Sample records for fein segmentierten kalorimeterprototypen

  1. Giant magneto-optical Faraday effect of nanometer Fe-In2O3 granular films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin; ZHANG LianSheng; XIAO ShuQin


    The giant magneto-optical Faraday effect of nanometer ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor matrix Fe-In2O3 granular films prepared by the radio frequency sputtering are studied. The result shows that the Faraday rotation angle θF value of the granular film samples with Fe volume fraction x=35% is of the order of 105(°)/cm at room temperature. Temperature dependence of the Faraday rotation angle θF of Fe0.35(In2O2)0.65 granular films shows that θF value below 10 K increases rapidly with the decrease of the temperature, and when T=4.2 K,θF value is 106(°)/cm. Through the study of the dependence of low field susceptibility on temperature and the hysteresis loops at different temperatures, it has been found that when the temperature decreases to a critical point TP=10K, the transformation of state from ferro-magnetic to spin-glass-like occurs in Fe0.35(In2O3)0.65 granular films. The remarkable increase of the Faraday rotation angle eF value of Fe0.35(In2O3)0.65 granular films below 10 K seems to arise from the sp-d exchange interaction of the granular film samples in the spin-glass-like state.

  2. Investigation of magnetic properties on spin-ordering effects of FeGa2S4 and FeIn2S4 (United States)

    Myoung, Bo Ra; Lim, Jung Tae; Kim, Chul Sung


    We have studied crystal and magnetic properties of chalcogenides FeGa2S4 and FeIn2S4 with X-ray diffractometer (XRD), magnetic property measurement system (MPMS), magnetometer, physical property measurement system (PPMS), and Mössbauer spectrometer. The crystal structure has 2-dimension triangular lattice structure with P-3m1 of FeGa2S4, while FeIn2S4 has inverse spinel with space group Fd3m. The AC magnetic susceptibility measurements show that FeGa2S4 is an insulating spin glass material, exhibiting geometrical frustration, unlike in the antiferromagnetic [AFM] metallic spin glass FeIn2S4. From hysteresis (M-H) curves at 4.2 K, FeGa2S4 has spin-flop behavior with an angle of 120° of triangle, as against linear slope of FeIn2S4 due to anti-parallel spin. The gap energy by splitting of 5T2g, Δ1 and electric quadrupole splitting ΔEQ of FeIn2S4 are much higher than that of FeGa2S4 at 4.2 K because FeGa2S4 is geometrically frustrated magnet having degenerate ground state at low temperature.

  3. Study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amine Monir, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Baltache, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G., E-mail: [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Abu-Jafar, M.S., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, An-Najah N. University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); and others


    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler CoFeIn and full-Heusler Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have been investigated by using the state of the art full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) for the calculation of the structural properties, whereas the PBE-GGA+U approximation (where U is the Hubbard Coulomb energy term) is applied for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties in order to treat the “d” electrons. The structural properties have been calculated in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases where we have found that both the CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have a stable ferromagnetic phase. The obtained results of the spin-polarized band structure and the density of states show that the CoFeIn alloy is a metal and the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy has a complete half-metallic nature. Through the obtained values of the total spin magnetic moment, we conclude that in general, the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy is half-metallic ferromagnet material whereas the CoFeIn alloy has a metallic nature. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys were investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • Electronic properties reveal the metallic (half-metallic) nature for CoFeIn (Co2FeIn)

  4. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  5. Superconducting spin valve effect in Fe/In based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leksin, Pavel; Schumann, Joachim; Kataev, Vladislav; Schmidt, Oliver; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden (Germany); Garifyanov, Nadir; Garifullin, Ilgiz [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)


    We report on magnetic and superconducting properties of the spin-valve multilayer system CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/In. The Superconducting Spin Valve Effect (SSVE) assumes the T{sub c} difference between parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) orientations of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers' magnetizations. The SSVE value oscillates and changes its sign when the Fe2 layer thickness d{sub Fe2} is varied from 0 to 5 nm. The SSVE value is positive, as expected, in the range 0.4 nm ≤ d{sub Fe2} ≤ 0.8 nm. For a rather broad range of thicknesses 1 nm ≤ d{sub Fe2} ≤ 2.6 nm the SSVE has negative sign assuming the inverse SSVE. Moreover, the magnitude of the inverse effect is larger than that of the positive direct effect. We attribute these oscillations to a quantum interference of the cooper pair wave functions in the magnetic part of the system. For most of the spin-valve samples from this set we experimentally realized the full switching between normal and superconducting states due to direct and inverse SSVE. The analysis of the experimental data has enabled the determination of all microscopic parameters of the studied system.

  6. Integrationsprozesse in segmentierten Öffentlichkeiten. Die EU als Integrationschance für die Parallelgesellschaften in Lettland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein


    Full Text Available Der Beitrag untersucht die Sozialintegration der lettisch-sprachigen Mehrheit und der russisch-sprachigen Minderheit in Lettland im öffentlichen Diskurs. Er geht der Frage nach, ob über die Integration des Staates in die EU auch die Integrationsdefizite zwischen lettisch- und russisch-sprachigen Gruppen überwunden werden können. Den theoretischen Hintergrund für die Auseinandersetzung mit der lettischen Integrationsproblematik bilden einerseits Integrationstheorien aus der Öffentlichkeitsforschung und andererseits Ansätze zur Entstehung europäischer Identität. Mithilfe einer Inhaltsanalyse werden Übereinstimmungen und Unterschiede in den lettisch- und russisch-sprachigen Tageszeitungen in Lettland im Kontext der Europawahlen 2004 und 2009 identifiziert. Die Befunde zeigen, dass die Teilöffentlichkeiten zwar ein ähnliches Themenrepertoire aufweisen und auch die Konstruktionen kollektiver Identität von Lettland als Nation und als EU-Mitglied jeweils weitgehend übereinstimmen. Im Zeitvergleich lässt sich für beide Indikatoren jedoch eine gegenläufige Bewegung in den jeweiligen Gruppen feststellen, so dass kaum von einer zunehmenden Integration ausgegangen werden kann. English Abstract: The paper examines the social integration process between the Latvian speaking majority and the Russian speaking minority in Latvia´s public discourse. We investigate whether or not the integration of Latvia into the EU may help to overcome the integration deficit between the two groups. Integration theory, public sphere research and identity research are addressed in order to develop an understanding for the conditions of social integration. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of newspapers of the Latvian and Russian community in Latvia. The period of investigation includes the European elections in 2004 and 2009. Results show that both groups share common issues, and identify with the Latvian State and the EU to a similar extent. Nevertheless, the groups show divergent trends over time. This indicates that an increase of integration is rather unlikely.

  7. Hydro-power installation at Fein-Elast Grabher AG in Lichtensteig - Preliminary study; Fein-Elast Grabher AG - Lichtensteig. Stauwehr / Schleusenbruecke / Wasserkraftanlage. Vorprojektstudie - Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.


    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes project variants for the replacement of a hydro-power plant on the River Thur in Lichtensteig, Switzerland. The new installation is to produce more power by using a greater volume of water than the old installation, parts of which date from 1820. The report reviews possibilities for and restrictions on the renewal of the installation and recommends one of four possible variants proposed.. Water-flow statistics and flood-protection issues are discussed. Environmental issues connected with the project are also examined. Energy production figures, cost estimates and economic viability issues are discussed. The proposed course of events involved in replacing the hydropower installation and an associated road bridge is described.

  8. Applicability of Intrinsic Value Models at the Segmented Chinese Stock Market



    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Anwendbarkeit intrinsischer Wertmodelle in dem nach inländischen und ausländischen Investoren segmentierten chinesischen Kapitalmarkt zu untersuchen. Innerhalb des Frameworks der internationalen Portfolio Investment Theorie werden segmentspezifische Preisunterschiede nicht irrationalem Verhalten zugeschrieben, sondern als in Übereinstimmung mit ökonomischer Theorie angesehen. Der theoretische Vergleich von Gleichgewichts- und intrinsischen Wertmodellen lässt let...

  9. Semiconductor Surface Characterization by Scanning Probe Microscopies (United States)


    potentiometry (STP)8 and ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM)9 which allow mapping of lateral surface potential and local subsurface Schottky...A.P.Fein. "Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Si(1 1 1)2xl Surface", Surf.Sci. 181, 295- 306, 1987. 8. P.Muralt, D.W.Pohl, "Scanning tunneling potentiometry

  10. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas


    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  11. Summaries of the State-of-the-Art Position Papers on Day Care. (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Public Welfare, Austin.

