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Sample records for feeding deterrent activity

  1. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  2. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  3. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of flower buds of globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi torrey, against boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Bowers, W S

    1996-01-01

    The globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi Torrey, a plant native to Arizona was evaluated as a source of feeding or oviposition deterrents to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Feeding and oviposition responses of reproductive weevils to the flower buds and artificial diets spiked with dry powder or extracts of the globemallow buds were determined. Boll weevils were deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the flower buds unless the calyxes were removed. Male and virgin female weevils were discouraged from feeding as much as gravid weevils. Secondary chemicals in the flower buds served primarily as feeding deterrents but also prevented oviposition. The concentration of these chemicals was highest in the calyxes of the buds, and potent deterrent activity could be extracted from the calyxes with methanol. Boll weevils were able to perceive the deterrents by contact chemosensory organs on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps.

  4. Phytochemical feeding deterrents for stored product insect pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nawrot, J.; Harmatha, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2012), s. 543-566 ISSN 1568-7767 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : insect feeding deterrence * antifeedant phytochemicals * isoprenoids * sesquiterpene lactones * polyphenols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.147, year: 2012

  5. Feeding deterrent compounds to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman in Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, T G; Hedin, P A; Burks, M L

    1987-05-01

    The Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus (L.), can be a significant alternate host plant for the boll weevil,Anthonomus gradis (Boh.). Boll weevils are known to be deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the buds unless the calyx is removed. This investigation was initiated to identify calyx allelochemicals that deter feeding with the eventual strategy of breeding for cotton lines high in these allelochemicals in the appropriate tissues. The feeding deterrency of calyx tissue from the buds of Rose-of-Sharon for the boll weevil was confirmed. The most active deterrent fraction was found to contain mostly fatty acids and their methyl esters. Saturated fatty acids and their methyl esters were generally found to be stimulatory, while the unsaturated species were found to be deterrent. Higher quantities of the fatty acids, particularly the unsaturated species, were found in Rose-of-Sharon calyx tissue than in the buds without calyx. This supports the hypothesis developed through the isolational work and testing of standards that the unsaturated fatty acids are significant deterrents of boll weevil feeding.

  6. Deterrent activity of hops flavonoids and their derivatives against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Popłoński, J; Twardowska, K; Magiera-Dulewicz, J; Hurej, M; Huszcza, E

    2017-10-01

    Five flavonoids from hops, two of their derivatives, along with naringenin used as a model compound, were tested for their antifeedant activity against three coleopteran stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. The introduction, into the tested flavonoid molecules, of additional structural fragments such as prenyl or dimethylpyran moiety, is proposed to significantly alter the deterrent activity of the compounds. The prenyl moiety in flavonoids increased the deterrent activity of these compounds in all three of the grain feeding species used in the tests. It is also concluded that the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure increases its deterrent activity in S. granarius and T. confusum, but in one of the test insects, T. granarium, an increased feeding was observed in response to the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure.

  7. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  8. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  9. HrpNEa-induced deterrent effect on phloem feeding of the green ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In response to the phloem-feeding stress, plants defend themselves by .... was quantified as a percentage decrease in the number of feeding aphids .... increased with time during the course of 24 h monitoring ... spent outside the cuticle (nonpenetration; figure 3A, np) ..... R2R3-MYB gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  11. Repellent and deterrent effects of SS220, Picaridin, and Deet suppress human blood feeding by Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klun, Jerome A; Khrimian, Ashot; Debboun, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mosquitoes, and the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the insects were deterred from feeding on and repelled from surfaces emanating the compounds. When offered a 12- or 24-cm2 area of skin, one-half treated with compound and one-half untreated, the insects fed almost exclusively on untreated skin. The sand flies and mosquitoes did not at any time physically contact chemically treated surfaces. When treated and untreated skin areas were covered with cloth, insects contacted, landed, and bit only through cloth covering untreated skin. These observations provided evidence that the compounds deterred feeding and repelled insects from treated surfaces primarily as a result of olfactory sensing. When cloth, one-half untreated and one-half treated with chemical, was placed over untreated skin, insects only touched and specifically bit through the untreated cloth. This showed that the activity of the chemicals does not involve a chemical x skin interaction. In the presence of any of the three chemicals, no matter how they were presented to the insects, overall population biting activity was reduced by about one-half relative to controls. This reduction showed a true repellent effect for the compounds. Results clearly showed that Deet, SS220, and Picaridin exert repellent and deterrent effects upon the behavior of mosquitoes and sand flies. Heretofore, the combined behavioral effects of these compounds upon mosquito and sand fly behavior were unknown. Moreover, protection afforded by Deet, SS220, and Picaridin against the feeding of these three disease vectors on humans is mechanistically a consequence of the two chemical effects.

  12. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation.

  13. Welfare effects of deterrence-motivated activation policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self-select i......We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self......-select into programmes. Individuals differ with respect to disutility and wage. Activation programmes are relatively costly and favour individuals who are relatively well off. Hence, for activation policy to used, labour supply effects have to be relatively small. We discuss how labour supply effects depend...

  14. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes.

  15. Active Travel Behavior in a Border Region of Texas and New Mexico: Motivators, Deterrents, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Ipek N; Lee, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Active travel has been linked with improved transportation and health outcomes, such as reduced traffic congestion and air pollution, improved mobility, accessibility, and equity, and increased physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to better understand active travel characteristics, motivators, and deterrents in the El Paso, TX, region. A multimodal transportation survey brought together elements of transportation and health, with a focus on attitudinal characteristics. The analysis consisted of an initial descriptive analysis, spatial analysis, and multivariate binary and ordered-response models of walking and bicycling behavior. The motivators and deterrents of active travel differed for walkers, bicyclists, and noncyclists interested in bicycling. The link between active travel and life satisfaction was moderated by age, with a negative association for older travelers. This effect was stronger for bicycling than it was for walking. Based on the findings, several interventions to encourage walking and bicycling were suggested. These included infrastructure and built environment enhancements, workplace programs, and interventions targeting specific subpopulations.

  16. Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R

    2009-04-01

    Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg.

  17. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  18. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%, nerol (17.28%, citronellol (10.03%, geranyle acetate (4.44%, elemol (4.38%, limonene (3.98%, and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%. The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1. Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that

  19. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Welfare effects of deterrence-motivated activation policy: the case of distinct activation-disutility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We investigate conditions for activation policy to be part of an optimal policy, when the motivation for activation is to deter people from collecting benefits. A benevolent government chooses a pure benefit programme and an activation programme and individuals self-select into programmes or work...

  1. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  2. Nuclear deterrence revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important consequences of the profound changes that have affected the international system over recent years undoubtedly relates to nuclear deterrence. As a cornerstone of East-West relations, and the foundation of the arms control effort which dominated all other approaches to disarmament, it embodied the permanent opposition between two camps as well as the limits to their confrontation. This presentation deals with permanence of the basic elements concerning deterrence of nuclear weapons and arms control. Evolution of deterrence is presented, including prospects of spread of nuclear capabilities, political foundations of deterrence, fragility of the non-proliferation efforts as well as problems concerned with management of deterrence

  3. Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) feeding behavior on static fishing gear, effect of SMART (Selective Magnetic and Repellent-Treated) hook deterrent technology, and factors influencing entanglement in bottom longlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rennie; Hedges, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    The Greenland Shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the most common bycatch in the Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) bottom longline fishery in Cumberland Sound, Canada. Historically, this inshore fishery has been prosecuted through the ice during winter but winter storms and unpredictable landfast ice conditions since the mid-1990s have led to interest in developing a summer fishery during the ice-free season. However, bycatch of Greenland shark was found to increase substantially with 570 sharks captured during an experimental Greenland halibut summer fishery (i.e., mean of 6.3 sharks per 1,000 hooks set) and mortality was reported to be about 50% due in part to fishers killing sharks that were severely entangled in longline gear. This study investigated whether the SMART (Selective Magnetic and Repellent-Treated) hook technology is a practical deterrent to Greenland shark predation and subsequent bycatch on bottom longlines. Greenland shark feeding behavior, feeding kinematics, and variables affecting entanglement/disentanglement and release are also described. The SMART hook failed to deter Greenland shark predation, i.e., all sharks were captured on SMART hooks, some with more than one SMART hook in their jaw. Moreover, recently captured Greenland sharks did not exhibit a behavioral response to SMART hooks. In situ observations of Greenland shark feeding show that this species uses a powerful inertial suction mode of feeding and was able to draw bait into the mouth from a distance of 25–35 cm. This method of feeding is suggested to negate the potential deterrent effects of electropositive metal and magnetic alloy substitutions to the SMART hook technology. The number of hooks entangled by a Greenland shark and time to disentangle and live-release a shark was found to increase with body length.

  4. Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) feeding behavior on static fishing gear, effect of SMART (Selective Magnetic and Repellent-Treated) hook deterrent technology, and factors influencing entanglement in bottom longlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Scott M; Sullivan, Rennie; Hedges, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    The Greenland Shark ( Somniosus microcephalus ) is the most common bycatch in the Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides ) bottom longline fishery in Cumberland Sound, Canada. Historically, this inshore fishery has been prosecuted through the ice during winter but winter storms and unpredictable landfast ice conditions since the mid-1990s have led to interest in developing a summer fishery during the ice-free season. However, bycatch of Greenland shark was found to increase substantially with 570 sharks captured during an experimental Greenland halibut summer fishery (i.e., mean of 6.3 sharks per 1,000 hooks set) and mortality was reported to be about 50% due in part to fishers killing sharks that were severely entangled in longline gear. This study investigated whether the SMART (Selective Magnetic and Repellent-Treated) hook technology is a practical deterrent to Greenland shark predation and subsequent bycatch on bottom longlines. Greenland shark feeding behavior, feeding kinematics, and variables affecting entanglement/disentanglement and release are also described. The SMART hook failed to deter Greenland shark predation, i.e., all sharks were captured on SMART hooks, some with more than one SMART hook in their jaw. Moreover, recently captured Greenland sharks did not exhibit a behavioral response to SMART hooks. In situ observations of Greenland shark feeding show that this species uses a powerful inertial suction mode of feeding and was able to draw bait into the mouth from a distance of 25-35 cm. This method of feeding is suggested to negate the potential deterrent effects of electropositive metal and magnetic alloy substitutions to the SMART hook technology. The number of hooks entangled by a Greenland shark and time to disentangle and live-release a shark was found to increase with body length.

  5. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. France and nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquier, Marie-Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear deterrence topic in in the French programs of national education for students of middle and high schools. This dossier is made of 3 parts: Part 1 presents an historical review of the French nuclear deterrence policy and of the present day worldwide situation (nuclear weapon stocks, international agreements, non-proliferation policy, proliferation). Part 2 is a compilation of various documents, mainly excerpts from politicians' speeches and papers, presenting cross looks on French nuclear deterrence. The last part is devoted to various avenues of work and reflection about nuclear deterrence for various educational levels up to higher education and university

  7. Insect feeding deterrent activity of lignans and related phenylpropanoids with a methylenedioxyphenyl (piperony) structure moiety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmatha, Juraj; Nawrot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2002), s. 51-60 ISSN 0013-8703 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA455404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antifeedants Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2002

  8. Hearings on nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Patricia; Tertrais, Bruno; Niquet, Valerie; Vilboux, Nicole; Kalika, Arnaud; Ravel, Luc; Korsia, Haim; Remy, Stephane; Arbi, Abdelkader; Bentegeat, Henri; Villiers, Pierre de; Norlain, Bernard; Mercier, Denis; Charaix, Patrick; Rogel, Bernard; Coriolis, Charles-edouard de; Boissier, Patrick; Bouvier, Antoine; Charmeau, Alain; Collet-Billon, Laurent; Ricketts, Peter; Collin, Jean-Marie; Bouveret, Patrice; Bigot, Bernard; Verwaerde, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This report contains hearings of various French actors and experts (researchers, military chaplains, high-ranking officers, industrial executives, members of public military agencies, members of associations promoting non proliferation) on the issue of nuclear deterrence. Each of them states its point of view on nuclear deterrence, on strategic issues, on military issues, on philosophical issues, depending on their positions

  9. Deterrents to Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hencley, Stephen P.

    This speech assesses potential deterrents to the implementation of accountability in education. The author divides these deterrents into (1) philosophical-ideological; humanist-behaviorist conflicts, individuality versus "techno-urban fascism," and accountability systems tied to the achievement of cognitive objectives at the lower end of Bloom's…

  10. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua B.; Ford, W. Mark; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Edwards, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic deterrent effectiveness and practicality has not been experimentally examined and is limited to site-specific case studies. Accordingly, we used a crossover experimental design with prior control period to show that bat activity was reduced 17.1 percent by the deployment of ultrasonic deterrents placed around gauged watershed weir ponds on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. We caution that while our results should not be extrapolated to the scope of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic deterrents to reduce bat fatalities.

  11. How to achieve deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the present direction of U.S. nuclear weapons policy toward a greater emphasis on counterforce targeting which has caused great concern among members of the public and among many strategic theorists. Although U.S. policy has been moving in this direction for many years, the speed of the movement has increased greatly, with talk of flexible response giving way to that of escalation dominance and nuclear war fighting. The public concern this has raised has led the philosophical community belatedly to begin considering issues such as the morality of nuclear deterrence. But most of the philosophical examinations of this issue have focused on the moral status of nuclear deterrence in general and thus on the choice between nuclear deterrence and unilateral nuclear disarmament. This misses much of the contemporary debate on nuclear weapons policy, which is concerned mainly with the choice between present policy and some form of minimum deterrence

  12. Questioning minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has yet to be adapted to the geo-strategic context of the aftermath of the Cold War. While nuclear weapons continue to play a vital role in the military policy of the five officially recognized nuclear Powers, an unprecedent reduction of their stocks o weapons is taking shape. Hidden behind the idea and the notion of minimum deterrence are a number of ambiguities or misunderstandings. It is easy to conceive of minimum deterrence in relation to previous state of affairs, namely that of the Cold War, which was noteworthy for the arms race. Alternatively, minimum deterrence could be approached solely from the point of view of the number of devices on which it was intended to be based

  13. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  14. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  15. Deterrence and disarmament

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In his April 2009 speech in Prague US President Barack Obama spoke of a world free of nuclear weapons. Obama stated that the United States would maintain nuclear deterrence during the disarmament process. This paper discusses the limitations and deficiencies of the traditional mutual nuclear deterrence and assesses why progress in nuclear disarmament since the end of the Cold War has fallen short of expectations.

  16. The reasons for deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Based on a series of seminars gathering students of the French Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, the author first proposes as introduction a discussion of lessons learned from recent Ukrainian crisis and Syrian crisis by focusing on issues related to deterrence, more precisely to the Syrian chemical program and attacks, and to the nuclear dimension of the Ukrainian crisis. The first part of this book addresses the French case with the definition of threats and of the defence policy (French white papers, overview of Russian and American defence policies, the current role of nuclear deterrence), and an historical overview of the French nuclear program. The second part proposes a brief grammar of deterrence through a presentation of the main technical data of nuclear defence, and of the main concepts related to nuclear defence and deterrence, through an historical overview of the strategic relationship between the USA and Russia, and through a discussion of the Non Proliferation Treaty (its history, its content, its current debates). The third part addresses the relationship between deterrence and regional balances by discussing issues related to various regions: South Asia (India and Pakistan), North Korea, China, role of the USA in Asia in terms of extended deterrence. It also comments the Iranian crisis: discussion of the problem, international, security and political stakes, brief history of negotiations. The fourth part addresses the relationships between non nuclear capabilities and deterrence: chemical and biological weapons as arms of massive destruction, programs and concepts of anti-missile defence, space and cyber-defence. The last and concluding part discusses the moral (or immoral) value of nuclear deterrence as it can be perceived from a humanitarian or legal point of view

  17. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Deterrence Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    75 Appendix A. Nuclear Deterrent Workplace Survey Results...77 Appendix B. Nuclear Deterrent Workplace Survey Questionnaire .............. 107 Terms of Reference...active detection of nuclear explosives and materials, including accelerator technologies for radiography and stimulation of nuclear radiation

  18. The limits of deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this contribution is to propose a better insight of the validity of the theory of deterrence, and of related doctrines in more complex and more various situations than in the past: emergence of powers like China and India, of new nuclear States like North Korea and Pakistan, of countries planning to acquire nuclear weapons like Iran, and possibility of a new wave of nuclear proliferation in Middle-East and north-eastern Asia. It also aims at providing arguments in the debates on the struggle against nuclear proliferation and on the future of deterrence. The author first presents and comments the principles of deterrence, and illustrates them by more or less recent historical situations (Iran during the war with Iraq, USA after Pearl Harbour, Arab-Israeli wars, Iraq, and so on). He notably outlines that the notion of deterrence is present in Islamic culture, and that Iran has well integrated it in its defence strategy. Examples of statements and behaviours of other Arab leaders are discussed. The author also briefly indicates how the deterrence strategy is present in the official doctrines of Russia, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. In a second part, based on various examples, the author analyses the practical limitations of deterrence by distinguishing the psychological dimension (bounded rationality, political leaders suffering from various psychological problems, importance of the ideological and spiritual dimension, values prevailing on interests, the case of Iran), and the strategic dimension (good understanding of the enemy, sensitivity of the threat of massive damages, existence of a single decision centre and of an efficient communication). The author finally proposes seven recommendations for better deterrence efficiency

  19. Deterrence before Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quester, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between studies of military history and military strategy is ever widening. The enormous destructive power of nuclear weapons has tended to persuade us that the military experience of the first half of this century is not relevant to more ''modern'' military questions. In Deterrence before Hiroshima, first published in 1966, George H. Quester analyzes pre-nuclear age theories of deterrence to equip us with a perspective and data by which current theories can be evaluated. Quester shows that from almost the time of the first military aircraft, air-power was believed to have the capacity for apocalyptic destruction. He points out that the modern terms deterrence, limited war, tacit agreement, and balance of terror, show up often in the literature from 1900-1945, coupled with war scenarios every bit as awesome as a nuclear holocaust.

  20. Cyber Deterrence and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goychayev, Rustam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Donnelly, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodda, Kabrena E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, Archibald D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andres, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries, deterrence and arms control have been cornerstones of strategic stability between the superpowers. However, the weaponization of the cyber realm by State actors and the multipolar nature of cyber conflict now undermines that stability. Strategic stability is the state in which nations believe that if they act aggressively to undermine U.S. national interests and the post-World War II liberal democratic order, the consequences will outweigh the benefits. The sense of lawlessness and lack of consequences in the cyber realm embolden States to be more aggressive in taking actions that undermine stability. Accordingly, this paper examines 1) the role of deterrence and arms control in securing cyber stability, and 2) the limitations and challenges associated with these traditional national security paradigms as applied to this emerging threat domain. This paper demonstrates that many 20th-century deterrence and arms control concepts are not particularly applicable in the cyber realm. However, they are not entirely irrelevant. The United States can distill lessons learned from this rich deterrence and arms control experience to develop and deploy a strategy to advance cyber stability.

  1. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  2. The nuclear deterrence history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book relates the history of French nuclear deterrence, from its political, scientific and military genesis, to its context, sometimes complex, of the relations between France and its strategic environment. It details the air and submarine means and the evolution of the political context, from the cold war to the present day. This book is intended to be a synthesis in which all topics, doctrine, means, capacity and nuclear diplomacy are approached. At a time when France is reconsidering the future of its deterrence, this book addresses all the questions: the open debate of the abolitionists' policy, the new fields of proliferation, and the question of the French nuclear situation in the case of a withdrawal of the last US missiles from Europe

  3. Nuclear deterrence and diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasjit; Sethi, Manpreet

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear diplomacy worldwide is in a state of flux. Nuclear deterrence is being overhauled to accommodate missile defence, and arms control is facing an unprecedented challenge. Treaties such as the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), strategic arms reductions treaty (START), anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty, etc. that had attempted, however imperfectly, to place certain restrictions on the horizontal or vertical development of nuclear weapons, are facing a crisis of legitimacy as the present status of each is very distant from what was intended. This book explores the changes taking place in nuclear deterrence and diplomacy at the beginning of the 21st century, especially as they relate to India and its security

  4. Deterrence in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    sea craft, and affect food or water supplies are strategic and the target of a policy statement on cyber deterrence. Cyber-isolation The third...mechanical damage, but the uranium that was enriched was done so incorrectly and was contaminated to a point it would have to be re-processed.8...Insurgency, and Peacekeeping, (New York: Stackpole, 1971). 38 in Malaysia , or at least it provides a readily available conduit to communication

  5. Cyber Gray Space Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    its adversaries calculate that the benefits of their attacks exceed the risks of U.S. retaliation. This perverse incentive exists because the...significant incentives for nations to hack them, and both commercial enterprises and military organizations regularly complain that they have...From the perspective of traditional deterrence theory , America’s reluctance to seriously attempt to deter cyberattacks is puzzling. If the cost of

  6. Nuclear deterrence, morality, and realism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnis, J.; Boyle, J.M. Jr.; Grisez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence deserves rigorous, objective ethical analysis. In providing it, the authors of this book face realities - the Soviet threat, possible nuclear holocaust, strategic imperatives - but they also unmask moral evasions - deterrence cannot be bluff, pure counterforce, the lesser (or greater) evil, or a step towards disarmament. They conclude that the deterrent is unjustifiable and examine the new questions of conscience that this raises for everyone.

  7. On the Interaction of Deterrence and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Menusch Khadjavi

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes deterrence schemes and their impact on stealing. The results confirm Becker’s deterrence hypothesis. Moreover, crowding out of pro-social behavior occurs due to deterrence incentives: when deterrence incentives first exist and are removed later on, subsequent behavior is more selfish than without this deterrence history. This study offers evidence that (part of this) crowding out takes place via change of emotions. Without deterrence incentives in place, in a variant of th...

  8. The deterrence: history and becoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear deterrence is discussed here: From the beginning, with the Usa deterrence about the fight against communism and the Ussr, the case of Japan and Germany, to reach the problem of cost which comes higher and higher and will oblige to limit the number of atomic weapons to only one extremely sophisticated. (N.C.)

  9. Give up the nuclear deterrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoyant, L.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear deterrence question is always today the subject of a large consensus in spite of the evolution of its creation conditions. Taking into account the proliferation risk, the France could play a role in the disarmament process including the whole renouncement to the nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  10. Feeding activity of the earthworm Eisenia andrei in artificial soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Fleuren, R.H.L.J.; Roelofs, W.; de Groot, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative information on the feeding activity of earthworms is scarce but this information is valuable in many eco(toxico)logical studies. In this study, the feeding activity of the compost worm Eisenia andrei is examined in artificial soil (OECD medium), with and without a high-quality food

  11. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-15

    ressources nationales et qui, manié avec autant de sang- froid que de détermination, devrait, par la dissuasion, lui permettre d’échapper à certaines grandes...in providing credibility to the deterrent. 47 See Bruno Tertrais, "La Dissuasion Nucléaire Française Après La Guerre Froide : Continuité, Ruptures...ces situations de stabilité plus ou moins absolue ." The translations are the SAIC author’s. Beaufre, Dissuasion et Stratégie, op.cit.; this text

  12. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  13. A widened deterrence, devised deterrence or deterrence towards the Prussian King

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutou, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The question of a nuclear deterrence devised between France and Germany is discussed here. The advantages and disadvantages, the NATO position are studied and integrated to a larger point of view in an European nuclear deterrence. (N.C.). 9 refs

  14. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  15. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  16. The deterrence - Champ de Mars nr 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romer, Jean-Christophe; Widemann, Thierry; Dufourcq, Jean; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Joubert, Vincent; Queau, Yannick; Gere, Francois; Cumin, David; Puhl, Detlef; Chansoria, Monika; Goya, Michel; Montignac, Jean-Luc; David, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes a brief presentation of a publication which contains contributions on the various aspects of the present nuclear deterrence and the future strategic challenges. The authors discuss the role of deterrence before and after the nuclear era, the signals of strategic deterrence, the presence of deterrence beneath the surface of arms race, deterrence challenged by cyber-space, and the ways to assess deterrence. Some specific cases are also addressed (Iran, Japan, Germany, India, the 2006 war) as well as perspectives for 2020. A contribution propose an analysis of the French situation with respect to deterrence and nuclear

  17. The nuclear deterrence in questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascallon, P.; Paris, H.

    2006-03-01

    Facing the actuality (60. birthday of Hiroshima, the Iran and south Korea atomic ambitions, the United Nations convention against the nuclear terrorism...) the authors wonder about the french nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  18. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  19. The future of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quester, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has been in existence for almost four decades. Yet, analysts from the left and the right keep reemphasizing the dangers and problems with deterrence without always remembering its purpose-the prevention of nuclear war or the prevention of all war. In this book. George Quester analyzes the future of nuclear deterrence in light of its past, and discovers that the fundamental tenets of nuclear deterrence remain unchanged. George Quester considers the overwhelming tensions present in a society threatened by the prospect of a nuclear holocaust and a lingering nuclear winter. But he also acknowledges that nuclear deterrence has prevented a great deal of global and local warfare that otherwise would have occurred. He spotlights the basic military problems facing the world today, including the shadow cast on all levels of strategic planning by the threat of nuclear war. Quester warns against charging forth with radical new alternatives, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative and deep-cut disarmament. He argues that initiatives such as these reflect a return to traditional military thinking about waging and winning wars that pose serious possibilities for a breakdown in deterrence policy.

  20. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  1. Melter feed viscosity during conversion to glass: Comparison between low-activity waste and high-level waste feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tongan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Dixon, Derek R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Kim, Dongsang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Bonham, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; VanderVeer, Bradley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Weese, Brigitte L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland Washington; Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington

    2017-12-07

    During nuclear waste vitrification, a melter feed (generally a slurry-like mixture of a nuclear waste and various glass forming and modifying additives) is charged into the melter where undissolved refractory constituents are suspended together with evolved gas bubbles from complex reactions. Knowledge of flow properties of various reacting melter feeds is necessary to understand their unique feed-to-glass conversion processes occurring within a floating layer of melter feed called a cold cap. The viscosity of two low-activity waste (LAW) melter feeds were studied during heating and correlated with volume fractions of undissolved solid phase and gas phase. In contrast to the high-level waste (HLW) melter feed, the effects of undissolved solid and gas phases play comparable roles and are required to represent the viscosity of LAW melter feeds. This study can help bring physical insights to feed viscosity of reacting melter feeds with different compositions and foaming behavior in nuclear waste vitrification.

  2. Biting deterrence and insecticidal activity of hydrazide-hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kocyigit-Kaymakcioglu, Bedia; Oruç-Emre, Emine E; Unsalan, Seda; Rollas, Sevim

    2013-06-01

    Taking into account the improvement in insecticidal activity by the inclusion of fluorine in the hydrazone moiety, the authors synthesized new 4-fluorobenzoic acid hydrazides and 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, substituting a phenyl group or a heteroaryl ring carrying one or two atoms of F, Cl and Br, and investigated their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti for the first time. The compound 3-acetyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole (17) produced the highest biting deterrent activity (BDI = 1.025) against Ae. Aegypti, followed by 4-fluorobenzoic acid [(phenyl)methylene] hydrazide (1). These activity results were similar to those of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), which showed a proportion not biting of 0.8-0.92. When compounds 1 and 17 were tested on cloth worn on human volunteers, compound 1 was not repellent for some volunteers until present in excess of 500 nmol cm(-2) , while compound 17 was not repellent at the highest concentration tested (1685 nmol cm(-2) ). In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 10, 11, 12 and 17 showed 100% mortality at the highest screening dose of 100 ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae. Compounds 11 and 12 with LD50 values of 24.1 and 30.9 ppm showed significantly higher mortality than 10 (80.3 ppm) and 17 (58.7 ppm) at 24-h post-treatment. The insecticidal and biting deterrent activities were correlated with the presence of a halogen atom on the phenyl or heteroaryl substituent of the hydrazone moiety. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Strategic Deterrence in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Habiger, Eugene

    1998-01-01

    .... Nuclear deterrence is at the core of American national security strategy. Joint Vision 2010 defines the primary task of our Armed Forces to deter conflict, but should deterrence fail, to fight and to win...

