maximum observed sediment Pb content is a factor of 42 and 71 lower than median surface soil and garden soil in NYC, respectively. All costs (transportation, chemical testing, etc.) in the CSB are paid by the donor indicating that urban sediment exchange could be an ultra-low-cost source for urban soil mitigation. Urban-scale sediment exchange has advantages over existing national- or provincial-scale sediment exchanges because it can retain and upcycle local sediment resources to attain their highest and best use (e.g. lowering pollutant exposure), achieve circular urban materials metabolism, improve livability and maximize urban sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment source studies involving a simple mixing model was undertaken in the Pra River Basin in Ghana using a single tracer 210Pb to determine the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. Sediment source tracing was performed on the basis of sub-basins by comparing the ...

  9. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  10. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  11. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  12. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  13. Sediment Resuspension Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  15. Aeolian Sediment Availability and Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhout, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the nature of aeolian sediment availability and its influence on aeolian sediment transport. The aim is to improve large scale and long term aeolian sediment transport estimates in (nourished) coastal environments. The generally poor performance of aeolian sediment transport

  16. Extraction and determination of organosulfur compounds in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Liquid-liquid extraction is time consuming or requires large amounts of toxic solvents. Solid-phase microextraction and headspace sorptive extraction are time consuming. The main disadvantage of DLLME is that the extraction solvent is generally limited to solvents of density higher than water in order to be sedimented by ...

  17. Toxicity of sediment collected upriver and downriver of major cities along the lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi River contributes significantly to the biodiversity and ecological stability of the alluvial valley. Agricultural, industrial and municipal developments have historically impacted environmental quality of the river. Toxicity of sediment and sediment pore water was used to assess the current effects of major cities on sediment quality along the Lower Mississippi River. Composite sediment samples were collected from four sites upriver and four sites downriver of five major cities: Cairo, IL; Memphis, TN; Vicksburg, MS; Baton Rouge, LA; and New Orleans, LA. Following EPA's standard methods for acute toxicity testing of freshwater solid-phase sediment, Hyalella azteca were exposed to the sediments for 10 d with two water renewals per day. Hyalella azteca were also exposed for 96 h to pore water extracted from the sediments. After the initial tests, the animals were exposed to ultraviolet light for 12 h. Sediments were analyzed for organics (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, organophosphate insecticides, and PAHs) and metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn). With the exception of upriver from Memphis, solid-phase sediments were not toxic to H. azteca. Pore water from sediments collected upriver of Memphis showed slight toxicity. Exposure of H. azteca to ultraviolet light did not increase the toxicity of the sediment or pore-water samples, indicating a lack of PAH toxicity. Chemical analyses did not reveal any contaminant levels of concern in the sediments. Based on toxicity testing and chemical analyses, quality of sediments collected from the Lower Mississippi was good, with the exception of sites sampled upriver of Memphis.

  18. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and extraction time. Salts extracted more proteins from the moringa seed flour than water. Maximum extraction of protein was. 85.06% and 84.72% with 0.5 M CaCl and 0.75 M NaCl respectively. On varying the pH, maximum ...

  19. Seasonal variations in pore water and sediment geochemistry of littoral lake sediments (Asylum Lake, MI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal changes in pore water and sediment redox geochemistry have been observed in many near-surface sediments. Such changes have the potential to strongly influence trace metal distribution and thus create seasonal fluctuations in metal mobility and bioavailability. Results Seasonal trends in pore water and sediment geochemistry are assessed in the upper 50 cm of littoral kettle lake sediments. Pore waters are always redox stratified, with the least compressed redox stratification observed during fall and the most compressed redox stratification observed during summer. A 2-step sequential sediment extraction yields much more Fe in the first step, targeted at amorphous Fe(III (hydroxides (AEF, then in the second step, which targets Fe(II monosulfides. Fe extracted in the second step is relatively invariant with depth or season. In contrast, AEF decreases with sediment depth, and is seasonally variable, in agreement with changes in redox stratification inferred from pore water profiles. A 5-step Tessier extraction scheme was used to assess metal association with operationally-defined exchangeable, carbonate, iron and manganese oxide (FMO, organic/sulfide and microwave-digestible residual fractions in cores collected during winter and spring. Distribution of metals in these two seasons is similar. Co, As, Cd, and U concentrations approach detection limits. Fe, Cu and Pb are mostly associated with the organics/sulfides fraction. Cr and Zn are mostly associated with FMO. Mn is primarily associated with carbonates, and Co is nearly equally distributed between the FMO and organics/sulfide fractions. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates that near-surface lake sediment pore water redox stratification and associated solid phase geochemistry vary significantly with season. This has important ramifications for seasonal changes in the bioavailability and mobility of trace elements. Without rate measurements, it is not possible to

  20. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  2. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  3. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathilde Maagaard; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... scale for vacuum extraction is a reliable test for differentiating between competence levels in a simulated setting....

  4. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  5. Particle interactions during sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Efstathios; Xu, Zu-Jia

    2002-11-01

    The confined sedimentation process of two-dimensional particles with several initial configurations is numerically investigated at very low to moderate particle Reynolds numbers. The Lattice Boltzmann Method is used to simulate the hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and particles. We have found that, during the sedimentation process the displacement dispersion of particles in the horizontal direction fluctuates around zero, while the dispersion in the vertical direction increases monotonically and almost linearly. We also found that the increasing dispersion rate heavily depends on the initial layout and any symmetry of the suspension. The simulations for non-cohesive particles show that the process of sedimentation encompasses three stages: In the first stage, the initial particle configuration plays a major role on the average velocity of the particles. A V-shape or W-shape front may be formed by the particles close to that front. During the second stage, the concentration is lower, strong particle interactions dominate and the formation and destruction of particle clusters play a major role in the process. The sedimentation velocity depends to a large extend on the number of clusters formed and the velocity field developed. During the third stage, the suspension stretches, concentration becomes lower and particle clusters appear to be more stable. The wakes generated by individual particles and clusters, especially the wake of the leading cluster becomes very important in the process. Simulations were also performed with cohesive particles and we found out that the sedimentation process is essentially governed by the formation and size of flocs.

  6. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  7. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  8. Spectral prediction of sediment chemistry in Lake Okeechobee, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W Justin; Osborne, Todd Z; James, R Thomas; Cohen, Matthew J

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths were used to predict chemical properties of sediment samples obtained from Lake Okeechobee (FL, USA). Chemometric models yielded highly effective prediction (relative percent difference (RPD) = SD/RMSE >2) for some sediment properties including total magnesium (Mg), total calcium (Ca), total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and organic matter content (loss on ignition (LOI)). Predictions for iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and various forms of phosphorus (total P (TP), HCl-extractable P (HCl-P), and KCl-extractable P (KCl-P)) were also sufficiently accurate (RPD > 1.5) to be considered useful; predictions for other P fractions as well as all pore water properties were poor. Notably, scanning wet sediments resulted in only a 7 % decline in RPD scores. Moreover, interpolation maps based on values predicted from wet sediment spectra captured the same spatial patterns for Ca, Mg, TC, TN, and TP as maps derived directly from wet chemistry, suggesting that field scanning of perpetually saturated sediments may be a viable option for expediting sample analysis and greatly reducing mapping costs. Indeed, the accuracy of spectral model predictions compared favorably with the accuracy of kriging model predictions derived from wet chemistry observations suggesting that, for some analytes, higher density spatial sampling enabled by use of field spectroscopy could increase the geographic accuracy of monitoring for changes in lake sediment chemical properties.

  9. Method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers in sediments and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Allchin, C.; Law, R.; Zegers, B.; Boon, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Three institutes worked together on the development and improvement of methods for the analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in sediments and biota. The methods developed consist of a Soxhlet, Ultra Turrax* (biota) or shake-flask extraction (sediment) using hexane (or pentane)/acetone

  10. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: method development and microplastic accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Therese; Vethaak, A.D.; Carney Almroth, Bethany; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on

  11. Spatial variation of metals and acid volatile sulfide in floodplain lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Meijboom, E.W.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the immobilizing effect of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) on trace metals. The difference of AVS and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) gives an indication of metal availability. In floodplain sediments, where changing redox

  12. Statistical apportionment and risk assessment of selected metals in sediments from Rawal Lake (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Tirmizi, Syed A; Shah, Munir H

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the statistical apportionment and risk assessment of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in freshly deposited sediments in Rawal Lake, Pakistan. Composite sediment samples were collected, oven-dried, grounded, homogenized, and processed to assess the water-soluble and acid extractable concentrations of the metals in the water extract and acid extract of the sediments using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical methods were used to identify the possible sources of the metals. Sediment quality guidelines and potential acute toxicity were used to evaluate the ecotoxicological sense of selected metals. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was also carried out to determine the potential adverse health risks to the inhabitants. Relatively higher concentration was noted for Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Mn, and Sr in the sediment samples. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed anthropogenic contributions of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Li in the sediments. Enrichment factors of the metals in sediments showed severe to moderate enrichment of Cd, Pb, Ca, Fe, Li, Mn, and Sr. Geoaccumulation indices and contamination factors evidenced significant contamination by Cd and Pb, although, on the whole, low degree of contamination was noted. The levels of some metals exceeded the sediment quality guidelines, which revealed frequently adverse biological effects to the dwelling biota in the aquatic ecosystem. The sediments were found to be significantly contaminated by Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Li.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  14. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  15. Estimation of mean grain size of seafloor sediments using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, C.; Chakraborty, B.

    The feasibility of an artificial neural network based approach is investigated to estimate the values of mean grain size of seafloor sediments using four dominant echo features, extracted from acoustic backscatter data. The acoustic backscatter data...

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1994, over 200 sediment samples were collected in accordance with EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (EMAP) probabilistic sampling protocol from coastal and estuarine locations in the Louisianian Province (Gulf of Mexico). Organic extracts of homogenized aliquots we...

  17. Migration of trace heavy metals at the sea water/sediment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo; Tomiyama, Chisato

    1984-01-01

    Migration behavior of some trace heavy metals such as Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) at the sea water/sediment interface was investigated by tank experiments. The sea water which was doped with these metal ions (ppb to ppm levels) allowed to contact with the raw-, ignited- and autoclaved-marine sediments and the change of the concentration of each metal was traced at definite time intervals. At the end of the experiments, a core sample of the sediment was taken and analyzed for each metal in every 1 mm thick segment. On the other hand, the surface sediment was submitted to partial extraction with various kinds of reagents to estimate the chemical species of the metals captured in the sediment. While every metal ion was quickly adsorbed on surface of the raw sediment, a concentration gradient from surface to bottom of the water phase occurred in the ignited sediment system. The migration of manganese to the sediment phase was assumed to be concerned with bacterial activity in the sediment. Copper and zinc seemed to be adsorbed very quickly onto some fine sediment particles by the formation of organometallic complexes with some organic materials existing in the sediments. Cobalt migrated relatively fast downward within the sediment phase after its deposition. (author)

  18. Sediment transport mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballio, Francesco; Tait, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The Editor of Acta Geophysica and the Guest Editors wish to dedicate this Topical Issue on Sediment Transport Mechanics to the memory of Stephen Coleman, who died recently. During his career, Stephen had made an outstanding scientific contribution to the topic of Sediment Transport. The level of his contribution is demonstrated in the paper by Aberle, Coleman, and Nikora included in this issue, on which he started working before becoming aware of the illness that led to his untimely death. For scholars and colleagues Stephen remains an example of intellectual honesty and scientific insight.

  19. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  20. Chromium isotope fractionation in ferruginous sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Kohen W.; Gueguen, Bleuenn; Cole, Devon B.; Francois, Roger; Kallmeyer, Jens; Planavsky, Noah; Crowe, Sean A.

    2018-02-01

    Ferrous Fe is a potent reductant of Cr(VI), and while a number of laboratory studies have characterized Cr isotope fractionation associated with Cr(VI) reduction by ferrous iron, the expression of this fractionation in real-world ferrous Fe-rich environments remains unconstrained. Here we determine the isotope fractionation associated with Cr(VI) reduction in modern ferrous Fe-rich sediments obtained from the previously well studied Lake Matano, Indonesia. Whole core incubations demonstrate that reduction of Cr(VI) within ferruginous sediments provides a sink for Cr(VI) leading to Cr(VI) concentration gradients and diffusive Cr(VI) fluxes across the sediment water interface. As reduction proceeded, Cr(VI) remaining in the overlying lake water became progressively enriched in the heavy isotope (53Cr), increasing δ53Cr by 2.0 ± 0.1‰ at the end of the incubation. Rayleigh distillation modelling of the evolution of Cr isotope ratios and Cr(VI) concentrations in the overlying water yields an effective isotope fractionation of εeff = 1.1 ± 0.2‰ (53Cr/52Cr), whereas more detailed diagenetic modelling implies an intrinsic isotope fractionation of εint = 1.80 ± 0.04‰. Parallel slurry experiments performed using anoxic ferruginous sediment yield an intrinsic isotope fractionation of εint = 2.2 ± 0.1‰. These modelled isotope fractionations are corroborated by direct measurement of the δ53Cr composition on the upper 0.5 cm of Lake Matano sediment, revealing an isotopic offset from the lake water of Δ53Cr = 0.21-1.81‰. The data and models reveal that effective isotope fractionations depend on the depth at which Cr(VI) reduction takes place below the sediment water interface-the deeper the oxic non-reactive zone, the smaller the effective fractionation relative to the intrinsic fractionation. Based on the geochemistry of the sediment we suggest the electron donors responsible for reduction are a combination of dissolved Fe(II) and 0.5 M HCl extractable (solid

  1. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  2. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  3. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental matrix standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, M M; Bøwadt, S; Benner, B A; Wise, S A; Hawthorne, S B

    1998-08-14

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to traditional Soxhlet extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in three standard reference materials: SRM 1941a (Organics in Marine Sediment), SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment) and SRM 2974 [Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) (Freeze-Dried)]. The concentrations determined using SFE compared well with the certified concentrations for the majority of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners.

  4. Prediction of sedimentation and consolidation of fine tails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, W.F.; Masliyah, J.H.; Gray, M.R.; Fedorak, P.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Sedimentation and consolidation of suspensions of fine particles were analyzed by integrating experimental measurement of properties in a centrifuge with a comprehensive numerical model. The yield stress and settling velocity for tailings from tar sands extraction were determined experimentally as a function of the volume fraction of solids. The evaluated state functions were used to simulate batch settling and consolidation, and the results compare well with long-term settling tube tests. This approach is very attractive where gravity sedimentation may take many years, and it allows prediction of the rate of clear water production, total time for sedimentation and consolidation, and the maximum concentration of solids. Scaling of the sedimentation between centrifuge and field conditions is discussed. Conversion of permeability-void ratio relationships from geotechnical experiments to state functions of hindered settling velocity is demonstrated, allowing the use of data derived from a variety of experimental techniques.

  5. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: Quantification procedures and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2017-01-30

    Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control. The microplastics extraction efficiency using the proposed modifications is 92±7%. Distribution of microplastics in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Baltic Sea is presented. Microplastic particles were found in all of the samples with an average concentration of 34±10 items/kg DW and have the same order of magnitude as neighbor studies reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of phosphorus fraction distribution and influencing factors of suspended and surface sediments in the Tiaoxi watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongmeng; Yuan, Xuyin; Han, Lei; Yin, Heng; Jin, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Suspended and surface sediments from the Tiaoxi watershed, fed by the Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi rivers, were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP) and the inorganic P fractions of loosely adsorbed P that were extractable with NH 4 Cl (NH 4 Cl-P), reductant P (BD-P), metal oxide-bound P extractable with NaOH (NaOH-P), and calcium-bound, HCl-extractable P (HCl-P), while other physicochemical compositions were also determined. The spatial variations of P fractions in these sediments were investigated, and the major factors influencing the various fractions were explored by multivariate statistics. Compared to surface sediments, suspended sediments contained considerably higher concentrations of total nitrogen, TP, organic matter, Al, Fe, Mn and biologically available P (BAP, given as NH 4 Cl-P, BD-P and NaOH-P combined) and lower concentrations of Si, Ca and HCl-P in the studied catchments. Dongtiaoxi sediments had higher TP, inorganic phosphorus and HCl-P concentrations and a lower BAP content compared with Xitiaoxi sediments, trends that were associated with local geological backgrounds, landscapes and anthropogenic characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed different effects of sediment properties on P fraction distributions for Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi sediments. The sediment components and structure exert a strong influence on BAP in Xitiaoxi sediments, in contrast to Dongtiaoxi sediments, where P fractions are mainly affected by urbanization and other anthropogenic activities such as shipping.

  7. Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Silva, Manuela F G M; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2010-07-01

    The capability of Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, and Sarcocornia fruticosa (halophytes very commonly found in salt marshes from Mediterranean areas) for enhancing remediation of tributyltin (TBT) from estuarine sediments was investigated, using different experimental conditions. The influence of H. portulacoides on degradation of the butyltin compounds was assessed in two different ways: (1) a 9-month ex situ study carried out in a site of Sado River estuary, center of Portugal, which used polluted sediments collected at other nonvegetated site from the same estuary; and (2) a 12-month laboratorial study, using both plant and sediment collected at a relatively clean site of Cávado River estuary, north of Portugal, the sediment being doped with TBT, DBT, and MBT at the beginning of the experiment. The role of both S. fruticosa and S. maritima on TBT remediation in sediments was evaluated in situ, in salt marshes from Marim channel of Ria Formosa lagoon, south of Portugal, which has large areas colonized by each one of these two plants. For estimation of microbial abundance, total cell counts of sediment samples were enumerated by the DAPI direct count method. Butyltin analyses in sediment were performed using a method previously validated, which consisted of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after in situ ethylation (with tetraethylborate). Sediments colonized both ex situ and at lab by H. portulacoides displayed TBT levels about 30% lower than those for nonvegetated sediments with identical initial composition, after 9-12 months of plant exposure. In addition, H. portulacoides showed to be able of stimulating bacterial growth in the plant rhizosphere, which probably included degraders of TBT. In the in situ study, which compared the levels of TBT, DBT, and MBT in nonvegetated sediment and in sediments colonized by either S. maritima or S. fruticosa from the same area, TBT and DBT were only

  8. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg was carried out on sediment of Agbabu with a sequential extraction procedure in the dry and rainy seasons of year 2008. Hg was not detected in all the fractions in the two seasons. In the dry season, all the metals were mostly abundant in Fraction-5, however ...

  9. Speciation Studies On Sediments From Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments from a stretch Asa River, in Ilorin, Kwara State of Nigeria were sequentially extracted to determine the variations in heavy metal binding fractions of Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu (exchangeable, bound to carbonate, bound to Mn and Fe oxides, bound to organic matter and the residual). The choice of sample locations ...

  10. Effects of acid leaching aluminum from reservoir bottom sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... The acid leaching method was originally used to extract gold from gold ore in mineral processing. ... chlorite ore (Arienzo et al., 2001) within the reservoir sediment in a layered silicate with a structure of 2:1:1, .... Adsorption of aluminium by a latosol as affected by phosphate and glutamic acid. Environ. Geol.

  11. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Sediments of a coconut husk retting yard and a reference station in Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India were studied for 1 yr. Effects of monsoon were found significant Organic carbon and organic matter showed enrichment in the retting ground sediments...

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    , in many cases, prohibit this due to contamination by primarily heavy metals and TBT. Similarly, sediments of fresh waters could potentially be used as soil amendment material for poor agricultural soils utilizing their often high content of phosphate and nitrogen. However, again, heavy metal contamination...

  13. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    to the erosion, deposition, settling velocity and consolidation of cohesive sediments. All experiments were evaluated considering the reproducibility of the individual experiments. The erosion and deposition experiments were conducted in a circular flume. The measurements of the settling velocity were carried...

  14. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based ...

  15. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  16. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  18. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  19. Amending soils with sediment material from constructed wetlands increases phosphorus sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Johanna; Uusitalo, Risto; Leppänen, Janette; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2017-04-01

    Sediment of agricultural constructed wetlands (CWs) is comprised of matter eroded from surrounding fields. This material is rich in aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) (hydr)oxides that have a high affinity for phosphorus (P). Sediment material returned to fields could therefore affect soil P retention characteristics. We incubated a clay soil with a high soil test P (STP, 24 mg PAc l-1; extracted with pH 4.65 ammonium acetate buffer) and a sandy loam with excessive STP (210 mg PAc l-1) for three weeks with increasing amounts of CW sediment: 0, 2, 5, 10 and 50% of the sample volume. After incubation, the soil-sediment mixtures were studied with the quantity/intensity (Q/I) technique, using chemical extractions and by exposing the mixtures to simulated rainfall. Sorption affinity for P regularly increased with increasing the sediment share of the mixtures, the 0% sediment content having the lowest and 50% sediment content the highest P sorption. With 0% sediment application, the value of equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) determined by Q/I technique, was 0.69 and 44.3 mg l-1 for clay soil and sandy loam, respectively. With 2-5% sediment amendment, the EPC0 decreased 13-36% for clay soil and 13-54% for sandy loam. The 50% sediment mixtures had EPC0 of 0.05 mg l-1 for both soils. At a practically feasible sediment addition rate of 5%, dissolved reactive P (DRP) in percolating water from simulated rainfall decreased by 55% in the clay soil and 54% in sandy loam (psoils with sediment material would decrease P solubility and might at large application rates hamper P uptake by plants or, on the other hand, the sediment amendment in the soil might reduce P losses by runoff.

  20. Millennial lag times in the Himalayan sediment routing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Korup, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Any understanding of sediment routing from mountain belts to their forelands and offshore sinks remains incomplete without estimates of intermediate storage that decisively buffers sediment yields from erosion rates, attenuates water and sediment fluxes, and protects underlying bedrock from incision. We quantify for the first time the sediment stored in >38 000 mainly postglacial Himalayan valley fills, based on an empirical volume-area scaling of valley-fill outlines automatically extracted from digital topographic data. The estimated total volume of 690(/-242+452) km is mostly contained in few large valley fills >1 km, while catastrophic mass wasting adds another 177(±31) km. Sediment storage volumes are highly disparate along the strike of the orogen. Much of the Himalaya's stock of sediment is sequestered in glacially scoured valleys that provide accommodation space for ∼44% of the total volume upstream of the rapidly exhuming and incising syntaxes. Conversely, the step-like long-wave topography of the central Himalayas limits glacier extent, and thus any significant glacier-derived storage of sediment away from tectonic basins. We show that exclusive removal of Himalayan valley fills could nourish contemporary sediment flux from the Indus and Brahmaputra basins for >1 kyr, though individual fills may attain residence times of >100 kyr. These millennial lag times in the Himalayan sediment routing system may sufficiently buffer signals of short-term seismic as well as climatic disturbances, thus complicating simple correlation and interpretation of sedimentary archives from the Himalayan orogen, its foreland, and its submarine fan systems.