    This review consists of summaries of 20 position papers presenting varying viewpoints on aspects of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). Among the authors represented are Gwen Morgan, Edward Zigler, Greta Fein, Henry Ricciuti, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Jerome Kagan and Elizabeth Prescott. Seven of the position papers deal with legal…

  12. Computing Probability Masses in Rule-Based Systems (United States)


    8’ Bechtel R, Morris P, and Kibler D. Incremental Deduction in a Real-Time Environment. Ini Proc. CSCSI-80. May, 1980. [9] J, Gorlin D, Hayes...Incremental Deduction in a Real-Time Environment. In Proc. CSCSI-80. May, 1980. [9] Fain J, Gorlin D, Hayes-Roth F, Rosenschein S, Sowizral H, Waterman D

  13. The Amritsar Massacre: The Origins of the British Approach of Minimal Force on Public Order Operations (United States)


    Mahatma ’ Gandhi , by now the defined leader of the Indian Independence movement, called on the people of India to begin ‘Hartal’, something close to a...procession, with political cries of “ Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai!” General Gwynn commented, “under normal conditions Muslims take no part, other than hostile...89 Mahatma Gandhi , Freedoms Battle. (Project Guttenberg, 2003), 133. 90 Fein, 143. 33 ENDURING

  14. Hysteresis and the transition between axisymmetric flow and wave flow in the baroclinic annulus (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Butler, Karen A.


    A numerical model is employed to establish the transitions between axisymmetric flow and wave flow in the rotating, differentially heated annulus experiments of Fein for both rigid lid and free surface cases. It is shown that, for most of the transitions, the method of computing a steady axisymmetric flow and then testing its linear stability to wave disturbance results in good agreement with the experiments. Implications for the investigation of the dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are considered.

  15. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Chapter 4 - Water (United States)


    20 to 30 percent of Americans consume more than 600 mg of caffeine daily (Neuhauser-Berthold et al., 1997). The other two methylxanthines, theobromine ...volume in healthy, free-living men when compared with other types of beverages (e.g., water, energy-containing beverages, or theobromine -containing...303. Dorfman LJ, Jarvik ME. 1970. Comparative stimulant and diuretic actions of caf- feine and theobromine in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 11:869–872

  16. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS. (United States)

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang


    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  17. Reference: 551 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 551 Liu Yongxiu et al. 2007 the Arabidopsis hub1 (rdo4) mutant reveals a role for chromatin remodeling in seed dormancy. 2 433-44 17329563 2007 Feb The Plant cell Koornneef Maarten|Liu Yongxiu|Soppe Wim J J

  18. Battle for Ulster. A Study of Internal Security (United States)


    considerable economic -benefits as British citizens, are not even fully committed- to reunification. Yet their increased- electoral support for Sinn Fein may...Socialist Republic. Consistent with- this new political, orientation, the IRA broke the long tradition of " abstentionism ," backing the candidacy...gained dramatically in electoral strength among- the Catholic community at the expense of the more moderate SDLP. 92 This shift by-the Provisionals to a

  19. Shaded in brass. Students's residence at Vienna, Austria; Messingfarben gefasster Markstein. Studentenwohnheim in Wien/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marboe, I.


    In Vienna, architects Baumschlager and Eberle constructed their first passive-standard students' residence. Paired windows with brass sheet shadings are the most interesting architectural feature on the outside, while rhythmically arranged light columns provide sunlight to the inside, down to the ground floor. (orig.) [German] In Wien realisierten die Architekten Baumschlager and Eberle ihr erstes Studentenwohnheim als Passivhaus. Wie feine Reliefs maeandern die Fensterpaare mit Beschattungspaneelen aus Messingblech ueber die Fassade. Innen lassen rhythmisch versetzte Lichtsaeulen die Sonne vom Dach bis ins Erdgeschoss stroemen. (orig.)

  20. TACOM Leadership Skills for the 21st Century (An Employee Perspective) (United States)


    hierarchies of “Esteem” and “Self Actualization”. ( Maslow , 1943) This theory is based upon premise that people need to grow and develop. Once the need is...workers on the 70‟s was the nature of their work. (Fein, 1974) In other words; they hated their jobs! Their jobs failed to fulfill Maslow ‟s need ...maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect

  1. Prioritisation in medicine – discussion of a reality


    Finke, U.; HOFFMANN, G


    Welche gesellschaftlichen Zwänge wirken auf die Medizin und ihre Anwender ein? Wie ist das Verhältnis von Ökonomie und medizinisch Gebotenem? Wie steht es mit der Finanzierung der nicht evidenzbasierten Behandlung? Stellen Rationierung und Rationalisierung die möglichen Prinzipien der Priorisierung dar? Führt die Priorisierung zur Qualitätsminderung oder gar Sorgfaltsverletzung? Diese Fragen behandelte der 4. Ärztetag am Dom in Frankfurt am Main. Feine Unterschiede – Über Vorliebe und Abn...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  3. Obtenir mostres de color i comparar-les

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Entenza Rodríguez


    Full Text Available La nostra intenció era investigar l'ús del color en una sèrie de peces comunicatives, però en descriure com seleccionaríem i classificaríem les mostres, vam veure que aquest pas inicial suposava un estudi en si mateix, perquè classificar una cosa que no està acotat en quantitat (algunes aplicacions treballen amb milions, que disposa de diferents nomenclatures (en funció de cultures i països, del qual amb prou feines coneixem una dotzena de noms i que varia en funció de les condicions de llum, de suport, o de qualitat de reproducció, requereix reflexió i aprofundiment.

  4. Flow transitions in model Czochralski GaAs melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-xian; LI Ming-wei


    The flow and heat transfer of molten GaAs during Czochralski growth are studied with a time-dependent and three-dimensional turbulent flow model. A transition from axisymmetric flow to non-axisymmetric flow and then back to axisymmetric flow again with increasing the crucible rotation rate is predicted. In the non-axisymmetric regime, the thermal wave induced by the combination of coriolis force, buoyancy and viscous force in the GaAs melt is predicted for the first time. The thermal wave is confirmed to be baroclinic thermal wave. The origin of the transition to non-axisymmetric flow is baroclinic instability. The critical parameters for the transitions are presented, which are quantitatively in agreement with Fein and Preffer's experimental results. The calculated results can be taken as a reference for the growth of GaAs single-crystal of high quality.

  5. Expanding hypnotic pain management to the affective dimension of pain. (United States)

    Feldman, Jeffrey B


    Experimental (Price & Barber, 1987) and neuroimaging studies (Rainville, Carrier, Hofbauer, Bushnell, & Duncan, 1999), suggest that it is the affective dimension of pain as processed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is most associated with suffering and autonomic arousal. Conversely, pain related emotions (Rainville, Bao, & Chretien, 2005) and expectations (Koyama, McHaffie, Laurenti, & Coghill, 2005) modulate pain perception and associated pain affect. This paper presents both the scientific background and the general clinical steps involved in a practical hypnotic approach that uses emotion specific wording and the elicitation of prior positive experience to intervene at both the affective and sensory dimensions of pain. Such an approach enables patients to therapeutically use hypnosis to reduce their subjective distress even if they are not able to greatly reduce the sensation of pain. The utilization of positive state dependent learning (Rossi, 1986), following the advice of Milton Erickson to "discover their patterns of happiness" (Parsons-Fein, 2005) is emphasized.

  6. Microstructural characterization of porous materials by X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques; Caracterizacao da microestrutura de materiais porosos por microtomografia de raios X e transmissao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo


    This work presents the application of the X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques for the microstructure characterization of different kinds of materials. Total porosity, pore size distribution and the two point correlation functions were measured. The two point correlation function, which allows the reconstruction of 3D models, was carried out for two samples. Seven ceramic tablets of Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), seven tablets of Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C), three samples of sedimentary rocks and one sample of Titanium foam were analyzed. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241} Am radioactive source (59,53 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Two microtomography systems were used: a Fein Focus system, constituted by an X-ray tube, operated at 160 kV and 0.3 to 1.1 mA, a CCD camera and the movement sample system, and a Skyscan system, model 1072, with a X-ray tube operated at 100 kV and 100{mu}A, and a CCD camera. The ceramic tablets, analyzed by the gamma ray transmission technique presented results for most of the porosities data with smaller confidence intervals and inside the intervals supplied by the tablets manufacturer. The Titanium porous sample was analyzed by the two techniques, its microtomography images achieved a resolution of 17{mu}m, obtained employing the Fein Focus system. For both techniques, this sample showed high porosity, which allows its application for this purpose. The sandstones samples were analyzed by the Skyscan system, achieving resolutions of 19{mu}m, 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m for each sample, respectively. The resolutions of 11{mu}m and 3.8{mu}m were the ones that generated better 2D sections for the respective samples and, consequently, more reliable porosities. The 3.8{mu}m resolution was the one that best quantified the pore size

  7. Magnetic properties and giant magnetoresistance in Fe sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 5 (In sub 2 O sub 3) sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 5 granular film

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Bao Xin; Wang Jun; Zhang Ru Zhen; Zhang Li; Zhang Li; Mei Liang Mo


    Fe/In sub 2 O sub 3 granular films have been prepared by the radio frequency sputtering method. The magnetic and transport measurements of a representative sample, Fe sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 5 /(In sub 2 O sub 3) sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 5 , showed that there exist different magnetic states in different temperature regions. At room temperature, the film shows superparamagnetic behaviour, and a 5.2% magnetoresistance (MR) ratio was obtained. The susceptibility measurements showed that the blocking temperature is 50 K. Below a certain freezing temperature T sub f of about 10 K, the film transits from the ferromagnetic state to the particle-spin-cluster state. In this event, the MR ratio of the film increases dramatically with decreasing temperature. A maximum giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio up to 506% is obtained at the metal-semiconductor transition temperature of about 2.2 K. The mechanism of this GMR is related to the interaction with the impurities influencing the local magnetization which is quite different...