  4. At-tank Low-Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements

  5. Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Science and Letters, Gazi Univer- sity, 06500 Ankara, Turkey. 5 USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Ento- mology, Gainesville, FL... Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 8 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of...Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA- ARS), Gainesville, FL. For biting deterrence

  6. [Current animal feeds with antimicrobial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumev, D

    1981-01-01

    Among the growth-promoting substances and factors contributing to fodder utilization in growing farm animals, also called nutritive, ergotropic means, the antibiotics and some synthetic chemotherapeutics have acquired special importance. To avoid the hazardous effect in humans consuming products of animal origin there should be no residual amounts of these stimulating agents in such products. That is why it has been assumed in a number of countries to use for the same purpose only nutritive means that are not applied as therapeutic agents. Such means should neither induce resistence to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in microorganism nor should they be resorbed by the alimentary tract (or resorption should be negligible) or they are rapidly eliminated from the animal body, leaving no residual amounts. They should likewise act chiefly against gram-positive organisms, inducing no allergic reactions in the animals. Described are the following nutritive antibiotics: flavophospholipol (bambermycin, menomycin--flavomycin, producing a nutritive effect also in ruminants with a developed forestomach, and rebuilds sensitivity in antibiotic-resistant organisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae), avoparcin (avotan--also active in ruminants with a developed forestomach), virginiamycin (staphylomycin--escalin, stafac), zincbacitracin (bacipharmin, baciferm), grisin (kormogrisin, of a road spectrum, with an antimycotic effect, raising the fertilization rate and activating phagocitosis), vitamycin-A (vitamycin--active also at retinol deficiency, lambdamycin, nosiheptide (primofax), efrotomycin. Due consideration is given to such chemotherapeutics as nitrovin (payson, paison), carbadox (mecadox, fortigro, of a broad spectrum retained for a longer period in the body of pigs), olaquindox (bio-N-celbar--of a broad spectrum, particularly with regard to gram-negative organisms, applied at present as a therapeutic and prophylactic preparation), cyadox (with a broad sprectrum). The

  7. Phytobiotic Utilization as Feed Additive in Feed for Pancreatic Enzyme Activity of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on pancreatic enzyme activity of broiler chicken. Effectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE which were arranged Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were pancreatic enzyme activity(amylase enzyme activity, protease enzyme activity  and lipase enzyme activity.The results showed that enzyme protein activity content of 2.5% TE supplementation is also high at 82.02 U/ml, then supplemented 2.5% TGE, 2.0% GE, negative control and positive control respectively 75.98 ; 72.02; 68.74; and 66.57 U/ml. The lipase enzyme activity whereas the negative control and a positive control differ significantly higher (P<0.05 to treatment with the addition of 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE and 2.5% TGE phytobiotic. The research concluded that the incorporation of 2.5% TE, 2% GE and combined 2.5% TGE as feed additive enhanced pancreatic enzyme activity.

  8. Endogenous and costly institutional deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Modern economies rely on central-authority institutions to regulate individual behaviour. Despite the importance of such institutions little is known about their formation within groups. In a public good experiment, groups selected the level of deterrence implemented by the institution, knowing that the administrative costs of the institution rose with the level of...

  9. The debate on minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.; Karp, R.C.; Toth, T.

    1993-01-01

    Revitalization of debates on minimal nuclear deterrence at the present time is induced by the end of the Cold War and a number of unilateral and bilateral actions by the great powers to curtail nuclear arms race and reduce nuclear weapons arsenals

  10. Deterrence according to Francois Hollande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    On the February 19, 2015, the President of the Republic gave a speech on nuclear deterrence. Although it did not contain any major announcements, it reaffirms our nuclear policy while further elaborating upon it - something that the 2013 White Paper did not do - and in this respect provides significant clarifications on French doctrine and posture, and mentions several instances of reorientation. (author)

  11. Role of methyl salicylate on oviposition deterrence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groux, Raphaël; Hilfiker, Olivier; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Erb, Matthias; Reymond, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Plants attacked by herbivores have evolved different strategies that fend off their enemies. Insect eggs deposited on leaves have been shown to inhibit further oviposition through visual or chemical cues. In some plant species, the volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) repels gravid insects but whether it plays the same role in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana is currently unknown. Here we showed that Pieris brassicae butterflies laid fewer eggs on Arabidopsis plants that were next to a MeSA dispenser or on plants with constitutively high MeSA emission than on control plants. Surprisingly, the MeSA biosynthesis mutant bsmt1-1 treated with egg extract was still repellent to butterflies when compared to untreated bsmt1-1. Moreover, the expression of BSMT1 was not enhanced by egg extract treatment but was induced by herbivory. Altogether, these results provide evidence that the deterring activity of eggs on gravid butterflies is independent of MeSA emission in Arabidopsis, and that MeSA might rather serve as a deterrent in plants challenged by feeding larvae.

  12. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  13. Do People Want Optimal Deterrence?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Schkade, David; Kahneman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Two studies test whether people believe in optimal deterrence. The first provides people with personal injury cases that are identical except for variations in the probability of detection and explores whether lower probability cases produce higher punitive damage awards and whether higher probability cases produce lower awards. No such effect is observed. The second asks people whether they agree or disagree with administrative and judicial policies that increase penalties when the probabili...

  14. Nuclear strategy: India's march towards credible deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-01-01

    May 1998 was a momentous event in India's life. At one level, the five nuclear tests marked the culmination of the long debate on India's nuclear status. At another level, they initiated the country's journey towards credible nuclear deterrence. In the eleventh year of its existence as a state with nuclear weapons, India is engaged in a range of activities to meaningfully integrate the nuclear weapon into its national security strategy. The US and the USSR, at the same stage of their lives were engaged in pretty much a similar exercise. However, unlike the superpowers, for whom the immense destructive potential of the atomic weapon and its implications for inter-state relations suddenly burst on the scene and sent them scrambling to craft strategies that could fit the new reality, India's acquisition of nuclear weapons capability, though dictated by circumstances, came with a basic understanding of the ground rules of the game of nuclear deterrence. In fact, it may be recalled that soon after the tests, there was a spate of books and studies on India's nuclear strategy. A draft nuclear doctrine was made public just fifteen months after the tests and operational issues were beginning to be grappled with

  15. For a NATO defensive deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy

  16. Taking a Quantum Leap in Cyber Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    frame an adversary‘s rationale and decision calculus. 82 Understanding a group‘s rationale helps frame a strategy for deterrence. Emanuel Adler ...to leverage against America. 8586 Adler adds that when deterrence culture in this context is driven by religious and ethnic- nationalist beliefs...Path to the Quantum Computer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003. Kapur, S. Paul. "Deterring Nuclear Terrorists." In Complex Deterrence: Strategy in

  17. The nuclear deterrence: permanence and changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debouzy, O.

    2009-01-01

    The author aims to present that the nuclear deterrence, even with some change, remains today always pertinent and useful. He shows how the application modalities changed. He discusses the need of an analysis of the future weapons and their use, of the articulation between the nuclear deterrence and the anti missiles defense and the necessity of a discussion on the enlarged deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  18. 76 FR 46818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed Directive... distribution and use of Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) drugs and animal feeds containing VFD drugs. DATES... of information technology. Veterinary Feed Directive--21 CFR Part 558 (OMB Control Number 0910- 0363...

  19. Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Santoro, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Volpe, Tristan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warden, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-20

    In contrast to the Cold War bilateral global competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, the modern nuclear age features a more complex, multiplayer arena on the regional scale. With the exception of the U.S. and Russia, most major powers retain relatively small nuclear arsenals or technical hedge capabilities. The U.S., with strong interests and security partnerships in Europe, Northeast Asia, and the Middle East, must navigate through long-standing rivalries and active conflicts while attempting to divine the intentions of less experienced nuclear decision makers in charge of weak domestic institutions. As a result, analysts and policymakers must think globally about U.S. extended deterrence. How have the requirements of extended deterrence and assurance changed? Are there important threads that connect each region? What should the U.S. do differently? To explore these questions, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security Research, in partnership with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Pacific Forum CSIS, held a workshop on “Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence” in Washington, DC on November 2, 2015. The workshop brought together approximately 40 U.S. and foreign deterrence specialists and government officials, all attending in their private capacities. The participants joined a day of not-for-attribution discussions on the changing deterrence and assurance requirements, the threads that connect the regions, and U.S. strategy to deal with emerging challenges. The following is a summary of key takeaways.

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  1. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  2. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  3. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  4. The ethic of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    Roughly speaking, two approaches are taken to the question of whether or not the strategy of nuclear deterrence can be morally justified. These are on the one hand, utilitarian and consequentialist for example, does the strategy succeed in reducing the likelihood of war and the lethality of war if it comes? and, on the other hand, Kantian or deontological for example, is it just to hold innocent millions hostage as a necessary element in a politico-military strategy if we hold, as a first principle, that some human beings may not be used as a means by others? Considering the focus of these approaches on the individual, calculating conscience, the author does not see how either is capable of determining whether the U.S. policy of nuclear deterrence is ethically legitimate, nor does the author think that either approach can resolve the more general question of which approach to choose between the two. In this paper the author does not try to persuade the reader of this conviction but merely attempt to reflect the views that are its consequences

  5. An application of the game theory to evaluate the deterrence effect of an unannounced inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    An unannounced inspection is expected to have not only detection capability of diversions but also a deterrence effect to such activity since it is naturally recognized that such inspection scheme calls for the unpredictability toward facility operators who could not notice the inspection date. However, the method to evaluate effectiveness of unpredictability as a deterrence effect is not established. Previously, the game theory was applied as a missionary to introduce the random sampling method at the equilibrium point under the zero-sum game between inspectors and facility operators. In the case of unannounced inspection, the unpredictability plays an advantageous condition of inspector for setting of new equilibrium point. A scale of difference between the two points can be assigned as an index of effectiveness for the deterrence. This paper reports the result of an application of the game theory to evaluate the deterrence effects of an unannounced inspection. (author)

  6. Achieving compliance when legal sanctions are non-deterrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.

    2006-01-01

    Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...

  7. Ways and means of attaining minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, D.

    1993-01-01

    Means for attaining minimum nuclear deterrence include negotiations, unilateral measures, changes of doctrines, priorities with respect to armaments concerned, co-management of deterrence. Deterrence is a positive relationship related to non-proliferation. It is helpful because it has to be seen in the context of overall international security. Nuclear weapons have a significance which is real. The treat they pose should be dealt with in order to develop a better and safer world, and in that context the security needs of the nations should be provided, meaning truly improved security situation

  8. The nuclear deterrence a topical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetaille, C.

    2009-01-01

    The author aims to explain with the today world situation favors the nuclear deterrence. The nuclear disarmament of the main european countries will deprive them of a great asset, which will guarantee the international stability. (A.L.B.)

  9. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  10. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    synchronize their daily activity rhythm to the expected time of feeding. In addition, a high feeding motivation appears to be a precondition for circadian anticipatory activity in mink whereas anticipatory activity of mink fed ad libitum or close to ad libitum may be provoked by stimuli from the actual...

  11. Application of ''Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for Low-Activity waste feed batch X'' to specific feed batches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JO, J.

    1999-01-01

    This document addresses the characterization needs of tanks as set forth in the ''Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X'' Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Certa and Jo 1998). The primary purpose of this document is to collect existing data and identify the data needed to determine whether or not the feed source(s) are appropriate for a specific batch before transfer is made to the feed staging tanks. To answer these questions, the existing tank data must be collected and a detailed review performed. If the existing data are insufficient to complete a full comparison, additional data must be obtained from the feed source(s). Additional information requirements need to be identified and formally documented, then the source tank waste must be sampled or resampled and analyzed. Once the additional data are obtained, the data shall be incorporated into the existing database for the source tank and a reevaluation of the data against the DQO must be made

  12. Deterrence Today Roles, Challenges and Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear deterrence was the centerpiece of U.S. and NATO strategy - and as adapted to their own circumstances, of the strategies of France and the United Kingdom - in the long Cold War confrontation with the Soviet Union. At its most basic, U.S. strategy was designed to deter an attack upon the American homeland by the threat of society devastating nuclear retaliation. This strategy came to be implemented in doctrine (assured destruction), forces (more than twelve thousand deployed strategic nuclear warheads organized in a nuclear triad of land-based bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and submarine launched ballistic missiles), and command and control procedures (including extremely high readiness and alert levels.) At the same time, the United States extended deterrence to America's NATO allies by a threat of escalation to all-out nuclear war. This extended deterrent provided reassurance against possible Soviet nuclear blackmail. Concepts and analysis, doctrine, force posture and deployments (conventional as well as nuclear), R and D, technical investments, diplomacy, institution-building and cooperation, and leadership all supported what was a successful Cold War nuclear deterrence strategy. Compared to the challenge of Cold War nuclear deterrence, however, the strategic situation confronting the United States and in varying degrees other countries in the early 21. century is considerably more complex. Unlike one superpower nuclear adversary, the United States confronts a mix of new or emerging hostile proliferators from North Korea in Asia to Iran in the Middle East; a network of al-Qaeda-Jihadist extremists as well as possibly other non-state actors seeking nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD); and a rising China with whom conflict triggered by Taiwan may be unlikely but cannot be excluded. In some of these situations, deterrence role is little questioned in principle, typified best by the importance of U.S. extended nuclear

  13. Deterrence Today Roles, Challenges and Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence was the centerpiece of U.S. and NATO strategy - and as adapted to their own circumstances, of the strategies of France and the United Kingdom - in the long Cold War confrontation with the Soviet Union. At its most basic, U.S. strategy was designed to deter an attack upon the American homeland by the threat of society devastating nuclear retaliation. This strategy came to be implemented in doctrine (assured destruction), forces (more than twelve thousand deployed strategic nuclear warheads organized in a nuclear triad of land-based bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and submarine launched ballistic missiles), and command and control procedures (including extremely high readiness and alert levels.) At the same time, the United States extended deterrence to America's NATO allies by a threat of escalation to all-out nuclear war. This extended deterrent provided reassurance against possible Soviet nuclear blackmail. Concepts and analysis, doctrine, force posture and deployments (conventional as well as nuclear), R and D, technical investments, diplomacy, institution-building and cooperation, and leadership all supported what was a successful Cold War nuclear deterrence strategy. Compared to the challenge of Cold War nuclear deterrence, however, the strategic situation confronting the United States and in varying degrees other countries in the early 21. century is considerably more complex. Unlike one superpower nuclear adversary, the United States confronts a mix of new or emerging hostile proliferators from North Korea in Asia to Iran in the Middle East; a network of al-Qaeda-Jihadist extremists as well as possibly other non-state actors seeking nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD); and a rising China with whom conflict triggered by Taiwan may be unlikely but cannot be excluded. In some of these situations, deterrence role is little questioned in principle, typified best by the importance of U.S. extended nuclear

  14. Differential Deterrence: Studying Heterogeneity and Changes in Perceptual Deterrence among Serious Youthful Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Piquero, Alex R.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual deterrence has been an enduring focus of interest in criminology. Although recent research has generated important new insights about how risks, costs, and rewards of offending are perceived and internalized, there remain two specific limitations to advancing theories of deterrence: (a) the lack of panel data to show whether issues of…

  15. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  16. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ''minimum duration'' will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates

  17. How to Quantify Deterrence and Reduce Critical Infrastructure Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Taquechel, Eric F.; Lewis, Ted G.

    2012-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (August 2012), v.8, article 12 "We propose a definition of critical infrastructure deterrence and develop a methodology to explicitly quantify the deterrent effects of critical infrastructure security strategies. We leverage historical work on analyzing deterrence, game theory and utility theory. Our methodology quantifies deterrence as the extent to which an attacker's expected utility from an infrastructure attack changes after a defende...

  18. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  19. Antifeedant activity of xanthohumol and supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Hurej, M; Rój, E; Popłoński, J; Kośny, L; Huszcza, E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, and a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops were studied for their antifeedant activity against stored product insect pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Xanthohumol exhibited medium deterrent activity against the adults of S. granarius L. and larvae of T. confusum Duv. The spent hops extract was more active than xanthohumol towards the adults of T. confusum Duv. The potential application of the crude spent hops extract as a feeding deterrent against the stored product pests is proposed.

  20. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J.M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C.M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A.H.

    Background:Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  1. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J. M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  2. Influence of shredder feeding and nutrients on fungal activity and community structure in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namil Chung; Keller. Suberkropp

    2008-01-01

    In stream detrital food webs, interactions occur between aquatic hyphomycetes associated with decomposing leaves and shredders consuming those leaves. However, few studies have examined how the feeding activity of shredders affects aquatic hyphomycetes. We examined the effect of shredder feeding on aquatic hyphomycete communities associated with submerged leaves in two...

  3. Activity and heart rate in semi-domesticated reindeer during adaptation to emergency feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Ahman, B; Norberg, H; Redbo, I; Eloranta, E; Olsson, K

    2006-06-15

    Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder in early detection of animals that are not adapting to feeding. The frequency of 10 behavioural categories was recorded in five groups of penned, eight-month-old, female semi-domesticated reindeer. Three reindeer per group were fitted with heart rate monitors. Lying was the most frequent behaviour, whilst there were few cases of agonistic behaviour. Heart rate varied during the day, with peaks during feeding and low heart rates in the early morning. Restricted feed intake resulted in more locomotion and seeking but less ruminating compared to feeding ad libitum. This was followed by a generally lower heart rate in reindeer in the restricted groups compared to controls. Subsequent feeding with different combinations of lichens, silage and pellets ad libitum resulted initially in significantly more of the animals lying curled up, compared to controls, combined with increased heart rates. As the experiment continued the general activity pattern, as well as the heart rate, gradually became more similar in all groups. Lying curled was the behavioural indicator most consistently affected by feed deprivation and adaptation to feeding and may thus be a useful indicator to distinguish individual reindeer that are not adjusting to feeding.

  4. ASSESSING THE UNCERTAINTY OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    unlimited. Abstract Nuclear deterrence theory in its many forms arose as a theoretical architecture with the goal of preventing rather than winning a nuclear... Egyptians and Syrians advanced toward Israel.31 Finally, the Kargil war represents a particularly volatile situation where the world looked on in fear as

  5. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  6. Deterrence at the Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    edited, with Barry Blechman, Making Defense Reform Work (Brassey’s, 1990) and has also authored numerous books and articles . Deterrence at the...computational power. In contrast, many models of rational inference view the mind as if it were a supernatural being possessing demonic powers of reason

  7. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...

  8. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk

  9. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-07-02

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk.

  10. Effects of soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Hsiao-Hang; Slade, Eleanor M.; Willis, Katherine J.; Caliman, Jean Pierre; Snaddon, Jake Lanion

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the use of available soil management practices in oil palm plantations is crucial to enhance long-term soil fertility and productivity. However, this needs a thorough understanding of the functional responses of soil biota to these management practices. To address this knowledge gap, we used the bait lamina method to investigate the effects of different soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity, and whether feeding activity was associated with management-mediated cha...

  11. Active citizenship’ and feeding assistive robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2018-01-01

    Would you want to be fed by a robot? This question may or may not sound attractive to a severely disabled citizen striving for self-reliance. Recently assistive robotics have become a new factor to rely on in relation to a number of aspects of social work and health care. These initiatives have...... study, I discuss the ways humans engage with them, how they co-produce everyday life in housing institutions, and the sensitivity of assistive robotics. During the latest years, Feeding Assistive Robotics (FAR) have enjoyed strong political endorsement in Denmark. Nevertheless, I argue, it is difficult...

  12. Personalized Social Network Activity Feeds for Increased Interaction and Content Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eBerkovsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks were originally conceived as means of sharing information and activities with friends, and their success has been one of the primary contributors of the tremendous growth of the Web. Social network activity feeds were devised as a means to aggregate recent actions of friends into a convenient list. But the volume of actions and content generated by social network users is overwhelming, such that keeping users up-to-date with friend activities is an ongoing challenge for social network providers. Personalization has been proposed as a solution to combat social network information overload and help users to identify the nuggets of relevant information in the incoming flood of network activities. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly evaluate a personalized model for predicting the relevance of the activity feed items, which informs the ranking of the feeds and facilitates personalization. Results of a live study show that the proposed feed personalization approach successfully identifies and promotes relevant feed items and boosts the uptake of the feeds. In addition, it increases the contribution of user-generated content to the social network and spurs interaction between users.

  13. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β 1 - and β 2 -type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β 1 -adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  14. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  15. Interactions between sleeping position and feeding on cardiorespiratory activity in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Sahni, Rakesh; Ohira-Kist, Kiyoko; Kashyap, Sudha; Stark, Raymond I; Schulze, Karl F

    2005-11-01

    Infants sleeping in the prone position are at greater risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleep position-dependent changes in cardiorespiratory activity may contribute to this increased risk. Cardiorespiratory activity is also affected by feeding. Twenty prematurely-born infants were studied at 31-36 weeks postconceptional age while sleeping in the prone and supine positions. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and patterns of variability were recorded during interfeed intervals, and effects of position and time after feeding were analyzed by repeated measures analyses of variance. There were significant effects of both sleeping position and time after feeding. Heart rate is higher and heart period variability is lower in the prone position, and the effects of sleeping position on cardiac functioning are more pronounced during the middle of the intrafeed interval. In preterm infants, autonomic responses to nutrient processing modulate the cardiorespiratory effects of sleeping position. Prone sleeping risk may vary with time after feeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Pedro H.C.; Santos, Marcus; Lippi, Daniel L.; Silva, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfish are fundamental species in controlling algal phase-shifts and ensuring the resilience of coral reefs. Nevertheless, little is known on their ecological role in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. The present study analysed the ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae using behavioural observation and benthic composition analyses. We found a significant negative relationship between fish size and feeding rates for S. zel...

  17. 2015 Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Anthony [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-04

    In November 2015, the Center for Global Security Research, NSO, and Global Security program jointly sponsored a seminar investigating questions related to cross-domain deterrence at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the seminar, experts were asked to moderate discussion based on the four topics below. For each of these topics, we have compiled a short list of literature that will help analysts develop a baseline understanding of the issue.

  18. Nuclear Deterrence in a New Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraillet, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Within an unstable international environment and an unpredictable future, nuclear weapons will continue to play a major role in defense policies. Indeed, since disarmament currently seems an unlikely objective, nuclear weapons remain as a security guarantee. Within this context, talk of the global abolition of nuclear weapons remains essentially rhetorical and the supposed link between disarmament and non-proliferation is a tenuous one. The foremost purpose of both disarmament and nuclear deterrence must be security

  19. Deterrence and Geographical Externalities in Auto Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Gonzalez-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the degree of geographical crime displacement is crucial for the design of crime prevention policies. This paper documents changes in automobile theft risk that were generated by the plausibly exogenous introduction of Lojack, a highly effective stolen vehicle recovery device, into a number of new Ford car models in some Mexican states, but not others. Lojack-equipped vehicles in Lojack-coverage states experienced a 48 percent reduction in theft risk due to deterrence effects. H...

  20. Practical consideration of nuclear fuel spiking for proliferation deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.; Angelini, P.; Rainey, R.H.; Federer, J.I.; Olsen, A.R.

    1978-10-01

    The use of a gamma active radionuclide with nuclear fuel has been proposed as a way to inhibit unauthorized diversion of the fuel and thus provide proliferation deterrence. The purpose of this report is to examine some of the practical aspects of incorporating spikants into nuclear fuel in an attempt to identify any adverse consequences of their use. Selection of potential spikants was made by the application of some somewhat arbitrary radiation criteria to 64 candidate spikants followed by an analysis of the chemical and physical state of each potential spikant. As a result of this analysis the list of candidates was narrowed to 60 Co, 106 Ru, and 144 Ce. Following this, we investigated the practical aspects of the use of these three spikants in nuclear fuel. Among the subjects considered are: dose rates available from fuel elements, fission product buildup, chemical behavior of spikants during reproecssing, and possible effects of spikants on refabrication and on the fuel properties. No single radionuclide was found to be preferred in all stages of reprocessing and refabriaction. In order to provide deterrence in all stages of reprocessing and refabrication, a duplex spiking process appears necessary, in which two different spikants, 106 Ru and 60 Co, are used in different portions of reprocessing. The use of nominal amounts of ruthenium or cobalt as spikants is not expected to adversely affect fuel performance

  1. Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  2. Recognition of familiar food activates feeding via an endocrine serotonin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo-mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001 PMID:23390589

  3. Effect of photoperiod on blood feeding activity of female hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Yoshii, Manabu; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Uchida, Keikichi; Eshita, Yuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Ogawa, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    Blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids (F1) between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in long and short photoperiods at 2l℃ to examine the effect of photoperiod on blood feeding rate. Blood feeding rates (F1) were lower in short photoperiods than in long photoperiods. From this, it seems that the hybrids show diapause.

  4. Activity and feeding of Dotilla fenestrata (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of and consumption of organic material by the sand-bubbler crab Dotilla fenestrata was studied over neap and spring tides on a sheltered sand bank close to the mouth of the warm, temperate Kowie Estuary, South Africa. Crabs emerged from their burrows only after the tide receded, and it was light. Time to ...

  5. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  6. Root activity and soil feeding zones of some Bajra hybrids (Pennisetum typhoids Stapf.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriniwas

    1980-01-01

    Root activity and soil feeding zones of five bajra hybrids (Hybrid D-356, HB-3, HB-4, HB-1 and Bil-3B) were determined under natural field conditions by placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate enclosed in gelatinous capsules at different soil locations around the plant. Percent root activity varied significantly from one depth to another and it decreased with increase in depths and lateral distances. More than 44 percent of the root activity occurred in a soil feeding zone consisting of 0-15 cm depth having double of this much lateral distance. Percent root activity in HB-3 and HB-4 was almost found identical both horizontally and vertically. Hybrid D-356 and HB-1 approximated more than 38 percent root activity in a soil feeding zone of 0-15 cm in depth and 0-10 cm in lateral distance. 32 P placement in capsules appeared to hold promise over Hall's technique since it overcomes the differences caused by disturbance of the feeding activity of roots at the point of 32 P injection into the soil. (author)

  7. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  8. Give up the nuclear deterrence?; Renoncer a la dissuasion nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoyant, L

    2009-07-15

    The nuclear deterrence question is always today the subject of a large consensus in spite of the evolution of its creation conditions. Taking into account the proliferation risk, the France could play a role in the disarmament process including the whole renouncement to the nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  9. Bomber Deterrence Missions: Criteria To Evaluate Mission Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    international security, the practice of general deterrence usually occurs when nations feel insecure , suspicious or even hostility towards them but...both a deterrence and assurance mission even though it was not planned or advertised as such. Since the intent of this mission was partly perceived

  10. Nuclear deterrence - Instructions for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the cold war, 7000 nuclear weapons (missiles, bombs, mines) were ready for use in Europe. This book, based on a database of more than 350 US, Russian and Chinese genuine documents, presents each type of weapon with its expected effects, the elaboration and implementation of fire plans and how these plans were activated during the eight acute nuclear crises which threatened the World. A lesson is drawn from each of them

  11. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  12. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is a...

  13. Feeding activity in Groups of Newly Hatched Broiler Chicks: Effects of strain and hatching time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    The feeding activity of 2 strains of broiler chickens was investigated during their first week of life in relation to their hatching time. Fast (Ross 308) and slow-growing (LB) strains were allocated to 1 of 3 (early, middle, or late hatch) single-strain groups of 80 to 100 as-hatched birds in 4...

  14. What to think about deterrence? New absolute weapons? The beautiful future of the concept of deterrence. Can the world free itself from nuclear deterrence? Deterrence, did you say deterrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrotin, Joseph; Le Dauphin, Jacques; Vahe, Raphael

    2010-09-01

    In a first article, a researcher comments and discusses the evolution of the concept of deterrence from a conventional and tactical approach to a strategic approach. He notices that the end of Cold War resulted in an important evolution of this concept and of its theory. As the nuclear weapon has been appearing as the absolute weapon since 1945, the question is now to see whether war would be different without nuclear weapons, and then whether chemical weapons could prevail and become again the absolute weapons as they were in the 1930's. In the next article, the author recalls the Church's position about nuclear weapons: condemnation as a matter of principle, and call for a progressive disarmament leading to a world without nuclear weapons. He notices that nuclear deterrence was the foundation of equilibriums during the Cold War, and that the end of Cold War resulted in strategic upheavals and difficulties to implement the non-proliferation regime. He also comments the initiative of President Obama for nuclear disarmament, and wanders whether there will be a realistic alternative to deterrence. The last article comments the historical evolutions of deterrence during the Cold War, and after the Cold War

  15. Deterrence and the Celerity of the Death Penalty: A Neglected Question in Deterrence Research. Discussion Paper No. 532-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William C.