  1. Contaminated sediments from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Chemical characterization and carcinogenic effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Harshbarger, John C.; Peterman, Paul H.; Lebo, Jon A.

    1991-01-01

    Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with organic solvents to produce a crude extract, which was separated on alumina into two fractions: predominantly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and predominantly nitrogencontaining polycyclic aromatic compounds. Crude extracts were redissolved in acetone and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acetone-redissolved crude extracts from the four industrialized sites contained 5.6–313.3 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/g sediment and 3.0–36.4 μg other compounds/g sediment. In addition to the typical EPA priority pollutants, a substantial amount (228.7 μg/g sediment) of alkyl-polycyclic-aromatic compounds was detected in sediments from one of the industrialized sites. Extracts from the reference site contained 1.55 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/ g sediment. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to multiple pulse doses of acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions. Medaka were also exposed to a known carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate, to verify that chemicals produced tumors in the test fish. Acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments were toxic to medaka. Fin erosion and non-neoplastic liver abnormalities were more prevalent in medaka after exposure to acetoneredissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments. Neoplasms previously associated with chemical exposure in wild fishes were induced in medaka exposed to acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from two of the contaminated sites, but not from the reference site or controls. These findings further support the hypothesis that chemical contaminants in sediments are involved in epizootics of neoplasms in wild fishes at contaminated sites.

  2. Leaching properties of estuarine harbor sediment before and after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Kevin H.; Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Aulisio, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) can be used to extract heavy metals from a variety of different media. In this work, contaminated harbor sediments from two locations in the United States and one in Norway were subjected to EDR, and were compared with batch extractions conducted with the sediment....... pH-dependent leaching tests were used to evaluate changes in leaching properties of treated and control sediments. Significant fractions of total concentrations were removed during treatment (35-95% with an average of 75% for all sediments and elements investigated). The release of elements in p......H-dependent leaching tests, however, demonstrated equal or greater leaching from treated sediments in the neutral pH range. Dissolved organic carbon appears to be a significant contributor to post-treatment increases in leaching, and dissolution of significant iron and aluminum sorption sites is hypothesized to also...

  3. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  4. Development of a sample preparation method for the analysis of current-use pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongli; Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been implicated as the cause of sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in both agricultural and urban areas of California; however, for a subset of these toxic sediments (approximately 30%), the cause of toxicity remains unidentified. This article describes the analytical method development for seven additional pesticides that are being examined to determine if they might play a role in the unexplained toxicity. A pressurized liquid extraction method was optimized to simultaneously extract diazinon, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, dicofol, fenpropathrin, pyraclostrobin, and indoxacarb from sediment, and the extracts were cleaned using a two-step solid-phase extraction procedure. The final extract was analyzed for the target pesticides by gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC/NPD), and gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD), after sulfur was removed by shaking with copper and cold crystallization. Three sediments were used as reference matrices to assess method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits were 0.23-1.8 ng/g dry sediment using seven replicates of sediment spiked at 1.0 ng/g dry sediment. Recoveries ranged from 61.6 to 118% with relative standard deviations of 2.1-17% when spiked at 5.0 and 50 ng/g dry sediment. The three reference sediments, spiked with 50 ng/g dry weight of the pesticide mixture, were aged for 0.25, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. Recoveries of the pesticides in the sediments generally decreased with increased aging time, but the magnitude of the decline was pesticide and sediment dependent. The developed method was applied to field-collected sediments from the Central Valley of California.

  5. Sedimentation-related meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sedimentation committee would like to provide information on several meetings that took place in October 1983.The second annual meeting of the American Geomorphological Field Group was organized by S. Wells and T. Gardner and held in Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., October 7-10. Field excursions included visits to instrumented watersheds in badland areas, examination of the Quaternary history of Chaco Canyon, and investigation of fluvial problems associated with uranium mine tailings disposal and coal reclamation.

  6. Predicting bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants for Diporeia spp. and oligochaetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Peter F; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J; Mitra, Siddhartha; Ten Hulscher, Theodora E M

    2007-09-15

    Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) were calculated for Diporeia spp. and oligochaete worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from field-collected sediment. These data were compared to the contaminant fraction extracted from sediment with Tenax resin using a 24 h extraction. A previous laboratory study suggested a linear relationship between log BSAF and the contaminant fraction rapidly desorbed from sediment. However, the BSAF data in our study did not fit this relationship. Better predictive regressions for both PCBs and PAHs were found when the log of the lipid-normalized organism contaminant concentrations were plotted against the log of the Tenax-extracted organic carbon-normalized sediment contaminant concentration. Regression lines for the two species had the same slope, but the Diporeia intercept was 2.3 times larger. When adjusted for a 6 h Tenax extraction, based on a regression between 6 and 24 h Tenax extractions, data from this study and two other studies that included multiple oligochaete species fit a single predictive regression. The exception included some PAHs that fell below the regression line. Thus, a single relationship generally predicted bioaccumulation across sediments, compound classes, oligochaete species, and among laboratories.

  7. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  8. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekiff, Jens H.; Remy, Dominique; Klasmeier, Jörg; Fries, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of small potential microplastics (SPM) ( 1 mm) was also examined. Small microparticles were extracted from 36 one kg sediment samples and analysed by visual microscopic inspection and partly by thermal desorption pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The smallest particle size that could be analysed with this method was estimated to be 100 μm. The mean number of SPM at the three sampling sites (n = 12) was 1.7, 1.3 and 2.3 particles per kg dry sediment, respectively. SPM were identified as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and polyamide. The organic plastic additives found were benzophenone, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Particles were distributed rather homogenously and the occurrence of SPM did not correlate with that of VPD. -- Highlights: • The small-scale variability of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) occurrence in beach sediments was studied. • Within 500 m, small potential microplastics (<1 mm) were distributed rather homogeneously in investigated beach sediments. • The occurrence of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) did not correlate with that of visible plastic debris. • Procedural contamination of sediments by fibres (blank) constitutes an analytical problem. • These findings must be considered when setting up standardized monitoring protocols. -- On a small scale within 500 m, small microplastics are distributed rather homogeneously in sediments from the North Sea island of Norderney

  9. Sediment quality assessment studies of Tampa bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Scott R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Long, Edward R.; Windom, Herbert L.; Thursby, Glen; Sloane, Gail M.; Wolfe, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the toxicity of sediments throughout the Tampa Bay estuary was performed as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine the spatial extent and severity of toxicity and to identify relationships between chemical contamination and toxicity. Three independent toxicity tests were performed: a 10-d amphipod survival test of the whole sediments with Ampelisca abdita, a sea urchin fertilization test of sediment pore water with Arbacia punctulata, and a 5-min Microtox® bioluminescence test with solvent extracts of the sediments. Seventy-three percent of the 165 undiluted sediment pore-water samples were significantly toxic relative to reference samples with the sea urchin fertilization test. In contrast, only 2% of the 165 samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod tests. The causes of toxicity were not determined. However, concentrations of numerous trace metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ammonia were highly correlated with pore-water toxicity. Concentrations of many substances, especially total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endrin, total PCBs, certain PAHs, lead, and zinc, occurred at concentrations in the toxic samples that equaled or exceeded concentrations that have been previously associated with sediment toxicity.

  10. Speciation chimique du plomb et du cuivre par extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology consisted of a sampling, extraction of lead and copper in water and sediment collected and assessment of these metals with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame. The Tessier sequential extraction method is used for this study. The results obtained indicate that only the copper is detected in the ...

  11. Use of sediment quality guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, R. J.; Batley, G. E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moore, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Are sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) adequately able to predict the presence or absence of chronic toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms in field-collected sediments? Can SQGs predict effects resulting from the bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants? Do SQGs define cause-and-effect relationships? Can they predict effects on organisms exposed in the field on the basis of amphipod mortality measured in the laboratory?These and other questions brought together 55 scientists from 8 countries for a Pellston Workshop convened by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) in Fairmont, Montana, USA. In this book, these experts in ecology, ecotoxicology, engineering, environmental regulation, and risk assessment examine the scientific underpinnings of sediment quality guidelines and provide recommendations on the appropriate use of SQGs in the assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  12. Seabed Sediment as an Annually Renewable Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mäkiranta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy collected from the sediment layer under a water body has been suggested for use as a renewable heat source for a low energy network. A prototype system for using this sediment energy was installed in Suvilahti, Vaasa, in 2008 and is still in use. It provides a carbon-free heating and cooling solution as well as savings in energy costs for 42 houses. To be a real, renewable heat source, the thermal energy of the sediment layer needs to replenish annually. The goal of this paper is to verify the possible cooling or annual heat regeneration. The sediment temperatures were measured and analyzed in the years 2013–2015. The data were compared to the same period in 2008–2009. All measurements were taken in the same place. This paper also confirms the potential of the sediment heat, especially in the seabed sediment, using the temperature differences between the lowest and the highest values for the year. The results demonstrate that the collection of the heat energy does not cause permanent cooling of the sediment. This result was obtained by calculating the temperature difference between measurements in the warmest month and the month with the coldest temperatures. This indicates the extracted energy. The difference was found to be around 9.5 °C in 2008–2009, rising to around 11 °C for the years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. This indicates the loaded energy. The energy utilization is sustainable: the sediment temperature has not permanently decreased despite the full use of the network for the heating and cooling of houses between 2008 and 2015.

  13. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  14. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  15. Sediment Geo-Probe System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...

  16. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  17. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D

    1990-01-01

    .... Sediments released from glaciers grounded in tidewater, floating ice shelves, ice tongues, icebergs and sea ice form complex sequences governed by glaciological, oceanographic, sedimentary and biogenic controls...

  18. INTERACTIONS AMONG PHOSPHATE AMENDMENTS, MICROBES AND URANIUM MOBILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A

    2007-08-30

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for long-term environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of four phosphate amendments and two microbial amendments on U availability. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the untreated U-contaminated sediment showed that U was closely associated with Mn. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentration more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31% respectively. Uranium sorption in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of microbes. However, increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to reduction of phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U amended sediment was 437 {micro}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved sediment), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {micro}g/kg. When the autoclaved amended sediment was treated with autoclaved biological apatite, U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx}0 {micro}g/kg. Together these tests suggest that microbes may enhance U leaching and reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  19. Ancient DNA from lake sediments: Bridging the gap between paleoecology and genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumibao Candice Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quaternary plant ecology in much of the world has historically relied on morphological identification of macro- and microfossils from sediments of small freshwater lakes. Here, we report new protocols that reliably yield DNA sequence data from Holocene plant macrofossils and bulk lake sediment used to infer ecological change. This will allow changes in census populations, estimated from fossils and associated sediment, to be directly associated with population genetic changes. Results We successfully sequenced DNA from 64 samples (out of 126 comprised of bulk sediment and seeds, leaf fragments, budscales, and samaras extracted from Holocene lake sediments in the western Great Lakes region of North America. Overall, DNA yields were low. However, we were able to reliably amplify samples with as few as 10 copies of a short cpDNA fragment with little detectable PCR inhibition. Our success rate was highest for sediments Conclusions An ability to extract ancient DNA from Holocene sediments potentially allows exciting new insights into the genetic consequences of long-term environmental change. The low DNA copy numbers we found in fossil material and the discovery of multiple sequence variants from single macrofossil extractions highlight the need for careful experimental and laboratory protocols. Further application of these protocols should lead to better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of environmental change.

  20. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.

    2008-04-26

    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  1. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 5. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural network (ANN) in El Kebir catchment, Algeria. Z A Boukhrissa K Khanchoul Y Le Bissonnais M Tourki. Volume 122 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 1303-1312 ...

  2. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The model results have shown that the ANN models have the highest effi- ciency to reproduce the daily sediment load and the ... The sediment load process is a highly nonlinear and complex system. However, the empirical ... advantages for predictive modelling including: the ability to model any function without the need.

  3. Prediction of sediment load by sediment rating curve and neural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5(1) 1–9. Tayfur G 2002 Artificial neural networks for sheet sediment transport; Hydrol. Sci. J. 47(6) 879–892. Walling D E 1978 Suspended sediment and solute response characteristics of the river Exe, Devon,. England; In: Research in fluvial systems (eds) Davidson-. Arnott R and Nickling W, Geoabstracts (Norwich, UK),.

  4. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  5. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  6. Heavy metals mobility in harbour contaminated sediments: The case of Port-en-Bessin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplat, C.; Texier, H.; Barillier, D.; Lelievre, C.

    2005-01-01

    Metallic contaminants associated with sediments showed various behaviours depending on physicochemical conditions. A contaminated sediment core from a harbour in the Bay of Seine was sampled to derive information about metal solubilization from anoxic sediment. In these anaerobic surroundings, physicochemical processes depended on the organic matter cycle, on vertical variation of redox conditions and on precipitation conditions of iron and manganese. In the studied core, anoxic conditions were developed at -15 cm depth. A three-step sequential extraction procedure, modified from the BCR method (now the SM and T), was applied to the anoxic sediment in order to evaluate the potential mobility of fixed metals. Zinc was the most labile metal, recovered in the first extraction stages, and was associated with the non-residual fraction of sediment. Lead was the least labile metal, with up to 70% associated with the residual fraction of the sediment. Copper was associated with organic matter, and its mobility was controlled by the concentration and degradation of the organic fraction. Discharge of organic-rich dredged sediments at sea results in degradation of contained organic matter and may affect the environmental impact of these metals significantly. These results therefore help to improve the waste management of such contaminated sediments

  7. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  8. Settlement patterns of the coral Acropora millepora on sediment-laden surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F; Jones, Ross J; Nordborg, Mikaela; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-12-31

    Successful recruitment in corals is important for the sustenance of coral reefs, and is considered a demographic bottleneck in the recovery of reef populations following disturbance events. Yet several factors influence larval settlement behaviour, and here we quantified thresholds associated with light attenuation and accumulated sediments on settlement substrates. Sediments deposited on calcareous red algae (CRA) directly and indirectly impacted coral settlement patterns. Although not avoiding direct contact, Acropora millepora larvae were very reluctant to settle on surfaces layered with sediments, progressively shifting their settlement preference from upward to downward facing (sediment-free) surfaces under increasing levels of deposited sediment. When only upward-facing surfaces were presented, 10% of settlement was inhibited at thresholds from 0.9 to 16mgcm -2 (EC 10 ), regardless of sediment type (carbonate and siliciclastic) or particle size (fine and coarse silt). These levels equate to a very thin (<150μm) veneer of sediment that occurs within background levels on reefs. Grooves within settlement surfaces slightly improved options for settlement on sediment-coated surfaces (EC 10 : 29mgcm -2 ), but were quickly infilled at higher deposited sediment levels. CRA that was temporarily smothered by sediment for 6d became bleached (53% surface area), and inhibited settlement at ~7mgcm -2 (EC 10 ). A minor decrease in settlement was observed at high and very low light intensities when using suboptimal concentrations of a settlement inducer (CRA extract); however, no inhibition was observed when natural CRA surfaces along with more realistic diel-light patterns were applied. The low deposited sediment thresholds indicate that even a thin veneer of sediment can have consequences for larval settlement due to a reduction of optimal substrate. And while grooves and overhangs provide more settlement options in high deposition areas, recruits settling at these

  9. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  10. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  11. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  12. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  13. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  14. Luminescence dating of Netherlands’ sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we review: 1) the development of the methodology; 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands’ sediments;

  15. Intensive landfarming of contaminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieggers, H.J.J.; Bezemer, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mineral oil was investigated in heavily and normally polluted sediments. The aims of the research were: to improve the knowledge of dewatering and ripening of sediments in an open land-farm, to quantify the biodegradation in two

  16. Effects of grain size, mineralogy, and acid-extractable grain coatings on the distribution of the fallout radionuclides 7Be, 10Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb in river sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Singleton, AA; Schmidt, AH; Bierman, PR; Rood, DH; Neilson, TB; Greene, ES; Bower, JA; Perdrial, N

    2016-01-01

    Grain-size dependencies in fallout radionuclide activity have been attributed to either increase in specific surface area in finer grain sizes or differing mineralogical abundances in different grain sizes. Here, we consider a third possibility, that the concentration and composition of grain coatings, where fallout radionuclides reside, controls their activity in fluvial sediment. We evaluated these three possible explanations in two experiments: (1) we examined the effect of sediment grain ...

  17. Extraction and separation of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with chitosan as extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution : sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4 mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30 : 1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6 h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan.

  18. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronge Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2, were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution : sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4 mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30 : 1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6 h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan.

  19. Acoustical Properties of Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-11

    SEDIMENT AS A FUNCTION OF GLYCERIN CONCENTRATION IN THE PORE FLUID AR LUT AS-S81430 DJS - GA 4-16-81 45 IWOo 6 I- 0 Ju w > 40 -- -OTHEORY oLEAST SQUARES...0024 Pot YrvtflU MSt4 INTO) LAIPY9 p 0639 62r4 96 ?4 LIIA A xflVrjl j 116 00639 62F6 25 0 E IIC) doP? )I- 17=1 W; T" [)1? 00640 62FS 20 1118 HWiA OIl ...TI1E’ 00IN iX? Oil A VGVSH 0)019 AV(’i rtj 0(1 A X70UI 0OJ1M XSCRCH l J (C *YSCRCH OnIlE X 3 0 1?2U NECF*LU b 1 ??) X K k’no Q ( 0 0 3. XOIlVM!) flj4

  20. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illus, E. [ed.

    1998-08-01

    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  1. Analysis of factors determining sediment yield variability in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, L.; Park, S. J.; Dikau, R.; Vlek, P. L. G.

    2006-06-01

    In many developing countries, sustainable land management and water resources development are threatened by soil erosion and sediment-related problems. In response to such threats, there is an urgent need for improved catchment-based erosion control and sediment management strategies. The design and implementation of such strategies require data on erosion rates and understanding of the factors that control the delivery of sediment through the catchment system. In this study, reservoir sedimentation and corresponding catchment attribute data were used to investigate the major factors controlling sediment yield variability in a mountainous dryland region of northern Ethiopia. Sediment yield data were acquired for representative 11 catchments above reservoirs. Geomorphological and anthropogenic catchment attributes were extracted for each reservoir from different sources including digital elevation models, satellite images and field surveys. Different statistical analyses such as Pearson's correlation, principal components and multiple regression were implemented to analyze the relationship between sediment yield and catchment characteristics and to determine the major factors controlling the variability of sediment yield. The results show that terrain form, gully erosion, surface lithology, and land cover explain most of the variability in sediment yield among the catchments. The implications of the results, for relevant management intervention targeted at ameliorating the major causative factors of erosion, are also outlined.

  2. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  3. The Microbiome of Brazilian Mangrove Sediments as Revealed by Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments. PMID:22737213

  4. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    Full Text Available Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04 in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  5. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  6. Assessing the occurrence and distribution of pyrethroids in water and suspended sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of pyrethroid insecticides in the environment was assessed by separately measuring concentrations in the dissolved and suspended sediment phases of surface water samples. Filtered water was extracted by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, while the sediment on the filter was sonicated and cleaned up using carbon and aluminum cartridges. Detection limits for the 13 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were 0.5 to 1 ng L-1 for water and 2 to 6 ng g for the suspended sediments. Seven pyrethroids were detected in six water samples collected from either urban or agricultural creeks, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently and at the highest concentrations. In spiked water samples and field samples, the majority of the pyrethroids were associated with the suspended sediments.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of uranium in evaporation basin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M. C.; Morris, D. E.; Hunter, D. B.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2000-05-01

    sediments suggest that there was no selectivity in the removal of the spectroscopically identifiable U(VI) species by acidic oxidizing, basic oxidizing or basic non-oxidizing solutions. A net increase in the emission intensity of the U(VI) luminescent species in most leached samples was consistent with conversion of U(IV) to U(VI), as a result of chemical oxidation and exposure to air during the leaching process. The wet chemical extractions and in situ spectroscopic techniques provided fundamental and basic knowledge about the fraction of U(IV) to U(VI), the speciation of luminescent U(VI), and the susceptibility of the sediment U species to leaching.

  8. River sediment quality assessment using sediment quality indices for the Sydney basin, Australia affected by coal and coal seam gas mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aal-E; Strezov, Vladimir; Davies, Peter J; Wright, Ian

    2018-03-01

    Coal mining activities in the Sydney basin have been historically associated with significant environmental impacts. The region is facing more recent coal seam gas extraction activities and the synergetic environmental impacts of the new mining activities are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to provide environmental assessment of river sediments comparing upstream to downstream areas relative to industrial-discharge sites associated with coal and coal-seam-gas extraction within the Sydney basin. Various contaminants were measured to determine the sediment quality according to the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) guidelines. Arsenic, nickel and zinc were the main sediment contaminants in downstream samples exceeding the ANZECC guidelines. Degree of contamination (C d ), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and sediment environmental toxicity quotients' increment in downstream sediment were estimated for the studied areas. Toxicology indices of metals present in the sediments near industrial discharge sites were used as an additional tool to compare the level of environmental effects with their increment. The study revealed that the sediments from coal mining sites were highly affected by increased concentrations of manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel and barium. The sediments associated with coal mining activities were found to be substantially more affected than the sediments near coal seam gas production sites, mainly attributed to the different wastewater discharge licencing requirements. The approach applied in this study can be used as an additional model to assess the contribution of industrial and mining activities on aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial evolution of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments of Rhumel River in the northeast Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouz , Sarah; Chellat , Smaine; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The objective of the present study is the characterization of the spatial evolution of phosphorus forms in sediments of Rhumel River located in northeast Algeria during winter conditions. Sediments samples were collected along the river in Constantine city during the year 2012. The samples were subjected to physicochemical characterization and metals analysis. Phosphorus was fractionated by sequential extractions procedure in exchangeable, oxyhydroxides bound; calcium ...

  10. Phosphorus forms of the surface sediment in the Iranian coast of the southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, H.; Pouraria, A.; Nowruzi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sediments from the southern Caspian Sea, located in Iranian coast were examined on the basis of P-fractionation (five forms of phosphorus) by a sequential extraction scheme. Ninety-six surface sediment samples (for each season with triplicate) were collected from eight sampling transects in 10 and 100 m depths during summer and winter in 2010-2011. The result indicated that the most abundant forms of phosphorus were calcium bound phosphorus. Relative abundance of other forms of phosphorus fol...