  8. Propagande et « contre-propagande » en Irlande pendant la Première Guerre mondiale Propaganda and « Counter-propaganda » in Ireland during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme aan de Wiel


    Full Text Available The First World War caused a major propaganda battle in Ireland between, on the one hand, the constitutional Nationalist Party, led by John Redmond, and the British authorities who were both in favour of the war and voluntary recruitment, and on the other hand, Sinn Féin, opposition nationalists and also a few Catholic clergymen who were against the British war effort in the country, deeming that the home rule crisis had not been dealt with in a satisfactory way. This article aims at shedding light on the confrontation between the two sides. It seems that the British authorities were rather disorganised in their various propaganda campaigns, while Sinn Fein pursued an energetic and sometimes vitriolic anti-war campaign. One of the themes used by the latter was France’s pre-war anti-clerical policy. This article will consider the extent to which propaganda and “counter-propaganda” influenced voluntary recruitment in Ireland where conscription was not imposed.

  9. Fine particulate emissions of internal combustion engines; Feinpartikel-Emissionen von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A. [TTM Technik Thermische Maschinen, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)


    The contribution presents data on particulate emissions of road vehicles, e.g. emission factors, scattering ranges, grain sizes, constituents. Spark ignition engines, diesel engines, four-stroke gas engines and two-stroke spark ignition engines are considered. Abrasion of brakes and tyres is mentioned as well as the effects on human lungs. Standardisation efforts so far are mentioned in the contribution. [German] Im Beitrag wird zunaechst der Begriff 'Feinpartikel' definiert. Das heisst, wie fein sind die Feinpartikel, welche Eigenschaften sie haben und warum sie im vorliegenden Zusammenhang von zunehmender Bedeutung sind. Partikel treten entsprechend ihrem Entstehungsprozess bevorzugt in drei Bereichen auf. Man spricht haeufig von drei-modalen-Verteilung: Nuklei-Modus, Akkumulations-Modus, Grobpartikel. Im Beitrag werden Zahlenwertangaben ueber die Partikelemissionen des Strassenverkehrs gemacht, etwa wie: Emissionsfaktoren, Streubereiche, Korngroessen und Inhaltsstoffe. Betrachtet werden die Motorentypen: Otto-, Diesel- und Otto-Gasmotor (Viertakter), sowie Zweitakt-Ottomotoren. Darueber hinaus werden Brems- und Reifenabriebe sowie Partikel aus Kupplungsverschleiss detailliert angesprochen. Der Mechanismus der Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Lunge wird ausfuehrlich erklaert. Erste Ansaetze zur Standardisierung der Feinpartikelemission haben sich mit Ruecksicht auf die gesundheitlichen Wirkungen bereits entwickelt und werden im Beitrag erwaehnt. (AFK)

  10. Phosphor in der Entstehung der urämischen Mediasklerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch AH


    Full Text Available Phosphat ist als wichtiger intrazellulärer Signalstoff und Bestandteil der Stützgewebe essenziell für den menschlichen Organismus. Die Vielzahl regulatorischer Mechanismen mit der Aufgabe, den Phosphathaushalt ausgeglichen zu halten, umfasst unter anderem Vitamin D, Parathormon sowie das Phosphatonin Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF23 und dessen Korezeptor Klotho. Dieses fein gesteuerte Netzwerk diverser Botenstoffe gerät in chronisch nierenkranken Patienten jedoch zunehmend in Dysbalance, was schlussendlich die Entstehung einer der abträglichsten Konsequenzen der chronischen Niereninsuffizienz, der urämischen Mediasklerose (MS, begünstigt. Die damit verbundenen Änderungen im Gefäßbett sind maßgeblich für die exzessiv hohe Sterblichkeit nierenkranker Patienten verantwortlich und die Korrektur der ihr zugrunde liegenden Abweichungen hat in der nephrologischen Praxis eine hohe Priorität. Noch immer ist die genaue Wechselwirkung dieser Faktoren sowie deren individueller Beitrag zur Entstehung der MS nicht vollständig geklärt. Dass hohe Phosphatspiegel eine Schlüsselrolle spielen, ist gut gesichert. So begünstigt Phosphat die Apoptose glattmuskulärer Gefäßzellen in der Gefäßwand, fördert deren Transdifferenzierung zu Osteoblasten, unterbindet die Ausprägung eines Osteoklasten-ähnlichen Phänotyps in residenten Monozyten und trägt zum Anstieg von FGF23 sowie Rückgang von Klotho maßgeblich bei.

  11. Spatial Distribution and Anthropogenic Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of Klang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Naji; Ahmad Ismail


    The study was conducted to quantify the concentration and distribution of metals(Cd,Zn,Ni,Cu,Pb,and Fe)in the surface sediments and to assess the status of metal contaminations in the Klang River,Malaysia.The concentrations of metals(μg/g,Fe%,dry weight)were as follows:0.57-2.19 μg/g Cd;31.89-272.33 μg/g Zn;5.96-24.47μg/g Ni;10.57-52.87μg/g Cu;24.23-64.11μg/g Pb and 1.56%-3.03% Fe.Sequential extraction technique(SET)showed that mean anthropogenic portions of metals were in the order of Zn(60.22%),Cu(56.01%),Cd(45.63%),Ni (42.08%),Pb(33.22%)and Fe(10.26%).The highest concentrations of metals(p<0.05)were found in the stations located close to industrial parks and highly populated areas.The results of the present study showed that the effectiveness of total organic carbon(TOC)contents in controlling the distribution and enrichment of metals was a more important factor compared to grain size.The study also indicated that the control of metals pollution from direct influx of domestic wastes and insufficiently treated industrial wastes in the Mang River was an important and desirable way to minimize the detrimental effects of metals.

  12. The scope of detector Medipix2 in micro-radiography of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Jakubek, J. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Skrabal, P. [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Nam. Sitna 3105, CZ-272 01 Kladno (Czech Republic); Sopko, V.; Vavrik, D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)


    We present our experimental setup devoted to high resolution X-ray micro-radiography that is suitable for imaging of small biological samples. The photon source is a FeinFocus micro-focus X-ray tube. The single photon counting pixel device Medipix2 serves as imaging area. Recently used imaging detectors as radiography films or scintillator detectors, cannot visualize required information about inner structure of scanned sample. Detectors Medipix2 do not suffer from so-called dark current noise and work in unlimited dynamic range. These features of detectors confer high quality and high contrast of final images. The radiographic imaging with detectors Medipix2 represents non-invasive and non-destructive method of investigation. Hereby, we demonstrate results of micro-radiographic study of internal structures of tiny biological samples. In addition to morphological and anatomical studies, we would like to present preliminary study of dynamic processes inside of organisms using micro-radiographic video-capturing.

  13. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: the story of Temple Grandin, PhD. (United States)

    Ratey, J J; Grandin, T; Miller, A


    The causal factors in the behaviorally defined syndrome of autism remain unclear, although the past decade has brought to bear two significant developments that shape our view of the disorder. The first of these developments is a growing body of biomedical research that indicates there are multiple etiologies associated with the disorder. This research has allowed for the formation of subgroups based upon neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurophysiological abnormalities (Damasio 1984; Piggot 1979; Ritvo et al. 1990). The second is neuropsychological research indicating that the socioemotional deficits are primary to the disorder and may underlie much of the behavioral symptomatology (Fein et al. 1986). These areas of concern undoubtedly have enhanced our understanding of the disorder, yet in their achievements they may too easily absorb what we know about autistics who experience a chronic state of physiological hyperarousal, evidence of which has been found in neurophysiological studies (Delius 1967; Hutt et al. 1965), neurochemical studies (Lake et al. 1977), psychopharmacologic studies (Ratey et al. 1987a), and behavioral studies (Kinsbourne 1980; Kootz et al. 1982; Tinbergen and Tinbergen 1972; Zentall and Zentall 1983). These individuals, perhaps constituting a subgroup of their own, experience an inner state of disorganization that markedly impairs their functioning (Sands and Ratey 1986).

  14. The production phase model as a tool for analysing and structuring the database of an operation management system; Das Phasenmodell der Produktion als ein Werkzeug fuer Analyse und Strukturierung der Datenbasis eines Betriebsmanagementsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauprich, G.; Polke, B.