    This paper focuses on the deterrent effect of the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates. The deterrent effect of both the certainty and the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates is examined cross-sectionally for States. Multiple measures of execution and homicide are considered, along with various sociodemographic variables, in…

  16. Protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge as a nutritional supplement in chicken feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Evans M N; Lebitso, Moses T

    2014-01-01

    Five groups of broiler chickens were raised on feed containing varying substitutions of single cell protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge (pWAS) in varying compositions of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 pWAS: fishmeal by mass. Forty chickens per batch were evaluated for growth rate, mortality rate, and feed conversion efficiency (ηє). The initial mass gain rate, mortality rate, initial and operational cost analyses showed that protein from pWAS could successfully replace the commercial feed supplements with a significant cost saving without adversely affecting the health of the birds. The chickens raised on preprocessed WAS weighed 19% more than those raised on fishmeal protein supplement over a 45 day test period. Growing chickens on pWAS translated into a 46% cost saving due to the fast growth rate and minimal death losses before maturity.

  17. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-08-09

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  19. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of Aedes aegypti larvicidal and biting deterrent compounds from Veratrum lobelianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ethanol extract from Veratrum lobelianum Bernh. rhizomes was evaluated for biting deterrent and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. V. lobelianum extract showed larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 11.79 ppm and 89.9 ppm against 1st and 4th instar larvae, respectively, at 24 h post-trea...

  20. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  1. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. French Senate debate on nuclear deterrence; Dissuasion nucleaire francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincon, S. [UMP Cher (France); Bentegeat, H. [Cema, 75 - Paris (France); Verwaerde, D. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France); Quinlan, M. [IISS, Londre (United Kingdom); Tertrais, B. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    The Senate committee on foreign affairs, defence and the Armed Forces met at a round table session on 14 June 2006 to discuss French nuclear deterrence. Serge Vincon presided the discussion, which covered three aspects of the subject: first, an analysis of the current and medium-term future strategic contexts and their consequences for the role of deterrence, and thus whether or not current doctrine is matched to current and future threats; second, the assets dedicated to deterrence, how well they reflect doctrine and how they fit in with other defence priorities; and finally an examination of Britain position within NATO along with future possibilities arising from closer European defence cooperation. (author)

  4. Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a collective publication entitled 'Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment', edited by Ian Kenyon and John Simpson (Routledge, New York, 2006). This collection of papers rigorously examines the current place of deterrence in international security relations, delivering the best of contemporary thinking. This is a special issue of the leading journal 'Contemporary Security Policy'. The present Lecture note emphasises a particular deterrence situation mentioned in this publication which is the one involving terrorist actors

  5. Is Nuclear Deterrence Morally Defensible? Religious Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-01

    For a few years, the Holy See critics against nuclear weapons and the Vatican's calls in favor of disarmament have been very visible and have led to a new round of analysis and reflection in circles working on strategic issues. This renewed interest, which was in all probability increased by the media coverage generally conferred to Pope Francis, is also linked to the Church's declarations in themselves, which show a slight evolution of its position and a clearer moral condemnation of nuclear deterrence. This focus is also the proof that far from being a purely anecdotal issue reserved to theology experts, the compatibility between nuclear deterrence and religious ethics can have a very concrete impact on strategic realities. In a more direct way, the Pope's message to the Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons tends to reinforce the credibility and exposure of groups calling for immediate disarmament measures and believing that nuclear-weapon states do not fulfill the commitments taken under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). More deeply, it seems that the religious factor still plays (or something plays again) an important role in the 21. century in terms of geopolitics. In many places in the world, religious speeches are linked to nationalism and used to explain part of the geostrategic interests of nations, but also in a way define their behavior on the world stage. This influence does not spare the seemingly very cold and rational positioning towards nuclear weapons, as seen by the decision in 1998 of the nationalist and Hinduist party BJP to make official the nuclear-weapon status of India or the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei forbidding Iran to build a nuclear weapon. Even if in many states, religion plays a less and less important role and is considered a private and personal matter, in others, it remains an essential key to define individual as well as national identity. In that regard, it still participates, with more

  6. Ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H.C. Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Parrotfish are fundamental species in controlling algal phase-shifts and ensuring the resilience of coral reefs. Nevertheless, little is known on their ecological role in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. The present study analysed the ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae using behavioural observation and benthic composition analyses. We found a significant negative relationship between fish size and feeding rates for S. zelindae individuals. Thus, terminal phase individuals forage with lower feeding rates compared to juveniles and initial phase individuals. The highest relative foraging frequency of S. zelindae was on epilithic algae matrix (EAM with similar values for juveniles (86.6%, initial phase (88.1% and terminal phase (88.6% individuals. The second preferred benthos for juveniles was sponge (11.6% compared with initial (4.5% and terminal life phases (1.3%. Different life phases of S. zelindae foraged on different benthos according to their availability. Based on Ivlev’s electivity index, juveniles selected EAM and sponge, while initial phase and terminal phase individuals only selected EAM. Our findings demonstrate that the foraging frequency of the endemic parrotfish S. zelindae is reduced according to body size and that there is a slight ontogenetic change in feeding selectivity. Therefore, ecological knowledge of ontogenetic variations on resource use is critical for the remaining parrotfish populations which have been dramatically reduced in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  7. A pacifier-activated music player with mother's voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother's voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks' postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother's recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs. 0.9 mL/min, P improves oral feeding skills in preterm infants without adverse effects on hormonal stress or growth.

  8. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedel, Robert; Walther, Philip; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Böhi, Pascal; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-01-04

    As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.

  9. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fraser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  10. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-09-12

    The "pot bears" received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  11. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziemke, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the international system since the end of the Cold War has necessitated the reevaluation of the theoretical assumptions that have underlay nuclear deterrence strategies for the past half-century...

  12. Can Deterrence Be Tailored? Strategic Forum, Number 225, January 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M. E

    2007-01-01

    .... The Bush administration has outlined a concept for tailored deterrence to address the distinctive challenges posed by advanced military competitors, regional powers armed with weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  13. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  14. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant

  15. Nuclear deterrence - The French nuclear adventure - The cockerel's spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    This book reveals the secrets of the French strike force: the formidable adventure which provided France with first ranking strategic forces, the incredible fight given by Europe and the European Commission states to prohibit France from acquiring nuclear weapons, the US ambiguous game of accompanying France in her nuclear adventure in order to better monitor her, the core of deterrence with its doctrine of use, and for the future, the measures which will make French deterrence a decisive tool for worldwide peace

  16. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    elements of the US nuclear force gives this debate added meaning and urgency . One alternative currently under discus- sion is minimum deterrence. This...in 2013 illustrates this concept well.55 In this sense , an escalation-deterrence force would supply the tools neces- sary for context-specific...Shaub, “Remembrance of Things Past,” 78–79, 82. 16. Ibid., 80. For further elaboration of this argument, see James Forsyth’s “The Common Sense of

  17. Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Cyber Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Adversary-Specific Campaign Planning and Wargaming Findings: Because deterrence operates by affecting the calculations of specific decision -making...a strategic threat to U.S. critical infrastructure, or to be able to significantly affect the U.S. military’s ability to deploy and operate globally...bolster U.S. cyber deterrence and strengthen U.S. national security. The Task Force notes that the cyber threat to U.S. critical infrastructure is

  18. The nuclear deterrence in 2030; La dissuasion nucleaire en 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    This article presents the conclusions of the prospective analysis, of December 2006, on the future of the french nuclear deterrence after 2015, under the responsibility of the Foundation for the strategic research. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21. century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged and to draw conclusions for the future of the french deterrent. (A.L.B.)

  19. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  20. Seasonal abundance and blood feeding activity of Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Aum-Aung, Boonserm

    2003-11-01

    Anopheline mosquito larvae and adults were sampled at Ban Pu Teuy, Tri-Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, from January 2000 to December 2001. Over the period of 2 yr, Anopheles minimus sensu lato was the most commonly collected species, followed by Anopheles swadiwongporni and Anopheles dirus sensu lato; all three species are important vectors of malaria in Thailand. Attempted blood feeding by An. minimus occurred throughout the night, with two distinct feeding peaks: strong activity immediately after sunset (1800-2100 hours), followed by a second, less pronounced, rise before sunrise (0300-0600 hours). Anopheles minimus were more abundant during the wet season compared with the dry and hot seasons, although nocturnal adult feeding patterns were similar. Anopheles minimus fed readily on humans inside and outside of houses, showing a slight preference for exophagy. The human-biting peak of An. minimus in our study area differed from other localities sampled in Thailand, indicating the possible existence of site-specific populations of An. minimus exhibiting different host-seeking behavior. These results underscore the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector larval habitats and adult activity patterns and linking their importance in malaria transmission in a given area.

  1. Temperament and dominance relate to feeding behaviour and activity in beef cattle: implications for performance and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Somarriba, M; Duthie, C A; Troy, S; Roehe, R; Rooke, J; Haskell, M J; Turner, S P

    2018-04-02

    In beef cattle, feeding behaviour and activity are associated with feed efficiency and methane (CH4) emissions. This study aimed to understand the underlying traits responsible for the contribution of cattle behaviour to individual differences in feed efficiency, performance and CH4 emissions. A total of 84 steers (530±114 kg BW) of two different breeds (crossbreed Charolais and Luing) were used. The experiment was a 2×2×3 factorial design with breed, basal diets (concentrate v. mixed) and dietary treatments (no additive, calcium nitrate or rapeseed cake) as the main factors. The individual dry matter intake (DMI; kg) was recorded daily and the BW was measured weekly over a 56-day period. Ultrasound fat depth was measured on day 56. Based on the previous data, the indexes average daily gain, food conversion and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. The frequency of meals, the duration per visit and the time spent feeding per day were taken as feeding behaviour measures. Daily activity was measured using the number of steps, the number of standing bouts and the time standing per day. Agonistic interactions (including the number of contacts, aggressive interactions, and displacements per day) between steers at the feeders were assessed as indicators of dominance. Temperament was assessed using the crush score test (which measures restlessness when restrained) and the flight speed on release from restraint. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression models. Steers that spent more time eating showed better feed efficiency (P=0.039), which can be due to greater secretion of saliva. Feeding time was longer with the mixed diet (P<0.001), Luings (P=0.009) and dominant steers (P=0.032). Higher activity (more steps) in the pen was associated with poorer RFI, possibly because of higher energy expenditure for muscle activity. Frequent meals contributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions per kg DMI. The meal frequency was higher with a mixed diet (P

  2. Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia - an Assessment of Deterrence and Stability in the India-Pakistan Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Westh, Mark; Juel Giorgio, Maia; Wiegersma, Jakob; Madsen, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a coherent assessment of the stability created by nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan. Our examination posits the neorealist understanding of the stability created by nuclear deterrence in relation to alternative frameworks. To unfold the varying theoretical presuppositions upon which the concept of stability is based, three logically constructed analyses will be undertaken where the theories are explored in relation to empirical data. The Kargil Crisis in 1999 and...

  3. No fly zones : oilsands mines use wide variety of bird deterrents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the bird deterrent practices that several Canadian operators have in place at their tailings ponds. Regulations require that oilsands operators prevent birds from coming into contact with toxic tailings. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has a 2-man team constantly monitoring bird landings at its Horizon tailings pond. The team fires flares at birds or harasses them in boats to stop them from landing on the pond. Remote sensing technologies are used, including long-range acoustic devices, propane cannons, human effigies, balloons, and pyrotechnics. The vegetation around the pond is controlled to make the area inhospitable to birds, and highly desirable bird habitat was created as an alternative bird landing site. Following a high-mortality incident in 2008, Syncrude now deploys 190 shore-based sound canons at all tailings settling basins and open-water areas and uses scarecrows and effigies fitted with reflectors to deter waterfowl from landing. A radar-based migration monitoring system helps the company to optimize its deterrent system. At its Muskeg River Mine, Shell Canada Limited uses an on-demand radar-activated bird-deterrent program, which is what major airports use to deter birds. In the presence of a bird, the system launches a radio signal that sets off strobe lights, propane cannons, scarecrows, and mechanical models of falcons. 1 fig.

  4. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence; Defense et illustration de la dissuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  5. Deterrence by risk of detection? An inquiry into how elite athletes perceive the deterrent effect of the doping testing regime in their sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2017-01-01

    Aims: A central paradigm of global anti-doping policy is detection-based deterrence, i.e. the risk of testing and exclusion from sport are effective doping deterrents. This paper investigates how elite athletes perceive the deterrent effect of the testing strategy in their sport and explores...... the likelihood of testing nor detection as deterrents. 8% did not consider the likelihood of testing and detection nor the ban from sport as deterrents.  Conclusions: Testing programmes–as a strategy to detect and deter doping–are no great deterrent for many athletes. The results highlight the limitations...... whether and how specific factors such as the frequency of testing influence athletes’ perceptions of testing as a deterrent.  Methods: 645 Danish elite athletes completed a web-based questionnaire about their perceptions of testing efforts in their sport.  Findings: 75% of the athletes considered...

  6. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  7. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  8. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  9. A question of balance: Explaining differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on preschoolers' feeding and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3-5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  11. The value of vengeance and the demand for deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Özdemir, Yagiz; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-12-01

    Humans will incur costs to punish others who violate social norms. Theories of justice highlight 2 motives for punishment: a forward-looking deterrence of future norm violations and a backward-looking retributive desire to harm. Previous studies of costly punishment have not isolated how much people are willing to pay for retribution alone, because typically punishment both inflicts damage (satisfying the retributive motive) and communicates a norm violation (satisfying the deterrence motive). Here, we isolated retributive motives by examining how much people will invest in punishment when the punished individual will never learn about the punishment. Such "hidden" punishment cannot deter future norm violations but was nevertheless frequently used by both 2nd-party victims and 3rd-party observers of norm violations, indicating that retributive motives drive punishment decisions independently from deterrence goals. While self-reports of deterrence motives correlated with deterrence-related punishment behavior, self-reports of retributive motives did not correlate with retributive punishment behavior. Our findings reveal a preference for pure retribution that can lead to punishment without any social benefits. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Video Tracking Protocol to Screen Deterrent Chemistries for Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas R; Anderson, Troy D

    2017-06-12

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is an economically and agriculturally important pollinator that generates billions of dollars annually. Honey bee colony numbers have been declining in the United States and many European countries since 1947. A number of factors play a role in this decline, including the unintentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides. The development of new methods and regulations are warranted to reduce pesticide exposures to these pollinators. One approach is the use of repellent chemistries that deter honey bees from a recently pesticide-treated crop. Here, we describe a protocol to discern the deterrence of honey bees exposed to select repellent chemistries. Honey bee foragers are collected and starved overnight in an incubator 15 h prior to testing. Individual honey bees are placed into Petri dishes that have either a sugar-agarose cube (control treatment) or sugar-agarose-compound cube (repellent treatment) placed into the middle of the dish. The Petri dish serves as the arena that is placed under a camera in a light box to record the honey bee locomotor activities using video tracking software. A total of 8 control and 8 repellent treatments were analyzed for a 10 min period with each treatment was duplicated with new honey bees. Here, we demonstrate that honey bees are deterred from the sugar-agarose cubes with a compound treatment whereas honey bees are attracted to the sugar-agarose cubes without an added compound.

  13. Regulation by orexin of feeding behaviour and locomotor activity in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, T; Matsuda, K; Maruyama, K; Miura, T; Uchiyama, M; Funahashi, H; Sakurai, T; Shioda, S

    2006-04-01

    Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present study, we first examined the effect of feeding status on the orexin-like immunoreactivity (orexin-LI) and the expression of orexin mRNA in the goldfish brain. The number of cells showing orexin-LI in the hypothalamus of goldfish brain showed a significant increase in fasted fish and a significant decrease in glucose-injected fish. The expression level of orexin mRNA in the brains of fasted fish increased compared to that of fed fish. We also examined the effect of an i.c.v. injection of orexin or an anti-orexin serum on food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. Administration of orexin by i.c.v. injection induced a significant increase of food intake and locomotor activity, whereas i.p. injection of glucose or i.c.v. injection of anti-orexin serum decreased food consumption. These results indicate that the orexin functions as an orexigenic factor in the goldfish brain.

  14. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-07-14

    To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no fibrosis. Our data

  15. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  16. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Ryan M; Egeberg, Channing A; Hart, Nathan S; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Collin, Shaun P

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  17. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Kempster

    Full Text Available Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™. The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error proximity of 131 (± 10.3 cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9 V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5 V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate

  18. Using detection and deterrence to reduce insider risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Carlson, R.L.; Udell, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses a new concept of interaction between adversary detection and deterrence. It provides an initial evaluation of the effects of these variables on the risk of theft of special nuclear material by an insider adversary and can be extended to the sabotage threat. A steady-state risk equation is used. Exercises with this equation show that deterrence, resulting from the prospect of detection, has a greater ability to reduce the risk than the detection exercise itself. This is true for all cases except those in which the probabilty of detection is 1. Cases were developed for three different types of adversaries that can be distinguished from one another by the level of detection they are willing to tolerate before they are deterred from attempting a theft. By considering the effects of detection, deterrence, and adversary type, the ground work is laid for designing cost-effective insider threat-protection systems

  19. Using detection and deterrence to reduce insider risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R F; Carlson, R L; Udell, C J

    1988-06-01

    This paper addresses a new concept of interaction between adversary detection and deterrence. It provides an initial evaluation of the effects of these variables on the risk of theft of special nuclear material by an insider adversary and can be extended to the sabotage threat. A steady-state risk equation is used. Exercises with this equation show that deterrence, resulting from the prospect of detection, has a greater ability to reduce the risk than the detection exercise itself. This is true for all cases except those in which the probability of detection is 1. Cases were developed for three different types of adversaries that can be distinguished from one another by the level of detection they are willing to tolerate before they are deterred from attempting a theft. By considering the effects of detection, deterrence, and adversary type, the ground work is laid for designing cost-effective insider threat-protection systems. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Nuclear deterrence, which relevance in the 21. century? To debate on deterrence: a democratic requirement, a strategic necessity. Nuclear deterrence: relevance or obsolescence? The Catholic Church and the nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Emmanuel; Fath, Jacques; Le Dauphin, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    In a first article, a member of a centrist party in charge of defence issues calls for a broader debate on nuclear weapons, and notably questions the existence of the airborne component of the French deterrence (as the ground-based component has already been suppressed), and more particularly when budgets and their evolutions are taken into account. He states that the principles of nuclear deterrence can be met with only the sea-borne component. He also outlines the role a European Defence should have. He discusses a possible approach to disarmament. In the second article, the author discusses the past acceptable relevance and present obsolescence of the nuclear weapon. The last article proposes an overview of opinions expressed by the Catholic Church since the 1950's about nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence, and always more in favour of a nuclear disarmament

  1. Optimal interface between principal deterrent systems and material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiermann, P.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find an optimal blend between three safeguards systems for special nuclear material (SNM), the material accounting system and the physical security and material control systems. The latter two are denoted as principal deterrent systems. The optimization methodology employed is a two-stage decision algorithm, first an explicit maximization of expected diverter benefits and subsequently a minimization of expected defender costs for changes in material accounting procedures and incremental improvements in the principal deterrent systems. The probability of diverter success function dependent upon the principal deterrents and material accounting system variables is developed. Within the range of certainty of the model, existing material accounting, material control and physical security practices are justified

  2. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  3. Brain innate immunity regulates hypothalamic arcuate neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H; Stern, Javier E

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexigenic agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons, whereas it increased the activity of the majority of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons. Lipopolysaccharide effects in agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y (but not in proopiomelanocortin) neurons were occluded by inhibiting microglia function or by blocking TLR4 receptors. Finally, we report that inhibition of hypothalamic microglia altered basal food intake, also preventing central orexigenic responses to ghrelin. Our studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

  4. Cyber security deterrence and it protection for critical infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Martellini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The experts of the International Working Group-Landau Network Centro Volta (IWG-LNCV) discuss aspects of cyber security and present possible methods of deterrence, defense and resilience against cyber attacks. This SpringerBrief covers state-of-the-art documentation on the deterrence power of cyber attacks and argues that nations are entering a new cyber arms race. The brief also provides a technical analysis of possible cyber attacks towards critical infrastructures in the chemical industry and chemical safety industry. The authors also propose modern analyses and a holistic approach to resil

  5. (E-Caryophyllene and α-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Cristine Santos da Silva

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC-mass spectrometry, with α-phellandrene (26.3%, (E-caryophyllene (18.0% and β-phellandrene (12.9% identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm. Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E-caryophyllene and α-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and

  6. The dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) increases both hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme activities for nitrogen conservation after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Makiko; Walsh, Patrick J; Mommsen, Thomas P; Wood, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Urea not only is utilized as a major osmolyte in marine elasmobranchs but also constitutes their main nitrogenous waste. This study investigated the effect of feeding, and thus elevated nitrogen intake, on nitrogen metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias. We determined the activities of ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) and related enzymes in liver and nonhepatic tissues. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (the rate-limiting enzyme of the O-UC) activity in muscle is high compared with liver, and the activities in both tissues increased after feeding. The contribution of muscle to urea synthesis in the dogfish body appears to be much larger than that of liver when body mass is considered. Furthermore, enhanced activities of the O-UC and related enzymes (glutamine synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, arginase) were seen after feeding in both liver and muscle and were accompanied by delayed increases in plasma urea, trimethylamine oxide, total free amino acids, alanine, and chloride concentrations, as well as in total osmolality. The O-UC and related enzymes also occurred in the intestine but showed little change after feeding. Feeding did not change the rate of urea excretion, indicating strong N retention after feeding. Ammonia excretion, which constituted only a small percentage of total N excretion, was raised in fed fish, while plasma ammonia did not change, suggesting that excess ammonia in plasma is quickly ushered into synthesis of urea or protein. In conclusion, we suggest that N conservation is a high priority in this elasmobranch and that feeding promotes ureogenesis and growth. Furthermore, exogenous nitrogen from food is converted into urea not only by the liver but also by the muscle and to a small extent by the intestine.

  7. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  8. Examining the Application of Deterrence in Sentencing in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... Various UN and regional instruments and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies echo the need for a prospect of release: see Gumboh 2017 JAL. 35. Van Den Haag 1982 J Crim L & Criminology 1034. 36. Andenaes Punishment and Deterrence 22. 37. Cavadino and Dignan Penal System ...

  9. Deterrents to Women's Participation in Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore and define key factors that deter women from participating in continuing professional development (CPD) in the workplace. Four dimensions of deterrents that are caused by women's social roles, gender inequality and gender dimensions are discussed: family and time constraints, cost and work constraints, lack of…

  10. Fallout: the defence, industrial and technological benefits of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)

  11. Here to Help: Third Party Deterrence Against Insurgent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    that the new threat “of delinquent states and shadowy terrorist groups” was beyond the effects of deterrence.8 However, for those seeking an alternative...foreignpolicy.com/2014/05/08/portrait-of-the-army-as-a-work-in-progress. 28 Statistically , there is reason to favor joint training programs, with the aim

  12. 2015 Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted the 2nd Annual Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar on November 17th, 2015 in Livermore, CA. The seminar was sponsored by LLNL’s Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), National Security Office (NSO), and Global Security program. This summary covers the seminar’s panels and subsequent discussions.

  13. The Effect of Type-1 Error on Deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Mungan, Murat C.

    2018-01-01

    According to a conventional view, type-1 error (wrongful conviction) is as detrimental to deterrence as type-2 error (wrongful acquittal), because type-1 error lowers the pay-off from acting within the law. This view has led to the claim that the pro-defendant bias of criminal procedure, and its ...

  14. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  15. The deterrent effect of nuclear forensics: The case of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A State capable of identifying the origin and history of intercepted nuclear or radioactive material can have a deterrent effect. This is why nuclear forensics — the examination of nuclear and other radioactive material as part of criminal or nuclear security investigations — is an important tool.

  16. Can the deterrence survive to nuclear tests ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, F.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the soundness of the nuclear tests stopping is discussed here. The safety, the durability of nuclear weapons need nuclear tests. So, unless other means able to guarantee the deterrence, it is prejudicial to stop nuclear tests and to sign a non proliferation treaty with the option of zero nuclear explosion. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia: Challenges and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    54 | Air & Space Power Journal Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia Challenges and Controversies © Dr. Stephen J. Cimbala* Disclaimer: The views and...into here. 11. Mazanec, “International Order in Cyberspace,” 83. 12. Joel Brenner, Glass Houses: Privacy , Secrecy, and Cyber Insecurity in a Transparent

  18. Israeli Deterrence And the 2nd Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    06 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic ...peace and stability on the Israel-Lebanon border. This stability owes to strong Israeli deterrence, whose roots stem at the 2006 war. This essay claims

  19. FAILURE OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE IN THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. ii DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and...letters between Kennedy and Khrushchev prior to October 1962 support the notion that nuclear deterrence failed. The purpose of this essay is to

  20. Give Deterrence a Chance: A Strategy Against Al Qaeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-28

    Al Qaeda Terrorists have been described as sociopaths , narcissists, fanatics, extremists, zealots, true-believers, jihadists or demented criminals...If terrorists are sociopaths or other deviants (and it is probable that some are), then it is unlikely that deterrence with its reliance on rational

  1. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jake E; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  2. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  3. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-01-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in [ 3 H]leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis

  4. Progress in counterfeit deterrence: the contribution of information exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Ian M.; Kontnik, Lewis T.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we establish the need for communication between organizations involved in the fight against counterfeiting crime. We also examine the paradox in providing information that could serve the criminal as well as those attempting to protect themselves from criminal activity. Counterfeiting is estimated to account for over 5% of world trade. It is a global operation with no respect for international borders. It is increasingly sophisticated and increasingly the province of organized crime, which applies the techniques developed for drug distribution to the production and distribution of counterfeit articles. To fight this crime there is an increasing plethora of authenticating features and technologies available. Many companies do not recognize the problem and the number of anticounterfeit technologies can be confusing for potential users. There is therefore a need for information about them, their comparative characteristics, to be easily available. At present there is inadequate communication between those who develop and produce anti-counterfeiting devices and those who use them, notwithstanding the marketing efforts of the former. Communication which stimulates and encourages the spread of information between those engaged in the fight against counterfeit crime can only help in that fight. But what we term 'the communication paradox' requires circumspection and care in the content and the distribution of such information. The communication paradox is that the better the channels of communication, the easier it is for criminals to get hold of that information. The challenge is to institute communications which are effective but restrictive. More communication of information between those engaged in counterfeit deterrence will enhance individual companies' and organizations' anticounterfeit efforts and thus contribute to an overall improvement in the fight against counterfeit crime.

  5. Information report published in application of article 145 of the regulation by the Commission of national defence and armed forces in conclusion of works of a mission of information on industrial and technological stakes of a renewal of both components of deterrence - Nr 4301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridey, Jean-Jacques; Lamblin, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This official report first highlights reasons for a renewal of French means of nuclear deterrence: to keep power and to protect the country (deterrence is a component of France power and must be adapted to threats), and to be a contribution to competitiveness (deterrence irrigates the French industrial and technology fields, and has effect on the civil sector). The authors then discuss how to be able to renew means of deterrence during 60 years while facing some challenges (disappearance of the industrial structure, loss of skills), but with more positive objectives and challenges such as an identification of deterrence abilities and skills, ensuring a continuous activity, protection of companies, management of technology, education. These objectives are discussed, and interviews and visits made by the information mission are reported

  6. Regulation of Energy Stores and Feeding by Neuronal and Peripheral CREB Activity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Koichi; Zhao, LiJuan; Shenton, Christopher; Iijima-Ando, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    The cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB functions in adipose tissue and liver to regulate glycogen and lipid metabolism in mammals. While Drosophila has a homolog of mammalian CREB, dCREB2, its role in energy metabolism is not fully understood. Using tissue-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (DN-CREB), we have examined the effect of blocking CREB activity in neurons and in the fat body, the primary energy storage depot with functions of adipose tissue and the liver in flies, on energy balance, stress resistance and feeding behavior. We found that disruption of CREB function in neurons reduced glycogen and lipid stores and increased sensitivity to starvation. Expression of DN-CREB in the fat body also reduced glycogen levels, while it did not affect starvation sensitivity, presumably due to increased lipid levels in these flies. Interestingly, blocking CREB activity in the fat body increased food intake. These flies did not show a significant change in overall body size, suggesting that disruption of CREB activity in the fat body caused an obese-like phenotype. Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and β-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body reduced CRE-mediated transcription in flies. This study demonstrates that CREB activity in either neuronal or peripheral tissues regulates energy balance in Drosophila, and that the key signaling pathway regulating CREB activity in peripheral tissue is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:20041126

  7. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  8. Glycan cross-feeding activities between bifidobacteria under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eTurroni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria colonize the gut of various mammals, including humans, where they may metabolize complex, diet- and host-derived carbohydrates. The glycan-associated metabolic features encoded by bifidobacteria are believed to be strongly influenced by cross-feeding activities due to the co-existence of strains with different glycan-degrading properties. In this study, we observed an enhanced growth yield of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 when co-cultivated with Bifidobacterium breve 12L, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 22L or Bifidobacterium thermophilum JCM1207. This enhanced growth phenomenon was confirmed by whole genome transcriptome analyses, which revealed co-cultivation-associated transcriptional induction of PRL2010 genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, such as those encoding for carbohydrate transporters and associated energy production, and genes reuired for translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis, thus supporting the idea that co-cultivation of certain bifidobacterial strains with B. bifidum PRL2010 causes enhanced metabolic activity, and consequently increased lactate and/or acetate production. Overall, these data suggest that PRL2010 cells benefit from the presence of other bifidobacterial strains.