  11. Consideration of bioavailability in the effect directed analysis of contaminated sediment samples

    OpenAIRE

    Bandow, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the presented PhD thesis is on the incorporation of bioavailability into effect directed analysis (EDA) of contaminated sediment samples. EDA has been successfully applied in the last years to identify key toxicants in environmental samples. One of the major challenges in EDA is how to consider bioavailability of investigated chemicals. By using crude sediment extracts and solvent dosing the ecotoxicological effects may be overestimated and prioritisation of fractions may be bias...

  12. Radioactivity measurement of tsunami sediments due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Joe, Seongjin

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami sediments and their directly under soils from 25 tsunami flooded areas in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake were analyzed quantitatively for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations. It was found that the radiocesium released in the reactor accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant stayed for at least 6 months in the tsunami sediments layer of a few centimeter thickness. On the other hand, from the results of the radiocesium extraction test using the tsunami sediments and 3 kinds of inorganic solvents, it was also found that the radiocesium in the tsunami sediments passed ca. 6 months after fall was hardly eluted with rain water (pH 5.6 ∼ 7.0) and combined strongly with clay minerals in the tsunami sediments. (K. Kato)

  13. Determination of Pb-210 and Ra-226 in sediments from Acude de Apipucos - Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann de; Melo, Roberto Teodozio de; Figueiredo, Marcela Durao Cesar de; Rodrigues, Kelia Rejane Goncalves; Cunha, Manuela Silva da; Silva, Danubia B. da; Pedroza, Eryka de H.; Oliveira, Aristides

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the age of sediment layers in Apipucos Reservoir, located in Recife, Brazil. Dating with 210 Pb and 226 Ra concentrations found in these sediments was used. A core with length of 70 cm and internal diameter of 5 cm was used for sediment sampling and each obtained profile was sectioned. Lead and radium were extracted from these samples by adding acids. 210 Pb and 226 Ra were determined in a gas flow proportional detector, based on the activities of their daughters. It was found that the CRS model (Constant Rate of Supply) to calculate the ages of sediment was more appropriate than CIC (Constant Initial Concentration). The chronology showed that the first sediment layers were 30 years old. (author)

  14. The effect of tidal forcing on biogeochemical processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhuber Stephanie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagenetic processes involved in natural organic matter (NOM oxidation in marine sediments have been for the most part characterized after collecting sediment cores and extracting porewaters. These techniques have proven useful for deep-sea sediments where biogeochemical processes are limited to aerobic respiration, denitrification, and manganese reduction and span over several centimeters. In coastal marine sediments, however, the concentration of NOM is so high that the spatial resolution needed to characterize these processes cannot be achieved with conventional sampling techniques. In addition, coastal sediments are influenced by tidal forcing that likely affects the processes involved in carbon oxidation. Results In this study, we used in situ voltammetry to determine the role of tidal forcing on early diagenetic processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments. We compare ex situ measurements collected seasonally, in situ profiling measurements, and in situ time series collected at several depths in the sediment during tidal cycles at two distinct stations, a small perennial creek and a mud flat. Our results indicate that the tides coupled to the salt marsh topography drastically influence the distribution of redox geochemical species and may be responsible for local differences noted year-round in the same sediments. Monitoring wells deployed to observe the effects of the tides on the vertical component of porewater transport reveal that creek sediments, because of their confinements, are exposed to much higher hydrostatic pressure gradients than mud flats. Conclusion Our study indicates that iron reduction can be sustained in intertidal creek sediments by a combination of physical forcing and chemical oxidation, while intertidal mud flat sediments are mainly subject to sulfate reduction. These processes likely allow microbial iron reduction to be an important terminal electron accepting process in intertidal coastal

  15. Evaluation of the contamination level of sea bottom sediments on the Crimean coast of the Black and Azov Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhonova Elena

    2016-12-01

    At the most stations in the Azov Sea the content of HM exceeded values obtained in the Black Sea. Now (2016 in the open Crimean coast bottom sediments of the Black Sea have properties typical for marine sediments of the studied area. There is an upward trend in the content of chloroform-extracted substances in the Black Sea region, but the sediments are not contaminated with oil products. Taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of marine sediments, it can be stated that the condition the studied area as a whole is safe.

  16. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  17. Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; McWayne, Megan M.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 μg/kg dry weight.

  18. Elwha River Restoration: Sediment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, S.; Bountry, J.; Randle, T. J.; Ritchie, A.; Huginin, H.; Torrance, A.

    2013-12-01

    The removal of Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams on the Elwha River relies on controlled reservoir drawdown increments and natural river flows to erode and redistribute the reservoir sediment, estimated to be a total of 23 (× 3) million m3. To mitigate for the predicted sediment effects, facilities have been constructed for water quality and flood protection. A sediment monitoring program is being implemented by an interdisciplinary team from Reclamation and National Park Service to integrate real-time measurements with continually updated numerical model predictions. The most recent numerical reservoir modeling and monitoring results indicate about 20 to 25 percent of the reservoir sediment has been released since the start of dam removal. Monitoring results in 2012 and early 2013 confirmed that controlled reservoir drawdown increments have induced sufficient vertical and lateral erosion of delta surfaces behind both dams. Predam channel and floodplain surface has been exposed in numerous portions of Lake Aldwell, with the release of coarse and fine sediment in the first few pools below Elwha Dam. The material released from Lake Aldwell has included organic material. With the removal of about three quarters of Glines Canyon Dam and the disappearance of Lake Mills, coarse bedload sediment has been continually released into the downstream river since late fall 2012. Field measurements and numerical modeling are being used to track the progression of the sediment wave downstream to the Elwha River mouth. Initial findings are that the aggradation was greatest immediately downstream of Glines Canyon Dam, and filled pools and transformed river planform from step-pool to glide for most of the 7 mile reach between Lake Mills and Lake Aldwell. Although there has not been a major flood, winter flows and spring snowmelt have significantly reworked the released sediment and remnants of the pre-sediment release pools and rapids have re-emerged. Large wood and organics have also

  19. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  20. Interactions among phosphate amendments, microbes and uranium mobility in contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: anna.knox@srnl.doe.gov; Brigmon, R.L.; Kaplan, D.I.; Paller, M.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of three types of phosphate (rock phosphate, biological phosphate, and calcium phytate) and two microbial amendments (Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida) on U mobility. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentrations more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31%, respectively. Uranium removal in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of the two microbes. Two sediments were evaluated in experiments on the effects of phosphate amendments on U mobility, one from a stream on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC and the other from the Hanford Site, a Department of Energy facility in Washington state. Increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to a reduction in phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U contaminated sediment was 437 {mu}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {mu}g/kg. The U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx} 0 {mu}g/kg in autoclaved amended sediment treated with autoclaved biological apatite. These results suggest that microbes may reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  1. Macro- and microscale investigation of selenium speciation in Blackfoot river, Idaho sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Libbie L; Strawn, Daniel G; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Möller, Gregory

    2008-09-15

    The transport and bioavailability of selenium in the environment is controlled by its chemical speciation. However, knowledge of the biogeochemistry and speciation of Se in streambed sediment is limited. We investigated the speciation of Se in sediment cores from the Blackfoot River (BFR), Idaho using sequential extractions and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-SXRF). We collected micro-SXRF oxidation state maps of Se in sediments, which had not been done on natural sediment samples. Selective extractions showed that most Se in the sediments is present as either (1) nonextractable Se or (2) base extractable Se. Results from micro-SXRF showed three defined species of Se were present in all four samples: Se(-II,O), Se(IV), and Se(VI). Se(-II,O) was the predominant species in samples from one location, and Se(IV) was the predominant species in samples from a second location. Results from both techniques were consistent, and suggested that the predominant species were Se(-II) species associated with recalcitrant organic matter, and Se(IV) species tightly bound to organic materials. This information can be used to predict the biogeochemical cycling and bioavailability of Se in streambed sediment environments.

  2. Contaminant characterization of sediment and pore-water in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, K.R.; Hargrove, W.W.; Rash, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment and pore-water samples were collected from 80 locations in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek system to characterize concentrations and spatial distribution of contaminants for use in ecological risk assessment. Sediment cores were collected at each site and the top 15 cm was analyzed to represent the biologically active zone. Sediment for pore-water extraction was collected in large volumes using a Ponar grab sampler. Pore-water was extracted from this sediment using centrifugation, All samples were analyzed for metals (including methyl mercury), organics, and radiological constituents. Additionally, sediment was analyzed for physical properties: particle size distribution, density, and porosity. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pre-water results indicate that there are several areas where concentrations of a variety of contaminants are high enough to causes ecological effects. These locations in the river are immediately downstream from know sources of Contamination from on-site DOE facilities. East Fork Poplar Creek is a source of several metals, including mercury, cadmium, chromium, and copper. Mitchell Branch is a source of number of metals, uranium isotopes, technetium-99, and several PAHs. There are two clear sources of arsenic and selenium to the system, one in Poplar Creek and one in Melton Hill Reservoir, both related to past disposal of coal-ash. High concentrations in sediments did not always coincide with high concentrations in pore-water for the same sites and contaminants. This appears to be related to particle size of the sediment and total organic carbon

  3. Arsenic associations in sediments from shallow aquifers of northwestern Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ma, T.; Yang, H.; He, J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of arsenic mobilization from sediments to groundwater is important for water quality management in areas of endemic arsenic poisoning, such as the Hetao Basin in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Aquifer geochemistry was characterized at three field sites (SH, HF, TYS) in Hangjinhouqi County of northwestern Hetao Basin. The results of bulk geochemistry analysis of sediment samples indicated that total As concentrations have a range of 6. 8-58. 5 mg/kg, with a median of 14. 4 mg/kg. The highest As concentrations were found at 15-25 m depth. In the meanwhile, the range of As concentration in the sediments from background borehole is 3-21. 8 mg/kg, with a median value of 9 mg/kg. The As sediments concentrations with depth from the SH borehole were correlated with the contents of Fe, Sb, B, V, total C and total S. Generally, the abundance of elements varied with grain size, with higher concentrations in finer fractions of the sediments. Distinct lithology profile and different geochemical characteristics of aquifer sediments indicate the sediments are associated with different sources and diverse sedimentary environments. Up to one third of arsenic in the sediments could be extracted by ammonium oxalate, suggesting that Fe oxyhydroxides may be the major sink of As in the aquifer. Sequential extraction results indicate that arsenic occurs as strongly adsorbed on and/or co-precipitated with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides in sediments accounting for 35 and 20%, respectively, of the total contents of arsenic. The release of As into groundwater may occur by desorption from the mineral surface driven by reductive dissolution of the Fe oxide minerals. Furthermore, small proportions of As associated with iron sulfides occur in the reductive sediments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  5. Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mat, I.; Maah, M.J. (Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1994-11-01

    About 4-5000 ha of the mudflats along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia are currently utilized for the semi-culture of the economically important marine bivalve, Anadara granosa. Therefore, information on the status of the trace metal pollution in the culture areas is of considerable value in the interest of public health when shellfish from this area are available for consumption. As an initial assessment of the degree of trace metal pollution in the sediments, an approach to analyze the non-residual (non-lattice held) trace metal concentrations should be of prime consideration rather than the total metal content in the sediments. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to restrict the comparison of the non- residual metal fraction to sediments having similar textural composition. For the above reasons, assorted acids are used to partially extract the non-residual trace metal fraction. The partial extraction of sediment-bound trace metals is not only providing information on the strength of association between metals and sediment compositions but also the potential availability of these metals to aquatic organisms. It has been shown that the bioavailability of trace metals to the aquatic biota is best related to the easily leachable, non-residual fraction rather than the total sediment bound trace metals. Therefore, it makes very little sense to consider the total metal content in the sediment to be bioavailable to cause damage to aquatic organisms or to the aquatic ecosystems. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tab.

  6. Combining contamination indexes, sediment quality guidelines and multivariate data analysis for metal pollution assessment in marine sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Icart, Mirella; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Lopes Fialho, Lucimar; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present work was to combine several tools for assessing metal pollution in marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. Fourteen surface sediments collected in 2013 were evaluated. Concentrations of As, Cu, Ni, Zn and V decreased respect to those previous reported. The metal contamination was spatially distributed in the north and south parts of the bay. According to the contamination factor (CF) enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (I geo ), Cd and Cu were classified in that order as the most contaminated elements in most sediment. Comparison of the total metal concentrations with the threshold (TELs) and probable (PELs) effect levels in sediment quality guidelines suggested a more worrisome situation for Cu, of which concentrations were occasional associated with adverse biological effects in thirteen sediments, followed by Ni in nine sediments; while adverse effects were rarely associated with Cd. Probably, Cu could be considered as the most dangerous in the whole bay because it was classified in the high contamination levels by all indexes and, simultaneously, associated to occasional adverse effects in most samples. Despite the bioavailability was partially evaluated with the HCl method, the low extraction of Ni (<3% in all samples) and Cu (<55%, except sample 3) and the relative high extraction of Cd (50% or more, except sample 14) could be considered as an attenuating (Ni and Cu) or increasing (Cd) factor in the risk assessment of those element. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Transparent heavy minerals and magnetite geochemical composition of the Yangtze River sediments: Implication for provenance evolution of the Yangtze Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wei; Jin, Bingfu; Zhao, Baocheng

    2018-02-01

    Heavy mineral and detrital magnetite geochemistry were analyzed to extract sediment provenance indexes from different reaches of the modern Yangtze River which were used to trace sediment source of the Yangtze Delta and to speculate its geomorphology change since the Pliocene. Our results show that diagnostic heavy minerals of the upper Yangtze sediment are characterized by clinopyroxene (12% on average) and magnetite (7% on average); the middle reaches by ilmenite, zircon and tourmaline; and the local small rivers by fluorite. Detrital magnetite composition of Ti, Mg, V and Cr is high in the upper Yangtze from the underlying basalt. These diagnostic indexes are then used in the Pliocene sediment core to extract provenance signal of different Yangtze reaches. Analysis of core sediment of the Yangtze Delta reveals that sediment provenance of the Pliocene was from local small rivers. Since the beginning of the Pleistocene, core sediments provenance was similar to that of the middle Yangtze tributaries. After 1.2 Ma, high content of pyroxene and magnetite grains that are rich in Ti, Mg, V, Cr imply sediment provenance signals from the upper Yangtze. Sediment provenance shift from short-distance sources to more distant sources indicates that the geomorphology of the Yangtze Delta region has undergone a great transformation since the Pliocene. This dramatic landform change is likely in response to continuous uplift of the Tibetan plateau and accelerated subsidence of the east China coast since the Pliocene.

  8. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D

    1990-01-01

    This volume examines the processes responsible for sedimentation in modern glaciomarine environments, and how such modern studies can be used as analogues in the interpretation of ancient glaciomarine sequences...

  9. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  10. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  11. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of bioaccumulatable contaminants in sediments using co-solvent mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.C.; McMillin, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment toxicity assessments must address bioaccumulation potential of bound contaminants. This potential has been associated with the desorption of chemicals including many mutagens and carcinogens from sediment into interstitial waters. Environmental impacts and health hazards of sediment-bound normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are functions of their entry into food webs, the activation of promutagens, and bioaccumulation processes. Activation phenomena occurring in benthic organisms may generate genotoxic agents not extractable with nonpolar solvents used for chemical analysis. Co-solvent theory was applied to prepare aqueous-based extracts from petroleum-contaminated sediments from Pass Fourchon, LA. Co-solvent solubilization of contaminants is thermodynamically related to partition coefficients which govern bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sediments were extracted into acetic acid co-solvent mixtures and mutagens mobilized into the extracts were detected by the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay with and without activation. Direct-acting mutagens were mobilized at all co-solvent concentrations, causing reversions in strain TA102, but not in TA97a, TA98, or TA100

  13. Comparison of SFE with Soxhlet in the analyses of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Mari; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-12-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) from sediments was investigated by comparing SFE with Soxhlet. Five sediments obtained from an international interlaboratory study were used as a test material. SFE was performed with an automatic system where extracted analytes were collected by solid-phase trapping using carbon mixed with Celite as an adsorbent. For the first time, SFE of the most toxic PCBs, coplanar PCBs, was studied with real sediment samples. The majority of PCBs investigated, a total of 38 congeners from tri- to decachlorinated, were quantitatively extracted from sediment by SFE with pure CO2 at pressure 400 atm and temperature 100 degrees C. Under these conditions a successful extraction was obtained also for PCDD/PCDFs except for hepta- and octachlorinated congeners. Copper powder added to the sediment efficiently prevented the transfer of sulfur from the sample during SFE. The TEQs of both PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs obtained by SFE corresponded well with those obtained by the Soxhlet-based method. The reproducibility of SFE was high for both groups.

  14. Estuarine Sediment Budgets for Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2003. Estuarine sediment sources: A Summary Report of Sediment Processes in Chesapeake Bay and Watershed . Water-Resources Investigations Report 03...2007. Sources and transport of sediment in the watershed : Synthesis of US Geological Survey science for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and...originator. Estuarine Sediment Budgets for Chesapeake Bay Tributaries by Julie D. Herman PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering

  15. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai-jie Guo; Fu-hai Zhang; Xu-guo Song; Bao-tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP) dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment ...

  16. Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P

    1962-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th

  17. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  18. Sediment dynamics in Alpine basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Liébault, Fred; Comiti, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    In rivers and streams and of the European Alps, sediment transport processes are of great relevance due to their ecological (e.g. aquatic habitats), energy (e.g. reservoir sedimentation) and risk-related (floods and debris flows) consequences. In fact, sediment fluxes are crucial to maintain a good ecological status of watercourses (required by the EU ;Water Framework Directive;, WFD, 2000), as they provide the hydromorphological conditions supporting dynamic aquatic ecosystems (Fryirs and Brierley, 2013; Wohl et al., 2015; Gurnell et al., 2016). Indeed, the key issue to ameliorate river hydrogeomorphological - and thus ecological - status and to comply with WFD provisions lies in allowing the natural processes of sediment and wood supply and transport to take place as much as possible, given the constraints imposed by the non-eliminable uses of each river (Comiti, 2012; Liébault et al., 2013). Specifically river continuity is mentioned in the WFD not only for biota but also sediments, which is hardly discussed in river management so far and almost no concrete measures to improve sediment continuity have been implemented so far (Habersack et al., 2016).

  19. Determination of persistent organic pollutants in solid environmental samples using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Exhaustive extraction and sorption/desorption studies of PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, E.

    1998-10-01

    Human activity is constantly causing environmental problems due to production and release of numerous chemicals. A group of compounds of special concern is persistent organic pollutants (POP). These toxic, lipophilic chemicals have a high chemical and biological stability, and tend to accumulate in the lipid phase of living organisms. A major sink for POPs are sediments, and consequently these are important for the distribution of POPs in the aquatic environment. Traditionally, determination of POPs relay on exhaustive extraction using liquid extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet extraction developed in the late 19th century) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Since liquid-solid extraction normally requires large volumes of organic solvents in combination with long extraction times and extract clean-up, there has been an increasing demand for improved technology. This should result in reduced organic solvent consumption and sample preparation time, at the same time improving the environment and cutting costs for POP monitoring. In this thesis two modern techniques with capability of fulfilling at least one of these goals have been investigated: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), and (2) Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were chosen as model compounds in all experiments performed on environmental matrices, since they cover a relatively large range of physiochemical parameters. Important parameters influencing the overall extraction efficiency in ASE and SFE, are discussed and illustrated for a large number of sediments. It was demonstrated that, by careful consideration of the experimental parameters, both techniques are capable of replacing old methods such as Soxhlet extraction. ASE is somewhat faster than SFE, but the extracts generated in SFE are much cleaner and can be analyzed without sample clean-up. Consequently the overall sample preparation time may be substantially lower using SFE. However, ASE is important

  20. A Revised Iron Extraction Protocol for Environmental Samples Rich in Nitrite and Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaedler, Franziska; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Wet-chemical iron extraction is widely applied to quantify the mineral-bound ferriferous fraction of sediments and soils. As previously shown, this method is strongly affected by the composition of the soil/sediment. Samples enriched in mostly microbially produced nitrite require the removal...... the preservation of low pH conditions, leading to efficient iron extraction in nitrite-and carbonate-enriched samples....