    This paper presents a process analysis which was carried out with the aid of a phase model for the purpose of supporting the start-up phase of an operation management system. Beside providing a functional structure for the database this process analysis permits a functional and consistent representation of the process at as crude or detailed a level as desired. In this way the phase model supplies a functional model of the process which serves the purposes of both the process control and the operation control level. Once the phase model has been created it largely only depends on the question being asked which level of detail and what properties of the relevant process elements and material and energy flows are used. [Deutsch] Eine mit Hilfe des Phasenmodells durchgefuehrte Prozessanalyse unterstuetzt die Einfuehrungsphase eines Betriebsmanagementsystems. Sie gibt eine funktionale Struktur der Datenbank vor und erlaubt darueberhinaus auf der Ebene des Betriebsmanagementsystems eine funktionale, konsistente, beliebig grobe oder feine detaillierte Darstellung des Prozesses. Die Phasenmodellierung liefert damit sowohl fuer die Prozessleitebene als auch fuer die Betriebsleitebene ein ganzheitliches, funktionales Modell des Prozesses. Wenn das Phasenmodell erst einmal erstellt ist, ist es im wesentlichen nur abhaengig von der Fragestellung, welche Detaillierungsebenen mit welchen Eigenschaften der relevanten Prozesselemente und Material-/Energiestroeme verwendet werden. (orig./RHM)

  15. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation. (United States)

    Fey, Theres; Schubert, Kai Michael; Schneider, Holger; Fein, Evelyn; Kleinert, Eike; Pohl, Ulrich; Dendorfer, Andreas


    Podosomes are dynamic cytoskeletal membrane structures with local adhesive and proteolytic activity. They are critically involved in angiogenesis and vascular adaptive growth. Here, we studied in HUVECs and murine small vessels whether shear stress controls podosome assembly and local proteolytic activity. Podosomes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, and their proteolytic activity was assessed as degradation imprints in fluorescent gelatin that was used as growth substrate. Compared with controls (10 dyn/cm(2)), the number of podosomes formed per time was doubled when cells were exposed to low shear stress (0.3 dyn/cm(2)) or even increased 5-fold under static conditions. This was a result of an enhanced expression of VEGF after reduction of shear stress. Consequently, enhanced podosome formation could be prevented by a VEGF receptor antagonist as well by interruption of VEGF signaling via inhibition of PI3K, Src, or p38. Increase of podosome assembly went along with significantly augmented cell motility. In vivo experiments in mouse arteries confirmed increased endothelial podosome numbers when shear stress was abolished by vessel occlusion. We conclude that shear stress, by reducing VEGF release, inhibits podosome assembly. Hence, endothelial cell-mediated matrix proteolysis and migratory activity are inhibited, thereby stabilizing the structure of the vessel wall.-Fey, T., Schubert, K. M., Schneider, H., Fein, E., Kleinert, E., Pohl, U., Dendorfer, A. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

  16. Processing and application properties of silicon-doped titanium aluminides; Formgebungs- und Anwendungseigenschaften silizidhaltiger TiAl-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanta, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung


    Submicrocrystalline intermetallic/ceramic composites based on the system Ti-Al-Si are prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent powder consolidation. Finely dispersed silicides prevent coarsening of the {gamma}-TiAl matrix during hot-forming. Therefore, the deformation temperatures can be reduced by about 200 C compared to conventional titanium aluminides. After a subsequent coarsening heat treatment, creep properties comparable to those of conventional TiAl based alloys (1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} at 700 C) are achieved. This study demonstrates that microstructure design allows for favorable processing properties without compromises regarding the desired application properties. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung des technischen Anwendungspotenzials submikrokristalliner Werkstoffe werden silizidhaltige {gamma}-TiAl-Basislegierungen durch Hochenergiemahlen und heissisostatisches Pressen hergestellt. Bei der industriellen Formgebung ermoeglicht die durch Silizide stabilisierte feine Mikrostruktur eine deutliche Temperaturabsenkung von 200 C im Vergleich zu den fuer Titanaluminide ueblichen Prozesstemperaturen. Nach einer anschliessend durchgefuehrten Gefuegeumwandlung werden Kriechgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die mit 1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} bei 700 C im Bereich der Werte schmelzmetallurgisch hergestellter TiAl-Legierungen liegen. Eine gezielte Mikrostrukturgestaltung ermoeglicht somit eine deutliche Verbesserung der Umformeigenschaften unter Beibehaltung der guenstigen Eigenschaften fuer Hochtemperaturanwendungen. (orig.)

  17. Crystallization process and soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline (Fe0.5 Co0.5 ) 86 Hf7 B6 Cu1 alloy used in elevated temperature applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-bing; J.Ferenc; T.Kulik; XU Bin-shi


    Nanocrystalline (Fe0.5 Co0.5 )86 Hf7 B6 Cu1 HITPERM alloy was investigated as the candidate of soft magnetic material for high temperature applications, compared with Fe86 Hf7B6 Cu1 NANOPERM alloy. Amorphous alloy ribbons were prepared by single-roller melt-spinning technology. Crystallization process of as-quenched ribbon was investigated using differential scanning calorimeter at different heating rates. The coercivity was determined from quasi-static hysteresis loop measured at room temperature using a computerized hysteresis loop tracer. X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation was used to determine the structure. The vibrating sample magnetometer was usedto measure the magnetization as a function of temperature of the nanocrystllized alloys. That Co substitution for Fein alloy enhances the Curie temperature of amorphous alloy and the magnetization of nanocrystalline alloy at hightemperature. After annealing amorphous precursor, the optimum nanocrystalline alloy obtained shows the local minimum coercivity. The coercivity increases with the increasing annealing temperature corresponding to the formation of ferromagnetic phase in the secondary crystallization.

  18. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)


    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  19. Time-effectiveness, observer-dependence, and accuracy of measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction using 4-channel MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, T.; Willmann, J.K.; Desbiolles, L.M.; Marincek, B.; Wildermuth, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kantonsspital, Chur (Switzerland); Alkadhi, H. [Dept. Medical Radiology, Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Roffi, M. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Vergleich zur biplanaren Cine-Ventrikulographie. Material und Methoden: 20 konsekutive Patienten wurden mittels 4-Zeilen-MDCT-Angiographie der Koronarien und biplanarer Cine-Ventrikulographie untersucht. Die CT-Rohdaten wurden in Inkrementen von 10% ueber den gesamten Herzzyklus axial rekonstruiert. Daraus wurden bei jedem Patienten 10 geometrisch identische multiplanar reformatierte Datensaetze parallel zur Kurzachse des Herzens rekonstruiert. Zur Bestimmung der EF segmentierten drei unabhaengige Untersucher den linken Ventrikel in der endsystolischen und enddiastolischen Herzphase bei standardisierten Fenstereinstellungen. Die EF aus der biplanaren Cine-Ventrikulographie wurde durch zwei weitere unabhaengige Untersucher bestimmt und mit der MDCT-Angiographie verglichen. Die Nachverarbeitungszeiten fuer beide Methoden wurden verglichen und der Grad der Uebereinstimmung zwischen den Untersuchern fuer beide Untersuchungstechniken quantifiziert. Ergebnisse: Die Nachverarbeitungszeit fuer die Bestimmung der EF betrug 63{+-}3 min fuer die MDCT Angiographie und 5,5{+-}1,2 min fuer die Ventrikulographie. MDCT-Angiographie und Ventrikulographie zeigten eine gute Korrelation bezueglich der EF-Messungen (r=0,83, p<0,0001). Der mittlere Messfehler fuer die drei MDCT-Untersucher, verglichen mit dem Mittelwert der Ventrikulographie, betrug -6,3{+-}6,6%, -4.7{+-}7,1% und -4,6{+-}5,7%. Die mittleren Differenzen zwischen den drei MDCT-Untersuchern waren -1,6{+-}3,2% (Untersucher 1 versus 2, r=0,96), -1,6{+-}5,6% (1 versus 3, r=0,95) und -0,011{+-}2,9% (2 versus 3, r=0,97, p<0,0001). Die mittlere Differenz zwischen den zwei Untersuchern der Ventrikulographie betrug 0,32{+-}5,1% (r=0,88, p<0,0001). (orig.)

  20. The Intersecting Identity Politics of the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Lalander


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el movimiento indígena evangélico ecuatoriano con el énfasis particular en las tensiones entre etnicidad y religión en contextos de movilización política en la provincia de Chimborazo. Chimborazo ha sido una fortaleza tradicional tanto de la Iglesia Católica como posteriormente de las Iglesias Evangélicas, lo que ha contribuido a la excepcionalidad de la provincia y asimismo ha animado la formación de diferentes movimientos políticos. El enfoque principal está en la 'Federación Ecuatoriana de Indígenas Evangélicos '(FEINE y su brazo electoral 'Amauta Jatari', así como sus complejas relaciones con el más amplio movimiento indígena. Teórica y metodológicamente, el artículo se apoya en ideas de 'Interseccionalidad '– que originalmente emergieron en estudios de género – sobre las relaciones entre identidades y categorías socio-culturales. Estas ideas se integran dentro de un marco analítico sociológico-politológico, y consecuentemente se justifica esta integración analítica no solamente por su valor para la apertura de posibilidades de problematización del tema, sino también para poder comprender más claramente la compleja mezcla identitaria que influye en las lógicas colectivas e individuales en la sociedad. ¿Hay un cierto orden jerárquico entre la identificación étnica y religiosa entre pueblos étnicamente definidos y con creencias religiosas específicas? ¿Es esta jerarquía imaginaria constante, o puede cambiar según los diferentes contextos sociales y políticos? English: This study analyses the Ecuadorian Evangelical Indigenous movement with a particular focus on the tensions between ethnicity and religion in political mobilization processes in the Chimborazo province. Chimborazo has been a traditional stronghold both of the Catholic Church and later of Evangelical churches, which makes the province exceptional and has triggered the formation of different political movements