  9. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Ni, Xinzhi; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Buntin, G David

    2009-06-01

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of commercial pecan orchard enterprises. However, key aspects of this host-pest interaction are poorly understood. We report here the effects of M. caryaefoliae feeding on the foliar activity of oxidative (i.e., catalase, lipoxygenase [LOX]-1 and 3, and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (i.e., esterase) enzymes in relation to the degree of aphid resistance among pecan varieties. The 2-yr study showed that M. caryaefoliae-infested foliage exhibited elevated peroxidase activity only in susceptible ('Desirable', 'Sumner', and 'Schley'), but not in resistant ('Cape Fear', 'Gloria Grande', and 'Money Maker') genotypes. Susceptible genotypes also exhibited more severe leaf chlorosis in response to M. caryaefoliae feeding than the resistant genotypes; however, the aphid feeding did not influence catalase or esterase activity in all varieties, except the increase of esterase activity in Desirable and Gloria Grande. Melanocallis caryaefoliae feeding also influences activity of two lipoxygenase isozymes, with LOX3 being more frequently induced than LOX1. Foliar LOX3 activity was more frequently induced by M. caryaefoliae feeding in the moderately resistant 'Oconee' and highly resistant Money Maker and Cape Fear than in the susceptible genotypes. Therefore, the elevation of peroxidase is likely to be associated with aphid susceptibility and contributed to the severe leaf chlorosis, whereas the increase of LOX3 activity might be associated with aphid resistance in pecan. These findings contribute to our understanding of the etiology of M. caryaefoliae-elicited leaf chlorosis on pecan foliage. Such information may also be used to develop enzyme markers for identifying black pecan aphid resistance

  10. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kylie D; Campbell, Karen; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; McCallum, Zoe; Cameron, Adrian; Ball, Kylie; Gold, Lisa; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Crawford, David

    2013-01-01

    The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program, is a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents of infants from age 4-20 months. Conducted from 2008 to 2010, the program had high uptake and retention and showed positive impacts on some dietary outcomes and television viewing. Funding was secured for a follow-up study of participants two and 3.5 years post intervention (at child ages ~3.5 and 5 years). The follow-up study aims to assess intervention effects, mediators and moderators of effects, and program cost-effectiveness over the longer term. The 492 families still enrolled in the Melbourne InFANT Program at intervention conclusion will be recontacted and renewed consent sought to participate in this follow-up study. No further intervention will occur. Home visit data collections will occur approximately two and 3.5 years post intervention. Main outcomes to be assessed include child body mass index, waist circumference, diet (3 × 24-hour recalls; food frequency questionnaire), physical activity (8 days ActiGraph accelerometer data; parent reported active play) and sedentary time (8days ActiGraph accelerometer and ActivPAL inclinometer data; parent reported screen time). Follow-up of participants of the Melbourne InFANT Program at two and 3.5 years post intervention will allow assessment of longer term intervention effects, investigation of potential mediators and moderators of such effects, and economic evaluation of the longer term outcomes. This information will be valuable to researchers and policy makers in progressing the field of early childhood obesity prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural correlates of food anticipatory activity in mice subjected to once- or twice-daily feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Mintz, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    In rodents, restricted food access to a limited period each day at a predictable time results in the appearance of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Two shorter periods of food access each day can result in two FAA bouts. In this study, we examine FAA under 12:12 and 18:6 photoperiods in mice (Mus musculus) with one or two food access periods per day and measure the activation of the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei by assaying Fos protein expression, while making use of tissue-type plasminogen activator knockout mice to assess the role of neural plasticity in adaptation to restricted feeding cycles. Long days were utilised to allow for temporal separation of two restricted feeding periods during the light phase. Mice fed twice per day generally divided FAA into two distinct bouts, with mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator showing reduced FAA. Increases in Fos expression in response to one restricted feeding period per day were seen in the dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei in both 12:12 and 18:6 conditions, with an increase seen in the SCN in only the 12:12 condition. These increases were eliminated or reduced in the two feeding time conditions (done in 18:6 only). Both activity patterns and Fos expression differed for single restricted feeding times between 18:6 and 12:12 photoperiods. Fos activation was lower during RF in 18:6 than 12:12 across all three brain regions, a pattern not reflective of changes in FAA. These data suggest that involvement of these regions in FAA may be influenced by photoperiodic context. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of cholesterol feeding on tissue lipid perioxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity and liver microsomal functions in rats and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSAI, A. C.; THIE, G. M.; Lin, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol feeding on liver and aortic nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activities, and on liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, codeine hydroxylation and cytochrome P-450 levels was examined in rats and guinea pigs. One percent cholesterol was

  13. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.P.; Laar, van H.; Rump, P.; Doorenbos, J.; Meurs, van K.; Griffioen, G.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can

  14. The relationship between the acoustic behaviour and surface activity of killer whales (Orcinus orca) that feed on herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M.; McGregor, P.K.; Ugarte, F.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the acoustic behaviour of piscivorous killer whales in Norwegian and Icelandic waters. Whales were assigned to one of three activities (feeding, travelling or other), and sound recordings were made in their proximity with a single hydrophone and a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder. A q...

  15. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Haojie; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lü, Beibei; Zhang, Shuping; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Ruoxue; Qian, Jun; Sun, Weiwei; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong

    2011-01-13

    Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2), one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana) plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. The repression in phloem-feeding activities of M. persicae as a result of AtPP2-A1 overexpression, and

  16. Is Cyber Deterrence an Illusory Course of Action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the U.S. government acknowledgement of the seriousness of cyber threats, particularly against its critical infrastructures, as well as the Department of Defense officially labeling cyberspace as a war fighting domain, the Cold War strategy of deterrence is being applied to the cyber domain. However, unlike the nuclear realm, cyber deterrence must incorporate a wide spectrum of potential adversaries of various skill, determination, and capability, ranging from individual actors to state run enterprises. What’s more, the very principles that achieved success in deterring the launch of nuclear weapons during the Cold War, namely the threat of severe retaliation, cannot be achieved in cyberspace, thus neutralizing the potential effectiveness of leveraging a similar strategy. Attribution challenges, the ability to respond quickly and effectively, and the ability to sustain a model of repeatability prove to be insurmountable in a domain where actors operate in obfuscation.

  17. Nuclear deterrence: problems and perspectives in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    1993-01-01

    Few strategic doctrines raise as many controversies as nuclear deterrence. Some are philosophical, ideological or political in nature and question its legitimacy in regards to the considerable risks that it implies, or to the inequality between nations that it upholds. Others are of technical character and develop possible scenarios, corresponding arms systems, and foreseeable interactions between partners. Still others have a retrospective or historic dimension, notably when it comes to evaluating the past efficiency of nuclear deterrence and appraising its contribution to the maintenance of peace - for deterrence strives to be a doctrine of peace maintenance, its organizing principle being that of non-use. The present volume attempts to adopt a different approach. In conjunction with the remarkable transformations affecting international society and the resulting new security - or insecurity - context, it is more a reflection on the future of nuclear deterrence. Today, nuclear deterrence warrants fundamental reexamination. Apart from the traditional challenges from diverse sources and countries, the pertinence of a strategy which presently has neither a major threat to confront nor a designated enemy cannot but be questioned. Concurrently, the spread of nuclear materials, equipment and technology, and the vibrant political interest in acquisition of nuclear arms in a number of countries, threaten further proliferation. In the future, therefore, there may be a decoupling between deterrence and nuclear arms, presenting new dangers to international security. To implement existing commitments to nuclear disarmament is an enormous task. Tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are slated for withdrawal, and most of them for elimination as well. Still, the retention of US and Russian strategic nuclear weapons at the level of 3000-3500 is compatible with existing nuclear doctrines and not to be confused with the concept of minimal deterrence. Depending on the properties

  18. Denatured plutonium: a study of deterrent action. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, B.A.

    1975-07-01

    The safeguarding of nuclear reactor fuel includes physical security methods as well as technological process options. The purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a technological option; the introduction of denaturing as a deterrent to illicit plutonium diversion. Denaturing is accomplished by coextracting some highly-radioactive fission products with the plutonium during reprocessing of spent fuel. The radioactive denaturant is always in companion with the plutonium through all subsequent fuel cycle steps - and serves as a deterrent to diversion or illicit usage of this fissile source. In concept the denaturing approach is simple and straightforward. This report provides a preliminary analysis of denaturing which can be achieved within the framework of present reprocessing technology. The impact of denaturing is indicated by comparison to a conventional (i.e., non-denatured) light water reacter cycle approach

  19. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 1. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesotto, N.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of regional security in Europe on the minimum nuclear deterrence is analyzed. There are four factors that enable definition of specific features of European security. Europe is the only theatre in which four of the five nuclear Powers coexist, where three states, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, represent a new type of proliferation. It is therefore the strategic region with the heaviest concentration of nuclear weapons in the world. Finally it is a theatre in which regional wars are again a possibility. In other words, the end of cold war meant return of real wars in Europe on one hand, and on the other, a combination of absolutely massive and essential nuclear capability and over-increasing economic, political and diplomatic instability. In spite of these circumstances nuclear deterrence in Europe is inevitable and desirable

  20. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  1. Assuring adequate deterrence in tort: A public good experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Theodore; Engel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    To explore damage rules’ deterrent effect, we use a public good experiment to tailor allowable punishment to rules used in actual civil litigation. The experimental treatments are analogous to: (1) damages limited to harm to an individual litigant, (2) damages limited to harm to a group available in aggregate litigation, such as class actions, and (3) damages allowed beyond actual harm to victims, such as punitive damages. The treatment with damages limited to harm to an individual does not p...

  2. Wrestling with Deterrence: Bush Administration Strategy After 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Knopf, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523260802284076 After the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, many observers concluded that the central American strategies of the Cold War – containment and deterrence – no longer applied. Deterring suicide terrorists is a daunting challenge, as people who plan to kill themselves to carry out an attack have no reason to care about a threat to punish them after the fact. Deterring the organizat...

  3. What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Sidney

    2011-04-01

    Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

  4. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 2. Other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Compared to European political and security circumstance, minimum deterrence is less an illusion in other regions where weapon free zones already exist. It will continue to be relevant to the security of other regions. Strategic arms limitation should be pursued vigorously in a constructive and pragmatic manner, bearing in mind the need to readjust to new global challenges. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is the linchpin on which the Non-proliferation Treaty rests

  5. Deterrence and constrained enforcement: Alternative regimes to deal with bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann

    2010-01-01

    This study embeds transaction cost analysis into a Law and Economics model to produce general recommendations on how to deter bribery. Governments may deter bribery either by high penalties and risks of detection, potentially supported by leniency given to those who report their infraction (deterrence regime). Another local optimum is achieved if the government amplifies the risk of opportunism, aggravating the difficulties of enforcing a bribe transaction. This involves a low probability of ...

  6. From War to Deterrence? Israel-Hezbollah Conflict Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Israeli Air Force (IAF) strike on a Syrian reactor in September 2007, the issue of the Lebanese front, although unsettled, was moved to the...widespread con- fusion over the exact level of readiness and coverage of its missile defense architecture. Given the current passion of Israeli...Variations on a Theme: The Conceptual - ization of Deterrence in Israeli Strategic Thinking,” Security Stud- ies, Vol. 7, No. 3, Spring 1998, pp. 145-181

  7. MAD with Aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some...

  8. Vagal activation by sham feeding improves gastric motility in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunding, J A; Nordström, L M; Haukelid, A-O; Gilja, O H; Berstad, A; Hausken, T

    2008-06-01

    Antral hypomotility and impaired gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia have been ascribed to vagal dysfunction. We investigated whether vagal stimulation by sham feeding would improve meal-induced gastric motor function in these patients. Fourteen healthy volunteers and 14 functional dyspepsia patients underwent a drink test twice, once with and once without simultaneous sham feeding. After ingesting 500 mL clear meat soup (20 kcal, 37 degrees C) in 4 min, sham feeding was performed for 10 min by chewing a sugar-containing chewing gum while spitting out saliva. Using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound, antral motility index (contraction amplitude x frequency) and intragastric volumes were estimated. Without sham feeding, functional dyspepsia patients had lower motility index than healthy volunteers (area under curve 8.0 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 1.0 min(-1), P = 0.04). In functional dyspepsia patients, but not in healthy volunteers, motility index increased and intragastric volume tended to increase by sham feeding (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06 respectively). The change in motility index was negatively correlated to the change in pain score (r = -0.59, P = 0.007). In functional dyspepsia patients, vagal stimulation by sham feeding improves antral motility in response to a soup meal. The result supports the view that impaired vagal stimulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric motility disturbances in functional dyspepsia.

  9. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Huveneers

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1 the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias near a static bait, and (2 the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  10. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  11. Choosing Psychiatry as a Career: Motivators and Deterrents at a Critical Decision-Making Juncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Abbey, Susan; Takahashi, Sue Glover; Abrahams, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine factors influencing the choice of psychiatry as a career between residency program application and ranking decision making. Methods: Using an online questionnaire, applicants to the largest Canadian psychiatry residency program were surveyed about the impact of various factors on their ultimate decision to enter psychiatry residency training. Results: Applicants reported that patient-related stigma was a motivator in considering psychiatry as a career, but that negative comments from colleagues, friends, and family about choosing psychiatry was a deterrent. Training program length, limited treatments, and insufficient clerkship exposure were noted as deterrents to choosing psychiatry, though future job prospects, the growing role of neuroscience, and diagnostic complexity positively influenced choosing psychiatry as a specialty. Research and elective time away opportunities were deemed relatively unimportant to ranking decisions, compared with more highly weighted factors, such as program flexibility, emphasis on psychotherapy, service– training balance, and training program location. Most applicants also reported continuing to fine tune ranking decisions between the application and ranking submission deadline. Conclusions: Stigma, exposure to psychiatry, diagnostic complexity, and an encouraging job market were highlighted as positive influences on the choice to enter psychiatry residency. Interview and information days represent opportunities for continued targeted recruitment activity for psychiatry residency programs. PMID:25161070

  12. Nuclear deterrence in Southern Asia: China,India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajain, Arpit

    2005-01-01

    Deterrence includes a mix of reassurance and accommodation, and should not focus exclusively on nuclear capabilities. It is premised on the notion that decision makers are rational individuals. The question of armed conflict, the risk of war and the issue of deterrence in Southern Asia are complicated by the fact that India has a nuclear adversarial relationship with Pakistan and China. Historically, this is an unprecedented situation where a triangular nuclear competition has been constructed, since it is geo-strategically different and more complicated than the bilateral nuclear rivalry that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Should India and Pakistan continue creeping along towards weaponisation and deployment, and China proceed with its nuclear modernisation plans, also partially resulting from the US's national missile defence programme, the three could easily enter into a triad that would be more competitive and conflictual in nature than cooperating with each other in the medium and long term. This book seeks to investigate the nuances of the oft-repeated mantra of credible minimum deterrent, study decision making in crisis and the drivers of various processes and structures in the domestic environment that influence the existence of the bomb in these countries. It seeks to explicate the prevailing attitudes towards issues of arms control, doctrines, strategy, weaponisation and deployment. The fundamental objective here is to highlight issues and prepare decision makers and policy elites in these countries

  13. ALKALINE PROTEASE, AMYLASE AND CELLULASE ACTIVITIES OF YELLOW RASBORA, Rasbora lateristriataBlkr., AT DIFFERENT FEEDING LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Susilo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline proteases, amylase and cellulase activities of digestive organ of yellow rasbora, Rasbora lateristriata Blkr., was evaluated with four different feeding levels of 0.34g protein+0.03g fiber, 1.01g protein+0.10g fiber, 1.69g protein+0.16g fiber and 2.36g protein+0.23g fiber/day/100 g fish biomass. A total of 280 fish with average body weight of 0.71±0.06g were used in this study. The results showed that the difference in the feeding levels resulted in a significant difference in trypsin and chymotrypsin  activities (P .05. In conclusion, protein digestion capacity increased, but not to the digestion of starch and fiber in response to different feeding levels and the optimal feeding level for yellow rasbora was 1,01g protein+0,10g fiber/day/100 g fish biomass.

  14. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    72 | Air & Space Power Journal Increasing Uncertainty The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence Jennifer Bradley To put...relationships and should serve as the cornerstone of US nuclear deterrence policy. Although Russia and China are not identified as adversaries of...exactly what has happened over the past year. The US decision to meet the needs of deterrence by relying less on nuclear weapons and instead devel- oping

  15. The nuclear deterrence: permanence and changes; La dissuasion nucleaire: permanence et changements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debouzy, O. [August and Debouzy, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    The author aims to present that the nuclear deterrence, even with some change, remains today always pertinent and useful. He shows how the application modalities changed. He discusses the need of an analysis of the future weapons and their use, of the articulation between the nuclear deterrence and the anti missiles defense and the necessity of a discussion on the enlarged deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  16. In Defense of Deterrence. The Relevance, Morality and Cost-Effectiveness of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Since 1945, nuclear deterrence has been the target of continuous criticism on strategic, legal and moral grounds. But in the past five years, the renewed debate on nuclear disarmament has been accompanied by an increase in such criticism. Efforts led by four US statesmen, or the more radical 'Global Zero' movement, as well as various diplomatic initiatives, have been accompanied by a flurry of new, serious academic studies questioning the legitimacy of nuclear weapons. More than ever, nuclear deterrence is attacked by many, both on the 'Left' and on the 'Right'. To the traditional arguments related to the credibility, the legality or the morality of nuclear deterrence are now added two other factors. First, nuclear weapons, it is argued, have limited value vis-a-vis proliferation and terrorism, and such risks bolster the case for nuclear disarmament. Second, alternatives such as high-precision conventional means and missile defense are said to now be much more effective than they were in the past. What follows is an attempt to respond to those arguments and offer a proper defense of nuclear deterrence. It is essentially devoted to the most traditional and widely used form of nuclear deterrence, that is, deterrence through the threat of nuclear retaliation ('deterrence by punishment'). It begins with revisiting and addressing the two classic criticisms of nuclear deterrence: its validity as a war-prevention mechanism (Part One, 'Nuclear Deterrence Works'), and its legality as well as morality (Part Two, 'Nuclear Deterrence Is Neither Immoral Nor Illegal'). It then goes on to address criticisms which, without being entirely new, have gained in importance in recent years: first, the cost-effectiveness of nuclear deterrence, in particular vis-a-vis so-called possible alternatives such conventional deterrence and missile defense (Part Three, 'Nuclear Deterrence is Cost-Effective'); second, the validity of nuclear deterrence in the context of twenty-first century

  17. The Effect of Antioxidant Activity of Liquid Smoke in Feed Supplement Block on Meat Functional of Muscle Longissimus dorsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustam, E.; Said, M. I.; Yusuf, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to look at the role of liquid smoke as an antioxidant added in feed supplement block and administered to cattle for 45 days on the functional properties of meat. The level of liquid smoke in the feed and the time of maturation in Muscle Longissimus dorsi after slaughtering cattle were the two treatment factors observed for the functional properties of meat. The study used a complete randomized design in which factor 1 was a 10% smoke level in the feed (0, 1, 2%) and factor 2 was maturation time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 days). The parameters observed were water holding capacity (WHC), raw meat shear force (RMSF), fat oxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The results showed that liquid smoke levels lowered the WHC, RMSF more or less the same, increased fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity more or less the same. While maturation tends to increase WHC, increase RMSF, fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that liquid smoke as an antioxidant in the diet of block supplements can maintain the functional properties of Muscle Longissimus dorsi of Bali cattle during maturation.

  18. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high altitude warm-monomictic saline lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peštová, D.; Macek, Miroslav; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-25 ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * autotrophic picoplankton * feeding rates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  19. Synthetic feeding stimulants enhance insecticide activity against western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In behavioral bioassays, the addition of a synthetic feeding stimulant blend improved the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam against neonate western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae. In 4-h bioassays, the concentration of thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality (LC...

  20. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states...

  1. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA-active

  2. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  3. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  4. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.

  5. [Effects of reversing the feeding cycle and the light period on the spontaneous activity of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticca, M

    1976-01-01

    The amount and the circadian distribution of spontaneous activity in the rat are influenced by a number of factors, whose importance and interrelationships are still deeply discussed. In order to check the reliability of previous studies about the effects of meal-eating on the spontaneous activity (wheel running) of rats of our Sprague-Dawley strain, the adjustment to the modifications of the normal day-night cycle and of the normal nocturnal feeding rhythm have been controlled. Reversing the normal light and dark periods caused the rats, after a 24 hours period, to lower and to irregularly distribute their spontaneous activity. Rats shifted their pattern of maximal activity by 12 hours in the new period of darkness in about five days, and showed to have completely fixed the new reversed running habit. Also feeding habits changed in a similar way, but more slowly. The levels of mean daily activity did not change. In a second experiment, rats, received food during light hours, and were deprived during dark hours. Their activity increased considerably and irregularly during dark hours, while a very slight rise of wheel running was shown during light hours. Body weight gain and food consumption were similar to those of the control group. These results slightly differ from those obtained using other rat strains, and are an interesting example of reinforcement of a spontaneous behavior resulting more from the light-dark cycle than from cues provided by food deprivation.

  6. Optimization of Antenna Current Feeding for the Alfvén Eigenmodes Active Diagnostic System of JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin Manrique, Marcos A.; Ruchko, L.; Pires, C. J. A.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Elfimov, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    The possibility of exploring proper phasing of the feeding currents in the existing antenna of the Alfvén Eigenmodes Active Diagnostic system of JET, to excite pure toroidal spectra of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes, is numerically investigated. Special attention is given to the actual perturbed fields excited in the plasma, which are calculated self-consistently using the antenna version of the CASTOR code. It is found that due to the close spacing of the JET antenna modules and quasi degeneracy of modes with medium to high values of the toroidal mode number n, although a proper choice of the phasing of the feeding currents of the antenna modules indeed leads to an increase of the perturbed fields of the selected mode, modes with nearby values of n are also excited with large amplitudes, so that a scheme to proper select the detected modes remains necessary. A scheme using different antenna position distribution is proposed to achieve successful optimization.

  7. The Relative Effectiveness of Various Incentives and Deterrents as Judged by Pupils and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Compares opinions of British teachers and students toward educational incentives and deterrents. Little change has occurred in the responses of teachers and students over the 24 years. Differences of opinion are evident between pupils and teachers, especially with regard to corporal punishment as a deterrent and adult approval as an incentive.…

  8. Settle for now but block for tomorrow: the deterrence effects of merger policy tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldeslachts, J.; Clougherty, J.A.; Barros, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Antitrust policy involves not just the regulation of anticompetitive behavior but also an important deterrence effect. Neither scholars nor policy makers have fully researched the deterrence effects of merger policy tools because they have been unable to empirically measure these effects. We

  9. Approaches to Building Global Strategic Deterrence System after 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies prospective for transformation of the current global deterrence system in 21st century, paying special attention to the structures of treaties past 2021. After the mainstay arms control treaty (New START expiration development of the new system of treaties and agreements seems inevitable, quite possibly, on multilateral basis. The hypothesis stressing possibility of multilateral deterrence system for global stability is quite popular nowadays. Studying the dynamics of nuclear arms cuts and monitoring progress on New START treaty, we can see numerous positive effects. However, the nuclear modernization programs currently in progress or planned for the near future should be taken into account for future agreements. This is when geospatialanalysis is important, demonstrating effectively which states are deterring each other and for which ones this is simply impossible because of the available weapons delivery range. This analysis is performed for three possible candidates for future multilateral treaties: USA, Russia and China, mentioning Great Britain and France as well. Going further into geospatial analysis, strategic ABM factor is accounted and the role of global ABM is estimated for future treaties. Numerical estimates of nuclear potentials of third countries - incomparable to the current numbers in possession of two main nuclear powers - performed specifically. Based on the analysis provided we can effectively deny the possibility of multilateral agreements for future deterrence scenarios. However, some steps for involving third countries into the global process of nuclear regulations can be outlined. This includes a number of bilateral agreements for arms control in certain regions, specifically developed to form a system of treaties aimed for global tensions reduction moving towards a safer world in the 21st century.

  10. Approaches to Building Global Strategic Deterrence System after 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies prospective for transformation of the current global deterrence system in 21 century, paying special attention to the structures of treaties past 2021. After the mainstay arms control treaty (New START expiration development of the new system of treaties and agreements seems inevitable, quite possibly, on multilateral basis. The hypothesis stressing possibility of multilateral deterrence system for global stability is quite popular nowadays. Studying the dynamics of nuclear arms cuts and monitoring progress on New START treaty, we can see numerous positive effects. However, the nuclear modernization programs currently in progress or planned for the near future should be taken into account for future agreements. This is when geospatialanalysis is important, demonstrating effectively which states are deterring each other and for which ones this is simply impossible because of the available weapons delivery range. This analysis is performed for three possible candidates for future multilateral treaties: USA, Russia and China, mentioning Great Britain and France as well. Going further into geospatial analysis, strategic ABM factor is accounted and the role of global ABM is estimated for future treaties. Numerical estimates of nuclear potentials of third countries - incomparable to the current numbers in possession of two main nuclear powers - performed specifically. Based on the analysis provided we can effectively deny the possibility of multilateral agreements for future deterrence scenarios. However, some steps for involving third countries into the global process of nuclear regulations can be outlined. This includes a number of bilateral agreements for arms control in certain regions, specifically developed to form a system of treaties aimed for global tensions reduction moving towards a safer world in the 21st century.

  11. Signaling the End of Deterrence Afforded by Dual Capable Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    what might happen in response to a Soviet attack would make extended nuclear deterrence work .”3 Schelling advocated for the deployment of...strategic forces to possess an array of offensive and defensive 3 capabilities to limit damage to the US using an imbalance of terror argument...initiated a $8.9B B61 Life Extension Program (LEP).18 Dubbed the B61-12, the new variant of the B61 is intended to replace all previous variants (-3, -4

  12. Atomic power engineering as military and nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    The legislative aspects of the nuclear power facilities protection during military actions are discussed. The IAEA position on this question is considered. Absence in the IAEA subject scope of the works on preparation of the treaty on prohibiting the destruction of nuclear power facilities means that the IAEA countries differently understand the necessity for introducing the legislative positions of the international atomic law. However, observation of the unwritten codex of mutual nuclear deterrence gives rise to the hope for the wise solution of the problem on the nuclear power objects protection during the military actions [ru

  13. Deterrence at Three: US, UK and French Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Tertrais, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Following Russia's annexation of Crimea and aggression against Ukraine, members of NATO are again pondering the strength of Western deterrence. Over the course of the Ukraine crisis, President Vladimir Putin has repeatedly emphasised the potency of Russian nuclear weapons, announced new nuclear-weapons programmes and brushed off accusations that Russia is cheating on a number of arms-control agreements. Most ominously, Putin has declared that he would have been prepared to place Russian nuclear forces on alert - which implies threatening their use - had the annexation of Crimea met with serious resistance. The three NATO nuclear-weapons states - the United States, United Kingdom and France - must again contemplate how best to ensure that their very different nuclear forces strengthen NATO's nuclear deterrence against Russian aggression. There is a tendency among Western defence analysts to assume that, in the event of a major crisis, the three NATO nuclear-weapons states would be able to effectively coordinate their deterrence policies and communications. The stakes are so high, so the thinking goes, that the three parties would find a way to successfully manage the crisis together. Yet, recent experience in terms of trilateral crisis management and strategic communications is not encouraging. In 2013, the United States, the United Kingdom and France attempted to deter Syria from using chemical weapons. This ended up being one of the biggest deterrence fiascos in recent memory - a textbook example of how not to prevent adversaries from embarking on large-scale aggression. The president of the United States announced a 'red line' regarding Syrian use of chemical weapons. Although the red line was apparently drawn extemporaneously, at a press conference on 20 August 2012, London and Paris presumed that Washington was committed to the red line and followed suit with their own statements. Over the course of several months, Syria appears to have

  14. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    OpenAIRE

    David Fraser; Sara Dubois

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia. Residents of this small community were surveyed by phone twice over the following year, before and after government actions. This study aimed to understand local attitudes on how these bears should be managed and whether they differed from existing bea...