  1. Fixation of Cs to marine sediments estimated by a stochastic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børretzen, Peer; Salbu, Brit

    2002-01-01

    Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara Sea represents a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Arctic Seas in the future. The mobility of 137Cs ions leached from the waste will depend on the interactions with sediment particles. Whether sediments will act as a continuous permanent sink for released 137Cs, or contaminated sediments will serve as a diffuse source of 137Cs in the future, depends on the interaction kinetics and binding mechanisms involved. The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of different stochastic models using kinetic information to estimate the time needed for Cs ions to become irreversibly fixed within the sediments. The kinetic information was obtained from 134Cs tracer sorption and desorption (sequential extractions) experiments, conducted over time, using sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord waste dumping site, on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. Results show that 134Cs ions interact rapidly with the surfaces of the Stepovogo sediment, with an estimated distribution coefficient Kd(eq) of 300 ml/g (or 13m2/g), and the 134Cs ions are increasingly irreversibly fixed to the sediment over time. For the first time, stochastic theory has been utilised for sediment-seawater systems to estimate the mean residence times (MRTs) of Cs ions in operationally defined sediment phases described by compartment models. In the present work, two different stochastic models (i) a Markov process model (MP) being analogous to deterministic compartment models, and (ii) a semi-Markov process model (SMP) which should be physically more relevant for inhomogeneous systems, have been compared. As similar results were obtained using the two models, the less complicated MP model was utilised to predict the time needed for an average Cs ion to become irreversibly fixed in the Stepovogo sediments. According the model, approximately 1100 days of contact time between Cs ions and sediments is needed before 50% of the 134Cs ion becomes fixed in the

  2. GC-MS method for determining faecal sterols as biomarkers of human and pastoral animal presence in freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistel, Dario; Piazza, Rossano; Argiriadis, Elena; Marchiori, Enrico; Radaelli, Marta; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine sterols and stanols in freshwater sediments to reconstruct the past presence of humans and pastoral animals, we developed an analytical method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), clean-up performed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and sterol determination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PLE extraction conditions were optimised using dichloromethane (DCM) and DCM/methanol mixtures. Clean-up was performed with 2 g silica SPE cartridges, and the concentrated extracts were eluted with 70 mL DCM. Extraction yield was evaluated using an in-house reference material spiked with (13)C-labelled cholesterol and aged for 10 days. In comparison with pre-extraction, where the sediment is extracted and then spiked with a known analyte concentration, this approach preserves the original composition of the sediment. DCM and DCM/methanol mixtures resulted in high extraction yields ranging from 86 to 92 % with good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) 5-8 %). PLE extraction yields obtained with DCM as the extracting solvent were about 1.5 times higher than extractions using an ultrasonic bath. The solvent extraction mixture and matrix composition strongly affected the solvent extraction composition where higher overall recoveries (70-80 %) for each compound were obtained with DCM. The extraction mixture and matrix composition also affected the analyte concentrations, resulting in a method precision ranging from 1 to 18 %. Diatomaceous earth spiked with 10 to 100 ng of sterols, and environmental samples fortified with suitable amounts of sterols provided apparent recovery values ranging from 90 to 110 %. We applied the method to environmental samples both close to and upstream from sewage discharge zones, resulting in substantially higher faecal sterol (FeSt) concentrations near the sewage. In addition, we also applied the method to a 37-cm freshwater sediment core in order to evaluate its applicability for

  3. Impacts of Different Exposure Scenarios on Transcript Abundances in Danio rerio Embryos when Investigating the Toxicological Burden of Riverine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Otte, Jens C.; Yang, Lixin; Zinsmeister, Christian; Legradi, Jessica; Keiter, Steffen; Kosmehl, Thomas; Braunbeck, Thomas; Strähle, Uwe; Hollert, Henner

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, a proof-of-concept study revealed the suitability of transcriptome analyses to obtain and assess changes in the abundance of transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to organic sediment extracts. The present study investigated changes in the transcript abundance in zebrafish embryos exposed to whole sediment samples and corresponding organic extracts in order to identify the impact of different exposure pathways on sediment toxicity. Materials and Methods Danio rerio embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of three sediment samples from the Danube River, Germany. The sediment samples were investigated both as freeze-dried samples and as organic extracts. Silica dust and a process control of the extraction procedure were used as references. After exposure, mRNA was isolated and changes in profiles of gene expression levels were examined by an oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray results were compared with bioassays, chemical analysis of the sediments and profiles of gene expression levels induced by several single substances. Results and Discussion The microarray approach elucidated significant changes in the abundance of transcripts in exposed zebrafish embryos compared to the references. Generally, results could be related to Ah-receptor-mediated effects as confirmed by bioassays and chemical analysis of dioxin-like contaminants, as well as to exposure to stress-inducing compounds. Furthermore, the results indicated that mixtures of chemicals, as present in sediment and extract samples, result in complex changes of gene expression level profiles difficult to compare with profiles induced by single chemical substances. Specifically, patterns of transcript abundances were less influenced by the chemical composition at the sampling site compared t the method of exposure (sediment/extract). This effect might be related to different bioavailability of chemicals. Conclusions The apparent difference between the

  4. Impacts of different exposure scenarios on transcript abundances in Danio rerio embryos when investigating the toxicological burden of riverine sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Bluhm

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recently, a proof-of-concept study revealed the suitability of transcriptome analyses to obtain and assess changes in the abundance of transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos after exposure to organic sediment extracts. The present study investigated changes in the transcript abundance in zebrafish embryos exposed to whole sediment samples and corresponding organic extracts in order to identify the impact of different exposure pathways on sediment toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Danio rerio embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of three sediment samples from the Danube River, Germany. The sediment samples were investigated both as freeze-dried samples and as organic extracts. Silica dust and a process control of the extraction procedure were used as references. After exposure, mRNA was isolated and changes in profiles of gene expression levels were examined by an oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray results were compared with bioassays, chemical analysis of the sediments and profiles of gene expression levels induced by several single substances. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The microarray approach elucidated significant changes in the abundance of transcripts in exposed zebrafish embryos compared to the references. Generally, results could be related to Ah-receptor-mediated effects as confirmed by bioassays and chemical analysis of dioxin-like contaminants, as well as to exposure to stress-inducing compounds. Furthermore, the results indicated that mixtures of chemicals, as present in sediment and extract samples, result in complex changes of gene expression level profiles difficult to compare with profiles induced by single chemical substances. Specifically, patterns of transcript abundances were less influenced by the chemical composition at the sampling site compared t the method of exposure (sediment/extract. This effect might be related to different bioavailability of chemicals. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent

  5. Sedimentation velocity analysis of heterogeneous protein-protein interactions: sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s) and asymptotic boundary profiles from Gilbert-Jenkins theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Julie; Schuck, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Interacting proteins in rapid association equilibrium exhibit coupled migration under the influence of an external force. In sedimentation, two-component systems can exhibit bimodal boundaries, consisting of the undisturbed sedimentation of a fraction of the population of one component, and the coupled sedimentation of a mixture of both free and complex species in the reaction boundary. For the theoretical limit of diffusion-free sedimentation after infinite time, the shapes of the reaction boundaries and the sedimentation velocity gradients have been predicted by Gilbert and Jenkins. We compare these asymptotic gradients with sedimentation coefficient distributions, c(s), extracted from experimental sedimentation profiles by direct modeling with superpositions of Lamm equation solutions. The overall shapes are qualitatively consistent and the amplitudes and weight-average s-values of the different boundary components are quantitatively in good agreement. We propose that the concentration dependence of the area and weight-average s-value of the c(s) peaks can be modeled by isotherms based on Gilbert-Jenkins theory, providing a robust approach to exploit the bimodal structure of the reaction boundary for the analysis of experimental data. This can significantly improve the estimates for the determination of binding constants and hydrodynamic parameters of the complexes.

  6. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghose-Hajra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  7. Microbial reductive transformation of phyllosilicate Fe(III) and U(VI) in fluvial subsurface sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Fredrickson, James K; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Boyanov, Maxim I; Kemner, Kenneth M; Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W; Bjornstad, Bruce N; Konopka, Allan E; Moore, Dean A; Resch, Charles T; Phillips, Jerry L

    2012-04-03

    The microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) was investigated in shallow aquifer sediments collected from subsurface flood deposits near the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in Washington State. Increases in 0.5 N HCl-extractable Fe(II) were observed in incubated sediments and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that Fe(III) associated with phyllosilicates and pyroxene was reduced to Fe(II). Aqueous uranium(VI) concentrations decreased in subsurface sediments incubated in sulfate-containing synthetic groundwater with the rate and extent being greater in sediment amended with organic carbon. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bioreduced sediments indicated that 67-77% of the U signal was U(VI), probably as an adsorbed species associated with a new or modified reactive mineral phase. Phylotypes within the Deltaproteobacteria were more common in Hanford sediments incubated with U(VI) than without, and in U(VI)-free incubations, members of the Clostridiales were dominant with sulfate-reducing phylotypes more common in the sulfate-amended sediments. These results demonstrate the potential for anaerobic reduction of phyllosilicate Fe(III) and sulfate in Hanford unconfined aquifer sediments and biotransformations involving reduction and adsorption leading to decreased aqueous U concentrations.

  8. Heavy metal pollutants in surficial sediments from different coastal sites in Aden Governorate, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed; Baharoon Aqil Abdulrahman

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Gd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Fe in surficial sediments (<63μm) from the shores in Aden Governorate were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The obtained concentration data show significant regional variations concerning both the total and leachable metals in sediments. Total metal concentrations of Cd and Pb were greatest in sediments from labor Island; Cu, Cr, and Fe occurred in the highest levels in Bandar Fuqum sediments, while maximum levels of Mn, Co, and Ni were observed in sediments from Sahel Abyan and Fuqum. Labile, easily extractable species of metals such as Cd and Pb, are similar to their total concentrations, and additionally Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe were found in the highest concentrations in sediments from labor Island. Sediments from Sahel Abyan and Khawr Bir Ahmed were characterized by a maximum accumulation of bioavailable species of Co and Mn, respectively. The linear regression slopes for metals correlated were <1, this explains the slow enrichment of these metals in the sediments, and attributes their geological nature. (author)

  9. The new PARIOTM device for determining continuous particle-size distributions of soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alina; Pertassek, Thomas; Steins, Andreas; Durner, Wolfgang; Göttlein, Axel; Petrik, Wolfgang; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is a key property of soils. The reference method for determining the PSD is based on gravitational sedimentation of particles in an initially homogeneous suspension. Traditional methods measure manually (i) the uplift of a floating body in the suspension at different times (Hydrometer method) or (ii) the mass of solids in extracted suspension aliquots at predefined sampling depths and times (Pipette method). Both methods lead to a disturbance of the sedimentation process and provide only discrete data of the PSD. Durner et al. (2017) recently developed a new automated method to determine particle-size distributions of soils and sediments from gravitational sedimentation (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold: The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830, 2017). The so-called integral suspension method (ISP) method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel and avoids any disturbance of the sedimentation process. The required technology to perform these experiments was developed by the UMS company, Munich and is now available as an instrument called PARIO, traded by the METER Group. In this poster, the basic functioning of PARIO is shown and key components and parameters of the technology are explained.

  10. The Behaviour of 134Cs, 60Co, and 85Sr Radionuclides in Marine Environmental Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman H.M. Kamel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes experimental investigations and modelling studies on the sorption of radionuclides 134Cs, 60Co, and 85Sr by certain marine sediments within Egypt. The chemical composition of the marine sediments was determined. The soluble salts were measured for the sediments and the concentrations of the released cations, Al3+, Fe3+, and Si4+, were measured for the sediment materials in 0.1 M NaClO4 aqueous solution at different hydrogen ion concentrations. The two main factors that control the uptake of the radionuclides onto the sediment are the pH and the exchangeable capacities of the sediment materials. Surface complex model was used to estimate the surface charge densities and the electric surface potential of the marine sediment materials. These two parameters were calculated at the surface capacity sites of the sediment materials. The desorption of the adsorbed cations was determined by means of selective consecutive extraction tests using different chemical reagents including (1 1 M MgCl2 (pH 7, (2 1 M ammonium oxalate (pH 3-5, (3 0.04 M NH2OH,HCl in 25% acetic acid (pH 3-4, (4 H2O2 in 5% HNO3(pH 2-3, and (5 digestion with nitric acid followed by hydrofluoric and perchloric acids (pH 2.

  11. Sediment pollution characteristics and in situ control in a deep drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zizhen; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Yang; Ma, Weixing; Zhou, Shilei; Long, Shenghai

    2017-02-01

    Sediment pollution characteristics, in situ sediment release potential, and in situ inhibition of sediment release were investigated in a drinking water reservoir. Results showed that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in sediments increased from the reservoir mouth to the main reservoir. Fraction analysis indicated that nitrogen in ion exchangeable form and NaOH-extractable P (Fe/Al-P) accounted for 43% and 26% of TN and TP in sediments of the main reservoir. The Risk Assessment Code for metal elements showed that Fe and Mn posed high to very high risk. The results of the in situ reactor experiment in the main reservoir showed the same trends as those observed in the natural state of the reservoir in 2011 and 2012; the maximum concentrations of total OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn reached 4.42mg/L, 3.33mg/L, 0.22mg/L, 2.56mg/L, and 0.61mg/L, respectively. An in situ sediment release inhibition technology, the water-lifting aerator, was utilized in the reservoir. The results of operating the water-lifting aerator indicated that sediment release was successfully inhibited and that OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn in surface sediment could be reduced by 13.25%, 15.23%, 14.10%, 5.32%, and 3.94%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: (1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and (2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  13. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  14. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yacoub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL. The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES. The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  15. Similar sediment provenance of low and high arsenic aquifers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Yang, Q.; Li, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Zhang, Y.; Rasbury, T.; Hemming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) in drinking water, especially in groundwater, is estimated to have affected the health of over 100 million people worldwide, with nearly half of the total at risk population in Bangladesh. Sluggish flow and reducing biogeochemical environment in sedimentary aquifers have been shown as the primary controls for the release of As from sediment to the shallower groundwater in the Holocene aquifer. In contrast, deeper groundwater in the Pleistocene aquifer is depleted in groundwater As and sediment-extractable As. This study assesses the origin of the sediment in two aquifers of Bangladesh that contain distinctly different As levels to ascertain whether the source of the sediment is a factor in this difference through measurements of detrital mica Ar-Ar age, detrital zircon U-Pb age, as well as sediment silicate Sr and Nd isotopes. Whole rock geochemical data were also used to illuminate the extent of chemical weathering. Detrital mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages and detrital zircon U-Pb ages show no statistical difference between high-As Holocene sediment and low-As Pleistocene sediment, but suggest an aquifer sediment source of both the Brahmaputra and the Ganges rivers. Silicate 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd further depict a major sediment source from the Brahmaputra river, which is supported by a two end member mixing model using 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations. Pleistocene and Holocene sediments show little difference in weathering of mobile elements including As, while coarser sediments and a longer history of the Pleistocene aquifer suggest that sorting and flushing play more important roles in regulating the contrast of As occurrence between these two aquifers.

  16. Clay mineralogy, strontium and neodymium isotope ratios in the sediments of two High Arctic catchments (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindshaw, Ruth S.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Tipper, Edward T.

    2018-03-01

    The identification of sediment sources to the ocean is a prerequisite to using marine sediment cores to extract information on past climate and ocean circulation. Sr and Nd isotopes are classical tools with which to trace source provenance. Despite considerable interest in the Arctic Ocean, the circum-Arctic source regions are poorly characterised in terms of their Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. In this study we present Sr and Nd isotope data from the Paleogene Central Basin sediments of Svalbard, including the first published data of stream suspended sediments from Svalbard. The stream suspended sediments exhibit considerable isotopic variation (ɛNd = -20.6 to -13.4; 87Sr / 86Sr = 0.73421 to 0.74704) which can be related to the depositional history of the sedimentary formations from which they are derived. In combination with analysis of the clay mineralogy of catchment rocks and sediments, we suggest that the Central Basin sedimentary rocks were derived from two sources. One source is Proterozoic sediments derived from Greenlandic basement rocks which are rich in illite and have high 87Sr / 86Sr and low ɛNd values. The second source is Carboniferous to Jurassic sediments derived from Siberian basalts which are rich in smectite and have low 87Sr / 86Sr and high ɛNd values. Due to a change in depositional conditions throughout the Paleogene (from deep sea to continental) the relative proportions of these two sources vary in the Central Basin formations. The modern stream suspended sediment isotopic composition is then controlled by modern processes, in particular glaciation, which determines the present-day exposure of the formations and therefore the relative contribution of each formation to the stream suspended sediment load. This study demonstrates that the Nd isotopic composition of stream suspended sediments exhibits seasonal variation, which likely mirrors longer-term hydrological changes, with implications for source provenance studies based on fixed

  17. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  18. Phosphate-Induced Immobilization of Uranium in Hanford Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zezhen; Giammar, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vrajesh; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Zheming

    2016-12-20

    Phosphate can be added to subsurface environments to immobilize U(VI) contamination. The efficacy of immobilization depends on the site-specific groundwater chemistry and aquifer sediment properties. Batch and column experiments were performed with sediments from the Hanford 300 Area in Washington State and artificial groundwater prepared to emulate the conditions at the site. Batch experiments revealed enhanced U(VI) sorption with increasing phosphate addition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of samples from the batch experiments found that U(VI) was predominantly adsorbed at conditions relevant to the column experiments and most field sites (low U(VI) loadings, <25 μM), and U(VI) phosphate precipitation occurred only at high initial U(VI) (>25 μM) and phosphate loadings. While batch experiments showed the transition of U(VI) uptake from adsorption to precipitation, the column study was more directly relevant to the subsurface environment because of the high solid:water ratio in the column and the advective flow of water. In column experiments, nearly six times more U(VI) was retained in sediments when phosphate-containing groundwater was introduced to U(VI)-loaded sediments than when the groundwater did not contain phosphate. This enhanced retention persisted for at least one month after cessation of phosphate addition to the influent fluid. Sequential extractions and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of sediments from the columns suggested that the retained U(VI) was primarily in adsorbed forms. These results indicate that in situ remediation of groundwater by phosphate addition provides lasting benefit beyond the treatment period via enhanced U(VI) adsorption to sediments.

  19. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  20. Remediation of oil-contaminated harbor sediments by chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Hanna, K; Faure, P

    2018-04-12

    Oil hydrocarbons are widespread pollutants in sub-surface sediments with serious threats to terrestrial and aquatic environment. However, very limited data is available about remediation of historically contaminated sediments. This study reports the use of magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation (H 2 O 2 and Na 2 S 2 O 8 ) to degrade oil hydrocarbons in aged contaminated sediments. For this purpose, oil contaminated sediments were sampled from three different locations in France including two harbors and one petroleum industrial channel. These sediments were characterized by different hydrocarbon index (HI) values (3.7-9.0gkg -1 ), total organic carbon contents (1.9%-8.4%) and textures (sand, slit loam and silt). Chemical oxidation was performed in batch system for one week at circumneutral pH by: H 2 O 2 alone, H 2 O 2 /Fe(II), H 2 O 2 /magnetite, Na 2 S 2 O 8 alone, Na 2 S 2 O 8 /Fe(II), and Na 2 S 2 O 8 /magnetite. Results obtained by GC-FID indicated substantial hydrocarbon degradation (40-70%) by H 2 O 2 /magnetite and Na 2 S 2 O 8 /magnetite. However, oxidants alone or with soluble Fe(II) caused small degradation (<5%). In the presence of H 2 O 2 /magnetite, degradation of extractable organic matter and that of HI were highly correlated. However, no such correlation was observed for Na 2 S 2 O 8 /magnetite which resulted in higher removal of HI indicating its selective oxidation behavior. Treatment efficiency was negatively influenced by organic carbon and carbonate contents. For being the first study to report chemical oxidation of oil hydrocarbons in real contaminated sediments, it may have practical implications to design a remediation strategy for target contaminants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metal-solid interactions controlling the bioavailability of mercury from sediments to clams and sipunculans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-06-15

    The bioavailability of sedimentary Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) was quantified by measuring the assimilation efficiency (AE) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the extraction of the gut juices from the sipunculan Sipunculus nudus. Three factors (Hg concentration in sediment, Hg sediment contact time, and organic content of sediments) were modified to examine metal-solid interactions in controlling Hg bioavailability. The Hg AEs in the clams were strongly correlated with the extraction from the sipunculan gut juices for both Hg species. The bioavailability of both Hg(II) and MeHg generally increased with increased sediment Hg concentration but decreased with sedimentmetal contact time and increasing organic content (except that MeHg was not influenced by organic content). Hg(II) speciation in sediments, quantified by sequential chemical extraction (SCE), was dependent on geochemical conditions and greatly controlled the mobility and bioavailability of Hg(II) in sediments. Most bioavailable Hg(II) originated from the strongly complexed phase (e.g., Hg bound up in Fe/Mn oxide, amorphous organosulfur, or mineral lattice), whereas Hg bound with the organocomplexed phase (Hg humic and Hg2Cl2) was not bioavailable. Hg bound with the other geochemical phases (water soluble, HgO, HgSO4, and HgS) contributed very little to the bioavailable Hg due to their low partitionings. Further, the amount of bioavailable Hg was inversely related to the particle reactivity of Hg with the sediments. Detailed analyses of metal-solid interactions provide a better understanding of how Hg in sediments can predict Hg concentration and therefore bioavailability in benthic invertebrates.

  2. Pollution by metals and toxicity assessment using Caenorhabditis elegans in sediments from the Magdalena River, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda-Benitez, Lesly; Flegal, Russell; Odigie, Kingsley; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia, supplying over 70% of the population of fish and drinking water, and it also is the main river transportation way of the country. It receives effluents from multiple sources along its course such as contaminant agricultural and industrial discharges. To evaluate the toxicity profile of Magdalena River sediments through endpoints such as survival, locomotion, and growth, wild type strains of Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to aqueous extracts of the sediments. To identify changes in gene expression, GFP transgenic strains were used as reporter genes. Physiological and biochemical data were correlated with metal concentration in the sediments, identifying patterns of toxicity along the course of the river. Levels of some metals such as Cd, Cu, and Ni were above TEC and PEC limits. Effects in survival, growth, and locomotion were observed in most of the samples, and changes in gene expression were evident in the genes mtl-2, sod-4, and gst-1 using fluorescence expression. Cadmium and lead were the metals which were primarily associated with sediment toxicity, and the sampling sites with the highest increased expression of stress response genes were Barrancabermeja and Girardot. However, the diverse nature of toxic profiles observed in C. elegans in the study area showed the pervasiveness of different types of discharges throughout the river system. - Highlights: • The Magdalena River has high levels of some metals such as Cd, Cu, and Ni. • Most sediment extracts affected lethality, growth, and locomotion of C. elegans. • Sediment extracts induced expression changes in mtl-2, sod-4, and gst-1. • Sediment toxicity was primarily associated with Cd and Pb. • Highest toxicity was observed for samples collected in mining and industrial areas. - In Magdalena River sediments, Cd and Pb were associated with toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and expression of stress response genes were related to

  3. Masking effect of anti-androgens on androgenic activity in European river sediment unveiled by effect-directed analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, J.M.; Hamers, T.; Thomas, K.; van der Linden, S.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the androgen receptor agonistic potency is clearly concealed by the effects of androgen receptor antagonists in a total sediment extract, demonstrating that toxicity screening of total extracts is not enough to evaluate the full in vitro endocrine disrupting potential of a

  4. Boron in Pariette Wetland Sediments, Aquatic Vegetation & Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, P.; Jones, C. P.; Powelson, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands are comprised of 20 ponds located in Utah's Uintah Basin. Boron concentration in the Pariette Wetlands have been observed to exceed the total maximum daily limit of 750 µg L-1. Considering water flow in and out of the wetlands, boron is accumulating within the wetlands where it is sorbed to sediments and bioconcentrated by wetland plant and macro invertebrates. Since boron is an avian teratogen, an estimate of boron ingestion exposure is warranted. Samples from 3 of the 23 Pariette Wetland ponds with one pond near the inlet, one near the outlet, and one in the middle were collected. Five sampling points were designated along a 100 m transect of each pond. At each sampling point duplicate (or triplicate) samples of water, sediments, benthic organisms and wetland vegetation were collected. The sediments were collected with a KB-corer and divided at depths of 0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm from the sediment surface. Sample splits were sent to the USU Bug lab for identification of invertebrate species. Whenever this transect was not intercepting vegetation, 2-3 additional sample sites were identified at the pond within stands of representative vegetation where bird nests are located. The plant parts used for boron analyses will include seeds, shoot and roots of vascular plants, as well as algae or duckweeds skimmed from the surface. Samples were processed within 2 days of collection. Water samples filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter were analyzed for DOC, pH and ECe. The dried and washed vegetation samples were ground and stored. The benthic organisms and macro invertebrates were netted at the water surface. The dried samples were weighed, ground and stored. Samples were weighed, oven dried and reweighed. For plant and macro-invertebrate samples, a nitric and hydrogen peroxide digestion procedure is used to dissolve environmentally available elements. The Hot Water extraction and DTPA-Sorbitol extraction were compared to estimate wetland plant

  5. Assessing historical sediment connectivity in a mesoscale catchment using multi-temporal aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Manel; Cavalli, Marco; Vericat, Damià; Smith, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Land uses changes interfere on sediment production and delivery in fluvial channel networks. The study of the evolution of sediment connectivity associated with different land use changes is prerequisite for a better understanding of sediment budgets and associated processes. Previous studies examined historical changes of sediment connectivity, but most are based on indices of sediment connectivity (IC) estimated by means of: (i) a single Digital Elevation Model (DEM), usually the most recent; and (ii) a weighting factor parameter, used in IC as a proxy of the impedance to sediment fluxes, that is assessed based on land use properties. However, some structural or geomorphological elements determined by both natural processes (e.g. rock falls) and human impacts (e.g. land uses changes) may have fundamental influences on connectivity, especially in a mountain areas typically affected by mass movements and strong land crop abandonment during the 20th century. Therefore, all these elements are able to modify landscape properties and, consequently, sediment connectivity. Within this context, the objective of this work is to develop and apply a workflow to extract historical IC maps using different information that can be obtained from historical aerial photos. A prerequisite of the analysis is to reconstruct the land use and the landscape properties at the period in which the IC is estimated. The analysis consists of three interrelated steps: extraction of historical ortophotomaps and point clouds from historical photos (aerial photos from 1957 and 1977) in the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees), derivation of land use maps and topographic models for those periods, and assessment and comparison of historical sediment connectivity in contrasted sub-catchments exhibiting variable degrees of land use change. The study of changes on sediment connectivity through time may provide valuable information to understand some of the floodplain and channel adjustments that are

  6. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected

  7. Lindane sorption and desorption behaviour on sediment organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tričković Jelena S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the sorption and desorption behaviour of lindane on four humic acid fractions (HAs and two humin fractions, sequentially extracted from Ludas lake sediment. All sorption isotherms, fitted to a Freundlich model, were nonlinear. The isotherm linearity increased from 0.757 for the first extracted HA to 0.944 for the ninth HA showing a positive correlation with atomic H/C ratio, while a negative correlation between sorption coefficient and aliphaticity of the isolated HAs was observed. It has been shown that the sorption processes may be strongly influenced by the physical conformation of and accessibility to sediment organic matter (SOM, as demonstrated by high Koc and low n values of humin samples. Despite exhibiting the most nonlinear sorption isotherms, humin samples did not show a pronounced sorption-desorption hysteresis, while the most significant hysteresis was observed for three HA samples. These results support the hypothesis that the aromatic domains in SOM influence strongly the sorption and desorption behaviour of lindane. Our findings may be helpful in understanding the distribution, transport and fate of lindane in soils and sediments.