  1. Microstructural characterization of industrial foams by gamma ray transmission and X-ray microtomography; Caracterizacao microestrutural de espumas industriais por transmissao de raios gama e microtomografia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo


    This work presents the total porosity measurements of the aluminum and silicon carbide (SiC) foams samples. For porosity determination the gamma ray transmission and X-ray microtomography with conic beam techniques were used. These methods have more advantage than conventional ones, because they are non destructive and provide more details of the analyzed material porous structure. The aluminum foam samples with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45 ppi (pores per inch) and SiC ceramic foam samples with 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 80 and 90 ppi were analysed by gamma transmission. The SiC 60, 75 and 90 ppi samples were also analyzed by X-ray microtomography. For the gamma ray transmission measurements it was used an {sup 241} Am source (59.53 keV), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyzer, at the LFNA/UEL. For the X-ray microtomographic measurements, the Fein Focus X-ray system of the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory of the COPPE, located at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, was used. This equipment provide us images with micrometric resolution (53.48 {mu}m) using a conic X-ray beam and bidimensional detection. The microtomographic images were pre-processed and analyzed by the Imago software, developed at Porous Media and Materials Thermophysical Properties Laboratory (LMPT) of the Mechanical Engineering Department, located at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC. Employing the The Imago software it was calculated the total porosity, pore size distribution and autocorrelation function C(u) of the binarized microtomographic images of the each sample. The microtomographic 3-D image of each sample was compared with 3-D image reconstructed by the Gaussian truncated method. This method generates a periodic 3-D porous structure by using of the autocorrelation function of one 2-D cross sectional image of the sample. (author)

  2. Investigation of local structural environments and room-temperature ferromagnetism in (Fe,Cu)-codoped In2O3 diluted magnetic oxide films. (United States)

    An, Yukai; Xing, Yaya; Pan, Fei; Wu, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiwen


    The local structural, optical, magnetic and transport properties of (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 (0.06 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering have been systemically studied by different experimental techniques. Detailed structural analyses using XRD, XPS, EXAFS and full multiple-scattering ab initio theoretical calculations of Fe K-edge XANES show that the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films have the same cubic bixbyite structure as pure In2O3. The doped Fe ions exist at both +2 and +3 oxidation states, substituting for the In(3+) sites in the In2O3 lattice and forming a FeIn + 2VO complex with the O vacancy in the first coordination shell of Fe. However, the co-doped Cu atoms are not incorporated into the In2O3 lattice and form the Cu metal clusters due to high ionization energy. UV-Vis measurements show that the optical band gap Eg decreases monotonically with the increase of Fe concentration, implying an increasing s-pd exchange interaction in the films. All the films display intrinsic room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism and the saturated magnetization (Ms) increases monotonically with Fe doping. The temperature dependence of the resistivity data suggests the conduction mechanism of Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) at low temperature, confirming that the carriers are localized. It can be concluded that the observed RT ferromagnetism in the films originates from the overlapping of polarons mediated by oxygen vacancies based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. The variation of the localization effect of carriers with Fe doping can obviously adjust the magnetic exchange interaction in the (In0.95-xFexCu0.05)2O3 films.

  3. Wiki Loves Monuments 2011: experiència a Espanya i reflexions des de la difusió del patrimoni cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Rodríguez Posada


    Full Text Available La Wikipedia va néixer al ciberespai. Els seus primers anys es van caracteritzar per una feina distribuïda i asíncrona entre usuaris de tot el planeta, que amb prou feines tenien relació personal fora de la xarxa. Amb el pas del temps, alguns dels seus voluntaris van fer les anomenades wikitrobades, però al començament les reunions de wikimedistes tenien la finalitat d'estrènyer llaços i no comportaven cap millora directa dels continguts dels projectes. Més endavant van sorgir iniciatives presencials en les quals es van involucrar, a més de voluntaris, algunes entitats culturals; la més recent i que ha tingut més impacte és Wiki Loves Monuments 2011, un concurs destinat a fotografiar monuments de divuit països europeus, entre els quals hi ha Espanya. Gràcies a l'alta participació, s'han pres en conjunt més de 160.000 fotografies de monuments. Espanya ha ocupat el tercer lloc en nombre d'imatges. En aquest article estudiem els orígens de Wiki Loves Monuments, com es va posar en marxa, com es va desenvolupar i els resultats obtinguts. L'èxit de l'edició 2011 i les peticions d'altres països han fet que ja es treballi en l'organització de Wiki Loves Monuments 2012, aquesta vegada a escala mundial.

  4. The use of contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J; Sopko, V; Jakubek, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F, E-mail: [Biological center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)


    The technique of X-ray transmission imaging has been available for over a century and is still among the fastest and easiest approaches to the studies of internal structure of biological samples. Recent advances in semiconductor technology have led to the development of new types of X-ray detectors with direct conversion of interacting X-ray photon to an electric signal. Semiconductor pixel detectors seem to be specially promising; compared to the film technique, they provide single-quantum and real-time digital information about the objects being studied. We describe the recently developed radiographic apparatus, equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by an X-ray tube (micro- or nano-focus FeinFocus). Thanks to the wide dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and its high spatial resolution better than 1{mu}m, the setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in-vivo observations with contrast agent (Optiray). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of the use iodine contrast agent as a tracer in various insects as model organisms. The motivation of our work is to develop our imaging techniques as non-destructive and non-invasive. Microradiographic imaging helps detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize the internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  5. TrueFISP MR imaging to determine the influence of hemodialysis on the myocardial functional parameters in patients with terminal renal insufficiency; TrueFISP-MR-Bildgebung zur Bestimmung des Einflusses der Haemodialyse auf myokardiale Funktionsparameter bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, U.; Fenchel, M.; Kraft, A.; Tomaschko, K.; Stauder, N.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Wolf, S.; Risler, T. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik


    chronischer Niereninsuffizienz (NI) beschaeftigt sich mit der Frage, inwiefern morphologische kardiale Veraenderungen im Rahmen der uraemischen Kardiomyopathie nachweisbar sind und welcher Stellenwert der Haemodialyse (HD) im Hinblick auf linksventrikulaere Funktionsparameter zukommt. Methodik: An einem 1.5 T Magnetom Sonata (Siemens) wurden 26 Patienten mit NI vor und nach HD untersucht. Zusaetzlich wurden 14 Probanden als Referenzkollektiv (einmalige Untersuchung, keine HD) nach gleichem Protokoll untersucht. Auf Grundlage der modifizierten Simpson-Regel erfolgte eine computerassistierte Bestimmung (Argus-Software, Syngo 2002B) der LV-Funktionsparameter enddiastolisches und endsystolisches Volumen (EDV, ESV), Ejektionsfraktion (EF), Schlagvolumen (SV), Myokardmasse (MM) and Cardiac output (CO) mittels einer segmentierten Cine-TrueFisp-Sequenz (TR 3,2 ms, TE 1,6 ms, Flip 60 , Schichtdicke 5 mm, Zeitaufloesung 45 ms). Ergebnis: Als Effekt der HD liess sich eine signifikante (p<0,001) Abnahme der Funktionsparameter EDV (150{+-}47 ml/114{+-}49 ml), ESV (71{+-}46 ml/60{+-}56 ml), SV (79{+-}25 ml/57{+-}27 ml) und CO (3,6{+-}1,0 l/min x m{sup 2}/2,6{+-}1,1 l/min x m{sup 2}) nachweisen. Eine statistisch nicht signifikante Verringerung wurde fuer EF (56{+-}15%/53{+-}18%) ermittelt. Ebenfalls keine signifikante Aenderung fand sich fuer die Myokardmasse (148{+-}47 g/148{+-}52 g) sowie den Myokardmassenindex (80,7{+-}27,8 g/m{sup 2}/80,1{+-}29,4 g/m{sup 2}). Im Vergleich zu Probandenmessungen fanden sich bei allen Patienten Zeichen der LV-Hypertrophie (MMI 80,1{+-}29,4 g/m{sup 2}/47{+-}9,1 g/m{sup 2}) sowie ein erhoehtes EDV als Ausdruck einer LV-Dilatation. Schlussfolgerung: Eine kardiale Manifestation im Rahmen der Grunderkrankung kann anhand von morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen nachgewiesen werden.