  15. Knowledge of mothers about natural and substitute feeding and activities of La Leche League International

    OpenAIRE

    Pajnič, Manca; Hoyer, Silvestra

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the research work carried out in 1998 and covering 30 randomly selected mothers which children between six and 12 months of age. The aims were to find out about the awareness of mothers about the knowledge of mothers about natural and substitute feeding, and to find out whether the producers of artificial food propagate their products through health system. The article presents the world greatest non-governemental organization La Leche League International which has been ...

  16. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Russell

    Full Text Available Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-γ increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-α, D-dimer, and IFN-γ concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-α remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.16, p = 0.001. In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-α level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.

  17. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents

  18. Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Thanh H; Chen, Jin; Hoang, Minh D; Beng, Kingsly C; Nguyen, Van T

    2017-08-01

    The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period. We compared these data to information on phenological patterns at the site gleaned during a prior study. We found that the gibbons gathered most of their food from 69 different plant species and also consumed insects and bird eggs. Fruits were the main dietary item (43.3%), followed by leaves (38.4%), flowers (11.6%), and other plant parts (6.0%). A significant seasonal shift in diet was observed; fruit generally dominated the diet in the rainy season and leaves in the dry season. The gibbons often started daily activities very early (05:10 am) in the morning and also ended quite early (16:45 pm) in the afternoon. Socializing was concentrated in the early morning, feeding had a bimodal pattern of high activity levels in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, and resting was most intense at the earliest and latest hours of the day and at midday, with proportionally less time used for traveling at these times. Averaged over the annual cycle, the gibbons spent 45% of their time feeding, 31.9% resting, 14.1% traveling, and 9.0% socializing. The percentage of time allocated to different activities varied significantly across months and between the dry and rainy seasons. Monthly variation in the activity budget was strongly related to changes in diet. In the rainy season, when the gibbons ate a higher percentage of fruit, they decreased their feeding time, while

  19. Network Science for Deterrence: Sheathing the Sword of the Terrorism/Nuclear Horseman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    After 9/11, network analysis became popular as a way to connect and disconnect the dots. It was heralded as the new science with intrinsic value for understanding and breaking up terrorist groups, insurgencies and hostile foreign governments. The limit of the initially forwarded approach was that it focused on only the social network -- who talked to whom. However ,the networks of war, terror or nuclear or cyber, are complex networks composed of people, organizations, resources, and capabilities connected in a geo-temporal web that constrains and enables activities that are ``hidden'' in the web of everyday life. Identifying these networks requires extraction and fusion of information from cyber-mediated realms resulting in a network map of the hostile groups and their relations to the populations in which they are embedded. These data are at best a sample, albeit a very large sample, replete with missing and incomplete data. Geo-temporal considerations in addition to information loss and error called into question the value of traditional network approaches. In this talk, a new approaches and associated technologies that integrate scientific advances in machine learning, network statistics, and the social and organizational science with traditional graph theoretic approaches to social networks are presented. Then, examples, of how these technologies can be used as part of a deterrence strategy are described. Examples related to terrorism and groups such as al-Qaida and Hamas, cyber and nuclear deterrence are described. By taking this meta-network approach, embracing the complexity and simultaneously examining not just one network, but the connections among networks, it is possible to identify emergent leaders, locate changes in activities, and forecast the potential impact of various interventions. Key challenges, such as data-streaming and deception, that need to be addressed scientifically are referenced.

  20. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  1. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  2. EVOLUTION OF WARPED ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. ROLES OF FEEDING AT THE OUTER BOUNDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the alignment processes of spinning black holes and their surrounding warped accretion disks in a frame of two different types of feeding at the outer boundaries. We consider (1) fixed flows in which gas is continually fed with a preferred angular momentum, and (2) free flows in which there is no gas supply and the disks diffuse freely at their outer edges. As expected, we find that for the cases of fixed flows the black hole disk systems always align on timescales of several 10 6 yr, irrespective of the initial inclinations. If the initial inclination angles are larger than π/2, the black hole accretion transits from retrograde to prograde fashion, and the accreted mass onto the black holes during these two phases is comparable. On the other hand, for the cases of free flows, both alignments and anti-alignments can occur, depending on the initial inclinations and the ratios of the angular momentum of the disks to that of the black holes. In such cases, the disks will be consumed within timescales of 10 6 yr by black holes accreting at the Eddington limit. We propose that there is a close connection between the black hole spin and the lifetime for which the feeding persists, which determines the observable episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei. We conclude that careful inclusion of the disk feeding at the outer boundaries is crucial for modeling the evolution of the black hole spin.

  3. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  4. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell

  5. Nuclear deterrence and the Alliance in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Camille

    2016-01-01

    For more than two decades, nuclear debates had vanished from the heart of Western strategic debates. The general perception within the Alliance was that NATO was not facing direct threats on its territory and borders. NATO was surrounded by multiple 'partners', many of which were aspiring to membership. The threat of nuclear weapons seemed remote, and debates focused on the risks of proliferation or the prospects of a world free of nuclear weapons. This situation has changed dramatically in the last few years. Major and regional powers are modernising their nuclear forces and giving them a central role in their broader strategic posture. In such a context, deterrence is back and NATO needs to re-establish a robust and credible defence and deterrent vis-a-vis multiple and diverse threats, a topic which will be high on the agenda at NATO's summit in Warsaw in early July. There is a strong nuclear component to this debate. Reprint of a paper published in 'Nato Review', 2016

  6. Metabolic organization and effects of feeding on enzyme activities of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick J; Kajimura, Makiko; Mommsen, Thomas P; Wood, Chris M

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the metabolic poise of the elasmobranch rectal gland, we conducted two lines of experimentation. First, we examined the effects of feeding on plasma metabolites and enzyme activities from several metabolic pathways in several tissues of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, after starvation and at 6, 20, 30 and 48 h post-feeding. We found a rapid and sustained ten-fold decrease in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate at 6 h and beyond compared with starved dogfish, suggesting an upregulation in the use of this substrate, a decrease in production, or both. Plasma acetoacetate levels remain unchanged, whereas there was a slight and transient decrease in plasma glucose levels at 6 h. Several enzymes showed a large increase in activity post-feeding, including beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in rectal gland and liver, and in rectal gland, isocitrate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, glutamine synthetase and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Also notable in these enzyme measurements was the overall high level of activity in the rectal gland in general. For example, activity of the Krebs' TCA cycle enzyme citrate synthase (over 30 U g(-1)) was similar to activities in muscle from other species of highly active fish. Surprisingly, lactate dehydrogenase activity in the gland was also high (over 150 U g(-1)), suggesting either an ability to produce lactate anaerobically or use lactate as an aerobic fuel. Given these interesting observations, in the second aspect of the study we examined the ability of several metabolic substrates (alone and in combination) to support chloride secretion by the rectal gland. Among the substrates tested at physiological concentrations (glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, alanine, acetoacetate, and glutamate), only glucose could consistently maintain a viable preparation. Whereas beta-hydroxybutyrate could enhance gland activity when presented in combination

  7. Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul A

    2009-03-01

    Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr). The elephants exhibited variation in activity depending on their age, sex, the time of day and the time of year. Only the five adult cows exhibited stereotypic behavior, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 to 29.4% of all observations. These elephants exhibited individual, diurnal and seasonal variation in stereotypic behavior. This has implications for studies that use short sampling periods and may make comparisons of data collected at different times of the day or year invalid. The six adult elephants spent 27.4-41.4% of the time feeding (between 10:00 and 14:00 hr), 22.9-42.0% standing still, 6.1-19.2% walking and 3.9-9.6% dusting. The hypothesis that the frequency of stereotypic behavior in adult cow elephants was negatively correlated with the frequency of feeding behavior was tested and was found to be true. Stereotypic behavior increased in frequency toward the end of the day-while waiting to return to the elephant house for food--and elephants spent more time stereotyping during the winter months than during the summer months. Elephants were inactive (i.e. exhibited behaviors other than locomotion) for between 70.1 and 93.9% of the time. Creating more opportunities for elephants to exhibit foraging behavior and the introduction of greater unpredictability into management regimes, especially feeding times, may reduce the frequency of stereotypic behavior and increase general activity levels.

  8. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds...... were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day...

  9. Department of Defense Authorization for appropriations for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 1174, Part 4, Strategic Forces and Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Government, academic and military officials provided statements and documents in regard to S. 1174 authorizing appropriations for military activities of the Department of Defense and Department of Energy for defense activities. Strategic Forces and Nuclear deterrence categories include the following major topics: (1) Nuclear Testing Limitations, (2) Strategic Warning Capabilities and ICMB modernization, (3) Strategic Policy and Arms Control, and (4) Strategic Defense Initiatives

  10. Accurate estimation of CO2 adsorption on activated carbon with multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFNN algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rostami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming due to greenhouse effect has been considered as a serious problem for many years around the world. Among the different gases which cause greenhouse gas effect, carbon dioxide is of great difficulty by entering into the surrounding atmosphere. So CO2 capturing and separation especially by adsorption is one of the most interesting approaches because of the low equipment cost, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and low energy consumption.In this study, experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide on activated carbon. The adsorption equilibrium data for carbon dioxide were predicted with two commonly used isotherm models in order to compare with multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFNN algorithm for a wide range of partial pressure. As a result, the ANN-based algorithm shows much better efficiency and accuracy than the Sips and Langmuir isotherms. In addition, the applicability of the Sips and Langmuir models are limited to isothermal conditions, even though the ANN-based algorithm is not restricted to the constant temperature condition. Consequently, it is proved that MLFNN algorithm is a promising model for calculation of CO2 adsorption density on activated carbon. Keywords: Global warming, CO2 adsorption, Activated carbon, Multi-layer feed-forward neural network algorithm, Statistical quality measures

  11. Inter-domain synergism is required for efficient feeding of cellulose chain into active site of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two...... to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient......Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme...

  12. Brain Innate Immunity Regulates Hypothalamic Arcuate Neuronal Activity and Feeding Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, Wagner L.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H.; Stern, Javier E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake,

  13. Nuclear deterrence in second tier nuclear weapon states: a case study of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear deterrence today anchors the national security of all states that possess nuclear weapons. Certain principles or requirements of nuclear deterrence are the same for all such countries. For instance, the ability to threaten with unacceptable damage, or the ability to raise the costs of an action that an adversary might want to take by threatening punishment that would make the act seem meaningless and even regrettable. But must every nuclear nation indulge in an exercise of large-scale warhead accumulation or yield refinements through nuclear testing, or creation of elaborate nuclear war fighting plans in order to claim credible deterrence? Can the practice of deterrence in the second tier states follow a different course? The study examines the manner in which India is engaged in constructing a credible and stable deterrence relationship with two of its nuclear armed adversaries, Pakistan and China with an arsenal much smaller, and command and control structures far simpler than in any of the P-5 nations. Does this difference impact the nature of its nuclear deterrence? In its efforts at creating and sustaining credible nuclear deterrence should India necessarily be expected to follow the same path and rules as those of the P-5? Would it be compelled to build hundreds of warheads and a huge weapons infrastructure? Would a deterrence based on anything less not be credible or stable? The study concludes that even countries with small nuclear arsenals behave no differently from states that possess several thousands of such weapons. The assumption that small nuclear arsenals and rudimentary command and control lend themselves to temptations of easy nuclear use is misplaced. Credible nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan or India and China would hold on the same bases it has held elsewhere - fear of nuclear destruction, imposition of unacceptable damage, and the ability to rationally calculate and weigh the benefits against the costs of use of nuclear

  14. Deterrence and transmission as mechanisms ensuring reliability of gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Francesca

    2012-10-01

    Spreading information about the members of one's group is one of the most universal human behaviors. Thanks to gossip, individuals can acquire the information about their peers without sustaining the burden of costly interactions with cheaters, but they can also create and revise social bonds. Gossip has also several positive functions at the group level, promoting cohesion and norm compliance. However, gossip can be unreliable, and can be used to damage others' reputation or to circulate false information, thus becoming detrimental to people involved and useless for the group. In this work, we propose a theoretical model in which reliability of gossip depends on the joint functioning of two distinct mechanisms. Thanks to the first, i.e., deterrence, individuals tend to avoid informational cheating because they fear punishment and the disruption of social bonds. On the other hand, transmission provides humans with the opportunity of reducing the consequences of cheating through a manipulation of the source of gossip.

  15. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament: France in a corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, L.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the implications and consequences of the recent Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference which drew a line between emerging actors and non-aligned countries on one side, and nuclear states on the other. As the United States got some benefits from this review conference, France, because of its involvement on the Iranian issue and of its clumsy reaction to the Brazil's and Turkey's initiative, found itself in an uncomfortable position. The author stresses that nuclear weapon proliferation is presently the biggest threat against peace, and that negotiations on nuclear disarmament must be resumed. He describes France's position and orientations on this issue: to restore the NPT authority, to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to implement the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). He also discusses the importance of talks about nuclear deterrence in Europe, and more particularly about the role and the future of US tactical nuclear weapons and missiles present on the European soil

  16. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Tertrais, Bruno; Rouillard, Gwendal; Widemann, Thierry; Guillaume, Louis-Michel; Steininger, Philippe; Guillemette, Alain; Amabile, Jean-Christophe; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Carbonnieres, Hubert de; Roche, Nicolas; Guillou, Herve; Bouvier, Antoine; Pastre, Bertrand; Baconnet, Alexis; Monsonis, Guillem; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Hemez, Remy; Tchernega, Vladimir; Wedin, Lars; Dumoulin, Andre; Razoux, Pierre; Migault, Philippe; Wilson, Ward; Maillard, Benjamin de; Aichi, Leila; Charvoz, Ivan; Rousset, Valery; Lespinois, Jerome de; Kempf, Olivier; Dufourcq, Jean; Gere, Francois; Mauro, Frederic; Delort Laval, Gabriel; Charaix, Patrick; Norlain, Bernard; Collin, Jean-Marie; Jourdier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    This special dossier aims at providing some key articles about France's deterrence doctrine. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges and questions about military nuclear activities and opens up some future prospects about this question. The dossier comprises 37 papers dealing with: 1 - Military nuclear activities: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Deterrence according to French President Francois Hollande: continuation, precision and inflexions (Tertrais, B.); 3 - French deterrence warrantor of our independence in the 21. century (Rouillard, G.); 4 - The deterrence concept prior to the nuclear weapon era (Widemann, T.); 5 - France: the strategic marine force in operation (Guillaume, L.M.); 6 - Relevance of the airborne component in the nuclear deterrence strategy (Steininger, P.); 7 - Deterrence stakes for the Directorate General of Armaments (Guillemette, A.); 8 - The Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier: the deterrence voice from the sea (Wodka-Gallien, P.); 9 - Deterrence: missions of the army's radiation protection department (Amabile, J.C.; Granger-Veyron, N.; Carbonnieres, H. de); 10 - The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French defense strategy (Roche, N.); 11 - DCNS, general contractor in the service of deterrence (Guillou, H.); 12 - The airborne nuclear component for MBDA (Bouvier, A.); 13 - Ballistic missile of the marine nuclear component: industrial stakes (Pastre, B.); 14 - Beyond defense against missiles: a US anti-deterrence strategy (Baconnet, A.); 15 - Deterrence dynamics in South Asia (Monsonis, G.); 16 - Military nuclear activities in East Asia (Brisset, J.V.); 17 - North Korea would own nuclear weapons, so what? (Hemez, R.); 18 - About the risk of nuclear warfare in Europe (Tchernega, V.); 19 - Present day nuclear activities: deterrence and gesticulation (Wedin, L.); 20 - Belgian F-16 replacement: nuclear dimension (Dumoulin, A.); 21 - Israel and nuclear deterrence (Razoux, P.); 22 - Nuclear

  17. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  18. On international fisheries agreements, entry deterrence, and ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Hans; Grønbæk, Lone; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    2017-05-15

    A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock. As stated by experts in natural science, the fish ecology still has many open questions, for example how to predict population dynamics, migration patterns, food availability, etc. In some cases, parties disagree about the state, abundance, and migration of a stock, which can reduce the possibilities of reaching an agreement for exploitation of the stock. This paper develops a model and applies it to the North-East Atlantic mackerel fishery, in order to analyze an IFA under different ecological scenarios, and also combines the model with the economic theory of entry deterrence. The model is used empirically to determine whether the parties with original access to the resource have an advantage when forming an agreement with a new party in having the ability to fish the stock down to a smaller size and thereby prevent another party from entering into the fishery. With a basis in entry deterrence, combined with lack of information, the paper illustrates the obstacles that have made an agreement for the North-East Atlantic mackerel so difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  1. Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, . LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyung Park

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular α-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20 α-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0–6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for α-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by β-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20 α-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.

  2. Model of Transient Process Where Three-Phase Transducer Feeds Induction Motor Equivalent as a Variable Active-Inductive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach in the analysis of a transient state in a system where the feeding source is a transducer-IGBT inverter and load is introduced through the induction motor with its R-L parameters. Induction motors with different parameters of powers and power factors are tested. MATLAB simulation of the three-phase inverter that feeds the induction machine has replaced the missing lab equipment with which mathematical model of this system was verified. According to the selected parameters of the inverter and induction machine and through the simulation in the MATLAB program, the results are obtained in the form of diagrams that verify the model of a transient state of the induction machine operation when it operates as a motor which is presented as a variable R-L load. The transient process of the system three-phase bridge inverter whose active-inductive load is the induction machine in the conditions of the change of the load parameters is analyzed. The model of the transient process in the system formed by the inverter in PWM (Pulse Width Modulation converter and induction machine is developed in the time domain and phase coordinates.

  3. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, John S

    2006-01-01

    The 53-year alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been a deterrent to the Stalinist North Korean state along the most heavily militarized zone remaining of the Cold War era...

  5. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence: Deterring Iraq and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziemke, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the international system since the end of the Cold War have necessitated reevaluation of the theoretical assumptions that provided the foundations of deterrence theory for the past six decades...

  6. "Nuclear Deterrence" as an Adaptive Game Frame for Crisis Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, David S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the simulation game "Nuclear Deterrence," which was developed to model an international relations crisis situation involving a bargaining framework potentially applicable to crisis modeling in other disciplines. Eight references are listed. (Author/LLS)

  7. The nuclear deterrence a topical interest; La dissuasion nucleaire reste d'actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetaille, C. [Commandant d' un sous-marin d' attaque, 83 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The author aims to explain with the today world situation favors the nuclear deterrence. The nuclear disarmament of the main european countries will deprive them of a great asset, which will guarantee the international stability. (A.L.B.)

  8. Use of intermediaries in DWI deterrence. Volume 1, Phase 2 report : development of intermediary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    One potential approach to DWI deterrence and prevention involves encouraging people present in potential drunk driving situations to intervene in order to prevent a trip by an impaired driver. Potential "intermediaries" include service personnel in c...

  9. Hosts and environments of low luminosity active galaxies in the local universe: The care and feeding of weak AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejko, John Kenneth

    The observed relationship between the mass of a galaxy's supermassive black hole and the galaxy's bulge mass suggests a relationship between the growth of the galaxy and the growth of its central black hole. When these black holes grow, they release phenomenal amounts of energy into their surroundings, possibly disrupting further growth of the galaxy. The feeding (inflowing matter) and feedback (outflowing energy) of a galaxy's central black hole may be intimately related to the properties of the host's environment, on scales many orders of magnitude beyond the black hole's gravitational influence. While feeding, a massive black hole reveals itself as an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but only a few percent of all galaxies show evidence of an AGN. This thesis focuses on this question: What distinguishes galaxies that are currently hosting actively accreting black holes from those that are not? We use the vast data set provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to study the environments of a well defined sample of AGN hosts. To reduce contamination by galaxies that do not harbor actively accreting black holes, we define a clear, unambiguous sample of local AGN. Using this sample, we search for AGN in merging galaxies and measure the 2-point cross-correlation function of AGN and all galaxies to estimate the environments of AGN hosts compared to non-AGN hosts. We also describe trends in different subsamples of AGN, including luminosity and classification sub-type. Finally, we show how these techniques may be applied to future data sets such as forthcoming SDSS III data and X-ray data from the eROSITA satellite.

  10. Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L A; Bryson, D; Bulling, M T; Sparks, N; Wellard, K S

    2018-05-01

    Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface

  11. Maximal feeding with active prey-switching: A kill-the-winner functional response and its effect on global diversity and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, S. M.; Ward, B. A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Follows, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Predators' switching towards the most abundant prey is a mechanism that stabilizes population dynamics and helps overcome competitive exclusion of species in food webs. Current formulations of active prey-switching, however, display non-maximal feeding in which the predators' total ingestion decays exponentially with the number prey species (i.e. the diet breadth) even though the total prey biomass stays constant. We analyse three previously published multi-species functional responses which have either active switching or maximal feeding, but not both. We identify the cause of this apparent incompatibility and describe a kill-the-winner formulation that combines active switching with maximal feeding. Active switching is shown to be a community response in which some predators become prey-selective and the formulations with maximal or non-maximal feeding are implicitly assuming different food web configurations. Global simulations using a marine ecosystem model with 64 phytoplankton species belonging to 4 major functional groups show that the species richness and biogeography of phytoplankton are very sensitive to the choice of the functional response for grazing. The phytoplankton biogeography reflects the balance between the competitive abilities for nutrient uptake and the degree of apparent competition which occurs indirectly between species that share a common predator species. The phytoplankton diversity significantly increases when active switching is combined with maximal feeding through predator-mediated coexistence.

  12. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030; Essai de prospective. La dissuasion nucleaire en 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2006-12-15

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  13. Exercise book n.10: the nuclear deterrence has to be thought again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Numerous questions about nuclear deterrence are tackled in this part. Some definitions are given (what is deterrence, nuclear winter). In practice what it means, lack of credibility, prevention between nuclear powers, hostility, suspicion, escalation. Ethical aspect and legality are tackled too. Toward a strategy giving a real security: the example of the New Zealand, a non nuclear strategy for O.T.A.N., the importance of checking. (N.C.)

  14. Nuclear Strategy, Deterrence, Compellence, and Risk(y?) Management: Thomas Schelling Meets Joint Vision 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomes, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The following critique of nuclear strategy and deterrence theory should not be mistaken for an argument paralleling that of John Mueller or other revisionists who suggest that nuclear weapons were or are irrelevant in international politics. Opposing Mueller, it links a review of the strategy of nuclear deterrence with an analysis of the role nuclear weapons played in past, present and future global political military affairs.

  15. Deterrence and WMD Terrorism: Calibrating Its Potential Contributions to Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    ideology and aspiration (so-called franchisees ) • operational enablers (financiers etc.) • moral legitimizers • state sponsors • passive state...of al Qaeda • groups affiliated by ideology and aspiration (so-called franchisees ) • operational enablers (financiers etc.) • moral legitimizers...of deterrence.14 One is “deterrence by the threat of punishment,” which compels the adversary to try to calculate whether the potential benefits of

  16. Infected Donor Biomass and Active Feeding Increase Waterborne Transmission of Ichthyophonus sp. to Rainbow Trout Sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S E; Kocan, R M

    2016-06-01

    The precise nature of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission among wild fishes has eluded description for over a century. Transmission among piscivores is direct, via ingestion of infected prey, but there is also evidence for waterborne transmission between infected and uninfected individuals. Transmission among planktivores is believed to be via a waterborne infectious cell, but definitive proof of this mechanism has not been forthcoming. To explore possible mechanisms of transmission we used Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model system and examined the consequence of housing infected donor fish with uninfected (sentinel) fish, without physical contact. We examined two variables linked to transmission: (1) feeding and nonfeeding sentinel fish, and (2) biomass of infected donor fish. Specific-pathogen free sentinel trout were placed in fine-mesh baskets suspended in tanks containing varying numbers of larger Ichthyophonus-infected donor fish and held for 10 weeks, during which time they were examined by in vitro explant culture for the presence of Ichthyophonus. Treatment groups consisted of fed and unfed sentinels housed with infected donors of increasing biomass. After 10 weeks infection prevalence in fed sentinels was significantly higher than in unfed sentinels, and Ichthyophonus was detected earlier in fed fish than in unfed fish. There was no correlation between infection prevalence and donor biomass in fed sentinels, but there was a strong correlation between infection prevalence and increasing donor biomass in unfed sentinels. These data suggest that Ichthyophonus is maintained in wild fish populations by two distinct mechanisms: (1) waterborne infectious cells ingested directly from the water by planktivores, and (2) both infected prey and waterborne infectious cells ingested by piscivores. Received November 13, 2015; accepted February 13, 2016.

  17. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  18. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S

    2014-03-01

    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P frequency and dietary water content, without changing energy intake or

  19. Suitability of saliva cortisol as a biomarker for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation assessment, effects of feeding actions, and immunostimulatory challenges in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinn, A. -C.; Knight, C. H.; Bruckmaier, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    , current research focuses on noninvasive sampling of media other than blood, for example, saliva. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of saliva cortisol as a biomarker under different physiological and immunological states in dairy cows. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate the relationship...... between HPA axis activation and saliva cortisol concentration, 2) investigate effects of some feeding action (as influenced by feed and water consumption) on saliva cortisol concentration, and 3) evaluate the time lag between plasma and saliva cortisol during induced inflammatory conditions...... administration. Saliva and blood samples were taken before, during, and after drinking, feeding, and ruminating. Only a low correlation between saliva and plasma cortisol concentrations (r = 0.03, P = 0.83) but no significant effects of the different feeding actions on saliva cortisol were observed. When...

  20. Deterrence's Element of Sanction Certainty: Friendships, Vicarious Experiences, and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-01-09

    Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.