  8. Carotenoids in the Gulf of Gdansk sediments- useful markers of environmental conditions in the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Szymczak-Żyła, Małgorzata; Kowalewska, Grażyna

    2017-04-01

    Carotenoids are a large group of natural compounds widespread in the aquatic environment. Most of carotenoids in sediments originate from phytoplankton, macroalgae, vascular plants and bacteria. Carotenoids undergo different reactions in water column and after deposition in sediments. Concentration and relative composition of pigments in sediments depend on such factors like primary production, phytoplankton taxonomy, sedimentation and accumulation rate, hydrological and post-depositional conditions. Because some pigments are unstable and can be degraded both by abiotic and biotic factors - in the presence of light, oxygen, herbivores or microorganisms activity, they provide information about conditions in water column and in sediments. They differ in stability and, due to that, carotenoids in marine sediments are indicators, not only of organic matter sources but also of pre- and post-depositional conditions. This work presents a concentration and distribution of selected carotenoids in recent (6 cores 0-20 cm) and deep (1 core, up to 400 cm) sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk- a highly eutrophic area of high primary production and high sedimentation rate. The sediments were collected during two cruises and analysed in framework of CLISED ('Climate Change Impact on Ecosystem Health- Marine Sediment Indicators') Polish- Norwegian research Project, grant no. 196128. Just after collection, the samples were frozen and kept in such a state until analysis in land laboratory. There, after extraction, carotenoids were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Sediment age has been defined using C-14 dating. Sediments contained parent carotenoids, markers of the main phytoplankton groups occurring in the Baltic, e.g. diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. B-carotene in sediments is a better, averaged, marker of primary production than chlorophyll- a and similarly stable one as sum of chloropigments-a. Presentation will focus on cyanobacteria and their

  9. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin

    2002-01-01

    ...s. Sediments generated through channel instability are carried downstream to cause sedimentation problems in flood control channels, destroy wetlands and lakes, adversely impact fish and wildlife...

  10. Characterization of Direct-Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-B and 241-BX Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-21

    Geochemical tests provide evidence for the transit of a plume of caustic waste solution through the sediment column at the Hanford 241-B and -BX Tank Farms. Direct-push samples recovered from boreholes surrounding Tanks 241-B-110 and 241-BX-102 and related waste transfer lines and diversion boxes included sediments typical of those previously recovered from other localities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford formation sediments are dominantly quartzo-feldspathic sands strewn with lithic fragments, displaying a range of particle size distributions and sorting characteristics. Some moderately well-sorted, fine-grained lithologies are interpreted as lenticular bodies irregularly dispersed in coarser-grained, more poorly sorted sediments. Tier I tests conducted on the vadose zone sediments revealed an inverse correlation between moisture content and sediment size fraction (i.e., there is greater moisture content in finer-grained sediments). The Tier I tests also showed that the pore water solutions were likely sodium-rich, moderately saline, and possessed higher pH values than background (untainted) sediments. These data are characteristic of sediments that have encountered sodium-rich, saline, caustic waste solution, as documented in other reports at other suspect contamination sites around Hanford. Analyses of solutions from 1:1 water extracts reveal relatively balanced cation and anion concentrations, indicating that most of the geochemical species have been accounted for. The water extract data for affected sediments also indicate unusually high concentrations of aluminum, iron, and phosphorus. The relatively high concentrations of aluminum and iron may be the result of dissolution of secondary amorphous phases that precipitated after a reactive plume partially dissolved aluminum- and iron-bearing phases as it migrated through the sediment column. On the other hand, the presence of elevated concentrations of phosphorous may be the tell-tale signature of wastes

  11. Comparative sorption of benzo[alpha]phrene to different humic acids and humin in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghuan; He, Mengchang; Shi, Yehong

    2009-07-30

    Sediment/soil organic matter (SOM) is the predominant sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The identification and comparison of sorption characterization of HOCs by different organic matter fractions are essential to predict the fate and transport of HOCs in soils and sediments. The objectives of this paper are to compare the sorption of benzo[alpha]phrene (BaP) to the humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) extracted from different sediments. The HA and HM were extracted with 0.1M NaOH from five sediments in different areas in China, and their sorption isotherms for BaP were determined. All sorption isotherms were nonlinear and nonlinearity increased in the order HA<sedimentsediments.

  12. Oxytetracycline Assay in Pond Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nepejchalová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of drug residues and their metabolites in the environment is relatively rarely investigated in the conditions of the Czech Republic, resulting in limited availability of scientific information. To demonstrate one example, we prepared a model study with medicated feedstuff containing oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC HCl, which was used in fish under normal conditions of use. The oxytetracycline (OTC contents were determined in the sediments of the pond where the fish were treated. The ELISA method was used for OTC detection and the HPLC method was used for final quantification of OTC. The increasing contents of OTC in sediment depended on the repeated treatment and excretion of OTC by the fish. The concentration on day 59 after the last administration was 1516 μg kg-1 OTC in the sediment, which indicates a long-term persistence of the substance in the environment.

  13. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  14. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  15. Creep behavior of submarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Armand J.; Booth, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments on drained creep of marine sediment indicates that strength degradation results from the creep process, which implies an associated reduction in slope stability. Furthermore, the highest creep potential of a sediment may be at its preconsolidation stress. Results from the experiments on samples from Georges Bank continental slope were also used in conjunction with a preliminary theoretical model to predict creep displacements. For the case illustrated in this report, steep slopes (>20??) and thick sections (>30 m) give rise to substantial creep and probable creep rupture; as angles or thicknesses decrease, displacements rapidly become negligible. Creep may be a significant geologic process on many marine slopes. Not only can it cause major displacements of surface sediment, but it may also be the precursor to numerous slope failures. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  17. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  18. Sediment Flux, East Greenland Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-17

    of radiolarians and silicoflagellates, except in the top 40 cm in core 5A and the top 10 cm in core 10 A, where layers of sponge spicules are...However, to understand several issues of importance in marine geology, such information is vital. Issues such as ice sheet to deep- 2 sea sediment...properties of the uppermost 10-20 m of sediment is analagous to the upper "postglacial" unit that is typical of the late Quaternary marine succession along

  19. Beryllium-10 in continental sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Sacks, I.S.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of 10 Be has been measured in 10 samples taken from a transect of surface sediments beginning in the Atchafalaya River and extending across the Bay 136 km into the Gulf of Mexico. If corrected for a lower retentivity of sand for Be, they have a concentration that is constant within 13%. This concentration is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of deep ocean sediments. For comparison, measurements of 10 Be in rainwater, in a sample of soil and in a deep ocean core were made. (orig.)

  20. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of {sup 14}C-leucine; Microbiologia e biogeoquimica de sedimentos e rizosfera de manguezais: producao bacteriana, sulfato-reducao e metilacao do mercurio com enfoque metodologico na incubacao-extracao de {sup 14}C-leucina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Issabella Vitoria Abduche

    2015-07-01

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production ({sup 14}C-leucine), sulfate reduction ({sup 35}SO{sub 4}) and mercury methylation ({sup 203}Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using {sup 14}C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times

  1. Endocrine disrupting, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects of upper Danube River sediments using effect-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Eric; Grund, Stefanie; Jones, Paul D; Schulze, Tobias; Seiler, Thomas-B; Lübcke-von Varel, Urte; Brack, Werner; Wölz, Jan; Zielke, Hanno; Giesy, John P; Hollert, Henner; Hecker, Markus

    2012-05-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) can be useful in identifying and evaluating potential toxic chemicals in matrixes. Previous investigations of extracts of sediments from the upper Danube River in Germany revealed acute nonspecific and mechanism-specific toxicity as determined by several bioassays. In the present study, EDA was used to further characterize these sediments and identify groups of potentially toxic chemicals. Four extracts of sediments were subjected to a novel fractionation scheme coupled with identification of chemicals to characterize their ability to disrupt steroidogenesis or cause mutagenic and/or teratogenic effects. All four whole extracts of sediment caused significant alteration of steroidogenesis and were mutagenic as well as teratogenic. The whole extracts of sediments were separated into 18 fractions and these fractions were then subjected to the same bioassays as the whole extracts. Fractions 7 to 15 of all four extracts were consistently more potent in both the Ames fluctuation and H295R assays. Much of this toxicity could be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, and in fraction 7-naphthoic acids. Because the fraction containing polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorodibenzodioxin/furan, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and several organophosphates did not cause any observable effects on hormone production or a mutagenic response, or were not detected in any of the samples, these compounds could be eliminated as causative agents for the observed effects. These results demonstrate the value of using EDA, which uses multiple bioassays and new fractionation techniques to assess toxicity. Furthermore, to our knowledge this is the first study using the recently developed H295R assay within EDA strategies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  2. The impact of feeding Cyprinids on river bed sediment structures and grain entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, A.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.

    2012-04-01

    In gravel-bed rivers, between bed-mobilising flood events, surface sediment particles are rearranged by moderate flows, generally into more stable "water-worked" positions characterised by structures of various types, including imbrication and pebble clusters. This surface layer of structured, relatively coarse particles moderates the availability of finer sub-surface sediment and the transfer of mobile material from upstream. The work reported here is focused on understanding how benthic feeding fish (Cyprinids and Salmonids) dismantle surface structures, making particles less stable and potentially rendering vulnerable sub-surface material more mobile. An increase in available, transportable sediment has implications for sediment transport fluxes, reach-scale sediment loads, channel morphology and aquatic habitat. However, almost nothing is known about the impacts of feeding fish on bed sediment structures, entrainment and sediment fluxes. A series of flume experiments will quantify the effects of six different species of fish on sediment structure and grain entrainment. The experiments will consider 1) topographic variations between pre- and post-feeding substrates using DEMs interpolated from laser scans and 2) differences in sediment entrainment from water-worked substrates exposed to feeding fish and control substrates, without fish. Using interpolated DEMs, a variety of structural parameters will be extracted (e.g. imbrication indices) to quantify the impact of each species whilst feeding. Underwater videography techniques will be used to establish entrainment thresholds and transport rates under low critical shear stresses. A second set of flume experiments are planned using a large outdoor flume to investigate the effects of feeding Barbel Barbus barbus on surface structure, to assess how disturbance and sediment mobility vary as a function of species size and shoal density. A final set of field experiments will consider the large-scale, geomorphological

  3. Plant conditioning of aquatic sediments contaminated by heavy metals; Konditionierung Schwermetall belasteter Gewaessersedimente durch Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnsdorf, A.; Hoffmann, P.; Seidel, H. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Sanierungsforschung; Loeser, C. [Bauer und Mourik Umwelttechnik GmbH und Co., Schrobenhausen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals are exposed to air, the metals become partly soluble and the material turns into an environmental risk. As an alternative to disposal of dredged sludge in landfills, a cleansing process based on solid-bed bioleaching is under development. Solid-bed leaching works only on materials easily permeable by both air and water. Unfortunately, freshly dredged sediment is impermeable and thus unsuitable for solid-bed leaching. Therefore, the structure of the contaminated sediment must be altered in a preliminary conditioning step. The SECON plant, constructed for practical-scale conditioning experiments, can accommodate sediment packages of up to 2 m in thickness. Four treatment basins were each filled with 44 m{sup 3} of freshly dredged, silty sediments from the Weisse Elster River. One basin was planted with reed (Phragmites australis), a second one with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). The sediment in the third basin was exposed to spontaneously developing plants while the sediment in the fourth basin was kept free of vegetation. During one vegetation period, large amounts of water were extracted by evapotranspiration. As a result, cracks and cavities developed within the package through which air penetrated and oxidized the sediment. Plant root and microbe activities transformed the sludge into a crumbly, soil-like material. The transformation did not encompass the entire sediment package; after six months of treatment, a subsurface layer of various thickness remained anoxic with a muddy-pasty texture. Reed canary grass was best suited for conditioning. It structurally improved most of the sediment package and, in contrast to reed, it did not become infected with pests and diseases. (orig.)

  4. Sediment studies in the Assabet River, central Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Sorenson, Jason R.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorus concentrations in surface samples from the impoundments increased along a downstream gradient, with the exception of samples from the last impoundment, where the concentrations decreased. In addition, the highest phosphorus concentrations were generally in the surface samples; this finding may prove helpful if surface dredging is selected as a means to control phosphorus release from sediments. There is no known relation, however, between bulk-sediment concentration of phosphorus and the concentrations of phosphorus available to biota. Potentially toxic metals, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc were frequently measured at concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and that occasionally exceeded Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection guidelines governing landfill disposal (reuse). Due to the effects of matrix interference and sample dilution on laboratory analyses, neither pesticides nor volatile organic compounds were detected at any sites. However, samples collected in other studies from nearby streams indicated the possibility that pesticides might have been detected in the impoundments if not for these analytical problems. Although polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, as individual Aroclors, generally exceeded published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guideline concentrations for potential effects on aquatic life, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guideline concentrations for human contact or the Massachusetts guidelines for landfill reuse were rarely exceeded. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, both individually and total, frequently were greater than guideline concentrations. Concentrations of total extractable petroleum hydrocarbons did not exceed Massachusetts guideline concentrations in any samples. When the sediment analytes from surface samples are considered togethe

  5. Metal removal and associated binding fraction transformation in contaminated river sediment washed by different types of agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2 on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transformation of metal fractions during chemical washing treatment. Additionally, bioavailability of these metals left in the washed sediment was assessed. Results showed that HCl obtained the highest Cu and Zn removal through destroying the reducible, oxidizable and residual sediment components. Meanwhile, it transformed metal fractions to acid extractable one, resulting in an increase in metal bioavailability. Thus, the feasibility of washing with HCl for sediment remediation shall be reconsidered due to the caused high metal bioavailability. EDTA was capable of removing metals via direct complexation of labile metal species and indirect dissolution of reducible and oxidizable sediment components, where the transformation of corresponding metal binding fraction may occur. H2O2 obtained the lowest total Cu and Zn removal, but it preferentially removed the oxidizable metal species by oxidizing sulfides in the sediment. The bioavailable levels of Cu and Zn in the sediment washed by EDTA or H2O2 seemed not increase. To maintain a good balance between labile metal species removal and avoiding increase of metal bioavailability, EDTA and H2O2 are promising additives for metal removal by sediment washing.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia-induced and normal wistar albino rats were investigated using standard protocols. The haematological parameters which include haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Red Blood Cell count and White Blood ...

  7. Quantitative extraction of Meiofauna: A comparison of two methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods for the quantitative extraction of meiofauna from natural sandy sediments were investigated and compared: Cobb's decanting and sieving technique and the Oostenbrink elutriator. Both techniques were more efficient with pre-fixed samples than with fresh samples. The results indicated that elutriation is the ...

  8. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  9. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  10. Some regularities of extraction of rare earth elements by organophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpusov, G.V.; Keimirov, M.A.; Danilov, N.A.; Djumauradov, B.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of extraction of rare earth macroquantities from nitrate solutions by D-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric and 2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric acids. It is shown that extractant selectivity decreases with increase of aqueous phase acidity. The selectivity is usually higher against the background of macroquantities of weakly extracted component, but some times another dependence is observed. It is noted that substitution of the diluent for more polar one which monomerizes extractants, leads to the loss of selectivity. But in small guantities polar diluents provide the stability of the extraction system for formation of sediments. Both sampls of organophosphoric acids provide for extraction process at low HNO 3 concentrations without rick of sediment formati on of extracted compounds in organic phase

  11. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-11-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  12. Influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Wu; Zhao, Bo; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments, core sediments from a restored mangrove forest and adjacent mud flat in Yifeng Estuary (southeastern China) were analyzed. The chemical speciation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni) was determined according to a sequential extraction procedure. Special attention was paid to the upper 20cm of sediment, in which metal accumulation was enhanced and speciation was obviously modified. Mangrove reforestation decreased the concentrations of all metals in the acid-soluble fraction and increased metal concentrations in the oxidizable fraction. Increased Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations and decreased Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in the reducible fraction. These results suggest that mangrove reforestation facilitated the accumulation of heavy metals in the upper sediment layers but decreased their bioavailability and mobility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geochemical fractionation of 210Pb in oxic estuarine sediments of Coatzacoalcos River, Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontiveros-Cuadras, J.F.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C.; Perez-Bernal, L.H.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona; Wee-Kwong, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    210 Pb activities were analyzed in surface sediments from the Coatzacoalcos River (Gulf of Mexico) to evaluate its distribution according to sediment grain size and in different geochemical compartments by using sequential extraction techniques. The geochemical fractionation experiments provided compatible results: by using the Tessier's method more than 90% of the 210 Pb activity in the samples was found the residual fraction (primary and secondary minerals) and the remaining ( 210 Pb content was found in comparative amounts in the reactive, the silicate, and the pyrite fractions (accounting together for >80%), and the rest was found in the residual fraction. The grain size fractionation analyses showed that the 210 Pb activities were mostly retained in the clay fraction, accounting up to 60-70% of the 210 Pb total activity in the sediment sample and therefore, it is concluded that the separation of the clay fraction can be useful to improve the analysis of low 210 Pb content sediments for dating purposes. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of butyltin and phenyltin species in sediments using ultrasound-assisted leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpinteiro, J.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R. [Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    A fast and simple procedure is presented for the simultaneous leaching of butyl (mono, di and tributyl) and phenyl organotin species from sediment samples. Leached compounds are further ethylated with sodium tetraethylborate in aqueous medium, and analyzed by gas chromatography. After testing the stability of triphenyltin under different extraction conditions, ultrasound-assisted leaching at room temperature in the presence of acetic acid was been proposed as an extraction procedure compatible with the simultaneous determination of phenyl- and butyltin compounds in sediments. Recoveries between 70 and 90% were obtained for phenyl species in spiked samples prepared in the laboratory. Results for butyltin species were validated by use of the reference material PACS-2. Quantification limits, using GC-MIP-AES as measurement technique, were approximately 5-10 ng g{sup -1}. Precision in the consecutive analysis of three sediment samples varied between 3 and 10%. (orig.)

  15. Levels and distributions of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in sediment from Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuxia; Zeng, Xiangying; Song, Han; Li, Huiru; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-07-01

    The concentrations and distribution of seven organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs) were investigated in 28 sediment samples collected from Taihu Lake. The analytes were ultrasonically extracted, enriched using solid-phase extraction, and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the analytes were all detected in the sediments. The total concentrations of seven OPs ranged from 3.38 to 14.25 µg/kg, and tris (2-chloroiso-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) were the dominant compounds, with concentrations ranging fromTDCPP) as the main component at the sampling site. This result implied that there is an obvious emission source nearby at Suzhou City; in addition, human activities also play an important role in the concentration of OPs in the sediment. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Immobilization of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in mine drainage stream sediment using Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Fei; Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Ma, Jianmin; Li, Yepu; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Yazhou

    2017-08-01

    The in situ immobilization of metal-contaminated sediment, using various amendments, has attracted great attention owing to their cost-effectiveness. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese loess on Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb stabilization by decreasing their bioavailability in contaminated sediment. The loess was mixed with the sediment in doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg. Approximately 70 d after loess application, the effectiveness was evaluated using the Tessier sequential extraction procedure and single extractants, including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The results indicated that the loess can effectively transform Cu from the carbonate fraction into the residual fraction when the loess dose was ≥5 kg. However, loess had little effect on Zn, Cd and Pb immobilization. Correlation analysis showed that these four extractants can provide a good indication of the toxicity of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the amended sediment. Additionally, the organic matter content in the amended sediment decreased by 1.4% for CK, 1.6% for L0.5, 1.7% for L1, 1.5% for L2, 1.5% for L5, 1.9% for L10 and 1.9% for L20 (CK: untreated sediment; L0.5 to L20 represent loess doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg, respectively) compared to the initial organic matter content in the unamended sediment, which may increase the atmospheric carbon dioxide owing to the degradation of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  18. Geochemical partitioning of Cu and Ni in mangrove sediments: Relationships with their bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Chakraborty, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal speciation controls bioavailability in mangrove ecosystem. • Bioavailability of Ni was controlled by Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxide and organic phases • Bioavailability of Cu in mangrove roots was controlled by organic phase in the sediments. • Cu interacts more strongly with organic phases than Ni in mangrove sediment. - Abstract: Sequential extraction study was performed to determine the concentrations of non-residual metal-complexes in the mangrove sediments from the Divar Island, (west coast of India). Accumulation of metal in the mangrove roots (from the same location) was determined and used as an indicator of bioavailability of metal. An attempt was made to establish a mechanistic linkage between the non-residual metal complexes and their bioavailability in the mangrove system. The non-residual fractions of Cu and Ni were mainly associated with Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide and organic phases in the sediments. A part of these metal fractions were bioavailable in the system. These two phases were the major controlling factors for Ni speciation and their bioavailability in the studied sediments. However, Cu was found to interact more strongly with the organic phases than Ni in the mangrove sediments. Organic phases in the mangrove sediments acted as buffer to control the speciation and bioavailability of Cu in the system

  19. Morphology and efficiency of a specialized foraging behavior, sediment sifting, in neotropical cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Arbour, Jessica; Willis, Stuart; Watkins, Crystal; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny.