  6. Aktivierung von Apoptose-Signalkaskaden in ejakulierten Spermatozoen: ein biologischer Faktor der männlichen Infertilität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paasch U


    Full Text Available Der als Apoptose benannte, universell in nahezu allen Körperzellen ausführbare, programmierte Zelltod (PCD ist durch charakteristische Veränderungen der betreffenden Zelle und nachfolgende Phagozytose im Zellverband gekennzeichnet. Caspasen (CP, Cysteinyl-Aspartat-spezifische Proteinasen sind Proteasen, die in ihrem aktiven Zentrum die Aminosäure Cystein enthalten und Proteine nach der Aminosäure Aspartat spalten. Sie spielen auch bei der durch den PCD gesteuerten Ausreifung des humanen Germinalepithels die zentrale Rolle in der Transduktion der apoptotischen Signale. In Abhängigkeit ihrer Reife und der Integrität der Plasmamembran finden sich in ejakulierten Spermatozoen sowohl inaktive als auch aktivierte Caspasen. Funktionell unterscheidet man zwischen Initiatorcaspasen, die am Anfang der Signalkette z. B. Todesrezeptoren nachgeschaltet sind, und Effektorcaspasen, die das Todessignal terminal umsetzen. Die staffelförmige Aktivierung der Caspasen (aCP erfolgt durch Proteolyse inaktiver Pro-Caspasen (pCP, Zymogene. Bisher sind 14 Vertreter dieser Enzymfamilie in menschlichen Zellen bekannt. Mehr als 250 verschiedene Zellsubstrate werden von CP-3 degradiert, die die entscheidende Rolle in der terminalen Exekution des Todessignales spielt. Die Universalität des Todesprogrammes erfordert zum Erhalt der Gewebshomöostase eine sehr fein ausbalancierte Kontrolle auf molekularer Ebene, reguliert durch endokrine, physikalische und biochemische Faktoren. Im Germinalepithel ermöglicht die Aktivierung und exakte Regulation der Caspasen die Steuerung der Reifung männlicher Gameten. Störungen dieses Maturationsprozesses führen u. a. zu DNA-Fragmentationen, zu morphologisch unreifen Spermatozoen mit zytoplasmatischen Droplets oder auch zu eingeschränkter Funktion beim ejakulierten Spermatozoon. Neue Einblicke in die molekulare Steuerung der Differenzierung des Germinalepithels werden die Entwicklung des physiologischen Verständnisses und

  7. 绿茶冲泡过程中咖啡碱的转移动态%On Transfer Dynamics of Caffeine in Green Tea brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会娟; 童华荣


    采用均匀试验设计,模拟中国绿茶消费者的泡饮方式,研究在冲泡过程中液料比、茶汤剩余百分比、加水温度、冲泡时间以及冲泡次数这5个因素对咖啡碱溶出量的影响。结果表明,除冲泡次数外,加水温度对咖啡碱的溶出量影响最大,其次为液料比和茶汤剩余百分比,冲泡时间影响较小。当温度高于90℃,液料比和茶汤剩余百分比为55∶1和30%时,咖啡碱溶出量最多;但无论用哪种冲泡方法进行冲泡,当冲泡4次时,咖啡碱溶出量均达到最大值。%The effect of the factors on the caffeine transfer from dried (made) tea to tea infusion ,has been studied in this paper ,including liquid‐solid ratio ,tea infusion percentage remaining ,water temperature , brewing time and brewing times ,as green tea is subjected to an infusion process prior to the Chinese con‐sumers .It is further interesting to observe that the water temperature has a great influence on the dissolu‐tion of caffeine except brewing times ,followed by liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentage remaining . However ,brewing for longer periods (extend brewing time) resulted in less impact on the transfer of caf‐feine .Moreover ,when the water temperature is higher than 90 ℃ and liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentages remaining are respectively 55∶1 and 30% ,the caffeine amount is more ,no matter w hat brew‐ing method we use .Also ,the caffeine amount reaches the maximum ,when brewing times is 4 .

  8. 88例结节病临床分析%A retrospective clinical analysis of 88 cases with sarcoidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    貊婷婷; 杨海峰; 黄海; 聂蔚; 李兵


    Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis and to improve our understanding of sarcoidosis.Methods Review and analyze the clinical data of 88 sarcodiosis patients. Results The male and female ratio in 88 sarcoidosis patients was 1 ∶ 1.44 and their average age was 49.69±1 1.84.The main clinical manifestations were cough,choking sensation in chest,marasmus,and superficial lymph node enlargement.The patients with feinsilver and fein always had excessive small nodules or patchy shadows.63.33% of patients had the symptom of rising serumangiotensin-converting enzyme(SACE).In pathological examination,mediastinoscopy,thoracoscopy,and biopsy of skin lesions had the highest diagnosis rate.Conclusions The clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis have no specificity;the rising of SACE is common;mediastinoscopy,thoracoscopy,and biopsy of skin lesions are the main methods to diagnose sarcoidosis pathologically.%目的:总结结节病临床特点,提高对结节病的认识。方法回顾性分析88例结节病患者临床资料。结果88例结节病患者男女比例为1∶1.44,平均年龄为(49.69±11.84)岁。临床表现主要为咳嗽、胸闷、消瘦、浅表淋巴结肿大。肺部浸润表现以小结节居多,其次是斑片状阴影。63.33%的患者出现血清血管紧张素转换酶(SACE)升高。病理检查以纵隔镜、胸腔镜和皮损处活检确诊率最高。结论结节病临床表现缺乏特异性,SACE 升高较常见,纵隔镜、胸腔镜和皮损处活检是病理确诊结节病的主要方法。

  9. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails:; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail:


    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95{sup -3} and 1.92{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  10. Geneti variation and selection among provenience of Quercus variabilis%栓皮栎不同种源苗期变异与初步选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素传; 王陆军; 蔡新玲; 肖正东


    收集了栓皮栎分布区内25个种源种子,在肥西县花岗镇(蔡)冲村进行播种育苗试验,对其苗期生长性状、生物量进行测定分析.结果表明,栓皮栎苗高、地径生长均表现“S”形曲线,7-9月中旬为速生期;不同种源栓皮栎除根长存在显著差异外,苗高、地径、高径比、生物量均存在极显著差异;苗高与地径、茎、叶、总生物量呈极显著正相关,地径与根、茎、叶、总生物量也呈极显著正相关,根与茎、叶、总生物量同样呈极显著正相关.主成分分析表明,种源间的差异主要是由生物量和地径决定的.初步筛选出云南勐海、安徽东至、河南信阳、重庆酉阳、浙江杭州、安徽金寨2号、安徽绩溪7个优良种源.%25 provenience of Quercus variabilis seeds were collected from its main distribution area in China. Raising seedlings experiments were carried out at Caichong Village, Huanggang Town, Fein County, Anhui Province. Seedling growth trails and biniun-M were measured. The resuks showed that Q. imriabilis seedling height and ground diameter growth showed an "S" curve, with July to September as the fast-growing period. Sagnifrcani differences were observed on height, ground diameter, heighl to diameter ratio, biomass and roots from different Q. vanobilis provenience, Height was significantly positive related >o ground diameter, stems, leaves, total biomass. Significant positive correlation was also observed between ground diameter and root, stem, leaves, the total biomass. Similarly, roots were significantly positive correlated with the s!玬, leaves, bioma&s loo- Phitttpal component analysis showed that the main differences among pcoveaience were decided by the ground diameter and biomass of vanous parts of the plant. Seven improved provenience. originated from Menghai of Yunan Province, Dongzhi of Aohui Province. Xingvane of Henan Province. Youyang of Chongqin city, Hangzhou of Zhe-jiang Province, No. 2

  11. In situ Raman study of dissolved CaCO3 minerals under subduction zone conditions (United States)

    Facq, S.; Daniel, I.; Sverjensky, D. A.


    bicarbonate species is dominant in the fluid. The Raman data were also used to constrain a theoretical thermodynamic model of the fluid speciation in equilibrium with CaCO3. Building on published calcite solubility data from 400 - 700 °C and 2 - 16 kb [3, 5], revised thermodynamic properties of aqueous CO2 and HCO3-, data for the aqueous CaHCO3+ complex from 4 to 90 °C [6], and estimated dielectric constants of water, enabled an equation of state characterization of the standard Gibbs free energy of CaHCO3+ at the conditions of the Raman study. At 300 - 400 °C, the Raman speciation results were used to constrain equilibrium constants involving the carbonate ion. The results indicate that CO2 is a minor species in fluids in equilibrium with aragonite at 300 - 500 °C and P > 1.0 GPa. Instead, the CaHCO3+ species becomes important at high pressures until carbonate ion becomes the dominant C-species. [1] Marty, B. and Tolstikhin, I.N., Chemical Geology 145, 233 (1998) [2] Schmidt, M.W. and Poli, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163, 163 (1998) [3] Caciagli, N.C. and Manning, C.E., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 146, 275 (2003) [4] Frantz, J., Chemical Geology 152, 211 (1998) [5] Fein, J.B. and Walther, J.V., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 103, 317 (1989) [6] Plummer, L.N. and Busenberg, E., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1011 (1982)

  12. Consideracions sobre la reforma del règim d'accés a l'ocupació pública - Consideraciones sobre la reforma del régimen de acceso al empleo público - Some Considerations on the Reform of the System Governing Access to Public Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez Morón