  1. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  2. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  3. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

    2013-01-01

    Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  4. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kopsida

    Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  5. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate

  6. [Physical activity in pregnancy and in breast-feeding period in obese mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten-Reck, U

    2010-06-01

    Regular physical activity is an important component of a health pregnancy. Being physically active during pregnancy often creates uncertainty and leads to numerous questions: How much and which kind of sports is possible? In pregnant woman a lot of physiological changes are taking place in haemodynamics, in the respiratory system, in the muculoskeletal system, in the glucose metabolism, and in further endocrinological feedback systems besides the psyche and bring about changes in fitness and physical performance. There is evidence that the most active women show the lowest prevalence for gestational diabetes (GDM) and, moreover a lower incidence for obesity and diabetes in both mother and child. Physically active women rarely develop not only GDM but also pre-eclampsia. The protective effect of physical activity can be explained by an enhanced placental growth and vascularity, by decreased oxidative stress, reduced inflammation and an adaption of the disease-related endothelial dysfunction. Maternal obesity increases the frequencies of infertility and miscarriage. Weight loss programmes with nutritional advice and activity counsellings represent a cost-effective infertility treatment. Moreover the possibility of health problems during pregnancy are limited thereby. A high degree of fitness before pregnancy and regular physical activity before conception can prevent the excessive weight gain during pregnancy and influence the weight at the very best. Considering common recommendations for training, as well as careful measures and contraindications, a moderate individual training to maintain physical and psychic fitness is desirable. Many kinds of sports like jogging, nordic walking, swimming and cycling, for example, can be carried out in a pregnancy without any risks and furthermore promote the health of the future mother and child. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  7. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  8. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β 3 AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β 3 ARs in adipose tissue. However, β 3 ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brain stem and the hypothalamus, which provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the central nervous system (CNS) may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β 3 ARs. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate whether CNS β 3 ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation, such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β 3 AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β 3 AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β 3 AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high-fat, high-sugar-fed rats, subchronic central β 3 AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β 3 AR activation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta australis) activates defense responses in both the parasite and soybean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Juan; Song, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Sun, Guiling; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Dunlun; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-06-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C. australis. Decreased salicylic acid levels and 172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in GPA-attacked C. australis, and the soybean hosts exhibited increased jasmonic acid contents and 1015 DEGs, including > 100 transcription factor genes. Importantly, GPA feeding on C. australis increased the resistance of the soybean host to subsequent feeding by the leafworm Spodoptera litura and soybean aphid Aphis glycines, resulting in 21% decreased leafworm mass and 41% reduced aphid survival rate. These data strongly suggest that GPA feeding on Cuscuta induces a systemic signal, which is translocated to hosts and activates defense against herbivores. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Feed-Forward Propagation of Temporal and Rate Information between Cortical Populations during Coherent Activation in Engineered In Vitro Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarse, Thomas B; Pan, Liangbin; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Brewer, Gregory J; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    Transient propagation of information across neuronal assembles is thought to underlie many cognitive processes. However, the nature of the neural code that is embedded within these transmissions remains uncertain. Much of our understanding of how information is transmitted among these assemblies has been derived from computational models. While these models have been instrumental in understanding these processes they often make simplifying assumptions about the biophysical properties of neurons that may influence the nature and properties expressed. To address this issue we created an in vitro analog of a feed-forward network composed of two small populations (also referred to as assemblies or layers) of living dissociated rat cortical neurons. The populations were separated by, and communicated through, a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device containing a strip of microscale tunnels. Delayed culturing of one population in the first layer followed by the second a few days later induced the unidirectional growth of axons through the microtunnels resulting in a primarily feed-forward communication between these two small neural populations. In this study we systematically manipulated the number of tunnels that connected each layer and hence, the number of axons providing communication between those populations. We then assess the effect of reducing the number of tunnels has upon the properties of between-layer communication capacity and fidelity of neural transmission among spike trains transmitted across and within layers. We show evidence based on Victor-Purpura's and van Rossum's spike train similarity metrics supporting the presence of both rate and temporal information embedded within these transmissions whose fidelity increased during communication both between and within layers when the number of tunnels are increased. We also provide evidence reinforcing the role of synchronized activity upon transmission fidelity during the spontaneous synchronized

  11. Feeding and physical activity intervention in school children in Quillota, Chile: Effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Leticia Luna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chilean school children present a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR factors related with bad eating practices and sedentary habits, including overweight and obesity. Objective: to evaluate the impact on RCV of improving the quality of meals delivered by State programs for school children and optimizing their physical activity. Methods: an intervention study was realized in 269 children of both sexes attending third basic grade during 2013 in Quillota, Chile. The subjects were randomized into four groups: Control (C, no intervention; Intervention in diet with the addition of dehydrated vegetables into desserts and jellies given at lunch (D; Intervention in physical activity, improving quantity and quality (PA; Intervention in diet and PA (DPA. Anthropometry and biochemical serum markers were assayed before and after the intervention. Results: no evidence of change in nutritional status as an effect of the interventions was observed during the annual school period. The level of triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol augmented in the group C but not in the intervened groups. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose did not differ in children from groups D, PA and DPA versus Control. Conclusion: even though the intervention of diet and/or physical activity in children during a school year was probably too short to support changes in the nutritional status, a reduction in some CVR factors may already be observed.

  12. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  13. Living microbial ecosystems within the active zone of catagenesis: Implications for feeding the deep biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, B.; Schenk, H. J.; Zink, K.; Ondrak, R.; Dieckmann, V.; Kallmeyer, J.; Mangelsdorf, K.; di Primio, R.; Wilkes, H.; Parkes, R. J.; Fry, J.; Cragg, B.

    2006-06-01

    Earth's largest reactive carbon pool, marine sedimentary organic matter, becomes increasingly recalcitrant during burial, making it almost inaccessible as a substrate for microorganisms, and thereby limiting metabolic activity in the deep biosphere. Because elevated temperature acting over geological time leads to the massive thermal breakdown of the organic matter into volatiles, including petroleum, the question arises whether microorganisms can directly utilize these maturation products as a substrate. While migrated thermogenic fluids are known to sustain microbial consortia in shallow sediments, an in situ coupling of abiotic generation and microbial utilization has not been demonstrated. Here we show, using a combination of basin modelling, kinetic modelling, geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, that microorganisms inhabit the active generation zone in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Three sites from ODP Leg 190 have been evaluated, namely 1173, 1174 and 1177, drilled in nearly undeformed Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary sequences seaward of the Nankai Trough itself. Paleotemperatures were reconstructed based on subsidence profiles, compaction modelling, present-day heat flow, downhole temperature measurements and organic maturity parameters. Today's heat flow distribution can be considered mainly conductive, and is extremely high in places, reaching 180 mW/m 2. The kinetic parameters describing total hydrocarbon generation, determined by laboratory pyrolysis experiments, were utilized by the model in order to predict the timing of generation in time and space. The model predicts that the onset of present day generation lies between 300 and 500 m below sea floor (5100-5300 m below mean sea level), depending on well location. In the case of Site 1174, 5-10% conversion has taken place by a present day temperature of ca. 85 °C. Predictions were largely validated by on-site hydrocarbon gas measurements. Viable organisms in the same depth range have been

  14. In service experience feed back of the tore supra actively cooled inner first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; Cordier, J.J.; Deschamps, P.; Garampon, L.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.

    1994-01-01

    Over 12000 plasma shots (some of them up to 8 MW of additional power and same as long as 60 s) have been achieved in TORE SUPRA (TS) with a significant number of them limited by thr inner first wall. This actively water cooled wall is covered with brazed graphite tiles. High power - high energy experiments have shown that a reliability of the graphite tile/heat sink joint and an accurate alignment of the wall are needed. This paper summarizes the experience gained with this component and developments in progress in order to improve the performance of such a inner first wall. (authors). 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. In service experience feed back of the tore supra actively cooled inner first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, J; Chappuis, P; Chatelier, M; Cordier, J J; Deschamps, P; Garampon, L; Guilhem, D; Lipa, M; Mitteau, R

    1994-12-31

    Over 12000 plasma shots (some of them up to 8 MW of additional power and same as long as 60 s) have been achieved in TORE SUPRA (TS) with a significant number of them limited by thr inner first wall. This actively water cooled wall is covered with brazed graphite tiles. High power - high energy experiments have shown that a reliability of the graphite tile/heat sink joint and an accurate alignment of the wall are needed. This paper summarizes the experience gained with this component and developments in progress in order to improve the performance of such a inner first wall. (authors). 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Deterrence, the spiral model, and intentions of the adversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is not concerned with the many subtleties and complexities of deterrence theory, but only with the central argument that great dangers arise if an aggressor believes that the status quo powers are weak in capability or resolve. This belief will lead the former to test its opponents, usually starting with a small and apparently unimportant issue. If the status quo powers retreat, they will not only lose the specific value at stake but, more important in the long run, will encourage the aggressor to press harder. Even if the defenders later recognize their plight and are willing to pay a higher price to prevent further retreats, they will find it increasingly difficult to convince the aggressor of their new-found resolve. The choice will then be between continuing to retreat and thereby sacrificing basic values or fighting. To avoid this disastrous situation, the state must display the ability and willingness to wage war. It may not be able to ignore minor conflicts or to judge disputes on their merits. Issues of little intrinsic value become highly significant as indices of resolve

  17. Experiments on the use of sound as a fish deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Thatcher, K.P.; Wood, R.; Loeffelman, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a series of experimental studies into the potential use of acoustic stimuli to deter fish from water intakes at thermal and hydroelectric power stations. The aim was to enlarge the range of candidate signals for testing, and to apply these in more rigorous laboratory trials and to a wider range of estuarine and marine fish species than was possible in previous initial preliminary studies. The trials were also required to investigate the degree to which fish might become habituated to the sound signals, consequently reducing their effectiveness. The species of fish which were of interest in this study were the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), sea trout (Salmo trutta), the shads (Alosa fallax, A. alosa), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), herring (Clupea harengus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua). All of these species are considered to be of conservation and/or commercial importance in Britain today and are potentially vulnerable to capture by nuclear, fossil-fuelled and tidal generating stations. Based on the effectiveness of the signals observed in these trials, a properly developed and sited acoustic fish deterrent system is expected to reduce fish impingement significantly at water intakes. Field trials at an estuarine power station are recommended. (author)

  18. MAD with aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some attack scenarios are likely to be exaggerated. In particular, it would seem to be unlikely that the humanity would be attacked simply because it might, sometime in the future, present a threat to the ETI. Even if communication proves to be difficult, rational decision-makers should avoid unprovoked attacks, because their success would be very difficult to assure. In general, it seems believable that interstellar conflicts between civilizations would remain rare. The findings advise caution for proposed interstellar missions, however, as starfaring capability itself might be seen as a threat. On the other hand, attempting to contact ETIs seems to be a relatively low-risk strategy: paranoid ETIs must also consider the possibility that the messages are a deception designed to lure out hostile civilizations and preemptively destroy them.

  19. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  20. Low-dose naloxone provides an abuse-deterrent effect to buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Michael D Smith,1 Cemal Unal,2 Andrew Finn3 1PRA Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Biometrical Solutions LLC, Raleigh, NC, USA; 3BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: In developmental research, plasma buprenorphine concentrations comparable to a 2 mg buprenorphine–naloxone (BN sublingual tablet have been achieved with a 0.75 mg dose of BN buccal film, a small, bioerodible polymer film for application to mucosal membranes. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-period crossover study in opioid-dependent subjects with chronic pain receiving >100 mg oral morphine equivalents daily who experienced withdrawal following a naloxone challenge dose. The objective of the study was to determine if intravenous (IV naloxone doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mg would produce a withdrawal response when coadministered with a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. Fifteen subjects receiving 90–1,260 mg oral morphine equivalents per day enrolled and completed the study. Precipitated withdrawal occurred in 13% (2/15 of placebo-treated subjects and 47% (7/15 of buprenorphine-treated subjects. When combined with the 0.75 mg dose of buprenorphine, a 0.1 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence of precipitated withdrawal to 60%, and a 0.2 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence to 73%. By 15 minutes postdose, the mean change in Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS score from predose was 3.0 for placebo, 6.9 for buprenorphine, 9.8 for BN 0.1 mg, and 12.4 for BN 0.2 mg. The mean COWS score with each active treatment was significantly greater than placebo (P<0.001, and the mean COWS score for each of the naloxone-containing treatments was significantly greater than for buprenorphine alone (P<0.001. Naloxone doses as low as 0.1 mg added an abuse-deterrent effect to a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. Keywords: opioid dependence, withdrawal symptoms, abuse-deterrent, buprenorphine

  1. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei eMatsuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  2. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Nahum; Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h) or day (10:00 h), and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  3. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  4. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-12-09

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two of them, Trp-40 and Trp-38, in the substrate binding sites near the tunnel entrance. Although addressed in numerous studies the elucidation of the role of CBM and active site aromatics has been obscured by a complex multistep mechanism of processive GHs. Here we studied the role of the CBM-linker and Trp-38 of TrCel7A with respect to binding affinity, on- and off-rates, processivity, and synergism with endoglucanase. The CBM-linker increased the on-rate and substrate affinity of the enzyme. The Trp-38 to Ala substitution resulted in increased off-rates and decreased processivity. The effect of the Trp-38 to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient degradation of cellulose in the presence of endoglucanase. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Manipulating beaver (Castor canadensis) feeding responses to invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Perry, Kelly R

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate methods for promoting consumption of tamarisk plants by beavers (Castor canadensis), we determined the feeding responses by captive beavers to diets that contained tannins and sodium chloride (hereafter referred to as tamarisk diet). In two-choice tests, beavers consumed equivalent quantities of tamarisk diet and control diet. Treatment with polyethylene glycol and fructose did not increase beaver preferences for the tamarisk diet. When offered the choice of control diet and casein hydrolysate-treated control diet, beavers strongly avoided the latter, showing feeding deterring activity of casein hydrolysate. However, when tamarisk diet was the alternative to the deterrent treatment, beavers consumed similar quantities of the two diets. Finally, beaver foraging preferences for actual plant cuttings were assessed. Casein hydrolysate application to cuttings of black poplar (Populus nigra) and Scouler's willow (Salix scouleriana) reduced browsing of these highly preferred species and promoted a marked increase in browsing of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). These results suggest that casein hydrolysate treatment of desirable riparian plant species such as Salix and Populus may promote beaver foraging of invasive tamarisk.

  6. Dihydronepetalactones deter feeding activity by mosquitoes, stable flies, and deer ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, John E; Scialdone, Mark A; Todd, Robin G; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Foster, Joseph P; Hallahan, David L

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of catmint, Nepeta cataria L., contains nepetalactones, that, on hydrogenation, yield the corresponding dihydronepetalactone (DHN) diastereomers. The DHN diastereomer (4R,4aR,7S,7aS)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 1) was evaluated as mosquito repellent, as was the mixture of diastereomers {mostly (4S,4aR,7S,7aR)-4,7-dimethylhexahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1(3H)-one, DHN 2} present after hydrogenation of catmint oil itself. The repellency of these materials to Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann mosquitoes was tested in vitro and found to be comparable to that obtained with the well-known insect repellent active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). DHN 1 and DHN 2 also repelled the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L., in this study. DHN 1, DHN 2, and p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), another natural monoterpenoid repellent, gave comparable levels of repellency against An. albimanus and S. calcitrans. Laboratory testing of DHN 1 and DHN 2 using human subjects with An. albimanus mosquitoes was carried out. Both DHN 1 and DHN 2 at 10% (wt:vol) conferred complete protection from bites for significant periods of time (3.5 and 5 h, respectively), with DHN2 conferring protection statistically equivalent to DEET. The DHN 1 and DHN 2 diastereomers were also efficaceous against black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) nymphs.

  7. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  8. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins: feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall eWells

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10-20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  9. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, J P; van Laar, H; Rump, P; Doorenbos, J; van Meurs, K; Griffioen, G M; Dijkstra, J

    2014-05-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can be identified by ear movements, a proprietary model classifies sensor data as "ruminating," "eating," "resting," or "active." The objective of the study was to evaluate this sensor on accuracy and precision. First, a pilot evaluation of agreement between 2 independent observers, recording behavior from 3 cows for a period of approximately 9h each, was performed. Second, to evaluate the sensor, the behavior of 15 cows was monitored both visually (VIS) and with the sensor (SENS), with approximately 20 h of registration per cow, evenly distributed over a 24-h period, excluding milking. Cows were chosen from groups of animals in different lactation stages and parities. Each minute of SENS and VIS data was classified into 1 of 9 categories (8 behaviors and 1 transition behavior) and summarized into 4 behavioral groups, namely ruminating, eating, resting, or active, which were analyzed by calculating kappa (κ) values. For the pilot evaluation, a high level of agreement between observers was obtained, with κ values of ≥ 0.96 for all behavioral categories, indicating that visual observation provides a good standard. For the second trial, relationships between SENS and VIS were studied by κ values on a minute basis and Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficient analysis on behavior expressed as percentage of total registration time. Times spent ruminating, eating, resting, and active were 42.6, 15.9, 31.6, and 9.9% (SENS) respectively, and 42.1, 13.0, 30.0, and 14.9% (VIS), respectively. Overall κ for the comparison of SENS and VIS was substantial (0.78), with κ values of 0.85, 0.77, 0.86, and 0.47 for "ruminating," "eating," "resting," and "active

  10. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  11. The Link Between Economic Growth, Crime and Deterrence Measures in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of crime in Nigeria has become devastating and in order to put more sanity into the economy and the country at large, the Government has embarked on different deterrence measures in curbing crime. Thus, this study examined the interaction of deterrence measures with crime in order to see how economic growth was affected when they were used in curbing crime at different instances. That is, the interaction of deterrence measures with crime informed us how they have helped in lowering crime in Nigeria for a better economic growth to subsist. The deterrence measures considered in this work are in line with the rational choice theory being the cost of crime imposed on the society. Furthermore, this study considered data from 1975 to 2013 with the use of autoregressive distributed lag model. Moreover, the results showed that crime dependency on deterrence measures asymmetrically constituted means of lowering economic growth in the country. Hence, this study suggested that prosecution should be well funded and in order to curb crime and improve economic growth in Nigeria. That is, this would afford the country to reduce the congestion of prison inmates and thus, it would discourage long waiting trials.

  12. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  14. [Breast feeding practice and activities for its promotion in Central America, Panamá and Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B; Delgado, H L; Valverde, V; Townsend, J; Fischer, M; Praun, A

    1985-06-01

    This paper summarizes the data presented by the representatives of Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic at the II Regional Seminar on the Promotion of Breast-Feeding, held in Isla Contadora, Panama, April 25-29, 1983. The representatives of Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama provided up-to-date, representative data in regard to the breast-feeding practice. The average weaning age in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica is 6 and 4 months, respectively. In Honduras and Panama, 43 and 17% of the infants from urban areas, and 21 and 37% of the babies from rural areas, respectively, were weaned before they reached four months of age. The need for availability of permanent systems to collect information on the breast-feeding practice in the different countries is pointed out. With regard to promotion actions, the absence of a national policy in favor of breast-feeding is evident. Moreover, in the national education systems, little importance is given to the subject. On the other hand, the advances achieved by some hospitals in favoring breast-feeding are mentioned. These include rooming in, the feeding of colostrum to newborns, and the establishment of human milk banks to feed premature babies whose mothers are unable to breast-feed them. Another acknowledged fact is that in the rural areas the agricultural home educators do not reinforce the breast-feeding practice. Also, there is a lack of information on the fulfillment of laws instituted for the protection of pregnant and lactating mothers, as far as pre and postnatal rest is concerned.

  15. Chemistry, Antimicrobial Mechanisms, and Antibiotic Activities of Cinnamaldehyde against Pathogenic Bacteria in Animal Feeds and Human Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2017-12-06

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods. Solid foods include various fruits (bayberries, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries), vegetables (carrots, celery, lettuce, spinach, cucumbers, and tomatoes), meats (beef, ham, pork, and frankfurters), poultry (chickens and turkeys), seafood (oysters and shrimp), bread, cheese, eggs, infant formula, and peanut paste. The described findings are not only of fundamental interest but also have practical implications for food safety, nutrition, and animal and human health. The collated information and suggested research needs will hopefully facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of cinnamaldehyde alone and in combination with other natural antimicrobials and medicinal antibiotics to help prevent and treat food animal and human diseases.

  16. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  17. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  18. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  19. Analysis of the morality of intention in nuclear deterrence, with special reference to final retaliation. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quite apart from its apparent political obsolescence, the policy of nuclear deterrence is vulnerable to attack for its seemingly obvious immorality. Nuclear war is blatantly immoral, and nuclear deterrence requires a genuine intention to resort to the nuclear retaliation which would precipitate such a war. Therefore, since it is wrong to intend that which is wrong to do, deterrence is immoral. This thesis seeks to examine the nature of the deterrent intention as a means of verifying the soundness of the above deontological argument. This examination is carried out by first suggesting an acceptable notion of intention in general and then, after analysing the views of deterrent intention by other writers, proceeding to demonstrate the uniqueness of that intention. Having done this, and having explored the possibility that deterrence need not contain a genuine intention to retaliate, the thesis moves on to suggest and defend a moral principle which states that endeavours requiring the formation of an immoral intention may nevertheless be moral. Called the Principle of Double Intention (and based on the Principle of Double Effect), it offers a method for the moral assessment of agents who form immoral intentions within larger contexts. By applying this principle to nuclear deterrence, it is demonstrated that agents who undertake such a policy may be morally justified in doing so, provided certain conditions are met. The thesis closes with a refutation of the objection that an agent cannot rationally form an intention (such as that required in deterrence) which he has no reason to carry out.

  20. The Primacy of Alliance: Deterrence and European Security - Proliferation Papers No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the international security environment has been transformed and nuclear weapons have been marginalized in the West. However, the NATO security policies remain almost unchanged: deterrence is still considered as a principle guiding the Atlantic Alliance, even though the actual policy statements lack target, direction and urgency. Questioning the credibility of deterrence in Europe and its future, this text recalls that it lies first and foremost with solidarity and political cohesion among members of the Alliance, and only secondly with the threat of nuclear retaliation. As a consequence, the decreasing salience of nuclear weapons in the West seems less worrying for the robustness of deterrence in Europe than a long-term and lasting shift of US foreign policy away from the European continent. (author)

  1. Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    2007). This new finding has important implications on how the feeding system of the volcano works and raises two main questions: i) is this an occasional occurrence or is a normal feature of the persistent activity? and ii) how volatile-rich parcels of deep magma rise through a crystal-rich body without significant mixing ?

  2. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  3. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEED ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DIGESTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITY OF EARLY JUVENILE-STAGE MARBLE GOBY, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Darwis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable mass seed production technique of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus has not yet been established due to high mortality occurring on the early juvenile stage and/or after 40 days after hatching (d AH. In order to establish the mass seed production technique, O. marmoratus juveniles of 40 d AH were reared for 60 days to determine growth, survival and digestive enzyme activity at different types of feed (trash fish, artificial feed and Artemia sp. nauplii. Specific growth rate (5.32 and survival rate (91.3% in juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii showed significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. At the end of the experiment, the mean specific trypsin, amylase and lipase activities of juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii were recorded as 0.04 mU mg protein-1m-1, 0.114 mg maltose mg protein-1h-1 and 9.58 m Units, respectively, and they were significantly higher than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. In the present study it was shown that O. marmoratus early juveniles had more efficient digestibility and absorption the nutrient when fed with Artemia.

  4. ECOSYS-87: Model calculations of the activity in cattle meat related to deposition time and feeding regimes after a nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.K.; Gottofrey, J.; Heiz, H.J.; Schenker-Wicki, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioecological model ECOSYS087 was used to evaluate the effect of countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose by eating cattle meat after an accidental release of radioactive material. Calculations were performed using a database adapted to Swiss conditions for the case that (1) contaminated grass or hay is replaced by clean fodder; (2) the last 100 days before slaughter, taking place one year after an accident, only uncontaminated fodder is given; and (3) alternative feeding regimes are chosen. Seasonal effects were considered by doing all calculations for a deposition at each month of the year. Feeding uncontaminated forage 100 d before slaughter (case 2) proved to be the most effective countermeasure and reduced the integrated activity in meat by 90% to 99%. The effect of replacing contaminated grass (case 1) was less uniform and depended strongly on the time a deposition occurred. In this case the reduction was between 50% and 100% one year after deposition. The substitution of contaminated hay (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 3) led to a reduction of the integrated activity of up to 40% one year after deposition. The present model calculations clearly reveal the importance of the seasonality and demonstrate the usefulness of such calculations as a basis for generating countermeasures in decision support systems. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  6. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  7. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  8. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  9. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  10. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  11. Analysis of pharmacy student motivators and deterrents for professional organization involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erin; Wascher, Molly; Kier, Karen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine motivators and deterrents impacting a student pharmacist's decision to join professional organizations. The goal was to create a list of meaningful factors that organizations can use for membership recruitment. This descriptive study utilized a blinded electronic survey sent to eight accredited pharmacy schools in Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. The survey assessed motivating and hindering factors, as well as demographic data. Eight-hundred fifty-six students completed the survey, a 15.05% participation rate. Professional development and networking were the top two endorsed motivational factors, selected as significant by 88.0% and 87.5% respectively. Upon chi-square analysis, networking (pmotivating factors with which membership was found to be significantly influenced. Networking and involvement opportunities were more significant for members while scholarships were a greater motivator among nonmembers. Time required for involvement and cost were the most commonly selected hindrances with 78% and 76% respectively identifying these as significant barriers. The hindering factor found to be significantly different between active members and nonmembers was bylaws/rules of the organization (p=0.032), with non-members rating this as a greater consideration than current members. Multiple factors contribute to a student's decision to join a professional organization. Those active members find greater significance in networking involvement opportunities. Non-member students found scholarships more motivating and recognize bylaws as a consideration for membership more than current members. These results emphasize the multifactorial nature of membership and may direct future membership initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2, one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. Results The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. Conclusions The repression in phloem-feeding activities of

  13. Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.

  14. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  15. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  16. Effect of supplementary feeding of Oecophylla longinoda on their abundance and predatory activities against cashew insect pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid Abdulla, Nassor; Rwegasira, Gration; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown the efficiency of using weaver ants (Oecophylla species) as natural bio-control agents against agricultural pests. Supplementary feeding could promote fast growth of this ant's population and discourage them from moving away. However, such artificial feeding might slow down...... behaviour of O. longinoda. Fed O. longinoda colonies (FWA) were supplemented with a 30% sugar solution and approximately 22 g of finely ground fish meat at two-week intervals while the un-fed colonies (UWA) had access to only naturally occurring food sources. Weaver ant densities and pest damage...

  17. Target-oriented utility theory for modeling the deterrent effects of counterterrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, Vicki M.; Kosanoglu, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal resource allocation in security has been a significant challenge for critical infrastructure protection. Numerous studies use game theory as the method of choice, because of the fact that an attacker can often observe the defender’s investment in security and adapt his choice of strategies accordingly. However, most of these models do not explicitly consider deterrence, with the result that they may lead to wasted resources if less investment would be sufficient to deter an attack. In this paper, we assume that the defender is uncertain about the level of defensive investment that would deter an attack, and use the target-oriented utility to optimize the level of defensive investment, taking into account the probability of deterrence. - Highlights: • We propose a target-oriented utility model for attacker deterrence. • We model attack deterrence as a function of attacker success probability. • We compare target-oriented utility model and conventional game-theoretical model. • Results show that our model results better value of the defender’s objective function. • Results support that defending series systems is more difficult than parallel systems

  18. Juvenile Transfer and Deterrence: Reexamining the Effectiveness of a "Get-Tough" Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L.; Myers, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Although research has examined the effectiveness of juvenile transfer on recidivism, there has been a lack of research done in assessing how well juvenile waiver to adult court meets the criteria necessary for deterrence to occur (i.e., certainty, severity, and swiftness of punishment). The purpose of this study is to assess how well juvenile…

  19. Assessing the Deterrence Value of Carrier Presence Against Adversary Aggression in a Coalition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    provides statistics on nations’ military forces and defense expenditures. The cost for a player to seek an alliance with a nation, defined as the...summary. Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Barnes J, Kleck G (2014) Do more police lead to more crime deterrence? Crime & Delinquency

  20. Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  2. NATO’s Changing its Posture Against Russia from Assurance to Deterrence: Does it Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    resurgence.73 However, this spending must continue in an upward trajectory and delinquent NATO members must hasten their attainment of the stated...accessed 17 Dec 2016) 2 http://www.nato.int/ history /nato-history.html 3 Paulauskas, Kestutis, (2016). On Deterrence. Retrieved from http

  3. U.S. Strategic Command Chief Talks Deterrence, Partnerships During Latest SGL

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Today@NPS The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) welcomed U.S. Air Force Gen. John E. Hyten, Commander, U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), for its latest Secretary of the Navy Guest Lecture (SGL), May 18 in King Auditorium. Hyten spoke about the importance of maintaining strategic deterrence and NPS' inclusion into the USSTRATCOM's Academic Alliance.