  20. Redox transformation and reductive immobilization of Cr(VI) in the Columbia River hyporheic zone sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zachara, John; Bowden, Mark; Kennedy, David; Plymale, Andrew E.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2017-12-01

    An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate the redox transformation and reductive immobilization of groundwater contaminant Cr in hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from U.S. DOE's Hanford Site, where groundwater Cr(VI) is migrating and discharging to the nearby Columbia River. Experimental results revealed that Cr(VI) can be reduced and immobilized by the HZ sediments in the presence/absence of O2. Anaerobic pre-incubation of the sediments increased the effective rate of Cr reduction that was correlated with the increase in HCl-extractable Fe(II) content in the sediments. The reduced Cr was stable when exposed to O2 under field-relevant pH (7.5) with and without dissolved Mn(II), which might be oxidized to form Mn(III/IV) oxides that may oxidize reduced Cr. The Cr(VI) reduction rate showed a multi-rate behavior, apparently reflecting the presence of reductants with different reactivity in the sediments. The results from this study indicated that the HZ sediments can reductively immobilize Cr and the sediment redox capacity can be recharged through microbial activities. The results implied that HZ can play a role as a natural permeable redox barrier for removing groundwater Cr before it discharges into a river system.

  1. Redox transformation and reductive immobilization of Cr(VI) in the Columbia River hyporheic zone sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fen; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zachara, John M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kennedy, David W.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Liu, Chongxuan,

    2017-12-01

    An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate the redox transformation and reductive immobilization of groundwater contaminant Cr in hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site, where groundwater Cr(VI) is migrating and discharging to the nearby Columbia River. Experimental results revealed that Cr(VI) can be reduced to immobile reduced Cr by the HZ sediments in the presence/absence of O2. Anaerobic pre-incubation of the sediments increased the effective rate of Cr reduction that was correlated with the increase in HCl-extractable Fe(II) content in the sediments. The reduced Cr was stable in exposure to O2 under field-relevant pH (~7.5) and Mn-containing (~0.02% w/w) conditions. The Cr(VI) reduction rate showed a multi-rate behavior, apparently reflecting the presence of reductants with different reactivity in the sediments. The results from this study indicated that the HZ sediments can reductively immobilize Cr and the sediment redox capacity can be recharged through microbial activities. The results implied that HZ can play a role as a natural permeable redox barrier for removing groundwater Cr before it discharges into a river system.

  2. Levels and distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types, levels and distribution of pesticide residues in Eastern Lake Tanganyika basin in Tanzania. Water, soil and sediments samples were collected from various sites in Kigoma region. Analyses of cleaned sample extracts were performed using gas chromatographyelectron ...

  3. Phosphorus binding by poorly crystalline iron oxides in North Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.; Gaast, S. J. van der; Raaphorst, W. van

    1996-01-01

    Differential X-ray powder diffraction (DXRD) and extraction procedures were used to characterize the iron oxides present in four sediments from contrasting environments in the North Sea. Stations were located in depositional areas on the southern shelf (German Bight) and on the north-eastern

  4. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  5. Structural and isotopic analysis of kerogens in sediments rich in free sulfurised Botryococcus braunii biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Blokker, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Nissenbaum, A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I kerogens of two relatively immature, unusual hypersaline sediments [with extracts rich in sulfurised Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) biomarkers] of Miocene/Pliocene age from the Sdom Formation (Dead Sea, Israel), have been investigated using a variety of organic geochemical techniques. Py

  6. Numerical modeling of drying and consolidation of fine sediments and tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, J.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and processing of many mineral ores result in the generation of large volumes of fine-grained residue or tailings. These fine sediments are deposited as a slurry with very high water contents and lose water after deposition due to self-weight consolidation. When the surface is exposed

  7. Heavy metals levels in surface waters and sediments in an oilfield in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments from five sampling stations of the Bukuma oilfield, in the Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated using the AAS technique after standard procedures of storage and extraction. Mean range (mg/l) in the surface waters varied from Zn (0.19 0.64); Pb (ND 0.60); Cd (ND ...

  8. Longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    An empirical sediment transport model has been developed based on longshore energy flux equation. Ship reported waves, published in Indian Daily Weather Reports, are compiled for 19 y and used for estimation of sediment transport. Annual gross...

  9. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  10. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

    1996-11-01

    For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments.

  12. Determination of methylmercury in marine sediment samples: Method validation and occurrence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for MeHg determination at trace level in marine sediments is completely validated. • Validation is performed according to ISO-17025 and Eurachem guidelines. • The extraction efficiency of four sample preparation procedures is evaluated. • The uncertainty budget is used as a tool for evaluation of main uncertainty contributors. • Comparison with independent methods yields good agreement within stated uncertainty. - Abstract: The determination of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment samples is a difficult task due to the extremely low MeHg/THg (total mercury) ratio and species interconversion. Here, we present the method validation of a cost-effective fit-for-purpose analytical procedure for the measurement of MeHg in sediments, which is based on aqueous phase ethylation, followed by purge and trap and hyphenated gas chromatography–pyrolysis–atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC–Py–AFS) separation and detection. Four different extraction techniques, namely acid and alkaline leaching followed by solvent extraction and evaporation, microwave-assisted extraction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and acid leaching, solvent extraction and back extraction into sodium thiosulfate, were examined regarding their potential to selectively extract MeHg from estuarine sediment IAEA-405 certified reference material (CRM). The procedure based on acid leaching with HNO 3 /CuSO 4 , solvent extraction and back extraction into Na 2 S 2 O 3 yielded the highest extraction recovery, i.e., 94 ± 3% and offered the possibility to perform the extraction of a large number of samples in a short time, by eliminating the evaporation step. The artifact formation of MeHg was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP–MS), using isotopically enriched Me 201 Hg and 202 Hg and it was found to be nonexistent. A full validation approach in line with ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines was followed

  13. CHWAKA BAY MANGROVE SEDIMENTS, ZANZIBAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there was little spatial and seasonal variation in DW rates in the creek. Coupled nitrification-denitrfieation (Dn) was found to be low, but within the range measured in other mangrove sediments. Average values ranged from 0.01 to 0.45 uM Nm'Zh'I and showed strong spatial variations. The low denitrification rates observed ...

  14. Acoustical Properties of Mud Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Bennett), University of Delaware (Mohsen Badiey), ARL-University of Texas (Megan Ballard, Tom Muir , David Knobles, Kevin Lee, and Preston Wilson...19, 070020, 1-9 (2013). [3] M. S. Ballard, K. M. Lee, and T. G. Muir , Laboratory P- and S-wave measurements of a reconstituted muddy sediment with

  15. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  16. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  17. Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith M

    2013-08-15

    A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  19. Genotyping Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Primary Sputum and Decontaminated Sediment with an Integrated Microfluidic Amplification Microarray Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Yvonne; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Sipes, David; Golova, Julia; Franke, Molly; Calderon, Roger; Lecca, Leonid; Thakore, Nitu; Holmberg, Rebecca; Qu, Peter; Kukhtin, Alexander; Murray, Megan B; Cooney, Christopher G; Chandler, Darrell P

    2018-03-01

    There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon microarray hybridization test for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance with matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (the limit of detection) was achieved with ∼25 M. tuberculosis genomes (100 fg of M. tuberculosis DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was at least 18 months when it was stored at 4°C. The test detected M. tuberculosis in 99.1% of sputum extracts and 100% of sediment extracts and showed 100% concordance with the results of real-time PCR. The levels of concordance between M. tuberculosis and resistance-associated gene detection were 99.1% and 98.4% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively. Genotyping results were 100% concordant between sputum and sediment extracts. Relative to the results of culture-based drug susceptibility testing, the test was 97.1% specific and 75.0% sensitive for the detection of rifampin resistance in both sputum and sediment extracts. The specificity for the detection of isoniazid (INH) resistance was 98.4% and 96.8% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively, and the sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance was 63.6%. The amplification microarray reported the correct genotype for all discordant phenotype/genotype results. On the basis of these data, primary sputum may be considered a preferred specimen for the test. The amplification microarray design, shelf life, and analytical performance metrics are well aligned with consensus product profiles for next-generation drug-resistant M. tuberculosis diagnostics and represent a significant ease-of-use advantage over other hybridization-based tests for diagnosing MDR tuberculosis

  20. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration by acoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration of sediments such as glass spheres or sand. However, the acoustic properties of natural sediments vary and depend on many parameters such as particle size, shape, mineralogy and distribution of those parameters in sample. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the possibility of soil sediment ...

  1. Investigations on sediment toxicity of German rivers applying a standardized bioassay battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Christoph; Gartiser, Stefan; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Schiwy, Sabrina; Hercher, Christoph; Meyer, Wiebke; Achten, Christine; Larsson, Maria; Engwall, Magnus; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner

    2015-11-01

    River sediments may contain a huge variety of environmental contaminants and play a key role in the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Contaminants adsorbed to sediments and suspended solids may contribute directly or after remobilization to an adverse ecological and chemical status of surface water. In this subproject of the joint research project DanTox, acetonic Soxhlet extracts from three German river sediments from the River Rhine (Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein with moderate contamination) and River Elbe (Veringkanal Hamburg heavily contaminated) were prepared and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These extracts were analyzed with a standard bioassay battery with organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, Daphnia, fish) as well as in the Ames test and the umuC test for bacterial mutagenicity and genotoxicity according to the respective OECD and ISO guidelines. In total, 0.01% (standard) up to 0.25% (only fish embryo test) of the DMSO sediment extract was dosed to the test systems resulting in maximum sediment equivalent concentrations (SEQ) of 2 up to 50 g l(-1). The sediment of Veringkanal near Hamburg harbor was significantly more toxic in most tests compared to the sediment extracts from Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein from the River Rhine. The most toxic effect found for Veringkanal was in the algae test with an ErC50 (72 h) of 0.00226 g l(-1) SEQ. Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples were about factor 1,000 less toxic. In the Daphnia, Lemna, and acute fish toxicity tests, no toxicity at all was found at 2 g l(-1) SEQ. corresponding to 0.01% DMSO. Only when increasing the DMSO concentration the fish embryo test showed a 22-fold higher toxicity for Veringkanal than for Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples, while the toxicity difference was less evident for the Daphnia test due to the overlaying solvent toxicity above 0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The higher toxicities observed with the Veringkanal sample are supported by the PAH and PCB

  2. Mycodiversity in marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Mirca; Carbone, Cristina; Cecchi, Grazia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Di Piazza, Simone; Gabutto, Giacomo; Greco, Giuseppe; Vagge, Greta; Capello, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Fungi represent the main decomposers of woody and herbaceous substrates in the marine ecosystems. To date there is a gap in the knowledge about the global diversity and distribution of fungi in marine habitats. On the basis of their biological diversity and their role in ecosystem processes, marine fungi may be considered one of the most attractive groups of organisms in modern biotechnology, e.g. ecotoxic metal bioaccumulation. Here we report the data about the first mycological survey in the metal contaminated coastal sediments of the Gromolo Bay. The latter is located in Ligurian Sea (Eastern Liguria, Italy) and is characterized by an enrichment of heavy metals due to pollution of Gromolo Torrent by acidic processes that interest Fe-Cu sulphide mine. 24 samples of marine sediments were collected along a linear plot in front of the shoreline in July 2015. Each sample was separated into three aliquot for mineralogical, chemical analyses and fungal characterization. The sediment samples are characterised by clay fractions (illite and chlorite), minerals of ophiolitic rocks (mainly serpentine, pyroxene and plagioclase) and quartz and are enriched some chemical elements of environmental importance (such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As). For fungal characterisation the sediment samples were inoculated in Petri dishes on different culture media (Malt Extract Agar and Rose Bengal) prepared with sea water and added with antibiotics. The inoculated dishes were incubated at 20°C in the dark for 28 days. Every week fungal growth was monitored counting the number of colonies. Later, the colonies were isolated in axenic culture for further molecular analysis. The mycodiversity evaluate on the basis of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and microfungal-morphotype characterised by macro-and micro-morphology. Until now on the 72 Petri dishes inoculated 112 CFU of filamentous fungi were counted, among these about 50 morphotypes were characterized. The quantitative results show a mean value of 4

  3. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.P.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Pujol, L.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Aminostratigraphy of sediments of the SW Bay or Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, N.S.; Krishna, M.S.R.; Pasha, S.K.G.; Yadava, M.G.; Rao, K.M.

    , the derivatization procedure is identical. Ho w ever, an additional extraction cum hydrolysis step is applied before der i- vatization. It involves 6N HCl treatment of the sediment at 105 ?C for 22 h in a sealed tube when the proteins are co n- verted... subjected to age determination by the radiocarbon method. Benzene was synthesized from the coarse fraction (+ 25 ?) in three steps, namely (i) liberation of CO 2 , (ii) reaction of CO 2 with acet ylene, and (iii) trimerization of acetylene...

  5. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  6. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  7. Geochemical distribution, fractionation and contamination assessment of heavy metals in marine sediments of the Asaluyeh port, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshab, Hossein; Farshchi, Parvin; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2017-02-15

    In this study, total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sediments of the Asaluyeh, one of the Iran's largest commercial ports, are investigated. 48 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace and major elements. Sediment quality guidelines along with calculated enrichment factors and trace metal profiles indicate that Asaluyeh port is threated by contamination, especially with respect to Hg and Cu. Normalization to Sc indicated high enrichment factors in the sediments following the decreasing order of: Hg>Cu>As>Ni>Zn>Pb≈Cr≈Mn>Co≈V≈Fe≈Al. Hg displayed the greatest potential ecological risk factor among sampling stations. The results of sequential extraction procedure revealed that in some stations >50% of Mn, V, Cu and Zn occur in potentially mobile phases and therefore are more readily mobilized in the sediments of the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface Sediment Analysis on Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Organic Carbon from Coastal Area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Payus, C.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments along coastal area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah. Surface sediment samples were collected in 24 different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted for TPH using standard method sediment/ sludge APHA 5520E and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer while for TOC method analysis using United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The range of TPH concentrations in surface sediments were recorded at 0.24 - 20.65 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, meanwhile the TOC percentage ranged from 0.03 - 4.02 %. In the mean time, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation with coefficient, r = 0.790 which showing the TPH concentrations significantly have influence on the TOC accumulations in the surface sediment. (author)

  9. Geomicrobiology of Fe-rich crusts in Lake Superior sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, M.; Monreau, L.; Quazi, S.; Raoof, B.; Chesnyuk, A.; Katsev, S.; Fulthorpe, R.

    2012-04-01

    The limnological puzzles of Lake Superior are increasingly attracting scientists, and very little is known about the sediments and their associated microflora. The sediments are organic poor (less than 5%C) and the lake is deep oligotrophic, with water temperatures at the bottom around 3C. Previous studies reveal Fe-rich layers in the sediments at multiple loccations around the lake. The origin and mechanisms of formation of this layer remain unknown. In this study we investigated geochemical and microbiological processes that may lead to the formation of a two cm thick iron layer about 10 cm below the sediment surface. Sediment cores from two stations (EM, 230m water depth and ED, 310m water depth) in the East Basin were used. We monitored oxygen and pH depth profiles with microsensors, porewater and sediment solid matter were analyzed for nutrient and metal contents. Furthermore, phosphorus and iron sequantial extractions of sediment cores have been perfomed. The total cell count was determined using DAPI epifluoresence microscopy. DNA was extracted from the sediment samples and 16S ribosonal RNA amplicons were analyzed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). For a more in depth analysis, DNA samples from 8-10 cm and 10-12 cm were sent to the Research and Testing Lab (Texas) for pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons amplified using barcoded universal primers 27f-519r. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the iron layer 10-12cm show filaments that were encrusted with spheres ca. 20 nm in diameter. SEM observations of thin sections also indicate the presence of very fine particles showing various morphologies. Analyses of the deposit material by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that bacteria cells surfaces served as nucleation surfaces for Fe-oxide formation. EDS line-scans through bacterial cells covered with precipitates reveal phosphorus and carbon peaks at interface between cell surface and Fe

  10. Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

    2000-09-15

    with pure CO2. In direct contrast, subcritical water prefers the more polar analytes, i.e., PAHs were efficiently extracted from urban air particulates at 250 degrees C, with little or no extraction of the alkanes. Finally, recent work has demonstrated that many pollutant molecules become "sequestered" as they age for decades in the environment (i.e., more tightly bound to soil particles and less available to organisms or transport). Therefore, it may be more important for an extraction method to only recover pollutant molecules that are environmentally-relevant, rather than the conventional attempts to extract all pollutant molecules regardless of how tightly bound they are to the soil or sediment matrix. Initial work comparing SFE extraction behavior using mild to strong conditions with bioremediation behavior of PAHs shows great promise to develop extraction methodology to measure environmentally-relevant concentrations of pollutants in addition to their total concentrations.

  11. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 2. Sequim Bay clayey silt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to clayey silt from Sequim Bay, Washington. The properties and trace metal geochemistry of the sediment and the amounts of corrosion products that were released under oxic and reduced conditions and their distribution among different chemical fractions of the sediment are discussed. The distributions of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu among different chemical forms in the Sequim Bay sediment show that DTPA removed <10% of extractable Cr, Fe and Mn, approx. 20% of extractable Ni and approx. 30% of extractable Cu. The inorganic fraction (material soluble in 2.5% acetic acid) accounted for approx. 30% of total extractable Mn and approx. 10% or less of Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu. Major portions of Cr and Cu, and a large amount of Fe were in the organic fraction. Extractable Mn, Fe and Ni were associated with hydrous oxides likely as coatings on the mineral substrate of the sediment. No Co was detectable in any of the extracts

  12. Unraveling the Illgraben sediment cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgie; Molnar, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Schlunegger, Fritz; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. This study captures a multi-decadal period of hillslope erosion and channel change following an extreme rock avalanche in 1961 in the Illgraben, a catchment of high scientific interest in the Swiss Alps due to its extremely high debris-flow dominated sediment yield. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with climatic and seismic variables for a 43-year period from 1963 to 2005. Based on these analyses we identify and discuss (1) patterns of hillslope production, channel transfer and catchment sediment yield, (2) their dominant interactions with climatic and seismic variables, and (3) the nature of hillslope-channel coupling and implications for sediment yield and landscape evolution in this mountain basin. Our results show an increase in the mean hillslope erosion rate in the 1980s from 0.24±0.01 m yr-1 to 0.42±0.03 m yr-1 that coincided with a significant increase in air temperature and decrease in snow cover depth and duration, which we presume led to an increase in the exposure of the slopes to thermal weathering processes. This is indicated by a significant increase in the number of days of subzero air temperature and no snow cover. Conversely, there was no increase in precipitation or seismic activity that would explain the increase in erosion rate. However, the combination of highly fractured slopes close to the threshold angle for failure, and multiple potential triggering mechanisms, means that it is difficult to identify an individual control on slope failure. This is illustrated by our analysis of the 1961 rockfall event, which failed to reveal an individual trigger of the failure given both extreme meteorological conditions and seismic activity in the weeks leading up

  13. Ecologic and Morphologic Analysis of a Proposed Network of Sediment Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.; Jung, H.; Messina, F.; Esposito, C.; Liang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltaic processes are governed by factors including the characteristics of inflowing sediment (e.g., temporal variability of the load and size class distribution), receiving basins (e.g., water depth, tidal range, circulation pattern, and wind field), and substrate (e.g., sediment type and soil strength). These factors influence the deltaic growth as well as the size and pattern of channel bifurcations. This topic is of importance to deltas experiencing land loss due to subsidence and sea level rise. The Mississippi River Delta is an example where a number of sediment diversions are being considered in conjunction with other restoration actions to minimize loss of wetlands. Historically, the Mississippi River played a significant role in providing sediment, nutrients, and fresh water to support Louisiana's coastal wetland system. As such, a systems perspective for regional-scale implementation of diversions is important. Field observations coupled with numerical modeling at various temporal and spatial scales, has provided insights toward a system-scale approach to design, evaluate and operate sediment diversions. These research activities investigate the uncertainties associated with morphodynamic processes both on the river and receiving basin sides and identify parameters influencing the magnitude and rate of building new land and sustaining existing wetland areas. Specifically, this presentation discusses the impact of extracting sediment and water from fluvial rivers, the ability to convey (and retain) sediment to the receiving basins. In addition to delivering sediment to receiving basins, some proposed sediment diversions could discharge high volumes of nutrient-rich fresh water into existing wetlands and bays. A goal of the analysis presented here is to improve our understanding of morphodynamic responses of the receiving basins and the ecosystem effects of discharges of freshwater and nutrients at this scale.