    Full Text Available L'aprovació de l'Estatut bàsic de l'empleat públic l'any 2007 va obrir la possibilitat d'introduir canvis significatius en el model tradicional de selecció dels funcionaris públics implantat al país, un model basat en les oposicions, que és massa formalitzat i que, de fet, s'ha anat abandonant gradualment en els últims temps a favor de procediments que garanteixen en menor mesura l'aplicació dels principis d'igualtat i de mèrit i capacitat. Tanmateix, fins ara l'EBEP amb prou feines s'ha desplegat per lleis estatals i autonòmiques, i les escasses lleis aprovades a aquest efecte són molt poc innovadores en matèria de selecció. El present article, partint del text de l'EBEP i dels suggeriments de la Comissió d'experts constituïda per preparar-lo, estudia els principals problemes pendents i les possibles alternatives legals. En virtut d'això, formula una sèrie de propostes de reforma, fundades tant en una major garantia dels principis constitucionals com en la necessitat d'agilitar els processos de selecció i de flexibilitzar els sistemes aplicables.La aprobación del Estatuto Básico del Empleado Público en el año 2007 abrió la posibilidad de introducir cambios significativos en el tradicional modelo de selección de los funcionarios públicos implantado en el país, un modelo basado en las oposiciones, que es demasiado formalizado y que, de hecho, se ha venido abandonando gradualmente en los últimos tiempos a favor de procedimientos que garantizan en menor medida la aplicación de los principios de igualdad y de mérito y capacidad. Sin embargo, hasta ahora el EBEP apenas se ha desarrollado por leyes estatales y autonómicas y las escasas leyes aprobadas al efecto son muy poco innovadoras en materia de selección. El presente artículo, partiendo del texto del EBEP y de las sugerencias de la Comisión de expertos constituida para su preparación, estudia los principales problemas pendientes y las posibles alternativas

  13. Dažu Ziemeļrietumvidzemes aizgūto leksēmu dinamika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Kagaine


    Stuck, Splitter’ zu beziehen. Semantisch ist izdilis kâ ķil̃ts mit der analogen Konstruktion (tievs, izdilis kâ skals zu vergleichen.porumi, puromi; das Wort ist mit der Grundbedeutung ‘Schutt, Kehricht; Krümchen; Spreu’ aufgezeichnet worden, resp. auf etwas Kleines, Feines, Zerkleinertes u.dgl. zu beziehen. Dies lässt vermuten, dass nordwestlivländisches porumi, puromi mit estn. puru (siehe M ä g i s t e VII 2244 II puru ‘Krümchen, Staubkorn, Stäubchen’, ‘Schutt, Mull’ und puruma ‘zerbrechen, zerkleinern’ in Verbindung stehen könnte.ķilputra, kilputra ‘aus dem Brotteig gekochter Brei’; ‘Grütze aus Roggenmehl’; siehe M ä g i s t e III 824 II kile ‘saurer Haferbrei’ + putra ‘Brei’.Bei einem Teil der entlehnten Lexeme kann die Herkunft mit der Kontamination Zusammenhängen: siehe narcaka, narcaks + grabažas > narkažas, narbažas ‘alte, abgetragene Sachen, abgenutzte Gegenstände; Lappen’; porumi, puromi + -akas (lancakas, poncakas ’alte, abgetragene Kleider, Kleidungsstücke, Fetzen’ > porakas ‘Schutt, Splitter, Reisig, Kehricht’.

  14. Preservation of tea infusion by tea waste adsorption%茶渣吸附性能在茶汤保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 汤一; 杨梦璇


    In order to explore the fresh⁃keeping effect of tea waste adsorption on tea infusion, the catechins and caf⁃feine contents, chromatic value, light transmittance and amino acid content were measured and compared with those by PVPP adsorption and lignocellulose adsorption. PVPP⁃,lignocellulose⁃,and tea waster⁃treated tea infusion and CK differed significantly in epigallocatechin ( EGC) , catechine( C) , epicatechin ( EC) , epigallocatechingallate ( EGCG) and total cat⁃echins(T⁃C) contents after 15 d of storage. Total catechins content follwed the order of CK (477�99 mg/L)>lignocellulose treatment (324�71 mg/L)>tea waste treatment(155�08 mg/L)>PVPP treatment(47�52 mg/L).PVPP showed the best improving effect on the color of tea infusion, followed by tea waste and lignocellulose.The amino acid content in tea infusion by tea waste treatment was higher than those by other treatments, and the transmittances were close in three treatments. Six⁃ty⁃minute adsorption by tea waste achieved the best preservation effect, keeping the catechins in tea infusion as much as possible to improve the quality of tea appearance.%为探究茶渣吸附处理对茶汤的保鲜作用,检测和分析了吸附后茶汤的儿茶素含量、咖啡因含量、氨基酸含量、色度值和透光率,并与交联聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVPP)和木质纤维素吸附处理进行对比。结果表明:贮藏15 d后3种吸附剂处理及对照之间茶汤表没食子儿茶素( EGC)、儿茶素( C)、表儿茶素( EC)、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯( EGCG)、儿茶素总量( T⁃C)含量均存在极显著差异( P<0�01),总儿茶素含量对照(477�99 mg/L)>木质纤维素处理(324�71 mg/L)>茶渣处理(155�08 mg/L)>PVPP处理(47�52 mg/L)。对茶汤色泽的改善效果PVPP处理>茶渣处理>木质纤维素处理,茶渣处理的氨基酸含量高于其他处理,而3种处理之间透光

  15. High- and low-affinity binding sites for Cd on the bacterial cell walls of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella oneidensis (United States)

    Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim; Bunker, Bruce A.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Fein, Jeremy B.


    Bulk Cd adsorption isotherm experiments, thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, and Cd K edge EXAFS were used to constrain the mechanisms of proton and Cd adsorption to bacterial cells of the commonly occurring Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella oneidensis, respectively. Potentiometric titrations were used to characterize the functional group reactivity of the S. oneidensis cells, and we model the titration data using the same type of non-electrostatic surface complexation approach as was applied to titrations of B. subtilis suspensions by Fein et al. (2005). Similar to the results for B. subtilis, the S. oneidensis cells exhibit buffering behavior from approximately pH 3-9 that requires the presence of four distinct sites, with p Ka values of 3.3 ± 0.2, 4.8 ± 0.2, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.5, and site concentrations of 8.9(±2.6) × 10 -5, 1.3(±0.2) × 10 -4, 5.9(±3.3) × 10 -5, and 1.1(±0.6) × 10 -4 moles/g bacteria (wet mass), respectively. The bulk Cd isotherm adsorption data for both species, conducted at pH 5.9 as a function of Cd concentration at a fixed biomass concentration, were best modeled by reactions with a Cd:site stoichiometry of 1:1. EXAFS data were collected for both bacterial species as a function of Cd concentration at pH 5.9 and 10 g/L bacteria. The EXAFS results show that the same types of binding sites are responsible for Cd sorption to both bacterial species at all Cd loadings tested (1-200 ppm). Carboxyl sites are responsible for the binding at intermediate Cd loadings. Phosphoryl ligands are more important than carboxyl ligands for Cd binding at high Cd loadings. For the lowest Cd loadings studied here, a sulfhydryl site was found to dominate the bound Cd budgets for both species, in addition to the carboxyl and phosphoryl sites that dominate the higher loadings. The EXAFS results suggest that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell walls have a low concentration of very high

  16. Primary Study on Relationship between Fungi and Caffeine Metabolism in Tea%真菌与茶叶中咖啡碱代谢关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 马存强; 任小盈; 杨超; 周斌星; 史高杰; 李发志


    微生物对咖啡碱有降解作用,可应用于低咖啡碱茶叶生产。以普洱茶渥堆分离鉴定出的黑曲霉、青霉菌、酵母菌等真菌为接种微生物,以咖啡碱唯一营养物质培养基、晒青毛茶、茶汤和咖啡碱PDB液态培养基为试验材料探索发酵过程中嘌呤碱含量与微生物的关系。结果表明:3种真菌均能部分降解咖啡碱,可可碱含量稳定,酵母菌发酵中茶叶碱含量大幅度升高,增幅可达最初的23.45倍,在黑曲霉茶叶、PDB液态培养基发酵中,茶叶碱含量有所上升,增幅与咖啡碱存在形式有关,青霉菌对咖啡碱代谢影响较小,仅在PDB液态发酵中茶叶碱含量有所上升。由此可见酵母菌对咖啡碱代谢影响较大,黑曲霉居中,青霉菌最小;咖啡碱、可可碱、茶叶碱在嘌呤碱代谢中存在相关性。%Some microorganisms can degrade caffeine, so they can be exploited in low-caffeine tea processing.Many species of fungi were isolated and identified during pu-erh tea pile fermentation, such as Aspergillus niger, penicillium and saccharomycetes. These fungi were inoculated on various media, and the relationships between these fungi and purine base content in tea in fermenta-tion process were explored. The results indicated that these three species of fungi all could degrade caffeine partly, and the content of theobromine was relatively stable.The content of theophylline was sharply enhanced during the fermentation by saccharomycetes, be-ing 23.45 times that of the control.The content of theophylline increased to some extent during sun-drying tea fermentation and caf-feine PDB liquid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger, and its increment was related to the existence form of caffeine.Penicillium had little influence on caffeine metabolism in tea, and the content of theophylline somewhat rose only during PDB liquid-state fer-mentation.In conclusion, saccharomycetes had the greatest effect on