  4. China’s Evolving Nuclear Deterrent: Major Drivers and Issues for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    155 Implications for Extended Deterrence of Nuclear and Regional Political Stability . . . . . . . . . 159...Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, August 1990. 4 Robert J. Powell, “Crisis Stability in the Nuclear Age,” American Political Science Review, Vol... instability and, potentially, rapid escalation. Regional crisis stability may be further undermined by nonstructural factors: Potential belligerents

  5. Experimental evaluation of a dedicated underwater air gun for diver deterrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.P.G.; Raa, L.A. te; Dreschler, J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve port security capability there is a need for systems for detection, warning and deterrence of unwanted divers in harbour environments. In a complex environment such as a harbour, these topics present challenging problems and as such are subject to research and development. Already a few

  6. Genetic ontogeny of pancreatic enzymes in Labrus bergylta larvae and the effect of feed type on enzyme activities and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Truls Wergeland; Folkvord, Arild; Grøtan, Espen; Sæle, Øystein

    2013-03-01

    A newly cultivated wrasse species, Labrus bergylta, have shown great potential for use in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the battle against sea lice (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) infections. Hatchery reared L. bergylta were studied from 2 to 55 DPH to examine the molecular basis of digestive ontogeny related to the pancreas. An isolated feeding trial was performed on 27-34 DPH larvae to compare the effect of diet on enzyme activity and the possible exogenous contribution by live feed. The following genes coding for key pancreatic enzymes were analyzed by qPCR: trypsin, Cyp7 A1, BAL, sPLA(2) 1B, amylase and pancreatic chitinase. Enzyme activity was measured on trypsin, neutral lipase, sPLA(2), amylase and chitinase in fed and unfed larvae. We did not observe any effects of the formulated diet v.s. rotifers on enzyme activities of neutral lipase, chitinase and sPLA(2). However, a probable feed-dependency was observed at a transcriptional level, where rotifers seem to stimulate upregulation. The regulation of BAL was the only exception, where an upregulation was observed after weaning both in the ontogeny series and the experimental part. Our data on pancreatic chitinase and amylase mRNA levels suggest the importance of carbohydrates in the diet of early larval and juvenile L. bergylta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic Ethanol Feeding Modulates Inflammatory Mediators, Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB, and Responsiveness to Endotoxin in Murine Kupffer Cells and Circulating Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Maraslioglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol abuse is known to increase susceptibility to infections after injury, in part, by modification of macrophage function. Several intracellular signalling mechanisms are involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses, including the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway. In this study, we investigated the systemic and hepatic effect of chronic ethanol feeding on in vivo activation of NF-κB in NF-κBEGFP reporter gene mice. Specifically, the study focused on Kupffer cell proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and activation of NF-κB after chronic ethanol feeding followed by in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that chronic ethanol upregulated NF-κB activation and increased hepatic and systemic proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similarly, LPS-stimulated IL-1β release from whole blood was significantly enhanced in ethanol-fed mice. However, LPS significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol feeding can improve the responsiveness of macrophage LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-α production and indicate that this effect may result from ethanol-induced alterations in intracellular signalling through NF-κB. Furthermore, LPS and TNF-α stimulated the gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, in part, in a NF-κB-dependent manner.

  8. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  9. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  11. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and other activities are

  12. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  13. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  14. Fumigation toxicity of volatile natural and synthetic cyanohydrins to stored-product pests and activity as soil fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Sik Park; Chris Peterson; Shaohan Zhao; Joel R. Coats

    2004-01-01

    secondary plant metabolites are useful for defense against herbivores.1 Many food and feed plants have been shown to synthesize cyanogenic compounds which can decompose to produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN) as a main source of plant defense, which acts as a toxicant or feeding deterrent to herbivores. Cassava, lima beans, peas, almonds, white clover...

  15. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kempster, Ryan M.; Egeberg, Channing A.; Hart, Nathan S.; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C.; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scienti...

  16. Third-Party Retaliation and the Psychology of Deterrence: Mapping the Psychological Mechanisms that Regulate Retaliation on Behalf of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    variously that its function is, for example, to re-build threatened self - esteem , to obtain enjoyment or satisfaction, or to balance a moral ledger...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0334 Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: Mapping the psychological mechanisms that regulateretaliation...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/01/2012-04/30/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: mapping the

  17. Global Zero and Deterrence Credibility : A Critical Analysis of Obama`s Nuclear Policy and Extended Nuclear Deterrence Credibility on the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Ganss, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a qualitative case study analysis of the whether the nuclear policies of President Obama has weakened the U.S. extended nuclear deterrence credibility on the Korean Peninsula. To answer this, the thesis employs two strategies: First, two variables are discussed; a nuclear capabilities-variable; and a nuclear policy-variable. The purpose is to assess the impact the New START treaty has on U.S. nuclear capabilities, and to assess the implications of Obama`s nuclear policy, expres...

  18. Age-dependent effect of every-other-day feeding and aerobic exercise in ubiquinone levels and related antioxidant activities in mice muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Aging affects many biochemical, cellular, and physiological processes in the organisms. Accumulation of damage based on oxidized macromolecules is found in many age-associated diseases. Coenzyme Q (Q) is one of the main molecules involved in metabolic and antioxidant activities in cells. Q-dependent antioxidant activities are importantly involved on the protection of cell membranes against oxidation. Many studies indicate that Q decay in most of the organs during aging. In our study, no changes in Q levels were found in old animals in comparison with young animals. On the other hand, the interventions, caloric restriction based on every-other-day feeding procedure, and physical exercise were able to increase Q levels in muscle, but only in old and not in young animals. Probably, this effect prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation found in aged animals and also protein carbonylation. Further, Q-dependent antioxidant activities such as NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 are also modulated by both exercise and every other day feeding. Taken together, we demonstrate that exercise and dietary restriction as every-other-day procedure can regulate endogenous synthesized Q levels and Q-dependent antioxidant activities in muscle, preventing oxidative damage in aged muscle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Strengthening Deterrence for 21st Century Strategic Conflicts and Competition: Accelerating Adaptation and Integration - Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Durkalec, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This was the fourth in a series of annual events convened at Livermore to exploring the emerging place of the “new domains” in U.S. deterrence strategies. The purposes of the series are to facilitate the emergence of a community of interest that cuts across the policy, military, and technical communities and to inform laboratory strategic planning. U.S. allies have also been drawn into the conversation, as U.S. deterrence strategies are in part about their protection. Discussion in these workshops is on a not-for-attribution basis. It is also makes no use of classified information. On this occasion, there were nearly 100 participants from a dozen countries.

  20. A Nuclear Submarine in the South Atlantic: The Framing of Threats and Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Herz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we analyse one aspect of Brazilian nuclear policy during the tenure of the Workers Party (2003–2016: the development of a nuclear-propelled submarine. We propose that the project of building a nuclear-propelled submarine has become possible partly because of the mobilisation of a set of arguments for the construction of the South Atlantic as a strategic area, framed in terms of security and development. On the other hand, we contend that the need for a nuclear-propelled submarine is framed through the mobilisation of a specific notion of deterrence. In other words, we claim that the notions of ‘strategic area’, ‘general deterrence’, ‘conventional deterrence’, and ‘deterrence by denial’ can help us analyse the fundamental aspects involved in the framing of the South Atlantic as a security concern, justifying the nuclear-propelled submarine project.

  1. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms.

  2. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted, culturally sensitive education, recruitment and retention strategies to improve the blood supply in SSA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...... effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation...... save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted...

  4. Interacting Neural Processes of Feeding, Hyperactivity, Stress, Reward, and the Utility of the Activity-Based Anorexia Model of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rachel A; Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Verstegen, Anne M J

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with minimal effective treatments and a very high rate of mortality. Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the disease is imperative for improving outcomes and can be aided by the study of animal models. The activity-based anorexia rodent model (ABA) is the current best parallel for the study of AN. This review describes the basic neurobiology of feeding and hyperactivity seen in both ABA and AN, and compiles the research on the role that stress-response and reward pathways play in modulating the homeostatic drive to eat and to expend energy, which become dysfunctional in ABA and AN.

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Feeding Behaviour and Activity Patterns of Released Chimpanzees in Conkouati-Douli National Park, Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ross

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild chimpanzee populations are still declining due to logging, disease transmission and hunting. The bushmeat trade frequently leads to an increase in the number of orphaned primates. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees into an existing chimpanzee habitat. A collection of post monitoring data over 16 years now offers the unique opportunity to investigate possible behavioural adaptations in these chimpanzees. We investigated the feeding and activity patterns in eight individuals via focal observation techniques from 1997–1999 and 2001–2005. Our results revealed a decline in the number of fruit and insect species in the diet of released chimpanzees over the years, whereas within the same period of time, the number of consumed seed species increased. Furthermore, we found a decline in time spent travelling, but an increase in time spent on social activities, such as grooming, as individuals matured. In conclusion, the observed changes in feeding and activity patterns seem to reflect important long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations in wild-born orphan released chimpanzees, demonstrating that the release of chimpanzees can be successful, even if it takes time for full adaptation.

  6. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  7. Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Cha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v, providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

  8. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in chronological order, which also reflects their logical order of development, captures the main features of stability analysis; relates first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and addresses questions such as whether uncertainty in damage preference or defense deployment can be destabilizing. It illustrates the problems with alternative metrics, latency and reconstitution, and deep unilateral and proportional force reductions.

  9. Deterrence and Influence: The Navy’s Role in Preventing War. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    issues of ex- tended deterrence - the protection and defense of South Korea and Taiwan . Similarly, many concerns about direct Russian or Iranian...A Road Map to War: Territorial Dimensions of International Conflict (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1999); Guntram H. Herb and David H...although dwindling) presence of U.S. forces in Europe, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, military equipment sales to Taiwan , and the U.S. presence in the

  10. Perseverance of Power: The Relevancy of Nuclear Deterrence in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    3 Patrick Morgan, "The Practice of Deterrence," in International Practices, ed. Emanuel Adler and Vincent Pouliot (Cambridge New York: Cambridge...Michael Dobbs, One Minute to Midnight : Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War, 1st ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008), 216...Monica, CA: RAND, 2012. Dobbs, Michael. One Minute to Midnight : Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  12. Assessing Possible Improvements in NATO’s Non-Strategic Nuclear Deterrence Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    great country .”86 Consequently, this perspective brings Moscow into conflict with any former Soviet state wishing to align with a rival great power... Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY ( 2. REPORT DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND...Reinforcing Deterrence, 1. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid., 7. 8 Matthew Kroenig, Toward a More Flexible NATO Nuclear Posture: Developing a Response to a Russian

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  15. Reinforcing Deterrence on NATO’s Eastern Flank: Wargaming the Defense of the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY ■ C O R P O R A T I O N Reinforcing Deterrence on NATO’s Eastern Flank Wargaming the Defense of the Baltics David A. Shlapak and Michael...and stability between Moscow and its Western neighbors and raised concerns about its larger intentions. From the perspective of the North Atlantic...After eastern Ukraine, the next most likely targets for an attempted Russian coercion are the Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

  16. NATOs Deterrence Strategy is Failing. The Enhanced Forward Presence: Delusion or Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    with serving, senior leaders across the NATO Alliance. Research reveals a variety of shortcomings and associated recommendations to improve the EFP...levers, answerable to a single NDCC exploits Russia’s autocratic politics and grand strategy of mobilization. Routine, democratic checks and...the reduction of commitment in Afghanistan. Senior leaders are aligned on the requirement for an updated deterrence strategy and what might be termed

  17. What Military Deterrence cannot do, Cyber Deterrence can do to Iran: Exploring the Implications of Manipulative Incessant Usage of the Term ‘Pre-Emptive’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Does international politics today face a crisis in conceptual clarity? Curiously so.The Israeli threat ofpre-emptivemilitary strikes against Iran for its currenturanium enrichment program is essentially a threat ofpreventiveattack inanticipation of a probable security riskin the distant future. Conversely, it is Iranwhich faces an imminent threat from Israel and can resort topre-emptivemeasureson grounds of self-defense. This terminologicalconfusion is a politicalmanipulation to avail of the exception to the threat or use of force under Article51 of the UN Charter as well as legitimize the exercise ofcyber deterrencethrough Stuxnet and Flame viruses.Cyber deterrence must be the latestadditionto the conventional military deterrence strategies as it embodies the threat ofUnilaterally inflicted Assured Destruction (UAD, particularly through cyber war.Sincecyber wars can transform conflicts or wars into asymmetrical battles forpower,they can dangerously impede self-defense. Thus, the internationalcommunityshouldunanimously consent to abandon the use of cyber deterrencestrategiesfor a peaceful and safe present and future.

  18. Risk based In Vitro Performance Assessment of Extended Release Abuse Deterrent Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2016-01-01

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976

  19. Donating blood: a meta-analytic review of self-reported motivators and deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L

    2011-10-01

    Although research on blood donor motivation abounds, most studies have typically focused on small sets of variables, used different terminology to label equivalent constructs, and have not attempted to generalize findings beyond their individual settings. The current study sought to synthesize past findings into a unified taxonomy of blood donation drivers and deterrents and to estimate the prevalence of each factor across the worldwide population of donors and eligible nondonors. Primary studies were collected, and cross-validated categories of donation motivators and deterrents were developed. Proportions of first-time, repeat, lapsed, apheresis, and eligible nondonors endorsing each category were calculated. In terms of motivators, first-time and repeat donors most frequently cited convenience, prosocial motivation, and personal values; apheresis donors similarly cited the latter 2 motivators and money. Conversely, lapsed donors more often cited collection agency reputation, perceived need for donation, and marketing communication as motivators. In terms of deterrents, both donors and nondonors most frequently referred to low self-efficacy to donate, low involvement, inconvenience, absence of marketing communication, ineffective incentives, lack of knowledge about donating, negative service experiences, and fear. The integration of past findings has yielded a comprehensive taxonomy of factors influencing blood donation and has provided insight into the prevalence of each factor across multiple stages of donors' careers. Implications for collection agencies are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The End of the Deterrence Paradigm? Future Directions for Global Refugee Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Asylum seekers and refugees continue to face serious obstacles in their efforts to access asylum. Some of these obstacles are inherent to irregular migration, including dangerous border crossings and the risk of exploitation. Yet, refugees also face state-made obstacles in the form of sophisticated migration control measures. As a result, refugees are routinely denied access to asylum as developed states close their borders in the hope of shifting the flow of asylum seekers to neighboring countries. Restrictive migration control policies are today the primary, some might say only, response of the developed world to rising numbers of  asylum seekers and refugees. This has produced a distorted refugee regime both in Europe and globally – a regime fundamentally based on the principle of deterrence rather than human rights protection. While the vast majority of European states still formally laud the international legal framework to protect refugees, most of these countries simultaneously do everything in their power to exclude those fleeing international protection and offer only a minimalist engagement to assist those countries hosting the largest number of refugees. By deterring or blocking onward movement for refugees, an even larger burden is placed upon these host countries. Today, 86 percent of the world’s refugees reside in a low- or middle-income country, against 70 percent 20 years ago (Edwards 2016; UNHCR 2015, 15. The humanitarian consequences of this approach are becoming increasingly clear. Last year more than 5,000 migrants and refugees were registered dead or missing in the Mediterranean (IOM 2016. A record number, this makes the Mediterranean account for more than two-thirds of all registered migrant fatalities worldwide (IOM 2016. Many more  asylum seekers are subjected to various forms of violence and abuse during the migratory process as a result of their inherently vulnerable and clandestine position. As the industry

  1. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  2. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  3. Predicting DUI decisions in different legal environments: investigating deterrence with a conjoint experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Johnson, Mark B; Beck, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement practices and sanctions contribute differentially to the certainty, swiftness, and severity of punishment, which are the key components of general deterrence theory. This study used a conjoint experiment to understand the decision-making process of potential DUI offenders and tested how variation in enforcement and legal punishment affects drinking and driving decisions. It sought to verify and quantify the unique deterrent effects of certainty, severity, and swiftness and to predict the rates of drinking and driving in different legal environments. One hundred twenty-one college seniors and graduate students at the University of Maryland participated in the Web-based conjoint experiment. They were randomly assigned to 4 blocks, each of which included 9 hypothetical scenarios composed of different levels of DUI enforcement and penalties. Respondents were asked to state their likelihood of drinking and driving under each scenario, as well as their estimated chance of being caught by the police for DUI. Intensified enforcement, harsh jail penalty, and immediate long license suspension were found to be the strongest deterrents to drinking and driving. Alternative ways to get home were also important in reducing people's willingness to drive. These factors accounted for most of the attribute effect on the DUI decision, whereas delayed punishment due to judicial processing, fine penalty, and legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit had negligible effects. For the personal characteristics, college seniors and those who had previously driven after drinking were more likely to choose to drink and drive, whereas those who expect a jail penalty for a DUI offense were less likely to drive. Our research confirmed and quantified certainty of punishment as the greatest deterrent to DUI, but it also indicated the equally important effect of a severe jail penalty. It provides evidence on the feasibility of using a conjoint

  4. Influence of season, environment and feeding habits on the enzymatic activity of peptidase and β-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract of two Siluriformes fishes (Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Duarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic activities involved in the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive track of two Siluriformes fish species, and between two areas: a reservoir, and an area downriver of it. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the digestive organs of species with varied feeding habits have different enzymatic activities, and that the enzymatic activity differs among seasons and environmental conditions. The iliophagous/herbivorous species Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner, 1854 had higher trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like peptidase and β-glucosidase activity in the intestine when compared with the omnivorous species Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède, 1803, whereas the latter had more hepatic trypsin-like activity than the former. The peak of activity of the three enzymes in H. auroguttatus was recorded in the winter and spring. On the other hand, P. maculatus tended to have the more prominent peptidase and β-glucosidase activity in the summer, and the smallest in the winter. The intestine of H. auroguttatus had higher enzymatic (trypsin, chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase activity than the stomach and the liver. For P. maculatus, the highest β-glucosidase activity was found in the liver. The enzymatic activity of H. aurogutattus did not differ between lotic and lentic systems, whereas P. maculatus had comparatively higher stomach and hepatic trypsin levels and hepatic chymotrypsin-like activities in the reservoir than down in the river. These findings indicate that, in H. auroguttatus, most digestive activity occurs in the intestine, which is long and adapted for the digestion of bottom-river vegetable matter and detritus. The seasons and the type of the system (lentic vs. lotic seem to affect the enzymatic activity for these two species differently, a likely consequence of their different lifestyles.

  5. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  6. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  7. Effects of feeding an immunomodulatory supplement to heat-stressed or actively cooled cows during late gestation on postnatal immunity, health, and growth of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiel, Amy L; Fabris, Thiago F; Corrá, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, James D; Kirk, David J; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Laporta, Jimena

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well. Herein we evaluated markers of innate immune function, including immune cell counts, acute phase proteins, and neutrophil function, of calves born to multiparous dams in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dams were supplemented with OG or a bentonite control (NO) beginning at 60 d before dry off and exposed to heat stress with cooling (CL) or without active cooling (HT) during the dry period (∼46 d). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and fed 6.6 L of their dams' colostrum in 2 meals. Calf body weight and rectal temperature were recorded, and blood samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 10, 28, and 49 d of age. Calves born to either CL dams or OG dams were heavier at birth than calves born to HT or NO dams, respectively. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were higher in the blood of calves born to OG dams relative to NO and for HT calves relative to CL calves. In addition, calves born to cooled OG dams had greater concentrations of plasma haptoglobin than calves born to cooled control dams. Neutrophil function at 10 d of age was enhanced in calves born to cooled OG dams and lymphocyte counts were higher in calves born to OG dams. Together these results suggest that adding OG to maternal feed in combination with active cooling of cows during late gestation is effective in mitigating the negative effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal calf growth and immune competence. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  8. Activation of cellular apoptosis in the caecal epithelium is associated with increased oxidative reactions in lactating goats after feeding a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiyu; Tian, Jing; Cong, Rihua; Sun, Lili; Duanmu, Yongqian; Dong, Haibo; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the ultrastructural changes of the caecal mucosa and the status of epithelial cellular apoptosis and oxidative reactions in lactating goats after prolonged feeding with a high-concentrate diet? What is the main finding and its importance? High-concentrate diet results in ultrastructural damage to the caprine caecal epithelium. Increased oxidative and decreased antioxidative reactions are involved in the process of activating epithelial apoptosis in the caecal epithelium of goats fed a high-concentrate diet. Our results provide new insight into the relationship between abnormal fermentation in the hindgut and damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. The effect of feeding a high-concentrate diet (HC) to lactating ruminants on their hindgut epithelial structure remains unknown. In this study, 12 lactating goats were randomly assigned to either HC (65% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6) or a low-concentrate diet (LC; 35% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6). After 10 weeks, the epithelial ultrastructure and cell apoptotic status in the caecal mucosa were determined by transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL, respectively. The results showed that the level of free lipopolysaccharide (P epithelium, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis showed that there was no significant difference in activated caspase-3, Bax protein expression in caecal epithelial mucosa between HC- and LC-fed goats (P > 0.05). However, the level of malondialdehyde content in the caecal epithelium from HC-fed goats was markedly higher than that in LC-fed goats (P < 0.05), whereas the level of glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase activity were significantly decreased. Gene expressions of cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the caecal mucosa did not show any significant

  9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  10. Responses of protists with different feeding habits to the changes of activated sludge conditions: a study based on biomass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Changes of protists, which were categorized into different functional groups primarily according to their feeding habits, in two full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems experiencing sludge bulking were investigated over a period of 14 months. Protist biomass represented 3.7% to 5.2% of total biomass on average under normal sludge conditions, and the percentage increased significantly (p protists. On the other hand, the bactivorous protists represented more than 96% of total protist biomass, and the biomass of this group, particularly the attached ciliates, increased significantly (p < 0.05) when sludge bulking occurred. The significant increase of the attached ciliates may have possibly facilitated the growth of filamentous bacteria through selectively preying on non-filamentous bacteria and further exacerbated sludge bulking. The redundancy analysis and correlation analysis results showed that the biomass changes of the attached ciliates were primarily related to the sludge volume index and to some extent related to five-day biochemical oxygen demand loading and hydraulic retention time.

  11. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Carla Mitie

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

  12. Assessment of nutritional value of single-cell protein from waste-activated sludge as a protein supplement in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M; Lebitso, Moses T

    2012-12-01

    The amount of protein wasted through sludge in Gauteng, South Africa, amounts to 95 000 metric tonne/yr, with the order of magnitude of the national protein requirement of approximately 145 000 metric tonne/yr. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that treat domestic wastewater contains protein in a ratio of 2:1 against fishmeal. This protein source has not been utilized because of the high content of toxic heavy metals and other potential carcinogenic pollutants in the sludge. In this study, a pretreatment method of modified aqua regia dilute acid wash was used to lower the metal content by approximately 60%. However, this resulted in a 33% loss of amino acids in the acid-washed WAS. A feed substitution test in poultry with different fishmeal-sludge ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% WAS as percent substitution of fishmeal) showed no impact of sludge single-cell protein (SCP) on mortality rate. However, sludge substitution in the feed yielded weight gains and cost savings up to 46%.

  13. Ovipositional Deterrence of Methanolic and Etherial Extracts of Five Plants to the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Elhag

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and diethyl ether extracts of Harmal, Rhazya stricta Decne.; neem seed kernels, Azadirachta indica A.Juss; cloves, Syzygeum aromarticum (L.; citrus peel and Ramram, Heliotropium bacciferum (Forssk- were evaluated for their deterrence to oviposition by Callosobruchus maculatus (F. on chickpeas in choice tests. Both extracts of all materials significantly reduced oviposition on treated seeds. Maximum deterrent effects (91.8% were obtained in the neem seed methanol extract at 0.5% concentration, citrus peel O. l% ether extract (90.9%, R stricta 0.5% methanol extract (83.9%, and clove 0. 1% ether extract (80.0%. Methanol extracts of neem seeds and R. stricta evoked higher deterrent effects than their etherial extracts, whereas the responses for cloves and citrus peel were more pronounced in their ether extracts. H. bacirferum % deterrency due to both types of extracts were practically identical. The results encourage future incorporation of such plant extracts as ovipositional deterrents in stored-product lPM programmes.

  14. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  15. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  18. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  19. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  20. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  1. The introduction of a potentially abuse deterrent oxycodone formulation: Early findings from the Australian National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Bruno, Raimondo; Ali, Robert; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Farrell, Michael; Larance, Briony

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing concern about tampering of pharmaceutical opioids. We describe early findings from an Australian study examining the potential impact of the April 2014 introduction of an abuse-deterrent sustained-release oxycodone formulation (Reformulated OxyContin(®)). Data on pharmaceutical opioid sales; drug use by people who inject drugs regularly (PWID); client visits to the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC); and last drug injected by clients of inner-Sydney needle-syringe programmes (NSPs) were obtained, 2009-2014. A cohort of n=606 people tampering with pharmaceutical opioids was formed pre-April 2014, and followed up May-August 2014. There were declines in pharmacy sales of 80mg OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the reformulated product, the dose most commonly diverted and injected by PWID. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was among the least commonly used and injected drugs among PWID. This was supported by Sydney NSP data. There was a dramatic reduction in MSIC visits for injection of OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the new formulation (from 62% of monthly visits pre-introduction to 5% of visits, August 2014). The NOMAD cohort confirmed a reduction in OxyContin(®) use/injection post-introduction. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was cheaper and less attractive for tampering than Original OxyContin(®). These data suggest that, in the short term, introduction of an abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin(®) in Australia was associated with a reduction in injection of OxyContin(®), with no clear switch to other drugs. Reformulated OxyContin(®), in this short follow-up, does not appear to be considered as attractive for tampering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parents’ Perceptions and Adherence to Children’s Diet and Activity Recommendations: the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M.; Reidy, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solving the childhood obesity problem will require strategies for changes in policy, the environment, the community, and the family. Filling the data gap for children younger than 4 years could facilitate interventions aimed at this critical age group. The objective of this study was to describe parents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the healthfulness of their young child’s diet and body weight and to assess their adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ 5-2-1-0 recommendations. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of parents’ and caregivers’ survey data for 887 infants younger than 12 months, 925 toddlers aged 12 to 23.9 months, and 1,461 preschoolers aged 24 to 47.9 months. Data were from the national, cross-sectional 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Results Most parents considered their child’s weight to be about right but were more likely to think their child was underweight (8%–9%) than overweight (2%–3%). Most parents thought their child consumed enough fruits and vegetables: however, only 30% of preschoolers met the recommendation for 5 daily servings. Only 2% of toddlers met the recommendation for no screen time, whereas 79% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit daily screen time to 2 hours or less. About 56% of toddlers and 71% of preschoolers met the recommendation of at least 1 hour of daily outdoor play. About 56% of toddlers and 52% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion The FITS 2008 findings underscore the ongoing need for research on policies and strategies to prevent childhood obesity from infancy through preschool. Health care providers can play a vital role because they are an important and early point of contact for parents. PMID:26402049

  3. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  4. Effects of nicotine on the digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds reflect their relative tolerance to this alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Nicolson, S W

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences compensatory feeding and digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds. High nicotine concentration negatively affected compensatory feeding and apparent assimilation efficiency of white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens; but nicotine slowed gut transit time only in the latter species. In contrast, food intake and digestive performance of dark-capped bulbuls Pycnonotus tricolor was unaffected by nicotine up to a concentration of 50μM. Bulbuls are primarily frugivorous; hence, they are more exposed to secondary metabolites than sunbirds and possibly white-eyes. Because their diet is richer in toxins, frugivorous birds may have evolved more efficient detoxification strategies than those of specialist nectar-feeding birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. INCREASE IN DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM THE NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS IN RESPONSE TO FEEDING - A MODEL TO STUDY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND NATURALLY ACTIVATED DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS IN THE RAT-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; TEISMAN, A; DEVRIES, JB

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the in vivo release of dopamine and certain drugs, during conditions of increased dopaminergic activity. Dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens were activated by feeding hungry rats. 48-96 h after implantation of a

  6. Production, perceptions, and punishment: restrictive deterrence in the context of cannabis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Malm, Aili; Bouchard, Martin

    2015-03-01

    American authorities have invested extraordinary resources to keep up with the growth in cannabis cultivation, and state-level cannabis laws have been changing rapidly. Despite these changes, little research on the relationship between criminal justice sanctions and grower behaviours exist, in particular research that examines restrictive deterrence - the altering of an illegal behaviour as opposed to desisting from it completely. We examine restrictive deterrence in the context of cannabis cultivation by modelling the relationship between the threat of sanctions and the size of cultivation site and number of co-offenders. We use data from an anonymous web survey where participants were recruited through advertisements on websites related to cannabis use and cultivation. Negative binomial regression were used on 337 cases that contain valid data on size of cultivation site and 338 cases that contain valid data on the number of co-offenders. Our study found some evidence that the severity of state sanctions reduces the size of cultivation sites among growers who reside in the state. However, the number of contacts with the police had the opposite effect. In addition, we did not find a restrictive deterrent effect for the number of co-offenders, suggesting that different factors affect different decision points. Interestingly, objective skill and subjective skill had positive and independent effects on size of site. Results suggest that state-level sanctions have a structuring effect by restricting the size of cultivation sites but further increases in sanctions or enforcement are unlikely to deter more individuals from growing cannabis. In fact, there may be some potential dangers of increased enforcement on cannabis growers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Jonas, I.; Doornbos, M.; Schubert, K. A.; Nyakas, C.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased dietary fat intake is a precipitating factor for the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Physically active individuals generally have a reduced risk of developing these unhealthy states, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the

  8. Daily activity of Dichotomius geminatus (Arrow, 1913 and Deltochilum verruciferum Felsche, 1911 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae facing carrion: from resource perception to feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Portela Salomão

    Full Text Available Abstract Dung beetles (Scarabaeinae interact with resources in different ways and are classified according to resource relocation guilds. Dichotomius geminatus (Coprini and Deltochilum verruciferum (Canthonini are two of the most abundant and ecologically important species of the semi-arid region of Brazil, and understanding their behaviour may facilitate the comprehension of strategies associated to competition for resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate the behavioural repertoire of D. geminatus (tunneler and D. verruciferum (roller, in isolation and controlled setting in the Brazilian semi-arid biome, using carrion as a food resource. Our hypothesis was that, due to the distinct food relocation strategies presented by these species, distinct behaviours would occur involving resource utilization. We also compared the behaviour of the two species and investigated the period of diel activity. Both species were more active during the night, but D. geminatus presented a shorter peak of nocturnal activity when compared to D. verruciferum. Although there was activity during the day, feeding was only observed during the night, for both species. During the periods of inactivity, D. verruciferum commonly went underneath the carrion, remaining still. As the target species of the study are very abundant, the differences in behaviour associated with the distinct relocation guilds may indicate a strategy to avoid direct competition.