  14. Role of organic matter, clay, and iron contents in the sorption of oxytetracycline on river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mahdi Barbooti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytetracycline (OTC is a widely-used antibiotic; metabolism studies indicate only partial assimilation of it inside the body. Traditional wastewater treatment plants cannot remove OTC, and this results in the release of considerable amounts of the drug into aquatic environments. There is much concern over the role of residual antibiotics in the development of new generations of bacteria with modified resistance to the antibiotics. The present work investigated the possibility of OTC sorption on river sediments. Methods: Seven sediment samples were collected from various locations and depths of the Passaic River in New Jersey. The texture, clay, extractable iron, and organic matter contents of the sediments were determined. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (Py GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of 3 categories of organic materials: petroleum hydrocarbons, anthropogenic, and plant residual materials. The sediment samples were equilibrated with OTC solutions for 24 hours followed by centrifugation and syringe filtration. The residual OTC contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: It appeared that 35%-60% fractions of OTC were retained by the sediments. The sorption capacity values of the sediments were correlated with clay content, organic matter content, and available iron. A poor correlation was found between adsorption capacity and clay content in the presence of organic matter and iron. Meanwhile, a relatively strong correlation was found between adsorption capacity with the iron, R2 = 0.7499, and organic matter contents of the sediments, R2 = 0.7899. Thus, the sorption of OTC on sediments is governed by all constituents. Conclusion: It was concluded that the antibiotic-sediment interaction is controlled mainly by the organic matter and iron contents.

  15. Lead and its isotopes in the sediment of three sites on the Lebanese coast: Identification of contamination sources and mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Ghanem, C., E-mail: carine.a.ghanem@hotmail.fr [Centre National des Sciences Marines, CNRSL, P.O. Box 534, Batroun (Lebanon); Chiffoleau, J.F. [Ifremer, LBCM, Centre de Nantes, BP 21105, F.44311 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Bermond, A. [Agro-ParisTech, 16, rue C. Bernard, F.75231 Paris cedex 5 (France); Nakhle, K.; Khalaf, G. [Centre National des Sciences Marines, CNRSL, P.O. Box 534, Batroun (Lebanon); Borschneck, D. [CEREGE CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Cossa, D. [Ifremer, LBCM, Centre de Nantes, BP 21105, F.44311 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Lead concentrations and isotopic composition of sediment samples collected from three sites within the Lebanese coastal zones were measured: at Akkar, Dora and Selaata. Akkar is located far from any direct source of contamination, while Dora and Selaata receive urban and industrial wastes, respectively. Low Pb concentrations (6-16 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were detected in the Akkar sediments, and high concentrations of Pb (70-101 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were detected in the Dora sediments. Measuring stable isotope ratios of Pb makes it possible to identify the principal sources of Pb in the Akkar sediments as Pb emitted from gasoline combustion and Pb originating from natural sources. On the other hand, Pb stable isotopic ratios in Dora sediments indicate that they are more highly influenced by anthropogenic sources. Isotopic Pb ratios in the Selaata deposits, where Pb concentrations range between 5 and 35 {mu}g g{sup -1}, have an exceptional radiogenic signature for marine sediments 1.25 < {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb < 1.6 and 0.5 < {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb < 0.67, which shows the impact of the phosphogypsum discharged by Selaata's chemical plant. Isotopic Pb analysis applied to EDTA extracts, to test the mobility of Pb, shows that that this mobility is high (>60%) after 24 h of extraction, and that the extracted Pb is less radiogenic than the residual Pb.

  16. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  17. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  18. Assessment of preparation methods for organic phosphorus analysis in phosphorus-polluted Fe/Al-rich Haihe river sediments using solution 31P-NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Fe/Al-rich river sediments that were highly polluted with phosphorus (P were used in tests to determine the optimum preparation techniques for measuring organic P (Po using solution (31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-NMR. The optimum pre-treatment, extraction time, sediment to solution ratio and sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA extractant solution composition were determined. The total P and Po recovery rates were higher from freeze- and air-dried samples than from fresh samples. An extraction time of 16 h was adequate for extracting Po, and a shorter or longer extraction time led to lower recoveries of total P and Po, or led to the degradation of Po. An ideal P recovery rate and good-quality NMR spectra were obtained at a sediment:solution ratio of 1:10, showing that this ratio is ideal for extracting Po. An extractant solution of 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA was found to be more appropriate than either NaOH on its own, or a more concentrated NaOH-EDTA mixture for (31P-NMR analysis, as this combination minimized interference from paramagnetic ions and was appropriate for the detected range of Po concentrations. The most appropriate preparation method for Po analysis, therefore, was to extract the freeze-dried and ground sediment sample with a 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA solution at a sediment:solution ratio of 1:10, for 16 h, by shaking. As lyophilization of the NaOH-EDTA extracts proved to be an optimal pre-concentration method for Po analysis in the river sediment, the extract was lyophilized as soon as possible, and analyzed by (31P-NMR.

  19. Determination of trace metals in river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis by 21 laboratories of a standard reference sample of river sediment for arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel and zinc. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed, along with some of the advantages and disadvantages of various sample pretreatment techniques. The mean values of the results obtained for Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn were found to be in good agreement with the certified values for the standard reference sample, but those for Cd and Mn were considerably lower than the corresponding certified values. A fairly wide range of acid extraction or digestion procedures for pretreatment of the sample was used by the participating laboratories, most of whom employed direct flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the measurement of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The few laboratories who determined As and Hg did so mainly by means of vapour generation/atomic absorption techniques

  20. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  1. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author)

  2. Variations in grain-scale sediment structure and entrainment force in a gravel-bed channel as a function of fine sediment content and morphological location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, Hal; Ahmed, Sharif; Hodge, Rebecca; Leyland, Julian; Sear, David

    2017-04-01

    One of the major causes of uncertainty in estimates of bedload transport rates in gravel-bed rivers is a lack of understanding of grain-scale sediment structure, and the impact that this structure has on the force required to entrain sediment. There are at least two factors that standard entrainment models do not consider. The first is the way in which the spatial arrangement and orientation of grains and the resultant forces varies throughout a channel and over time, ways that have yet to be fully quantified. The second is that sediment entrainment is a 3D process, yet calculations of entrainment thresholds for sediment grains are typically based on 2D diagrams where we calculate static moments of force vectors about a pivot angle, represented as a single point rather than as a more realistic axis of rotation. Our research addresses these limitations by quantifying variations in 3D sediment structure and entrainment force requirements across two key parameters: morphological location within a riffle-pool sequence (reflecting variation in hydraulic conditions), and the fine sediment content of the gravel-bed (sand and clay). We report results from a series of flume experiments in which we water-worked a gravel-bed with a riffle-pool morphology containing varying amounts of fine sediment. After each experimental run intact samples of the bed at different locations were extracted and the internal structure of the bed was measured using non-destructive, micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The CT images were processed to measure the properties of individual grains, including volume, center of mass, dimension, and contact points. From these data we were able to quantify the sediment structure and entrainment force requirements through measurement of 3D metrics including grain pivot angles, grain exposure and protrusion. Comparison of the metrics across different morphological locations and fine sediment content demonstrates how these factors affect the

  3. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  4. Oxytetracycline Assay in Pond Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    L. Nepejchalová; Z. Svobodová; J. Kolářová; K. Frgalová; J. Valová; D. Némethová

    2008-01-01

    The fate of drug residues and their metabolites in the environment is relatively rarely investigated in the conditions of the Czech Republic, resulting in limited availability of scientific information. To demonstrate one example, we prepared a model study with medicated feedstuff containing oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC HCl), which was used in fish under normal conditions of use. The oxytetracycline (OTC) contents were determined in the sediments of the pond where the fish were treated....

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Sediment P Distribution and Speciation in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, K.; White, J. R.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    Excess loading of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) into aquatic systems leads to degradation of water quality and diminished important ecosystem services. In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM), excess P and N loading has led to a seasonally present hypoxic area with less than 2 mg/L O2 in bottom waters, approximating 26,000 km2 in 2017. A sequential extraction (SEDEX) method was performed on surficial sediments from five different coastal and shelf sites as a function of distance from the Mississippi River mouth in the NGOM. To better quantify temporal variability in P distribution and speciation, samples were collected during both low (August) and high (May) river flow regimes. Sequential extraction techniques have been successful in separating pools of P into exchangeable or loosely sorbed P, Fe-P, Authigenic-P, Detrital-P, and Organic-P. Preliminary results suggest Authigenic-P is approximately 3-6 times more concentrated in NGOM sediments than all other P pools. Fractionation results did not show a consistent trend with sediment depth. Sediment samples had an average moisture content of 58.72% ± 12.06% and an average bulk density of 0.582 ± 0.275 g/cm3. Continued analysis of P speciation and cycling in NGOM sediments is critical in understanding the driving force behind coastal eutrophication and informing effective nutrient management strategies.

  6. Chemical and toxicological characterization of sediments along a Colombian shoreline impacted by coal export terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Guerrero-Castilla, Angelica; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; de la Rosa, Jesus; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-11-01

    Extraction, transport and utilization of coal spread out coal dust. Nowadays, Colombia is an important producer of this mineral in South America, being the Santa Marta area one of the largest coal exporting ports in the country. The aim of this work was to assess the pollutants levels and toxicity of shoreline sediments from this place. 16 PAHs and 46 elements were measured in nine locations during dry and rainy seasons. HepG2 cells were exposed to 1% sediment extracts and mRNA expression evaluated for selected genes. PAHs levels were greater during the rainy season. The highest ∑PAHs (89.9 ng g(-1)) appeared at a site located around 300 m far from the coast line at close proximity to the area where coal is loaded into cargo vessels for international shipments, being naphthalene the most abundant PAH. At Santa Marta Bay port, ∑PAHs were 62.8 ng g(-1) and 72.8 ng g(-1) for dry and rainy seasons, respectively, with greatest levels for fluoranthene. Based on sediment standards, most stations have poor condition regarding Cr, but moderate contamination on Cu, Pb and Zn. Sediments from the port and coal transport sites, the most polluted by PAHs and metals, induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 during the dry season. Data showed the sediments from this shoreline have bioactive chemicals that determine their toxicological profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factor-cluster analysis and enrichment study of Mangrove sediments - An example from Mengkabong, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveena, S.M.; Ahmed, A.; Radojevic, M.; Mohd Harun Abdullah; Aris, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the tidal effects in the sediment of Mengkabong mangrove forest, Sabah. Generally, all the studied parameters showed high value at high tide compared to low tide. Factor-cluster analyses were adopted to allow the identification of controlling factors at high and low tides. Factor analysis extracted six controlling factors at high tide and seven controlling factors at low tide. Cluster analysis extracted two district clusters at high and low tides. The study showed that factor-cluster analysis application is a useful tool to single out the controlling factors at high and low tides. this will provide a basis for describing the tidal effects in the mangrove sediment. The salinity and electrical conductivity clusters as well as component loadings at high and low tide explained the tidal process where there is high contribution of seawater to mangrove sediments that controls the sediment chemistry. The geo accumulation index (T geo ) values suggest the mangrove sediments are having background concentrations for Al, Cu, Fe and Zn and unpolluted for Pb. (author)

  8. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  9. Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Tisa (Tisza) river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Grzetić, Ivan; Dordević, Dragana

    2007-06-01

    In this work, sediments of the River Tisa (Tisza) are studied to assess their environmental pollution levels for some major heavy metals, as well as to predict the investigated elements' mobility on the basis of their association type with the substrate. The Tisa River catchments area is a subbasin of the River Danube. Part of this river, 166 km long, belongs to the Serbian province of Vojvodina, before it flows into the Danube. It has been chosen for our investigation, because it has been exposed to intense pollution in the last decades. The river sediment samples were collected at 32 locations. The proportions of sand, silt and clay fractions were determined. The sequential extraction procedure following a modified Tessier method was applied for speciation of the metal forms in the collected samples. The metal concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe and Mn in extracts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Granulometric analysis showed that some 50% of the Tisa River sediments were silt and clay, while the rest was sand with quartz, as the main constituent. The average metal content of the surface river sediment samples for every fraction of sequential extraction was presented and discussed in relation to pH, Eh and metal fractionation. The average metal content from the Tisa River sediments, obtained as an average of the metal's concentration released in all five sequential extraction fractions was compared with: average metal contents of the Tisa River sediments in Hungary, metal content in soils formed on the Tisa River alluvium of Vojvodina, average metal content in soils of Vojvodina, and average metal content in soils of Hungary. An assessment of metal pollution levels in Tisa River sediments was made by comparing mean values for obtained results for the Tisa River sediments with the freshwater sediment's Quality Guidelines as published by US EPA, Environment Canada and soil standards for Serbia. According to US EPA and Canadian Quality

  10. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO 3 , which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N 2 , CO 2 -sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0 2 produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the 60 Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total 60 Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of 60 Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions

  11. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO/sub 3/, which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/-sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0/sub 2/ produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the /sup 60/Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total /sup 60/Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of /sup 60/Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions.

  12. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  13. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwell, Amy [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis, E-mail: asitchle@mines.edu [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Prugue, Rodrigo [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Spear, John R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hering, Amanda S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Carroll, Rosemary W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  14. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenwell, Amy; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Prugue, Rodrigo; Spear, John R.; Hering, Amanda S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  15. Iron species determination to investigate early diagenetic reactivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haese, R. R.; Wallmann, K.; Dahmke, A.; Kretzmann, U.; Müller, P. J.; Schulz, H. D.

    1997-01-01

    Iron speciation was determined in hemiplegic sediments from a high productivity area to investigate systematically the early diagenetic reactivity of Fe. A combination of various leaching agents (1 M HCI, dithionite buffered in citrate/acetic acid, HF/H 2SO 4, acetic Cr(II)) was applied to sediment and extracted more than 80% of total Fe. Subsequent Fe species determination defined specific mineral fractions that are available for Fe reduction and fractions formed as products of Fe diagenesis. To determine the Fe speciation of (sheet) silicates we explored an extraction procedure (HF/H 2SO 4) and verified the procedure by application to standard rocks. Variations of Fe speciation of (sheet) silicates reflect the possible formation of Fe-bearing silicates in near surface sediments. The same fraction indicates a change in the primary input at greater depth, which is supported by other parameters. The Fe(II)/ Fe(III) -ratio of total sediment determined by extractions was compared with Mössbauer-spectroscopy ] at room temperature and showed agreement within 10%. M6ssbauer-spectroscopy indicates the occurrence of siderite in the presence of free sulfide and pyrite, supporting the importance of microenvironments during mineral formation. The occurrence of other Fe(II) bearing minerals such as ankerite (Ca-, Fe-, Mg-carbonate) can be presumed but remains speculative.

  16. Presence of pyrethroid pesticides in water and sediments of Ebro River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, M. L.; Ginebreda, A.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThe distribution of pyrethroid insecticides of the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain) was assessed by measuring concentrations in surface water and sediment samples. Pyrethroid extraction from water was carried out by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction (UAEE), while the sediment was sonicated and cleaned up using Florisil cartridge. Method detection of limits (MLODs) for the 12 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) ranged from 0.03 to 35.8 ng L -1 for water and 2.6 to 62.4 pg g -1 for sediment. Recoveries values were in the range of 47-105% for water and 51-105% for sediments, showing satisfactory robustness of the method for analyzing pyrethroids in water and sediment samples. Cypermethrin was detected in 22 water samples collected from Ebro River Delta, while deltamethrin was present only in three water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.73 ng L -1 to 57.2 ng L -1 and 2 ng L -1 to 58.8 ng L -1 for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. These concentration levels were higher than median lethal concentration (LC50) values found for deltamethrin and lower than LC50 values found for cypermethrin when short time toxic effects are considered. In sediment samples only cypermethrin was detected at concentration levels ranged from 8.27 ng g -1 to 71.9 ng g -1. These levels were higher than its LC50 values. Environmental dynamic behaviour and fate were also evaluated for cypermethrin measuring the sediment/water partition coefficient (ranging from 5.0 to 6.3) and kinetic data (half-life ranging between 13 and 50 days). Results were in good agreement to those reported in literature

  17. Fluvial sediments a summary of source, transportation, deposition, and measurement of sediment discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    This paper presents a broad but undetailed picture of fluvial sediments in streams, reservoirs, and lakes and includes a discussion of the processes involved in the movement of sediment by flowing water. Sediment is fragmental material that originates from the chemical or physical disintegration of rocks. The disintegration products may have many different shapes and may range in size from large boulders to colloidal particles. In general, they retain about the same mineral composition as the parent rocks. Rock fragments become fluvial sediment when they are entrained in a stream of water. The entrainment may occur as sheet erosion from land surfaces, particularly for the fine particles, or as channel erosion after the surface runoff has accumulated in streams. Fluvial sediments move in streams as bedload (particles moving within a few particle diameters of the streambed) or as suspended sediment in the turbulent flow. The discharge of bedload varies with several factors, which may include particle size and a type of effective shear on the surface of the streambed. The discharge of suspended sediment depends partly on concentration of moving sediment near the streambed and hence on discharge of bedload. However, the concentration of fine sediment near the streambed varies widely, even for equal flows, and, therefore, the discharge of fine sediment normally cannot be computed theoretically. The discharge of suspended sediment also depends on velocity, turbulence, depth of flow, and fall velocity of the particles. In general, the coarse sediment transported by a stream moves intermittently and is discharged at a rate that depends on properties of the flow and of the sediment. If an ample supply of coarse sediment is available at the surface of the streambed, the discharge of the coarse sediment, such as sand, can be roughly computed from properties of the available sediment and of the flow. On the other hand, much of the fine sediment in a stream usually moves nearly

  18. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollutants accumulation in the Tisza river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja M; Dordević, Dragana S; Manojlović, Dragan D; Predrag, Polić S

    2009-08-01

    In this study we have worked on the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the sediments taken from the Tisza River and its tributaries, and thereby used the sequential extraction method, geochemical normalization, the calculation of the enrichment factor (EF), and the methods of statistical analysis. The chemical fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Fe, and Mn, carried out by using the modified Tessier method, points to different substrates and binding mechanisms of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediments of the tributaries and sediments of the Tisza River. The similarities in the distributions of Fe and Ni in all types of sediments are the result of geochemical similarity as well as of the fact that natural sources mainly affect the concentration levels of these elements. The calculated enrichment factors (EF, measured metal vs. background concentrations) indicated that metal contamination (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr) was recorded in the sediments of the Tisza River, while no indications of pollution were detected in the tributaries of the Tisza River and the surrounding pools. The maximum values of the EF were close to 6 for Cu and Pb (moderately severe enrichment) and close to 4.5 for Zn (indicating moderate enrichment). It can be said that the Tisza River is slightly to moderately severely polluted with Cu, Zn, and Pb, and minorly polluted with Cr. It is concluded that sediments of the Tisza serve as a repository for heavy metal accumulation from adjacent urban and industrial areas.

  20. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms.

  1. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  2. Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from harbor sediment: Influence of changing experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    was in an experiment with dry sediment (L/S 8) and a 70 mA applied current that lasted 14 days. These experimental conditions were thereafter used to remediate more strongly contaminated sediments. Regardless of the initial heavy metal concentrations in the sediments, 67-87% Cu, 79-98% Cd, 90-97% Zn, and 91-96% Pb......Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was used to remove Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from contaminated harbor sediment. Extraction experiments were made prior to EDR, and the metal desorption was pH dependent but not liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) dependent. The desorption order was Cd $GRT Zn $GRT Pb $GRT Cu...... for the removal of Cu, Zn, and Pb, probably due to oxidation of the sediments during stirring. Contrary, Cd removal was lower in the wet sediment as compared to the air-dried. The heavy metal removal was influenced by higher current strengths and varying L/S ratios. The highest removal obtained...

  3. Hyperspectral imaging of the microscale distribution and dynamics of microphytobenthos in intertidal sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Chennu, Arjun

    2013-10-03

    We describe a novel, field-deployable hyperspectral imaging system, called Hypersub, that allows noninvasive in situ mapping of the microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass distribution with a high spatial (sub-millimeter) and temporal (minutes) resolution over areas of 1 × 1 m. The biomass is derived from a log-transformed and near-infrared corrected reflectance hyperspectral index, which exhibits a linear relationship (R2 > 0.97) with the chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration in the euphotic zone of the sediment and depends on the sediment grain size. Deployments of the system revealed that due to factors such as sediment topography, bioturbation, and grazing, the distribution of MPB in intertidal sediments is remarkably heterogeneous, with Chl a concentrations varying laterally by up to 400% of the average value over a distance of 1 cm. Furthermore, due to tidal cycling and diel light variability, MPB concentrations in the top 1 mm of sediments are very dynamic, changing by 40–80% over a few hours due to vertical migration. We argue that the high-resolution hyperspectral imaging method overcomes the inadequate resolution of traditional methods based on sedimentary Chl a extraction, and thus helps improve our understanding of the processes that control benthic primary production in coastal sediments.

  4. Investigation into River Sediments Toxicity as a Result of Inappropriate Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia R. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of the São Francisco River basin (Brazil were investigated to determine the environmental consequences of incorrect disposal of wastes generated by a zinc industry. Surface sediments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Total organic carbon (TOC, acid volatile sulfides (AVSs, and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs were also determined. AVS/SEM procedure was employed to assess the bioavailability of the metals in sediments. XRD analyses indicated that the main phases in the sediments were kaolinite and quartz. The total concentration of Zn and Pb, near the old industrial discharge point, indicated high levels of contamination according to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. According to the AVS/SEM criteria, despite the high levels of zinc and lead in the sediments, the toxicity resulting from these metals is unlikely in most of the samples. However, in one of the samples, collected near the old industrial discharge point, the toxicity is uncertain—according to the USEPA criteria.

  5. Trace metal accumulation in sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates before and after maintenance of a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas P; Muthukrishnan, Swarna; Barshatzky, Kristen; Wallace, William

    2012-04-01

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) require regular maintenance. The impact on trace metal concentrations in a constructed stormwater wetland BMP on Staten Island, New York, was investigated by analyzing sediment concentrations and tissue residues of the dominant macroinvertebrates (Tubifex tubifex) prior and subsequent to maintenance. Trace metal concentrations were assessed using standard serial extraction (for sediment) and acid digestion (for tissue burdens) techniques, followed by quantitative determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. The results suggest that disturbance of sediment during maintenance of the BMP resulted in an increase in the most mobile fraction of trace metals, especially those associated with finer grained sediments (macroinvertebrates increased. Regressions of a subset of metal concentrations (copper, lead, and zinc) in sediment and the macroinvertebrate tissue burden samples generally increased as a result of maintenance. A follow-up sampling event 9 months after maintenance demonstrated that the most readily available form of trace metal in the BMP was reduced, which supports (1) long-term sequestration of metals in the BMP and (2) that elevated bioavailability following maintenance was potentially a transient feature of the disturbance. This study suggests that in the long-term, performing sediment removal might help reduce bioavailability of trace metal concentrations in both the BMP and the receiving water to which a BMP discharges. However, alternative practices might need to be implemented to reduce trace metal bioavailability in the short-term.