  17. CPAP结合咖啡因治疗早产儿频发呼吸暂停的临床效果分析%Efficacy of Citrated Caffeine Versus CPAP for Apnea of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study and analyze the efficacy of citrated caffeine versus CPAP for Apnea of prematurity in the process of treatment, in order to improve the treatment advantage and effectively prevent and reduce the incidence of ad-verse events of infantile pneumonia in our hospital.Methods 68 cases with Apnea of prematurity of hospitalized patients, which admitted in our hospital for surgical treatment during March 2015 –March 2016, were selected as the research ob-ject according to random number table method and were divided into experimental group and control group in draw lots method (in each group, n=34). All patients were given the caffeine citrate, and experimental group were given citrated caf-feine versus CPAP at the same time. The effects were compared. Results After research data analysis found that the total ef-fective rate of the observation group was 30(88.24%) and that of the control group was 24 (70.59%),the clinical curative ef-fect of the observation group was more significant. Symptoms improved of the observation group was better than that of the control group, the difference was significant statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Citrated caffeine versus CPAP for Apnea of prematurity in the process of treatment can not only obviously improve the clinical therapeutic effect, but also pre-vent and reduce the incidence of various complications, which has exact curative effect and worthy recommend and applica-tion.%目的:为了提高治疗早产儿频发呼吸暂停的效果并减少各种不良事件发生的情况,探讨和研究给予持续气道正压通气(CPAP)呼吸机联合咖啡因治疗的价值和意义。方法按照随机原则抽取68例于2015年3月—2016年3月来该院治疗的早产儿频发呼吸暂停患者作为研究对象并通过抽签的方法方法将其分为试验组和对照组各34例,入组所有患者均给予咖啡因治疗,而试验组患儿同时给予CPAP呼吸机治疗,比较不同治疗

  18. 铁基活性组分对COS的吸附及催化转化作用%Adsorption performance and catalytic conversion of iron-based active components on COS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀蓉; 王海堂; 常丽萍


    采用共沉淀法制备了脱硫用铁基吸附剂的主要活性组分Fe2O3,并对其进行还原处理,制备了不同价态的含铁组分Fe3O4和Fe。使用固定床反应装置分别考察了三者在400~500℃范围内、COS/N2和H2/COS/N2两种气氛下对COS的吸附和催化转化的行为。结果表明:在COS/N2气氛下,三者对COS均有吸附,其吸附能力随温度的变化而异,不同温度下三者对COS吸附的硫容顺序为:Fe2O3〉Fe3O4〉Fe(400℃和450℃);Fe3O4〉Fe2O3〉Fe(500℃)。在H2/COS/N2/气氛下,COS的氢解反应随着温度的升高而增强,各活性组分的硫化产物对COS的氢解反应都具有一定的催化作用,这对于抑制H2S向COS转化具有积极的作用。%The iron-based active component,Fe2O3,was prepared by co-precipitation method.Fe3O4 and Fe,were also prepared by reducing Fe2O3 at different temperature for different time.The adsorption behavior of them was investigated in COS/N2 and H2/COS/N2 gas streams using the fixed bed reactor at 400 ℃,450 ℃ and 500 ℃,respectively.The results show that all three active components can adsorb COS and their adsorption ability varies with temperature.At 500 ℃,the sulfur capacity of Fe3O4 is the highest,and that of Fe is the lowest.While at the temperatures of 450 ℃ and 400 ℃,the sulfur capacity has the following sequence:Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe.In H2/COS/N2 gas stream,the reaction of COS hydrogenolysis is enhanced by increasing temperature.The iron sulfides have certain catalysis on COS hydrogenolysis and it has an active influence on inhibition of conversion from H2S to COS.

  19. Research on performance of resistance to SO2 of deNOx catalyst metal-organic framework MIL-100(Fe)loading CeO2%金属有机骨架MIL-100(Fe)担载CeO2复合脱硝催化剂抗硫性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏; 赵慧敏; 陈硕; 全燮


    在选择催化还原(selective catalytic reduction,SCR)反应中,SO2对脱硝催化剂活性具有重要影响.通过浸渍法制备的金属有机骨架(metal-organic frameworks,MOFs)MIL-100(Fe)(materials of Institute Lavoisier,MIL)担载CeO2的CeO2/MIL-100(Fe)催化剂在250℃含有500×10-6 SO2的条件下,对NOx 转化率在10 h内可以稳定在91%以上,高于MIL-100(Fe)催化剂的83%.原位红外漫反射傅里叶变换谱实验结果表明,SO2会导致 MIL-100(Fe)催化剂表面B酸性位上 NH+4物种的吸附强度降低,由此导致了含硫 SCR 反应中 NOx 转化率下降.CeO2/MIL-100(Fe)催化剂中由于添加了 CeO2,有效地减弱了 SO2对催化剂表面 B酸性位上 N H+4物种吸附强度的影响,提高了含硫条件下 N Ox 的转化率,增强了复合催化剂在 SCR反应中的抗硫性能.%In the selective catalytic reduction (SCR)reaction,SO2 has the important effect on the catalytic activity of deNOx catalyst.The prepared metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)MIL-100(Fe) (materials of Institute Lavoisier,MIL)loading ceria catalyst by impregnation method shows 9 1%NOx conversion in 10 h at 250 ℃ with the presence of 500×10-6 SO2 in the SCR reaction,higher than that of 83% over MIL-100 (Fe)catalyst.The results of in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT)spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the intensity of NH+4 species adsorbed on the Brønsted sites of MIL-100(Fe)surface decreases due to the presence of SO2 ,which reduces the NOx conversion over MIL-100(Fe)in the SCR reaction.The addition of ceria in MIL-100(Fe)catalyst effectively inhibits the effect of SO2 on the adsorbed NH+4 species on the Brønsted sites,which increases NOx conversion and improves the ability of resistance to SO2 of the composite catalyst in the SCR reaction.

  20. First experiments for the detection of simulated mammographic lesions. Digital full field mammography with a new detector with a double plate of pure selenium; Erste Untersuchungen zur Detektion simulierter mammographischer Laesionen. Digitale Vollfeldmammographie mit einem Doppelschicht-Selen-Detektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wenkel, E.; Adamietz, B.; Lell, M.; Anders, K.; Uder, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Abteilung Gynaekologische Radiologie, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Hermann, K.P. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)


    eine differenzierte Beurteilung der Systeme sehr fein abgestufte Testobjekte erforderlich sind. Entsprechende Untersuchungen befinden sich in Vorbereitung. (orig.)

  1. Una mirada crítica a la formació en gestió del coneixement en els estudis d'Informació i Documentació a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Pacios, Ana


    Full Text Available Objectiu: conèixer si la formació en gestió del coneixement, com a assignatura o com a itinerari especialitzat, està present en els estudis universitaris de grau i màster relacionats amb la ciència de la informació i la documentació a Espanya. -- Mètode i materials: s'han revisat els plans d'estudis de les universitats que ofereixen formació en Informació i Documentació en dos moments diferents que disten entre si deu anys, 2003 i 2013, la qual cosa permet observar si han tingut lloc canvis significatius. Addicionalment, s'ha afegit una revisió de l'oferta per al curs acadèmic 2015–2016 per tenir una foto fixa del moment actual. -- Resultats: tot i que la gestió de coneixement és àmpliament acceptada en l'àmbit disciplinari de la ciència de la informació, aquesta acceptació no sembla trobar reflex en l'oferta formativa espanyola, en la qual les assignatures dedicades a aquesta filosofia organitzativa són molt escasses, tant en els títols de grau com de màster. Els futurs professionals de la informació i la documentació a Espanya (tinguin el perfil que tinguin: bibliotecaris, gestors de la informació, documentalistes, arxivers, etc. amb prou feines reben formació específica en gestió del coneixement, excepte en comptades excepcions en què, d'altra banda i en certs casos, està sotmesa a l'optativitat, fet que no en garanteix l'aprenentatge. Això pot influir negativament a l'hora d'optar a ocupar llocs relacionats amb aquest perfil professional.Objetivo: conocer si la formación en gestión del conocimiento, como asignatura o como itinerario especializado, está presente en los estudios universitarios de grado y máster relacionados con la ciencia de la información y la documentación en España. -- Método y materiales: se han revisado los planes de estudios de aquellas universidades que ofertan formación en Información y Documentación en dos momentos distintos que distan entre sí un periodo de diez a

  2. NaCl 和 Zn 对棉花生长及营养元素吸收的影响%Effects of NaCl and Zn on Growth and Nutrient Elements Uptake of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文岭; 靳孟贵; 朱永惠; 王在敏


    mol/L would cause cotton plant lint yields decline.Analysis of variance among cotton growth,root and stem dry weight parameters revealed significant influence by salinity effect but not by Zn.Cotton lint yield parameters revealed that the effect of Zn was more obvious than salinity.Interactive effect on cotton growth and yield between NaCl and Zn in the irrigation water was not observed but antagonistic effect was observed.Contents of nutrient elements Ca,K,Mg,B and Fe,in cotton leaves were higher than those in other organizations.Nutrient elements Cu and Zn in cotton bolls were higher than other organiza-tions.Nutrient elements Na and Mn were not so movable that they are easily accumulated in roots.Zn concentration levels in irrigation water under salinity stress affected the nutrient elements uptake of cotton,caused different contents of nutrient elements in cotton,and then influenced cotton growth and yields.