  9. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The principal results of studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in their order of development. They capture the main features of stability analysis; relate first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and address whether different metrics, uncertain damage preferences, or the deployment of defenses can be destabilizing. The report explores differences between unilateral and proportional force reductions in the region of deep reductions where concern shifts from stability to latency.

  10. The myth of nuclear deterrence: The lessons of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has provided a great opportunity and an urgent need for recasting a long-range policy for nuclear weapons. At the moment, however, there is not much prospect of nuclear disarmament by the United States and Russia beyond START II, and no prospect of nuclear disarmament by the other states, while the chances of nuclear proliferation remain high. This paper explores the implications of the Cold War for further nuclear disarmament and preventing future nuclear proliferation, focusing on the notion of nuclear deterrence and the 'crystal ball effect' of nuclear weapons

  11. Assessing the Impact of a Focused Deterrence Strategy to Combat Intimate Partner Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Stacy M; Weil, John D

    2018-03-01

    The Offender Focused Domestic Violence Initiative (OFDVI) represents for the first time anywhere the application of the evidence-based focused deterrence policing approach to combat intimate partner domestic violence (IPDV). Through holding offenders accountable, the strategy has resulted in 20% reductions each in IPDV-related calls for police service and arrests. Victim injuries have been significantly reduced and the 1-year IPDV offender recidivism rate is about 16-17%. The backbone of the OFDVI strategy is the multidisciplinary collaboration of law enforcement and community partners which has resulted in identification and resolving system issues which have historically allowed offenders to repeat IPDV without consequence.

  12. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  13. Challenges Involved in the Development and Delivery of Abuse-deterrent Formulations of Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua P; Mendoza, Mario; Roland, Carl

    2018-02-01

    This commentary examines the development, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges facing abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) products. In January 2017, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development convened a roundtable to explore clinical development, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges with respect to ADFs of opioid analgesics. Roundtable participants, who included a range of pharmaceutical industry and other experts, discussed multiple challenges. First, several key clinical development challenges were identified and discussed. These challenges pertain to prodrug development and development of deterrents against oral abuse. Second, experts suggested that more clarity is needed from regulatory authorities regarding standards for proving ADF labeling claims and for being rewarded with 3-year data exclusivity. Similarly, given the substantial burdens associated with the development of postapproval evidence generation, experts raised the need for a consistent regulatory policy related to postapproval evidence generation for all ADFs (branded and generic). Third, despite the public health benefits of certain ADF products, current coverage and access policies impede patient access. Payer justification for restrictive policies appears to be based more on budget impact considerations than cost-effectiveness. Fourth, there remains a need to further expand the evidence base regarding clinical and cost-effectiveness as well as abuse deterrence in a real-world setting for all ADF products. Clinical development challenges need to be overcome with respect to novel ADF technologies, such as prodrugs and deterrents against oral abuse. More clarity is needed from regulatory authorities on labeling claims and data exclusivity eligibility with respect to ADFs. Ensuring prescriber training and awareness of various options for treating pain, including ADF products, is an important step, as is educating payers about the public health benefits of ADFs in appropriate

  14. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerquist, Barbara [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Winsor, Martha [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Mate, Bruce [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  15. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear

  16. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  17. Norm of nuclear weapons non-use and deterrence: interaction of the conceptions in case of usa

    OpenAIRE

    Bladaitė, Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Norm of Nuclear Weapons Non-use and Deterrence: Interaction of the Conceptions in Case of USA The problem that is analyzed in this master thesis is formed according the paradox. Although, US is thought to be the county that maintains norm of non-use, in the practice US forms the strategy according nuclear deterrence. The object of this master thesis is nuclear weapons posture of US during the period of 2009-2015. The main aim of this thesis is to explore posture of US nuclear weapons use base...

  18. A quantitative histochemical study of D-amino acid oxidase activity in rat liver in relationship with feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H. R.; Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; Best, A. J.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    The histochemical method for the demonstration of D-amino acid oxidase activity in rat liver, based on the use of cerium ions and the diaminobenzidine-cobalt-hydrogen peroxide procedure, was improved by the application of unfixed cryostat sections and a semipermeable membrane interposed between

  19. Potential Use of Food/Activity, Parenting Style, and Caregiver Feeding Style Measurement Tools with American Indian Families: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.

  20. The origin of the selectivity and activity of ruthenium-cluster catalysts for fuel-cell feed-gas purification: a gas-phase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Krstić, Marjan; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2014-05-19

    Gas-phase ruthenium clusters Ru(n)(+) (n=2-6) are employed as model systems to discover the origin of the outstanding performance of supported sub-nanometer ruthenium particles in the catalytic CO methanation reaction with relevance to the hydrogen feed-gas purification for advanced fuel-cell applications. Using ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with first-principles density functional theory calculations three fundamental properties of these clusters are identified which determine the selectivity and catalytic activity: high reactivity toward CO in contrast to inertness in the reaction with CO2; promotion of cooperatively enhanced H2 coadsorption and dissociation on pre-formed ruthenium carbonyl clusters, that is, no CO poisoning occurs; and the presence of Ru-atom sites with a low number of metal-metal bonds, which are particularly active for H2 coadsorption and activation. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical investigations provide mechanistic insight into the CO methanation reaction and discover a reaction route involving the formation of a formyl-type intermediate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Simple feed-forward active control method for suppressing the shock response of a flexible cantilever beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kihong; Pyo, Sangho; Lee, Young-Sup

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a 'simple' active control method (without using an error sensor and an adaptive algorithm) is proposed for reducing the residual vibration of a flexible cantilever beam excited by a shock impulse. It is assumed that the shock input can be measured and always occurs on the same point of the beam. In this case, it is shown that a much simpler active control strategy than conventional methods can be used if the system is well identified. The proposed method is verified experimentally with consideration of some practical aspects: the control performance with respect to the control point in time and the choice of frequency response function (FRF) estimators to cope with measurement noise. Experimental results show that a large attenuation of the residual vibration can be achieved using the proposed method. (technical note)

  2. Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrin, J.; Villalba, P.; Guerron, E.; Zurita, E.

    1990-01-01

    In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    OpenAIRE

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and ...

  4. A Biomimetic Ultrasonic Whistle for Use as a Bat Deterrent on Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Paul; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Carlson, Daniel; Dowling, Zara; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    As wind energy continues to gain worldwide prominence, more and more turbines are detrimentally influencing bat colonies. In 2012 alone, an estimated 600,000 bats were killed by wind turbines in the United States. Bats show a tendency to fly towards turbines. The objective of this work is to deter bats from the proximity of the swept area of operational wind turbine blades. Established field studies have shown that bats avoid broadband ultrasonic noise on the same frequency spectrum as their echolocation chirps. A biomimetic ultrasonic pulse generator for use as a bat deterrent on wind turbines is designed and studied experimentally. This device, which works based on the fundamentals of flow-induced oscillations of a flexible sheet is a whistle-like device inspired by a bat larynx, mechanically powered via air flow on a wind turbine blade. Current device prototypes have proven robust at producing ultrasound across the 20 - 70 kHz range for flow inlet velocities of 4 - 14 m/s. Ultimately, a deterrent as described here could provide a reliable, cost-effective means of alerting bats to the presence of moving turbine blades, reducing bat mortality at wind facilities, and reducing regulatory uncertainty for wind facility developers. The financial support provided by the US Department of Energy, and the Massachusetts Clean Energy center is acknowledged.

  5. The role of the brown adipose tissue in β3-adrenergic receptor activation-induced sleep, metabolic and feeding responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentirmai, Éva; Kapás, Levente

    2017-04-19

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h. In uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) knockout mice, the middle and highest doses of the β3-AR agonist increased sleep and suppressed SWA, however, these effects were significantly attenuated and shorter-lasting as compared to WT animals. To determine if somnogenic signals arising from BAT in response to β3-AR stimulation are mediated by the sensory afferents of BAT, we tested the effects of CL-316,243 in mice with the chemical deafferentation of the intra-scapular BAT pads. Sleep responses to CL-316,243 were attenuated by ~50% in intra-BAT capsaicin-treated mice. Present findings indicate that the activation of BAT via β3-AR leads to increased sleep in mice and that this effect is dependent on the presence of UCP-1 protein and sleep responses require the intact sensory innervation of BAT.

  6. Isolation of Fungi and Bacteria Associated with the Guts of Tropical Wood-Feeding Coleoptera and Determination of Their Lignocellulolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilor Rojas-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The guts of beetle larvae constitute a complex system where relationships among fungi, bacteria, and the insect host occur. In this study, we collected larvae of five families of wood-feeding Coleoptera in tropical forests of Costa Rica, isolated fungi and bacteria from their intestinal tracts, and determined the presence of five different pathways for lignocellulolytic activity. The fungal isolates were assigned to three phyla, 16 orders, 24 families, and 40 genera; Trichoderma was the most abundant genus, detected in all insect families and at all sites. The bacterial isolates were assigned to five phyla, 13 orders, 22 families, and 35 genera; Bacillus, Serratia, and Pseudomonas were the dominant genera, present in all the Coleopteran families. Positive results for activities related to degradation of wood components were determined in 65% and 48% of the fungal and bacterial genera, respectively. Our results showed that both the fungal and bacterial populations were highly diverse in terms of number of species and their phylogenetic composition, although the structure of the microbial communities varied with insect host family and the surrounding environment. The recurrent identification of some lignocellulolytic-positive inhabitants suggests that particular microbial groups play important roles in providing nutritional needs for the Coleopteran host.

  7. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P content (P ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  8. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (education and age. The intervention effects on vegetable (positive effect) and sweet snack consumption (negative effect) were greater in children with higher educated mothers while intervention effects on water consumption (positive effect) were greater in infants with lower educated mothers. The intervention was also more effective in increasing both vegetable and water consumption in infants with mothers aged education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.

  9. A comparison of the effectiveness of methods of deterring pteropodid bats from feeding on commercial fruit in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatamo E.A. Raharimihaja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of methods of deterring Pteropus rufus from feeding on commercial fruit in east central and southeastern Madagascar in 2012–2013 during the Litchi chinensis harvest. Two of the three methods used, installing plastic flags and ringing bells in the trees, were derived from those used by litchi growers in the southeast.  We improved and standardized these methods and compared their effectiveness with an organic product made from dried blood and vegetable oil (Plantskydd® with a taste and odour aimed at deterring mammal feeding.  The bats damaged from 440–7,040 g of litchi fruits per tree and two of the three methods reduced the fruit lost to bats: the plastic flags and the organic deterrent.  There were significant differences in the damage levels between the study sites and between our three methods of deterrence.  The plastic flags and bell ringing methods were significantly less effective in reducing the fruit bat damage compared to the taste deterrent.  The latter was most effective when it had enough time to dry and adhere to the fruits after spraying and before rain.  Its effectiveness was further demonstrated in flight cage experiments during which Rousettus madagascariensis avoided litchis treated with Plantskydd®.  Analysis of bat faecal samples revealed no feeding preference but the collected samples contained large numbers of Ficus seeds, suggesting that the bats feed extensively on Ficus fruits rather than on fruit of economic importance.  Apart from fruit ripeness, tree productivity or other phenological factors did not affect the amount of fruit eaten by the bats.   More fruits were damaged by birds than bats at both study sites. 

  10. Potential use of food/activity, parenting style, and caregiver feeding style measurement tools with American Indian families: A brief report

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five ...

  11. Core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, submitted to supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim de Araújo Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finding of remains (tracks, scats, and hairs, an analysis was made of the core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, living in a private natural reserve in which ecotourism activities are developed and these animals are daily fed bovine meat. A total of 465 samples of remains were recorded. Using the fixed kernel method, the area encompassing all samples recorded was estimated at 25.7 km², yet 50% of all samples were found in an area of only 1.5 km², representing 5.8% of the total area covered. For estimating the core area of the animals, the frequency of occurrence of the samples was determined by superimposing a 50 x 50 m cell grid over a map of the area encompassing all recorded occurrences. Based on the cells containing more than six occurrences, the animals' core area was 0.99 km², which included the place where the animals are fed. The centre of activity was located only 0.50 km from this place. The high negative correlation (r = -0.93, p A área central e o centro de atividade de lobos-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, foram determinados através de seus vestígios (fezes, pegadas e pêlos em uma reserva natural particular, onde esses animais estão sujeitos à alimentação artificial e sofrem influência de atividades turísticas. No total, foram registrados 465 vestígios, sendo que 65,8% corresponderam à estação seca. Através do método Kernel fixo, a área compreendida por todos os vestígios foi de 25,7 km², sendo que 50% encontravam-se em uma área de apenas 1,5 km², o que representou 5,8% do total da área amostrada. A área central de atividade dos animais foi obtida pelo cálculo da freqüência dos registros dos vestígios através da sobreposição de uma quadrícula subdividida em células de 50 x 50 m sobre a área que abrangia todos os registros. Considerando as células com mais de seis registros a área central de atividade atribuída aos

  12. A U.S. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Strategy: By Design or Default It’s about the Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    then who are we to suggest actions that may upset the apple cart. Continued Retention of a Nuclear Deterrence Force. The ideas of M. K. Ghandi ...shaped India’s thinking about nuclear weapons. Ghandi espoused non-violence as a political strategy and his moral rejection of nuclear weapons laid the

  13. Nuclear deterrence in the 21. century. Lessons from the cold war for a new era of strategic piracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. In this book, the author calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of the traditional concepts of first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers (e.g., China), smaller nuclear powers (e.g., Pakistan and North Korea), and non-state actors (e.g., terrorists), as well as the extension of defense and security analysis to new domains, such as outer space and cyber-space. The author draws upon the lessons of the bipolar Cold War era to illustrate new concepts of deterrence that properly account for the variety of nuclear actors, the proliferation of missiles and thermonuclear weapons, and the radical ideologies that all are part of the nuclear scene today. Contents: 1- Introduction, 2 - Why Is This Subject Important?, 3 - Concepts, 4 - Lessons from Crises, 5 - The Age of Small Powers, 6 - Ahead of Us: The Big Piracy Game?, 7 - Space and Cyber-deterrence

  14. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C 29 H 60 ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CYBER DETERRENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    credibility in building alliances, deterring enemies, and preventing costly wars. Dr. Press identified the relationship of a country’s credibility...separate networks with different security administrators and 9 firewalls . Bryan Clark, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary...question when forming the basis for retaliation.42 Attribution when possible can be very costly and time consuming. This can be best explained in

  17. Atividade alimentar da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae no rio Paraná Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Peciformes, Sciaenidae feeding activity in Parana river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A atividade alimentar anual, estacional e diária da curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi avaliada para a planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (município de Porto Rico-PR e para o reservatório de Itaipu. Os peixes foram capturados com redes de espera de diferentes malhagens, sendo as coletas realizadas mensalmente, de outubro de 86 a setembro de 88, no primeiro ambiente, e de novembro de 83 a fevereiro de 89, no segundo. Os aparelhos de pesca ficaram expostos por 24h, com despescas ao amanhecer (7h, durante o dia (15h e ao anoitecer (23h e a cada três horas, em coletas especiais, para determinação do ritmo diário. Foi utilizado o grau de enchimento do estômago e a freqüência de estômagos com alimento como indicadores de repleção estomacal. Registrou-se alta incidência de estômagos vazios, em ambos os ambientes. As variações anuais desses indicadores foram mais pronunciadas no reservatório de Itaipu. Em relação às variações sazonais, a atividade alimentar foi sempre mais elevada nos períodos mais quentes, em contraste com o inverno. A tomada de alimento no período de 24 horas foi mais intensa nas primeiras horas da manhã, revelando-se uma espécie predadora tipicamente diurna, utilizando estímulos visuais para a detecção e perseguição das presas.Curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 feeding activity at the upper Paraná river floodplain (Porto Rico region, state of Paraná, Brazil and Itaipu reservoir was investigated. The fishes were collected monthly with different mesh-sized gill nets October, 1986 through September, 1989 at upper Paraná river and November, 1983 through February, 1989 at Itaipu reservoir. The nets were set for 24 hours and the fishes were collected at sunrise (7A.M., afternoon (3P.M. and night (11P.M. at Itaipu reservoir and each, three hours at upper Paraná river floodplain to determine daily feeding rhythm. Stomach repletion degree and food update frequency

  18. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-01-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will

  19. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  1. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass...... with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2·28 vs. 2·53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61·4 vs. 60·0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10·2 vs. 9·9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding...

  2. Which future for the French nuclear deterrence in front of today's and tomorrow's geostrategic challenges and changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascallon, Pierre; Tertrais, Bruno; Gere, Francois; Le Guelte, Georges; Rocard, Michel; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Queau, Yannick; Forget, Michel; Dufourcq, Jean; Desportes, Vincent; Copel, Etienne; Gaviard, Jean-Patrick; Morin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of this colloquium aimed at examining and discussing various issues regarding the French nuclear deterrence policy and forces: must we maintain our deterrence force in front of new geostrategic challenges and changes (development of asymmetric conflicts and of terrorism, high threats of conventional conflicts)? If yes, which choices and which modifications must be made for this nuclear deterrence to take these threats into account? Thus, the authors address and discuss various issues like budgetary constraints, doctrine and strategy, role of the Non Proliferation Treaty, choice among the various components of the nuclear force (airborne, seaborne), disarmament, proliferation, and so on

  3. Effects of feeding dry or modified wet distillers grains with solubles with or without supplemental calcium oxide on ruminal metabolism and microbial enzymatic activity of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A R; Iakiviak, M; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction of feeding dry (DDGS) or modified wet (MDGS) distillers grains with solubles (DGS) with or without supplemental CaO on in situ DM and NDF disappearance; ruminal pH, VFA, and methane concentration; and cellulase and xylanase activity. Fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, and steers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% DDGS with 0% CaO, 2) 48.8% DDGS supplemented with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS with 0% CaO, or 4) 48.8% MDGS supplemented with 1.2% CaO (DM basis). The remainder of the diet was husklage, dry-rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. There were no interactions (P ≥ 0.12) of DGS type and CaO addition on any parameters measured. Steers fed DDGS had a 17% increase (P < 0.01) in DMI compared to steers fed MDGS; however, CaO supplementation reduced (P = 0.03) DMI by 12%, regardless of DGS type. As expected, addition of CaO increased the pH of the diet by 1.82 pH units. This caused a time by CaO interaction (P = 0.05) for ruminal pH. Regardless of DGS type, steers supplemented with CaO tended to have increased (P = 0.09) ruminal pH at 1.5 h and had increased (P = 0.03) ruminal pH at 3 h postfeeding; however, ruminal pH did not differ (P ≥ 0.24) for the remainder of the day. There was no difference (P = 0.46) in ruminal cellulase activity when comparing type of DGS fed. However, there was a time by CaO interaction (P < 0.01); cattle fed 1.2% CaO diets had 28% greater ruminal cellulase activity only at 0 h postfeeding when compared to cattle fed 0% CaO. Furthermore, feeding supplemental CaO increased (P = 0.04) acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) regardless of type of DGS fed. Increased initial ruminal pH and cellulase activity from supplemental CaO did not increase (P = 0.48) in situ NDF disappearance. No differences (P ≥ 0.48) in ruminal methane

  4. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, A.; Antunes, S.C.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. - Bait-lamina assay for in situ evaluation of soil functions under site-specific risk assessments.

  5. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Campbell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. Methods/Design The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement, version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. Discussion This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. Trial registration ACTRN12611000386932 . Registered 13 April 2011.

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  10. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  11. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  14. Independence and deterrence. Britain and atomic energy 1945-1952. References to official papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1979-01-01

    This booklet contains a list of references which were not published in Independence and Deterrence because they related to papers still closed under the 1958 and 1967 Public Records Acts. Since 1974, some post-war records have been reviewed by departments and the UKAEA and have been transferred to the Public Record Office; the earliest are already open and more will, of course, be opened in January each year. This list, unfortunately, cannot distinguish between papers open in the Public Record Office and those still closed in departmental archives. Even if it could, the distinction would become progressively out-of-date. We have however given as much information as we can to assist searchers. (author)

  15. Virtual nuclear capabilities and deterrence in a world without nuclear weapons. VERTIC research report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloczi-Horvath, G.

    1998-01-01

    'Virtual nuclear capabilities' (VNC) can be defined as the ability of a state not equipped wth nuclear weapons to produce them within a matter of months or years, using fissile material and/or technological skills and materials available to it. 'Virtual nuclear deterrence' (VND) would use these capabilities to a specific end. It could be a temporary posture adopted by former nuclear weapon states as a guarantee against nuclear weapon 'break out'. VND could hence reinforce a temporary security architecture, even if in this instance 'temporary' might mean up to around ten years. In the context of getting to 'zero', VND could not be an end in itself, but rather serve as an element of the security architecture of a world free of nuclear weapons. VND would only be adopted by the acknowledged nuclear weapon states (NWS) - China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America - after the commit to complete nuclear disarmament, sign the appropriate treaties and perceive the temporary adoption of this form of deterrence to be in their political and security interests. As with the NWS, VND will only be accepted as an interim form of security by the de facto nuclear weapon states (DFNWS) - India, Israel and Pakistan - when they can be assured that their virtual security interests would be guaranteed by other means after they sign a nuclear disarmament treaty. There are several alternative approaches to VND. These range from various types of precise or explicit virtual deterrence to more implicit or tacit forms. An explicit VND posture might allow materials and capabilities relevant to the construction of a nuclear weapon to be retained under verified arrangements for a limited time. This report explains why explicit VND would not be a reliable tool for reinforcing a nuclear disarmament treaty, as it could undermine the treaty's whole purpose. An implicit VND posture would not permit the retention of any weapons-related fissile material or

  16. Long-term effects of alternative deterrence policies: Panel data evidence from traffic punishments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify the long-term effects of alternative traffic punishments, ranging from demerit point assignment to conditional suspension of driving privileges. We employ unique longitudinal traffic offense data and exploit the introduction of a point-recording scheme in Denmark. We....... In contrast, a stricter traffic punishment that conditionally suspends the driving license seems to have significant short-run and long-run effects. Our investigation into the types of offenses suggests that the deterrence effects are specific to the offense type for which they are imposed rather than generic...... improvements in driving behavior. These results imply that the effects of some of the existing traffic punishments are not only short-lived but also provide “specific deterrence”....

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  18. Beyond just deserts and deterrence: An evolutionary psychology of punishment and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that punishment is driven by just deserts motives rather than deterrence motives. In the just deserts perspective, punishment is based on the seriousness of the crime, and rehabilitative alternatives to punishment are only expected to be considered when the seriousness...... is low. By drawing on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, a range of contrasting expectations are developed. Especially, it is expected that the choice between punishment and rehabilitation is determined by assessing the future social value of the criminal. The expectations are supported by data...... from a large-scale survey, and it is shown that the seriousness of the crime only have direct effects on less psychologically salient dimensions of our reactions. Finally, it is discussed why previous studies have reached different conclusions....

  19. The efficacy of control environment as fraud deterrence in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuswantara Dian Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised scenario, the topic of an enormous increase of malfeasance in the local governments, posing catastrophic threats which come from vicious bureaucratic apparatus, becomes a global phenomenon. This current study uses case study material on the risk management control system specially the control environment in Indonesia local governments to extend existing theory by developing a contingency theory for the public sector. Within local government, contingency theory has emerged as a lens for exploring the links between public sector initiatives to improve risk mitigation and the structure of the control system. The case illustrates that the discretion of control environment - the encouragement of a local government’s control environment - is considered as a springboard for fraud deterrence and might be the loopholes in the government control systems.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  1. Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle L. to Control Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. Bioactividad de aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del aguaribay (Schinus molle L. en el gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Benzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. is a primary insect pest of stored grain. The development of resistance resulted in the application of synthetic insecticides. In recent years many plant essential oils have provided potential alternatives to currently used insect control agents. The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae has different biological properties such as insecticidal activity. In this study, repellent, fumigant activity, nutritional indices, and feeding deterrent action were evaluated on S. oryzae adults. Filter paper impregnation was used to test fumigant toxicity, whereas treated whole wheat was used to evaluate repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay was done to evaluate feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. Leaf essential oils showed repellent effects at both concentrations (0.04 and 0.4% w/w, while fruit essential oils lacked repellent activity. Both plant oils altered nutritional indices. Fruit essential oils had a strong feeding deterrent action (62% while leaves had a slight effect (40.6%. With respect to fumigant activity, neither of the essential oils was found to be toxic.El gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae. L. es un insecto-plaga de infestación primaria de granos. El uso de insecticidas sintéticos ha desarrollado fenómenos de resistencia. En los últimos años los aceites esenciales se presentan como una alternativa en el control de insectos-plaga. El aguaribay (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae es una planta con diferentes propiedades biológicas entre las que se destacan el uso como insecticida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad fumigante, repelente, los índices nutricionales y la actividad antialimentaria de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos de S. molle var. areira en adultos de S. oryzae. Para la actividad fumigante se utilizó la técnica de impregnación de papeles de filtro; para la actividad repelente

  2. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  3. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment... 15 in order to protect spawning fish populations. The further restriction of in-water work window... with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). As part of the Navy's sea-based strategic deterrence...

  4. Feed the Future Monitoring System Aggregate Data 2011-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Feed the Future Monitoring System (FTFMS) is part of an interagency effort to consolidate U.S. Government (USG) reporting on Feed the Future activities. FTFMS...

  5. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  6. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  7. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  8. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  9. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  10. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  11. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  13. Grower perception of the significance of weaver ants as a fruit fly deterrent in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Managed populations of weaver ants in mango trees have been used successfully in Australia, SE Asia and parts of Western Africa to deter fruit flies from ovipositing in ripening fruits. The presence of indigenous weaver ants in mango trees of smallholder growers in Tanzania offers the possibility...... of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...... the development of a significant proportion of any deposited eggs. Subsequent field studies supported the grower perceptions as they recorded only an erratic and limited deterrent effect....

  14. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...... in their trees and were sceptical of any likely value as a biological control technique. Additionally, fruit fly infestation was not seen as a priority problem and subsequent enquiry and investigation showed that, fortuitously, traditional, local practices for storage and enhancing ripening prevented...... the development of a significant proportion of any deposited eggs. Subsequent field studies supported the grower perceptions as they recorded only an erratic and limited deterrent effect....

  15. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  16. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. The future of the British deterrent force; L'avenir de la force de dissuasion britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    Of the permanent members of the UN Security Council, the United Kingdom has the smallest deterrent force, with fewer than 200 warheads and a single delivery system. Successive British governments policies for nuclear interdependence with the United States over the past 50 years have led to a growing technological dissymmetry with the Americans. This politico-strategic choice now considerably restricts Britain options for remaining a member of the club of nuclear powers into the future. (author)

  18. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  19. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T N; Olmsted, M G; Park, H; Sha, M; Raju, V; Mokoena, T; Bloch, E M; Murphy, E L; Reddy, R

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Increased cost of motor activity and heat transfer between non-shivering thermogenesis, motor activity and thermic effect of feeding in mice housed at room temperature – Implications in pre-clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christian Even

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR, resting metabolic rate (RMR, thermogenic response to feeding (TEF, activity and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22°C and 30° C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than 2 times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22°C and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat-transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes such as activity and TEF. Therefore more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be