  6. Accumulation and potential dissolution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river bottom sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagao, Seiya; Amano, Hikaru; Takada, Hideshige; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    Areas contaminated with radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident have been identified in Pripyat River near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The river bottom sediment cores contained 137 Cs (10 5 - 10 6 Bq/m 2 ) within 0-30 cm depth, whose concentration is comparable to that in the ground soil in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant (the Exclusion Zone). The sediment cores also accumulated 90 Sr (10 5 Bq/m 2 ), 239,240 Pu (10 4 Bq/m 2 ) and 241 Am (10 4 Bq/m 2 ) derived from the accident. Several nuclear fuel particles have been preserved at 20-25 cm depth that is the peak area of the concentrations of the radionuclides. Th ese inventories in the bottom sediments were compared with those of the released radionuclides during the accident. An analysis using a selective sequential extraction technique was applied for the radionuclides in the sediments. Results suggest that the possibility of release of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu from the bottom sediment was low compared with 90 Sr. The potential dissolution and subsequent transport of 90 Sr from the river bottom sediment should be taken into account with respect to the long-term radiological influence on the aquatic environment

  7. Multivariate statistical study of heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.X.; Li, X.D.; Shen, Z.G.; Wang, D.C.; Wai, O.W.H.; Li, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis identified the heavy metal accumulation layers of sediment profiles and showed the various sources of metals in the estuary. - The concentrations and chemical partitioning of heavy metals in the sediment cores of the Pearl River Estuary were studied. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients and principal component analysis results, Al was selected as the concentration normalizer for Pb, while Fe was used as the normalizing element for Co, Cu, Ni and Zn. In each profile, sections with metal concentrations exceeding the upper 95% prediction interval of the linear regression model were regarded as metal enrichment layers. The heavy metal accumulation mainly occurred at sites in the western shallow water areas and east channel, which reflected the hydraulic conditions and influence from riparian anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals in the enrichment sections were evaluated by a sequential extraction method for possible chemical forms in sediments. Since the residual, Fe/Mn oxides and organic/sulfide fractions were dominant geochemical phases in the enriched sections, the bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments was generally low. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the metal-enriched sediment sections also revealed the influence of anthropogenic sources. The spatial distribution of cumulative heavy metals in the sediments suggested that the Zn and Cu mainly originated from point sources, while the Pb probably came from non-point sources in the estuary

  8. Distribution of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in marine sediments in Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. C.; Wai, Onyx W. H.; Choi, Thomas W. H.; Li, X. D.; Tsang, C. W.

    2006-11-01

    Partitioning of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in marine sediments collected from various sites in Hong Kong waters were determined using sequential extraction method. Sediments from Kellette Bank, located in Victoria Harbour, had higher metal concentrations especially Cu and Zn than most other sites. Slightly over 20% of total Cu and Cr existed as readily available forms in Peng Chau and Kellette Bank. At most sampling sites, over 15% of the Cu existed as the exchangeable form indicating that Cu could be readily released into the aqueous phase from sediments. A significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn was associated with the three non-residual fractions. Hence, there is a greater environmental concern for remobilization of Pb and Zn compared with Cr. The high amount of residual Cd (>50%) and the relatively lower Cd content indicate that little environmental concern is warranted for the remobilization of Cd. Distribution of metals in sediments collected from different depth at Kellette Bank shows that metal concentrations decreased with profile depth. The levels of Pb and Zn associated with the two readily available fractions increased sharply in the surface sediment. These metals represented the pollutants, which were introduced into the area in the mid-eighties through early nineties as a result of rapid economic and industrial development in the territory. As significant portions of these metals were bound to the readily available phases in the surface sediments, metal remobilization could be a concern.

  9. Seabed ripple morphology and surficial sediment size at the SAX04 experiments near Fort Walton Beach, Florida, fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Erikson, Li H.; Lescinski, Jamie M.R.; Harney, Jodi N.; Carter, Carissa L.; Hatcher, Gerry A.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Rubin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Data presented in this report originates from measurements obtained off the Florida coast (fig. 1) as part of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment (SAX04) and Ripples Department Research Initiative (DRI) (Office of Naval Research (ONR), Critical Benthic Environmental Processes and Modeling, Long Range BAA 04-001, Sept. 10, 2003). The aim of this document is to present methods employed to extract data and the resulting measured ripple characteristics (ripple height, wavelength, and orientation) and seabed grain sizes. Application and analysis of the data with respect to hydro- and morphodynamics will be addressed in subsequent reports. Sediment transport in the coastal region is a complex process involving interactions between flow dynamics, sediments, and bedforms. Sediment type and bed geometry directly influence entrainment of sediments into suspension, and at sites where ripples occur (sand formations on the order of several cm high and less than two meter long wavelengths), the understanding of ripple dynamics is an essential component in improving sediment transport models. To gain a better understanding and ability to predict sediment transport, a field study was undertaken to investigate morphology, orientation, and dynamics of ripples on the seafloor. The data obtained from the field campaign also supports an on-going effort to study the effects of ripples on low grazing acoustic penetration into sandy marine sediments for the detection of objects, such as mines (Jackson and others, 2002).

  10. Sediment Fixation of Arsenic in the Ash Lagoon of a Coal-Fired Power Plant, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Joselito P. Duyanen; Aries Milay

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in the sediments of the ash lagoons of the coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon Province in the Philippines was sequentially extracted to determine its potential for leaching to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Results show that 89% of the As is bound to the quasi-crystalline Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxide matrix in the sediments, whereas, the adsorbed and exchangeable As hosted by the clay minerals, representing those that are easiest to release from the sedimen...

  11. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  12. Fungi in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    -section that had not been in contact with the walls of the PVC cylinder was removed with a flame - sterilized spatula and placed in sterile vials for isolation of fungi (Raghukumar et 4 al., 2004). The media used for isolations were malt extract agar (MEA), malt... obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study for comparison. 2.3. Direct detection of fungi in deep-sea sediments About 0.5 g of each sediment sample in sterile vials were fixed with 5% formalin...

  13. EOLIC SEDIMENTS IN WESTERN CARPATHIANS, THEIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košťálik Ján

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Loesses in Western Carpathians cover the area of 7 000 square kilometres. The difference of paleographic relations between Eastern and Western Slovakia during the course of Pleistocen is reflected in their morphology, litotype, physical, chemical, and geocnemic properties, in the composition of extraction minerals, in the content of CaCO3, in the character of malacofauna, and the typology of fossile soils. To achieve the thickness of l-5-20 m, a maximum thickness being 35 to 40 m. Eolic sands can be found in the Záhorská nížina lowlands, Podunajská rovina flatland, and East-Slovakian lowland. Morphologically, they form 5-20 m high piles of parabolic and longitudinal form. Winds from various directions were active in their formation. The association of extraction minerals proves that these had been blown out from neogene sediments of the nearby vicinity and from river sediments of the Morava, Danube, and Tisa rivers and their tributaries.

  14. Bacterial toxicity assessment of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) and lake sediment amended with DWTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-11-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) seems to be very promising for controlling lake sediment pollution. Logically, acquisition of the potential toxicity of DWTR will be beneficial for its applications. In this study, the toxicity of DWTR and sediments amended with DWTR to Aliivibrio fischeri was evaluated based on the Microtox(®) solid and leachate phase assays, in combination with flow cytometry analyses and the kinetic luminescent bacteria test. The results showed that both solid particles and aqueous/organic extracts of DWTR exhibited no toxicity to the bacterial luminescence and growth. The solid particles of DWTR even promoted bacterial luminescence, possibly because DWTR particles could act as a microbial carrier and provide nutrients for bacteria growth. Bacterial toxicity (either luminescence or growth) was observed from the solid phase and aqueous/organic extracts of sediments with or without DWTR addition. Further analysis showed that the solid phase toxicity was determined to be related mainly to the fixation of bacteria to fine particles and/or organic matter, and all of the observed inhibition resulting from aqueous/organic extracts was identified as non-significant. Moreover, DWTR addition not only had no adverse effect on the aqueous/organic extract toxicity of the sediment but also reduced the solid phase toxicity of the sediment. Overall, in practical application, the solid particles, the water-soluble substances transferred to surface water or the organic substances in DWTR had no toxicity or any delayed effect on bacteria in lakes, and DWTR can therefore be considered as a non-hazardous material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.

    2017-05-01

    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  16. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  17. Separation of platinum metals by theirs extraction as sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Ryabushko, O.P.; Ty Van Mak

    1978-01-01

    Separation of platinum metals by means of their sediment in the form of sulfides with subsequent extraction is studied. The optimum conditions of metal sulfide extraction are determined, the metal output dependence from acidness and aqueous phase composition and also the organic solvent nature are investigated. Ruthenium concentration was determined photometrically. Ruthenium sulfide is extracted by butyl spirit from 1-4 normal hydrochloric acid. The maximum extraction grade of 63% is reached in 3.2-normal acid. When the mixture of acetic and hydrochloric acids (2:1) is used for decomposition of ruthenium tiosalts, the grade of ruthenium extraction by amyl spirit or the mixture of anyl and butyl spirits (1:1) constitutes 100%

  18. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fujita; K. Yamanoi; H. Izumiyama

    2015-01-01

    In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus). These numerical models...

  19. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  20. PROFILE: Management of Sedimentation in Tropical Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAGLE; FAHEY; LASSOIE

    1999-05-01

    / The sedimentation of reservoirs is a serious problem throughout the tropics, yet most attempts to control sedimentation in large river basins have not been very successful. Reliable information on erosion rates and sources of sediments has been lacking. In regions where geologically unstable terrain combines with high rainfall, natural erosion rates might be so high that the effects of human activity are limited. Estimates of natural erosion in these situations often have been poor because of the episodic nature of most erosion during large storms and because mass-wasting may supply much of the sediment. The predominance of mass-wasting in some watersheds can result in an unexpectedly high ratio of bedload to suspended load, shifting sedimentation to "live" rather than "dead" storage within reservoirs. Furthermore, the inappropriate use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to assess the effectiveness of erosion control measures has led to inaccurate estimates of the sediment reduction benefits that could accrue to watershed treatment efforts. Although reducing erosion from cultivated areas is desirable for other reasons, efforts aimed at reducing reservoir sedimentation by controlling agricultural sources of erosion may have limited benefits if the principal sources are of natural origin or are associated with construction of the dams and reservoirs and with rural roads and trails. Finally, the most appropriate locations for watershed rehabilitation depend on the magnitude of temporary storage of colluvium and alluvium within the river basin: Where storage volume is large and residence time of sediment very long, reducing agricultural erosion may have limited impacts on sedimentation within the expected life of a reservoir. Systematic development and analysis of sediment budgets for representative watersheds is needed to address these limitations and thereby improve both the planning of river basin development schemes and the allocation of resources towards

  1. Biogeochemistry of Fe and Tc Reduction and Oxidation in FRC Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John M, Zachara; James K, Fredrickson; Ravi K, Kukkadapu; Steven C, Smith; David W, Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) To rigorously characterize the distribution of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in FRC sediment. (2) To identify changes to Fe(II)/Fe(III) distribution and concentration resulting from DIRB activity. (3) To determine the dependence of Tc(VII) reduction rate on biogenic Fe(II) and it's forms. (4) To establish tendency of Tc(IV) and biogenic Fe(II) to oxidize and their effects on Tc immobilization. The mineralogic and chemical properties of the pristine, bioreduced, and chemically extracted FRC sediments were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray microscopy (XRM, at the PNC-CAT beamline at APS), Moessbauer spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy with lattice fringe imaging. Chemical extraction included dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB), acid ammonium oxalate (AAO), and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HAH). The FRC sediment was incubated under anoxic conditions with the facultative dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32 in defined aqueous solutions/media with bicarbonate and PIPES buffers for time periods exceeding 75 d. Lactate was used as the electron donor. Aqueous and sorbed Fe(II) (ferrozine assay and 0.5 N HCl extraction) and Mn(II) (ICP-MS and 10 mM CuSO 4 extraction), and pH were monitored to define the reduction progress and extent. The bioreduced materials were characterized using the abovementioned techniques. Bioreduced (pasteurized) sediment or chemically extracted/reduced sediment spiked with Fe(II) was washed with a PIPES buffer/electrolyte solution, and spiked with NaTc(VII)O 4 to yield a concentration of 20 (micro)M. The Tc(VII)-spiked samples were agitated and equilibrated at 25 C and sampled over time to assess the Tc(VII) reduction rate. Selected sediment samples containing 20 (micro)M of reduced Tc [Tc(IV)] were subjected to oxidation by: (1) successive headspace replacements of air, and (2) open system equilibration with air. Removed aqueous

  2. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  4. Sediment measurement in estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of uses of estuarine and coastal areas is given. Problems associated with these uses are discussed, and data needs for intelligent management of these valuable areas are outlined. Suspended sediment measurements are seen to be one of the greatest needs. To help understand the complexity of the problem, a brief discussion of sediment mechanics is given, including sediment sources, characteristics, and transport. The impact of sediment mechanics on its direct measurement (sampling and analysis) is indicated, along with recommendations for directly obtaining representative data. Indirect measurement of suspended sediment by remote sensors is discussed both theoretically and in the light of some recent experiences. The need for an integrated, multidisciplinary program to solve the problem of quantitatively measuring suspended sediment with remote sensors is stressed, and several important considerations of such a program and benefits to be derived therefrom are briefly addressed.

  5. Phosphorus Forms in Sediments as Indicators of Anthropic Pressures in an Agricultural Catchment in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P fractionation is a suitable procedure to ascertain P lability in sediments and is able to distinguish sources of P under different soil management practices in a catchment. Brazil is the second largest producer and the largest exporter of tobacco in the world. Inadequate management of cultivated areas exposes the soil to erosion processes, accelerating the transfer of sediment and P to water bodies, which leads to eutrophication. We evaluated the P forms in suspended sediments collected at two rainfall events in the stream of a small catchment in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The samples were collected upstream and downstream areas in three sub-catchments with different degrees of anthropogenic pressure and in three phases of the hydrograph in the catchment outlet. The first rainfall event occurred during the fallow period, and the second one, during the period of transplanting the tobacco crop. The sediment P forms were evaluated by successive extractions, following the Hedley method. The results showed that an increase in anthropogenic pressure leads to an increase in total inorganic P and a decrease in the levels of organic C and total organic P in sediments. In the control area, the quantity and quality of the eroded material remained the same in both rainfall events. The levels of total P in sediment alone were not sufficient to evaluate the influence of the soil management practices prevalent in each sampling period. However, P fractionation shows that during the tobacco transplanting period, P in sediments was mainly in labile fractions, and rainfall during this period was more likely to promote the eutrophication process. Sediments carried in runoff during the tobacco transplanting period have larger amounts of available P than those borne during rainfall in the fallow period.

  6. Perfluorinated substance assessment in sediments of a large-scale reservoir in Danjiangkou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaomin; Li, Aimin; Wang, Shengyao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Zixin

    2018-01-07

    The occurrence of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the surface sediments from 10 sampling sites spread across the Danjiangkou Reservoir was investigated by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE). All the sediments from the 10 sites contained detectable levels of PFCs. The total concentration of the target PFCs in each sediment sample (C ∑PFCs ) ranged from 0.270 to 0.395 ng g -1 of dry weight, and the mean value of C ∑PFCs was 0.324 ± 0.045 ng g -1 of dry weight for the whole reservoir. For each perfluorinated compound in one sediment, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluoro-n-butanoic acid (PFBA) consistently had a higher concentration than the other six PFCs, while perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) was always undetectable. In terms of spatial distribution, the total and individual concentrations of PFCs in sediment from downstream sites of the Danjiangkou Reservoir were higher than those from upstream sites. Factor analysis revealed that PFCs in the sediment samples originated from electroplating and anti-fog agents in industry, food/pharmaceutical packaging and the water/oil repellent paper coating, and the deposition process. The quotient method was utilized to assess the ecological risk of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which showed that the concentrations of PFCs were not considered a risk. In this study, detailed information on the concentration level and distribution of PFCs in the sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the source of water for the Middle Route Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme in China, was reported and analyzed for the first time. These results can provide valuable information for water resource management and pollution control in the Danjiangkou Reservoir.

  7. Flame retardants, surfactants and organotins in sediment and mysid shrimp of the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verslycke, Tim A. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: tim@whoi.edu; Vethaak, A. Dick [National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ), PO Box 8039, 4330 EA Middelburg (Netherlands); Arijs, Katrien [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Sediment and mysids from the Scheldt estuary, one of the largest and most polluted estuaries in Western Europe, were analyzed for a number of contaminants that have been shown to possess endocrine-disrupting activity, i.e. organotins, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE) and transformation products, nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ether carboxylates (NPEC). In addition, in vitro estrogenic and androgenic potencies of water and sediment extracts were determined. Total organotin concentrations ranged from 84 to 348 ng/g dw in sediment and 1110 to 1370 ng/g dw in mysid. Total PBDE (excluding BDE-209) concentrations ranged from 14 to 22 ng/g dw in sediment and from 1765 to 2962 ng/g lipid in mysid. High concentrations of BDE-209 (240-1650 ng/g dw) were detected in sediment and mysid (269-600 ng/g lipid). Total HBCD concentrations in sediment and mysid were 14-71 ng/g dw and 562-727 ng/g lipid, respectively. Total NPE concentrations in sediment were 1422 ng/g dw, 1222 ng/g dw for NP and 80 ng/g dw for NPEC and ranged from 430 to 1119 ng/g dw for total NPE and from 206 to 435 ng/g dw for NP in mysid. Significant estrogenic potency, as analyzed using the yeast estrogen assay, was detected in sediment and water samples from the Scheldt estuary, but no androgenic activity was found. This study is the first to report high levels of endocrine disruptors in estuarine mysids. - Field populations of mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer) of the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands) are exposed to high concentrations of endocrine disruptors.

  8. Thallium dispersal and contamination in surface sediments from South China and its source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Jiang, Xiuyang; Xie, Xiaofan; Chen, Diyun; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin

    2016-06-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential element in humans and it is considered to be highly toxic. In this study, the contents, sources, and dispersal of Tl were investigated in surface sediments from a riverine system (the western Pearl River Basin, China), whose catchment has been contaminated by mining and roasting of Tl-bearing pyrite ores. The isotopic composition of Pb and total contents of Tl and other relevant metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni) were measured in the pyrite ores, mining and roasting wastes, and the river sediments. Widespread contamination of Tl was observed in the sediments across the river, with the highest concentration of Tl (17.3 mg/kg) measured 4 km downstream from the pyrite industrial site. Application of a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction scheme in representative sediments unveiled that 60-90% of Tl and Pb were present in the residual fraction of the sediments. The sediments contained generally lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios compared with the natural Pb isotope signature (1.2008 and 2.0766 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively). These results suggested that a significant fraction of non-indigenous Pb could be attributed to the mining and roasting activities of pyrite ores, with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb (1.1539) and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb (2.1263). Results also showed that approximately 6-88% of Tl contamination in the sediments originated from the pyrite mining and roasting activities. This study highlights that Pb isotopic compositions could be used for quantitatively fingerprinting the sources of Tl contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Binary Component Sorption of Cadmium, and Copper Ions onto Yangtze River Sediments with Different Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorption is a crucial process that influences immobilization and migration of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. Sediments represent one of the ultimate sinks for heavy metals discharged into water body. Moreover, the particle size of sediments plays an extremely important role in the immobilization of heavy metals. In this study, the sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu onto sediments with different particle sizes were investigated to predict the rate and capacity of sorption, to understand their environmental behaviors in an aqueous environment. Batch sorption and kinetic experiments were conducted to obtain the retained amount and rate of Cd and Cu in a binary system. Experimental data were simulated using sorption models to ascertain the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate. Results of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR sequential extraction showed the highest concentration of Cd (0.344 mg kg−1, and its distribution varied with sediment particle size and site. Furthermore, most of Cu (approximately 57% to 84% existed as a residual fraction. The sorption of Cu onto six sediments followed a pseudo-first order reaction, whereas that of Cd followed a pseudo-second order reaction. Additionally, the competitive Langmuir model fitted the batch sorption experimental data extremely well. The highest sorption capacities of Cd and Cu reach 0.641 mmol kg−1 and 62.3 mmol kg−1, respectively, on the smallest submerged sediment particles. The amounts of Cu and Cd desorbed (mmol kg−1 increased linearly with the initial concentration increasing. Thus, sediment texture is an important factor that influences the sorption of heavy metal onto sediments.

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Meyer, R.L.; Schmid, M.C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Rysgaard, S.; Revsbech, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24 % of N-2 production in Randers Fjord sediment, whereas no indication was seen of the process in sediment from Norsminde Fjord, It is suggested that the presence of anammox in Randers Fjord and its absence from Norsminde Fjord i...

  11. A Moessbauer study of deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Furuta, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to determine the chemical states of iron in deep sea sediments, Moessbauer spectra of the sediments collected from various areas of the Pacific have been measured. The Moessbauer spectra were composed of paramagnetic ferric, high-spin ferrous, and magnetic components. The correlation of their relative abundance to the sampling location and the kind of sediments may afford clues to infer the origin of each iron-bearing phase. (author)

  12. How do mangrove forests induce sedimentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kathiresan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests play a significant role as sediment traps. They reduce tidal flows and induce sedimentation of soil particles at low tide. However, there are no such processes taking place in the non-mangrove areas. Site of Avicennia-Rhizophora interphase is more efficient than Avicennia and or Rhizophora zones, in trapping the sediment by 30, 25 and 20% respectively at low tide as compared to high tide.

  13. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  14. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  16. Reservoir Sedimentation Based on Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Imanshoar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.

  17. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    Sediment contents of microplastic particles were studied at several areas in Danish coastal and open waters in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, Belt Sea and Baltic Sea from 2012. Isolation of microplastic particles were performed after basic digestion of natural organic matter, before applying....... In some samples, several hundred particles consisting of fibres, flakes, spherules, and/or granules were identified per 100 g sediment, and also in sediments from open waters. Relationships to sediment characteristics (e.g. dry weight, TOC, grain size) and inorganic and organic contaminants including...

  18. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin

    2004-01-01

    The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

  19. Accumulation and effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles to sediment-dwelling invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Forbes, Valery E; Gilliland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is increasingly recognized as the major sink for contaminants including nanoparticles (NPs). Thus, sediment-living organisms are especially susceptible to NP exposure. Studies of the fate and effects of NPs in the sediment matrix are still in their infancy, and data from such studies are...

  20. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  1. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an info